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1. Dhillon T, Stebbing J, Bower M: Paclitaxel for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Apr;5(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Treatment options are limited for patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS).
  • The management of early stage cutaneous AIDS-KS has been revolutionized by the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy and for most patients highly active antiretroviral therapy alone will control early stage AIDS-KS.
  • However, patients with advanced stage Kaposi's sarcoma with visceral disease, tumor-associated edema or extensive oral disease require systemic chemotherapy in addition to antiretrovirals.
  • The standard first-line therapy for these affected individuals is a liposomal anthracycline, and response rates of around 70% are usually achieved.
  • For patients with refractory or recurrent AIDS-KS, treatment algorithms are less well defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15877519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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2. Karakus S, Ozyilkan O, Akçali Z, Demirhan B, Haberal M: Acute myeloid leukemia 4 years after Kaposi's sarcoma in a renal transplant recipient. Onkologie; 2004 Apr;27(2):163-5
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukemia 4 years after Kaposi's sarcoma in a renal transplant recipient.
  • BACKGROUND: Leukemia is a well-known complication of cancer therapy, but development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after renal transplantation is rare.
  • Immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplant recipients is complicated by high rates of malignant disease, one condition being Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • CASE REPORT: A 22-year-old woman developed KS 1 year after renal transplantation, and then developed AML another 4 years later.
  • When KS was diagnosed it was already in extensive stage, and she received ABV combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin plus bleomycin plus vincristine intravenously (i.v.) once daily every 2 weeks.
  • The patient received induction chemotherapy consisting of cytarabine and idarubicin.
  • After completion of this induction therapy she developed neutropenic infection, dyspnea and confusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology


3. Koenig SP, Schackman BR, Riviere C, Leger P, Charles M, Severe P, Lastimoso C, Colucci N, Pape JW, Fitzgerald DW: Clinical impact and cost of monitoring for asymptomatic laboratory abnormalities among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in a resource-poor setting. Clin Infect Dis; 2010 Sep 1;51(5):600-8
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  • [Title] Clinical impact and cost of monitoring for asymptomatic laboratory abnormalities among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in a resource-poor setting.
  • BACKGROUND: Laboratory monitoring for toxicity among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in less-developed settings is technically challenging and consumes significant resources.
  • METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of the 1800 adult patients who initiated ART at the Haitian Study Group for Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) in Haiti from 2003 to 2006, using baseline data to establish the prevalence and using follow-up data to establish the incidence of hepatitis, renal insufficiency, hyperglycemia, anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia.
  • We determined how frequently routine (not symptom-driven) testing detected significant laboratory abnormalities and calculated the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted by detection of these events in the asymptomatic stage, compared with a strategy of symptom-prompted testing only.
  • Fifty-three patients receiving zidovudine therapy developed severe anemia during follow-up (incidence, 2.5 cases/100 person-years).
  • This will depend on the national ART drug regimen and the prevalence of other comorbidities.

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  • (PMID = 20649436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW006896; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / K01 TW007142-07; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / D43 TW000018; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW00018; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW007142; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW006901; United States / PHS HHS / / A158257; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / K01 TW007142; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI060354
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Blood Glucose; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS258505; NLM/ PMC3010921
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4. Vogel M, Voigt E, Schäfer N, Goldmann G, Schwarz N, Kalff JC, Sauerbruch T, Wolff M, Rockstroh JK, Spengler U: Orthotopic liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients: outcome of 7 patients from the Bonn cohort. Liver Transpl; 2005 Dec;11(12):1515-21
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  • The outcome and clinical features of 7 HIV-positive patients who were liver transplanted at Bonn University in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between 1997 and 2004, analyzed by retrospective chart review, are reported.
  • Reasons for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) were end-stage liver disease due to chronic hepatitis C (n = 4) or hepatitis B (n = 1) or acute liver failure due to fulminant hepatitis B (n = 2).
  • HAART was reinitiated 1 month after transplantation, and immunosuppression was carefully adapted to account for drug-drug interactions between cyclosporine A and protease inihibitors.
  • The spectrum of postoperative complications was no different from HIV-negative patients apart from Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease in a single patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. DNA, Viral / analysis. Follow-Up Studies. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. HIV Antibodies / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


