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1. Haddow LJ, Davies S, Buckingham S, Miller RF: Kaposi's sarcoma infiltrating skeletal muscle. Sex Transm Infect; 2002 Dec;78(6):464-5
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma infiltrating skeletal muscle.
  • An HIV-1 antibody positive black African man with plasma cell variant Castleman's disease and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma, despite receiving chemotherapy, had progressive disease.
  • In addition, he developed pain and swelling behind the right knee.
  • Histology of an ultrasound guided biopsy showed Kaposi's sarcoma infiltrating the head of gastrocnemius.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Neoplasms / pathology. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12473815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted infections
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1758342
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2. Yaich S, Zagdane S, Charfeddine K, Hssairi D, Hachicha J: Simultaneous Hodgkin's disease and Kaposi sarcoma in a renal transplant recipient. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl; 2010 Mar;21(2):306-9
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  • [Title] Simultaneous Hodgkin's disease and Kaposi sarcoma in a renal transplant recipient.
  • She received induction therapy with antithymoglobulin (ATG) as standard protocol and maintained on immunosuppressive treatment of cyclosporine A, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone.
  • Cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and a Hodgkin disease were diagnosed.
  • She also received a poly-chemotherapy associated with 4 courses of rituximab.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / etiology. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20228518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-2442
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of kidney diseases and transplantation : an official publication of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, Saudi Arabia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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3. Volkow P, Zinser JW, Correa-Rotter R: Molecularly targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient: case report, "what worked and what did not". BMC Nephrol; 2007;8:6
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  • [Title] Molecularly targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient: case report, "what worked and what did not".
  • BACKGROUND: Imatinib is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor; for which there is limited information regarding its effects on AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma and none in patients with transplant-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Sirolimus, an immunosuppressive drug used for kidney transplant, exhibits antiangiogenic activity related to impaired production of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), clinical benefit has been reported in Kaposi's sarcoma associated with renal graft.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of an 80 year old male, who developed Kaposi's Sarcoma nine months after receiving a living non-related donor kidney transplant at age 74.
  • Three years after treatment with different chemotherapeutic agents for progressive cutaneous Kaposi's Sarcoma with no visceral involvement, he was prescribed Imatinib (200 mg/day for two weeks followed by 400 mg/day) after four weeks of treatment he developed anasarca, further progression of KS and agranulocytosis.
  • One year later his immunosuppressive therapy was changed to Sirolimus and regression of the Kaposi's sarcoma occurred.
  • CONCLUSION: The lack of benefit and severe toxicity associated with the use of Imatinib in this patient should alert clinicians of potentially adverse consequence of its use in patients with transplant associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • On the other hand the positive response seen in this patient to Sirolimus even after a long evolution of Kaposi's sarcoma, multiple chemotherapy regimens and extensive cutaneous disease further suggest it therapeutical utility for transplant associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Piperazines / adverse effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Benzamides. Biopsy, Needle. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retreatment. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17386117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2369
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852096
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4. Basić-Jukić N, Bubić-Filipi L, Prgomet D, Djanić Hadzibegović A, Bilić M, Kovac L, Kastelan Z, Pasini J, Mokos I, Basić-Koretić M, Kes P: Head and neck malignancies in Croatian renal transplant recipients. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2010 Apr;10 Suppl 1:S37-9
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  • Demographic data, localization and disease outcome were evaluated in patients who developed cancer.
  • Twenty one patients (1.7%) developed 27 head and neck malignancies.
  • The average time from transplantation to development of cancer was 56.8 months.
  • Eighteen malignancies were cutaneous in origin and 9 were noncutaneous.
  • Of cutaneous malignancies, 88.9% were basal cell carcinoma; one patient had Merkell-cell carcinoma and one patient developed squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Six cases of basocellular skin cancer were recorded in one fair-skin patient.
  • Noncutaneous malignancies involved the oral cavity (2 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma and one pharyngeal cancer) and the thyroid gland in 3 patients each.
  • Two patients had post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurring at the head and neck.
  • Radical surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy were necessary in 33.3% of patients.
  • Immunosuppression was ceased in one patient with Kaposi's sarcoma who returned to dialysis and died 10 years later from heart failure.
  • Careful skin examination and oral examination is mandatory for discovering cancer before dissemination.