5. Núñez M, Saballs P, Valencia ME, Santos J, Ferrer E, Santos I, Berrocal A, Galindo MJ, Podzamczer D, Gonzlez-Lahoz J, Caelyx/KS Spanish Study Group: Response to liposomal doxorubicin and clinical outcome of HIV-1-infected patients with Kaposi's sarcoma receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials; 2001 Sep-Oct;2(5):429-37
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  • [Title] Response to liposomal doxorubicin and clinical outcome of HIV-1-infected patients with Kaposi's sarcoma receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • PURPOSE: HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) may not resolve despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • Moreover, the therapeutic goal has shifted from palliative care to long-term durable complete remission.
  • The objective of the study was to assess the impact of liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of HIV-associated KS in the HAART era.
  • METHOD: In this prospective, noncomparative, multicenter study, patients with more than 10 cutaneous lesions or visceral disease were treated with 20 mg/m(2) of liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx) every 3 weeks in addition to their antiretroviral therapy.
  • RESULTS: Out of 79 participants enrolled in the study, 47 (59%) had stage T(1), 41 (52%) I(1), and 32 (40%) S(1).
  • The only risk factor for recurrence identified was the follow-up time (odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% CI 1.07-1.36; p =.002).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. HIV-1. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. DNA, Viral / analysis. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Liposomes. Male. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


6. Sanpakit K, Veerakul G, Kriengsuntornkij W, Chokephaibulkit K, Tanphaichitr VS, Mahasandana C: Malignancies in HIV-infected children at Siriraj Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai; 2002 Aug;85 Suppl 2:S542-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Some malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are one of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illnesses.
  • With the improving survival of patients with AIDS due to better prevention and treatment of infectious complications, there may well be an increase in AIDS-related malignancies.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in view of demographic data, HIV disease status, characters of malignancies, and treatment outcome.
  • All patients had NHL stage III or IV.
  • Burkitt's lymphoma was the predominant type.
  • Six patients were treated with appropriate chemotherapy and one patient also received antiretroviral therapy.
  • Only one patient with large cell lymphoma stage IV who received both antiretroviral and chemotherapy has survived to date.
  • Five patients died during chemotherapy treatment and one patient died before receiving chemotherapy.
  • One of them with Burkitt's lymphoma stage III also had central nervous system (CNS) relapse at the time of death.
  • Mean survival time after diagnosis with malignancies was 11 months (15 days-3 years 1 month).
  • Outcome of treatment is poor.
  • Adjustment protocol for treatment of malignancy in HIV-infected children combined with antiretroviral therapy for controlling HIV infection should be studied further.

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  • (PMID = 12403230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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7. Aboulafia DM: HHV-8- and EBV-associated nonepidermotrophic large B-cell lymphoma presenting as a foot rash in a man with AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2002 Apr;16(4):139-45
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  • Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8; Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) is frequently identified in tumor tissue obtained from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), or multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • Herein, I describe the case of a man with a CD4+ count of 30 cells/microL, and HIV viral load of 90,000 copies/mL, multi-drug resistant HIV infection, and limited stage KS.
  • In situ hybridization of tumor tissue identified Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA, and polymerase chain reaction amplification yielded HHV-8-specific gene products.
  • Staging studies did not reveal lymphoma elsewhere, and the patient began chemotherapy, but died from septic complications.

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  • (PMID = 12015867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2914
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS patient care and STDs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Patient Care STDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Kim KH, Choi JI, Ryu KH, Kang IH, Leng YH, Lee JW, Lee JW, Kim YJ, Lee JK: Primary Classic Kaposi's Sarcoma of the Penis in an HIV-Negative Patient. Korean J Urol; 2010 Nov;51(11):803-6
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  • [Title] Primary Classic Kaposi's Sarcoma of the Penis in an HIV-Negative Patient.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal hemorrhagic sarcoma that occurs primarily on the extremities.
  • We present the case of a 68-year-old man with a dark reddish ulcerated nodule on the penile skin, which was reported as a nodular stage of KS.
  • In his past medical history, the patient had undergone three transurethral resections of bladder tumors due to urothelial cell carcinoma since 2000 and total gastrectomy, splenectomy, and adjuvant fluorouracil/cisplatin chemotherapy for 7 months due to advanced gastric carcinoma in 2005.

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  • (PMID = 21165204.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-6745
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991581
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; HIV Seronegativity / Kaposi sarcoma / Penile neoplasms
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9. Sgadari C, Toschi E, Palladino C, Barillari G, Carlei D, Cereseto A, Ciccolella C, Yarchoan R, Monini P, Stürzl M, Ensoli B: Mechanism of paclitaxel activity in Kaposi's sarcoma. J Immunol; 2000 Jul 1;165(1):509-17
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  • [Title] Mechanism of paclitaxel activity in Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative disease characterized by proliferation of spindle-shaped cells predominantly of endothelial cell origin, neoangiogenesis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and edema.
  • At least in early stage, KS behaves as a reactive lesion sustained by the action of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, has a polyclonal nature, and can regress.
  • However, in time it can become monoclonal, especially in the nodular stage, evolving into a true sarcoma, likely in association with the increased expression of antiapoptotic oncogenes.
  • We have recently demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis that Bcl-2, a proto-oncogene known to prolong cellular viability and to antagonize apoptosis, is highly expressed in spindle cells and vessels of both AIDS-KS and classical KS lesions and that its expression increases with lesion stage.
  • Paclitaxel, a microtubule-stabilizing drug known to inhibit Bcl-2 antiapoptotic activity and to be highly effective in the treatment of certain neoplasms, has recently been found to be active also in patients with advanced HIV-associated KS.
  • Furthermore, paclitaxel treatment promoted apoptosis and down-regulated Bcl-2 protein expression in KS cells in vitro and in KS-like lesions in mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Movement / drug effects. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Growth Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Growth Inhibitors / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Transplantation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. Sarcoma, Experimental / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Experimental / metabolism. Sarcoma, Experimental / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10861090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Growth Inhibitors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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10. Abraham B, Baud O, Bonnet E, Roger PM, Chossat I, Merle C, Reynes J, Groupe Infectio-Sud: [Thrombotic microangiopathy during HIV infection. A retrospective study performed in infectious diseases units in southern France]. Presse Med; 2001 Mar 31;30(12):581-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Microangiopathie thrombotique au cours de l'infection par le VIH. Etude rétrospective effectuée dans les services de maladies infectieuses du sud de la France.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe and analyze the clinical and biological manifestations of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and evaluate the therapeutic strategies.
  • Patients were at an advanced stage of HIV infection (median of CD4+ cells counts = 70/mm3).
  • Specific etiology was identified in 7 cases: bacterial infection (n = 5), CMV retinitis associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 1) and intravenous drug use (n = 1).
  • Various treatments were used: plasmatic exchange (5 cases), fresh frozen plasma (6 cases), steroid therapy (4 cases), acetyl salicylic acid (3 cases), adaptation of antiretroviral treatment (3 cases).
  • The common treatment remains the use of plasmatic exchange and fresh frozen plasma; an optimal antiretroviral therapy must be associated.
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / blood. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. Adult. Female. France. HIV Seropositivity / blood. HIV Seropositivity / complications. HIV Seropositivity / mortality. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11317915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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11. Monticelli A, Lewi D, Salomon H, Pampuro S, Libonatti O, Jauregui Rueda H, Hodara V: Regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma following combined antiretroviral treatment. Rev Argent Microbiol; 2000 Oct-Dec;32(4):206-8
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  • [Title] Regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma following combined antiretroviral treatment.
  • The aim of the study was to assess regression of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in AIDS patients in Argentina.
  • Eighteen male AIDS patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi's sarcoma at different clinical stages received KS specific treatment and/or anti-retroviral therapy.
  • Triple anti-retroviral therapy was given to most of the patients with the exception of four who received zidovudine (ZDV) in combination with another nucleoside analogue but no protease inhibitors.
  • Plasma viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte number were measured in two blood samples (before and after treatment).
  • Complete remission was found in all patients (five) at KS stage I, three out of eight patients at stage II but in none at stages III and IV.
  • Two out of three patients at KS stage IV did not respond to treatments at all.
  • Three patients at KS stages I and II showed complete remission of sarcoma with only anti-retroviral therapy suggesting that anti-retroviral therapy and non-KS specific chemotherapy can successfully control KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. HIV Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Indinavir / therapeutic use. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Zidovudine / therapeutic use