  • Sirolimus is safe alternative to calcineurin-based immunosuppression in patients who developed head and neck malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / complications. Head and Neck Neoplasms / etiology. Kidney Transplantation / methods. Renal Insufficiency / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Croatia. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppression. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / etiology. Mouth Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20433429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1840-4812
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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5. Gheith O, Bakr A, Wafa E, Fouda A, El Agroudy A, Refaie A, Donia A, Sabry A, Sobh M, Shokeir A, Ghoneim M: Sirolimus for visceral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in a renal-transplant recipient. Clin Exp Nephrol; 2007 Sep;11(3):251-4
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  • [Title] Sirolimus for visceral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in a renal-transplant recipient.
  • The incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma among recipients of solid organs is about 500 times the rate in the general population, suggesting a role for immunosuppression in its development.
  • On the basis of these findings, we investigated the impact of sirolimus on cutaneous and disseminated visceral Kaposi's sarcoma in a renal-transplant recipient.
  • The introduction of sirolimus in this patient allowed complete regression of Kaposi's sarcoma (cutaneous and visceral) with preservation of excellent renal function.
  • Meanwhile, in view of the available observational reports, we think that sirolimus should be included in the standard treatment for Kaposi's sarcoma after transplantation, to permit remission of the sarcoma (both cutaneous and visceral) while preserving the renal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17891357.001).
  • [ISSN] 1342-1751
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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6. Berman B, Perez OA, Zell D: Immunological strategies to fight skin cancer. Skin Therapy Lett; 2006 Jun;11(5):1-7
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  • [Title] Immunological strategies to fight skin cancer.
  • Skin cancer is the most common human cancer, and is currently considered a global epidemic.
  • Recently, there has been a growing interest in immunomodulators, or up-regulators of the immune response, for the treatment and cure of various forms of skin cancer, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, cutaneous extramammary Paget's disease, and vulvar intraepithelial carcinoma neoplasia.
  • Strategies to augment the host's immune response against cancer cells and/or cancer cell antigenicity have been investigated, including recombinant cytokines, immunomodulators, dendritic cell immunization, tumor antigen vaccination, T-cell-based immunotherapy, and gene therapy.
  • Although the current standard of care for most of these cancers includes Mohs micrographic surgery, curettage, and cryo-, laser-, or radiotherapy, immunomodulators are becoming essential in the treatment of patients who are poor surgical candidates and/or require noninvasive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Interferons / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16820869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-5989
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin therapy letter
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Therapy Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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7. Popivanova NI, Chudomirova KN, Baltadzhiev IG, Abadjieva TI: HIV/AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with multiple skin-mucosal disseminations following ultraviolet (puva) photochemotherapy. Folia Med (Plovdiv); 2010 Jul-Sep;52(3):56-61
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  • [Title] HIV/AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with multiple skin-mucosal disseminations following ultraviolet (puva) photochemotherapy.
  • HIV/AIDS infection in Bulgaria has spread over about 1200 registered patients and it is supposed that the number of the undetected cases is four times higher.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely observed in our country and no cutaneous-mucosal dissemination is reported for the time being.
  • AIM: The aim of the study is to present a case of disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma in a HIV/ AIDS patient who underwent Psoralen--UVA radiation treatment (PUVA) for total alopecia.
  • Biopsy of a skin lesion was performed for histomorphological analysis.
  • Computed axial tomography (CAT) of the visceral organs was also applied.
  • RESULTS: The patient's face, chest, back and upper extremities are covered by more than 50 typical for Kaposi's sarcoma skin tumors and several isolated lesions are found in the oral cavity mucosa.
  • Monitoring of the immune cells and the viral load before and after the application of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed CD4+ T cell number = 0.147 x 10(9)/l and VL = 216 000 copies HIV-RNA/ml plasma when the disorder was first detected.
  • A very good effect appeared 4 months after the HAART start: the mucous membrane lesions disappeared and the skin tumors decreased by number and dimensions.
  • In the same time the CD4+ T cell number increased up to 0.255 x 10(9)/l and VL values decreased < 400 c/ml.
  • CONCLUSION: Disseminated form of Kaposi's sarcoma can be provoked by additional immunosuppressive factors like the implementation of PUVA therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. PUVA Therapy / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cell Count. HIV / genetics. HIV / immunology. HIV / isolation & purification. Humans. Male. RNA, Viral / analysis. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load


8. Stallone G, Schena A, Infante B, Di Paolo S, Loverre A, Maggio G, Ranieri E, Gesualdo L, Schena FP, Grandaliano G: Sirolimus for Kaposi's sarcoma in renal-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med; 2005 Mar 31;352(13):1317-23
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  • [Title] Sirolimus for Kaposi's sarcoma in renal-transplant recipients.
  • BACKGROUND: Recipients of organ transplants are susceptible to Kaposi's sarcoma as a result of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Sirolimus (rapamycin), an immunosuppressive drug, may also have antitumor effects.