12. Phatak UA, Joshi R, Badakh DK, Gosavi VS, Phatak JU, Jagdale RV: AIDS-associated cancers: an emerging challenge. J Assoc Physicians India; 2010 Mar;58:159-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence and effects of anti-retroviral therapy along with cancer chemotherapy on outcome of AIDS associated Cancers in Indian patients.
  • Patients were treated with different modalities of cancer management and anti-retroviral therapy was discussed with the patient and relatives.
  • Non Hodgkin Lymphoma was the commonest form of AIDS-defining cancers in 21 (84%) patients, cervical cancers in 4 (16%) women while there was not a single case of Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • Only 33.5% patients received treatment for HIV and cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-associated cancers are seen in advanced stage of HIV infection.
  • Concurrent chemotherapy and anti-retroviral therapy for ARL is significantly effective.
  • Cervical cancers and non-AIDS-defining cancers do not show predictable response to anti-retroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. India / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Distribution. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology. Young Adult


13. Stebbing J, Wildfire A, Portsmouth S, Powles T, Thirlwell C, Hewitt P, Nelson M, Patterson S, Mandalia S, Gotch F, Gazzard BG, Bower M: Paclitaxel for anthracycline-resistant AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: clinical and angiogenic correlations. Ann Oncol; 2003 Nov;14(11):1660-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Paclitaxel for anthracycline-resistant AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: clinical and angiogenic correlations.
  • BACKGROUND: Murine data indicate that angiogenesis is central to the aetiopathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • Therefore, we measured angiogenic cytokines and growth factors in patients with AIDS-related KS during treatment with both antiretrovirals and second-line paclitaxel chemotherapy.
  • Patients with AIDS Clinical Trial Group stage T1 disease had higher plasma VEGF (P = 0.05) and lower plasma TNF-alpha levels (P = 0.05) than patients with earlier stage T0 KS.
  • There were no significant changes in CD4, CD8, CD16/56, CD19 cell counts and HIV-1 viral loads during chemotherapy.
  • Response to paclitaxel therapy correlates with a fall in plasma IL-6 levels and recent data indicate this may be a surrogate marker of KS-associated herpesvirus viral load.

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  • (PMID = 14581275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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14. Levine AM: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: clinical aspects. Semin Oncol; 2000 Aug;27(4):442-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • While the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to substantial decreases in the incidence of opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma, a major decrease in lymphoma has not yet occurred.
  • Factors associated with decreased survival include age greater than 35 years, history of injection drug use, poor performance status, CD4 cell count less than 100/dL, a history of AIDS prior to the diagnosis of lymphoma, stage III or IV disease, and/or elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels.
  • Low-dose combination chemotherapy has been associated with complete remission (CR) rates of 41% to 46%, with an overall median survival time of 8.7 months, similar to results achieved with standard-dose therapy, which is associated with greater toxicity.
  • Combination chemotherapy may be given safely with HAART.
  • Treatment of relapsed AIDS-related lymphoma remains problematic.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / complications. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 10950371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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15. Dhrif AS, Kilani B, Ammari L, Kanoun F, Tiouri H, Ben Chaaben T: [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jun;85(6):494-9
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  • [Title] [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases].
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated malignancy.
  • Our aim was to analyse the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic findings in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed between 1991 and 2005.
  • Epidemiological data, the stage of human immunodeficiency virus's (HIV) infection, clinical characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma, treatment rendered and outcome were collected.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma appeared after a period varying between 0 and 10 years.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma uncovered the infection in 5 cases.
  • The mean rate of CD4 was 216 21/mm3 at the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Antiretroviral therapy was prescribed for 13 patients.
  • Six patients received chemotherapy and 3 others radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma is a severe condition because of visceral localisations and the field of immunodeficiency.
  • The identification of HHV8 in the aetiopathogenic mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma can lead to the development new therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Splenic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Tunisia / epidemiology