  • METHODS: We stopped cyclosporine therapy in 15 kidney-transplant recipients who had biopsy-proven Kaposi's sarcoma and began sirolimus therapy.
  • All patients underwent an excisional biopsy of the lesion and one biopsy of normal skin at the time of diagnosis.
  • A second biopsy was performed at the site of a previous Kaposi's sarcoma lesion six months after sirolimus therapy was begun.
  • RESULTS: Three months after sirolimus therapy was begun, all cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma lesions had disappeared in all patients.
  • Remission was confirmed histologically in all patients six months after sirolimus therapy was begun.
  • Levels of Flk-1/KDR and phosphorylated Akt and p70S6 kinase were increased in Kaposi's sarcoma cells.
  • The expression of VEGF was increased in Kaposi's sarcoma cells and even more so in normal skin cells around the Kaposi's sarcoma lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sirolimus inhibits the progression of dermal Kaposi's sarcoma in kidney-transplant recipients while providing effective immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Transplantation. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sirolimus / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 31;352(13):1371-3 [15800234.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 25;353(8):846-7; author reply 846-7 [16120869.001]
  • [CommentIn] Transplantation. 2006 May 27;81(10):1472-4 [16732189.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 25;353(8):846-7; author reply 846-7 [16124128.001]
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 25;353(8):846-7; author reply 846-7 [16124129.001]
  • (PMID = 15800227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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9. McAllister SC, Früh K, Moses AV: Functional genomics and the development of pathogenesis-targeted therapies for Kaposi's sarcoma. Pharmacogenomics; 2005 Apr;6(3):235-44
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  • [Title] Functional genomics and the development of pathogenesis-targeted therapies for Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferative disorder affecting the skin, mucosa and viscera of individuals infected with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8; also Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV]).
  • KS is the most common neoplasm in AIDS patients; the clinical outcome of AIDS-KS is significantly improved by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • However, in Africa, where the severest manifestations of KS occur, there is limited access to these and other effective but expensive drugs.
  • Here we present a review of current efforts to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of KS using functional genomics, with recommendations regarding the development of economically feasible treatments for use in Africa.
  • [MeSH-major] Genomics. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzamides. Heme Oxygenase-1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Mesoporphyrins / therapeutic use. Models, Biological. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16013955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-2416
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacogenomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacogenomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Mesoporphyrins; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 493-90-3 / mesoporphyrin IX; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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10. Campione E, Diluvio L, Paternò EJ, Di Marcantonio D, Francesconi A, Terrinoni A, Orlandi A, Chimenti S: Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient treated with imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia. Clin Ther; 2009 Nov;31(11):2565-9
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient treated with imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder primarily characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome resulting from a reciprocal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22.
  • The tyrosine kinase activity and its effects represent a potential pharmacologic target of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib.
  • Flare of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is well described in immunosuppressed patients treated with corticosteroids and rituximab, but has not yet been reported during treatment with imatinib.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of cutaneous KS lesions in a patient affected by CML treated with imatinib.
  • After 12 months of treatment, molecular biology showed an important reduction in the peripheral blood of the fusion oncoprotein bcr-abl p210-b3a2.
  • However, at the same time, multiple cutaneous violaceous papular-nodular lesions appeared on his left forearm.
  • A punch biopsy showed the presence of KS, whereas a polymerase chain reaction assay documented the presence of human herpes virus type 8 (HHV8) DNA in the skin lesion.
  • Total body computed tomography scan did not reveal any mucosal or visceral lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We present a case of a patient with CML who developed KS 12 months after starting treatment with imatinib 400 mg/d.
  • The mechanism behind the development of the cutaneous lesions is unclear, and could have either a casual clinical association or be related to the study drug.
  • According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, the development of KS in this case was probably associated with the imatinib treatment (score, 5-8).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / complications. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Piperazines / adverse effects. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Benzamides. DNA, Viral / analysis. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / metabolism. HIV Seronegativity. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / pathology


11. Mangino M, Schena FP: [Skin cancer in renal transplant recipients]. G Ital Nefrol; 2010 Sep-Oct;27 Suppl 50:S75-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Skin cancer in renal transplant recipients].
  • [Transliterated title] Le neoplasie della cute nel paziente trapiantato.
  • Kidney transplant is the best treatment option for renal failure.
  • Twenty years after transplantation, approximately 70% of patients on continuous immunosuppressive therapy present one or more tumor types.
  • Examples are herpes virus 8 (HHV8), implicated in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), human papillomavirus (HPV), involved in squamous cell cancer of the skin, vulva, vagina and cervix, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), responsible for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD).