16. Wollina U, Graefe T, Karte K: Treatment of relapsing or recalcitrant cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2000 Jan;42(1 Pt 1):40-6
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  • [Title] Treatment of relapsing or recalcitrant cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin.
  • BACKGROUND: Pegylated liposomes are stable, long-circulating carriers useful for delivering doxorubicin to tumor sites with a lower toxicity than the free drug.
  • Free doxorubicin is used in several treatment protocols for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Although pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is currently used in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma, no data are available for tumors, such as primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs).
  • Six patients (1 woman and 5 men) aged 59 to 78 years with relapsing or recalcitrant CTCL of the mycosis fungoides type, stage (Ib/IIb), were treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin to induce a clinical response.
  • The drug was administered at a dosage of 20 mg m(-2) once a month.
  • There was no need of additional therapy because of side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Mycosis Fungoides / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Carriers. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liposomes. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Polyethylene Glycols. Prospective Studies. Recurrence

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Jan;44(1):149-50 [11148501.001]
  • (PMID = 10607318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0190-9622
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Liposomes; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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17. Di Benedetto F, Di Sandro S, De Ruvo N, Berretta M, Montalti R, Guerrini GP, Ballarin R, De Blasiis MG, Spaggiari M, Smerieri N, Iemmolo RM, Guaraldi G, Gerunda GE: Human immunodeficiency virus and liver transplantation: our point of view. Transplant Proc; 2008 Jul-Aug;40(6):1965-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been able to improve the immune system function and survival of HIV patients with a consequent increase in the number of HIV patients affected by end-stage liver disease (ESLD).
  • METHODS: All patients were treated with HAART before transplantation; treatment was interrupted on transplantation day and was restarted once the patients' conditions stabilized.
  • Four patients suffered from a cholestatic HCV recurrent hepatitis treated with antiviral therapy (peginterferon and Ribavirin).
  • DISCUSSION: The outcome of liver transplantation in HIV patients was influenced by infections (HCV, CMV, and EBV) and Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • Drug interaction between HAART and immunosuppressants occurs; longer follow-up and better experience may improve the management of these drug interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / surgery. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liver Failure / complications. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / contraindications. Liver Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi. Tissue Donors. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis


18. Chu KM, Mahlangeni G, Swannet S, Ford NP, Boulle A, Van Cutsem G: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc; 2010;13:23
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is an important, life-threatening opportunistic infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.
  • In western countries, the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and new chemotherapeutic agents has resulted in decreased incidence and improved prognosis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: We analysed data from an observational cohort study of HIV-infected adults with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, enrolled between May 2001 and January 2007 in three primary care clinics.
  • Paper records from primary care and tertiary hospital oncology clinics were reviewed to determine the site of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome stage, and treatment.
  • RESULTS: Of 6292 patients, 215 (3.4%) had AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Advanced T stage (adjusted HR, AHR = 5.3, p < 0.001), advanced S stage (AHR = 5.1, p = 0.008), and absence of chemotherapy (AHR = 2.4, p = 0.012) were associated with mortality.
  • Patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma presented with advanced disease and high rates of mortality and loss to follow up.
  • Risk factors for mortality included advanced Kaposi's sarcoma disease and lack of chemotherapy use.
  • Contributing factors to the high mortality for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma likely included late diagnosis of HIV disease, late accessibility to cART, and sub-optimal treatment of advanced Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the importance of early access to both cART and chemotherapy for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Early diagnosis and improved treatment protocols in resource-poor settings are essential.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality


19. van der Kuyl AC, van den Burg R, Zorgdrager F, Groot F, Berkhout B, Cornelissen M: Sialoadhesin (CD169) expression in CD14+ cells is upregulated early after HIV-1 infection and increases during disease progression. PLoS One; 2007;2(2):e257
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  • BACKGROUND: Sialoadhesin (CD169, siglec-1 or Sn) is an activation marker seen on macrophages in chronic inflammatory diseases and in tumours, and on subsets of tissue macrophages.
  • CD169 is highly expressed by macrophages present in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma lesions.
  • It is also increased on blood monocytes of HIV-1 infected patients with a high viral load despite antiretroviral treatment.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated expression of sialoadhesin in untreated HIV-1 and HHV-8 infected patients, by real-time PCR and FACS analysis to establish its expression in relation to infection and disease progression.
  • Patients analysed were either HIV-1 seroconverters (n = 7), in the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection (n = 21), or in the AIDS stage (n = 58).
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD14 / analysis. HIV Infections / metabolism. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Macrophages / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Receptors, Immunologic / biosynthesis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / genetics. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / metabolism. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. HIV-1. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1. Up-Regulation. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 17330143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / SIGLEC1 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1804103
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070725
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20. Brambilla L, Boneschi V, Taglioni M, Ferrucci S: Staging of classic Kaposi's sarcoma: a useful tool for therapeutic choices. Eur J Dermatol; 2003 Jan-Feb;13(1):83-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Staging of classic Kaposi's sarcoma: a useful tool for therapeutic choices.
  • Three hundred patients with classic Kaposi's sarcoma (CKS) have attended our Department of Dermatology over a period of 20 years.
  • Many of them have been treated by systemic chemotherapy with good responses.
  • We therefore attempted to establish a new staging system based on objective criteria that more closely follow the clinical variability of CKS and make the therapeutic choices easier.
  • Based on these findings, we are employing systemic therapy in the florid and disseminated stages and in the infiltrative stage only in case of rapidly evolving or slowly evolving but complicated disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12609790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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21. Bacha MM, Goucha R, Zouaghi K, Jebali H, Fazaa B, Hedri H, El Younsi F, Abderrahim E, Ben Hamida F, Ben Abdallah T, Ben Moussa F, Kammoun R, Ben Maiz H, Kheder A: [Myeloma, Kaposi's sarcoma and HHV8 infection in hemodialyzed patient]. Tunis Med; 2007 Mar;85(3):237-9
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  • [Title] [Myeloma, Kaposi's sarcoma and HHV8 infection in hemodialyzed patient].
  • [Transliterated title] Myelome multiple, maladie de Kaposi et infection par le HHV8 chez un hemodialyse chronique.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between Kaposi's sarcoma, Human Herpes Virus 8 infection and multiple myeloma is still controversial especially in hemodialysed patient.
  • OBSERVATION: We report the case of a 83 year old man in whom the diagnosis of multiple myeloma of IgA/kappa had been made in December 2003 with end stage renal failure requiring hemodialysis.
  • Three months later, he had developed extensive porpour lesions in his lower limbs.
  • Skin biopsy had been informed of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our observation is another case supporting the hypothesis that Kaposi's sarcoma and multiple myeloma share a common aetiology such as Human Herpes Virus 8.
  • The immunodepressed state related to aging, multiple myeloma, chemotherapy and hemodialysis was the probable factor responsible of rapidly progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in our patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Renal Dialysis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Male


22. Bower M, Weir J, Francis N, Newsom-Davis T, Powles S, Crook T, Boffito M, Gazzard B, Nelson M: The effect of HAART in 254 consecutive patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2009 Aug 24;23(13):1701-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of HAART in 254 consecutive patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with histologically confirmed AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed since the introduction of HAART.
  • METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-four consecutive patients (96% men) diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma between 1996 and 2008 are included.
  • Clinicopathological and treatment details were prospectively collected.
  • RESULTS: The mean age at Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis was 39 years and average duration of known HIV seropositivity was 4 years.
  • At Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis, only 19% patients were on HAART and only 7% patients had an undetectable plasma HIV viral load.
  • Seventy-nine (31%) patients had AIDS clinical Trial Group stage T1 disease at Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis and 122 (48%) had AIDS clinical Trial Group stage I1 disease (CD4 cell count < 150 cells/microl).
  • Nodular grade Kaposi's sarcoma represented 28% of the tumours and was significantly associated with black African ethnicity and AIDS clinical Trial Group T1 stage disease.
  • One hundred and sixty-three patients were treated with HAART alone for T0 stage Kaposi's sarcoma; only one died of Kaposi's sarcoma and only 37 (22%) required chemotherapy, giving a systemic treatment-free survival at 5 years of 74% (95% confidence interval 67-82) and the overall survival at 5 years is 91% (95% confidence interval 87-95).
  • CONCLUSION: The high success rate of HAART in a large cohort of AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma patients over a prolonged period of follow-up will reassure patients and clinicians that this is a well tolerated and effective approach to stage T0 Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load. Young Adult






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