  • The type of drug used for the induction and maintenance of immunosuppression and the duration of treatment influence both the incidence and the type of cancer.
  • It is estimated that sarcomas occur 40 to 250 times more frequently in transplant recipients and are the leading cause of death from skin cancer after transplantation.
  • The reduction or suspension of immunosuppressive therapy is the first step in the treatment of post-transplant KS.
  • The second approach is chemotherapy.
  • In conclusion, new strategies must be developed to reduce cancer mortality in transplant recipients while ensuring adequate immunosuppression to preserve the transplanted organ.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Neoplasms. Postoperative Complications / chemically induced. Postoperative Complications / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Sarcoma, Kaposi / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 20922700.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-5590
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Nefrol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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12. Boivin G, Gaudreau A, Routy JP: Evaluation of the human herpesvirus 8 DNA load in blood and Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions from AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS; 2000 Sep 8;14(13):1907-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of the human herpesvirus 8 DNA load in blood and Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions from AIDS patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) skin lesions of subjects with AIDS and to correlate these measures with the tumour load.
  • DESIGN: Assessment of the HHV-8 DNA load was performed every 3 months in PBMC and every 6 months in KS skin lesions from seven subjects with AIDS who were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • METHODS: The HHV-8 DNA load was determined by a quantitative-competitive PCR using 0.2 microg of DNA from PBMC or KS skin biopsies.
  • Staging of KS was performed by evaluating the number and type of cutaneous KS lesions.
  • RESULTS: The three subjects with the most extensive and active (nodular) KS had the highest amounts of HHV-8 DNA in KS skin lesions and the lowest CD4 T cell counts (< 200 x 10(6)/l).
  • CONCLUSION: There is a strong relationship between the tumour burden and the HHV-8 viral load in KS skin lesions of subjects with AIDS, reinforcing the causal link between this herpesvirus and AIDS-related KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. DNA, Viral / blood. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / pathology. Skin / virology. Viral Load. Viremia


13. Camacho LH: Clinical applications of retinoids in cancer medicine. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents; 2003 Jan-Mar;17(1):98-114
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • The survival benefit provided to patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) after induction therapy with all-trans RA and the responses experienced by patients with cutaneous lesions from Kaposi's sarcoma and cutaneous T cell lymphoma treated with 9-cis RA and a selective rexinoid--bexarotene--respectively, led to their approval by the Food and Drug Administration during the last decade.
  • Further characterization of the molecular processes modulated by these agents will serve to better define their role in the prevention and treatment of human cancer and to tailor specific targeted therapies in combination with other compounds.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retinoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12757024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-974X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Regul. Homeost. Agents
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinoids
  • [Number-of-references] 167
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14. Njar VC, Gediya L, Purushottamachar P, Chopra P, Vasaitis TS, Khandelwal A, Mehta J, Huynh C, Belosay A, Patel J: Retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) for treatment of cancer and dermatological diseases. Bioorg Med Chem; 2006 Jul 1;14(13):4323-40
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) for treatment of cancer and dermatological diseases.
  • ATRA has been used successfully in differentiated therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia, skin cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and also in the treatment of acne and psoriasis.
  • Thus, a novel strategy to overcome the limitation associated with exogenous ATRA therapy has been to modulate and/or increase the levels of endogenous ATRA by inhibiting the cytochrome P450-dependent ATRA-4-hydroxylase enzymes (particularly CYP26s) responsible for ATRA metabolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / chemistry. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors. Dermatologic Agents / chemistry. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Tretinoin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism. Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16530416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0968-0896
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioorg. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 R21 CA11799-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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15. Wu JJ, Huang DB, Pang KR, Hsu S, Tyring SK: Thalidomide: dermatological indications, mechanisms of action and side-effects. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Aug;153(2):254-73
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THALIDOMIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Food and Drug Administration-approved use in the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum.
  • Further, it has shown its effectiveness in unresponsive dermatological conditions such as actinic prurigo, adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis, aphthous stomatitis, Behçet's syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, cutaneous sarcoidosis, erythema multiforme, Jessner-Kanof lymphocytic infiltration of the skin, Kaposi sarcoma, lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, melanoma, prurigo nodularis, pyoderma gangrenosum and uraemic pruritus.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Behcet Syndrome / drug therapy. Erythema / drug therapy. Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / drug therapy. Humans. Lichen Planus / drug therapy. Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Prurigo / drug therapy. Sarcoidosis / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Stomatitis, Aphthous / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2006 Mar;154(3):563; author reply 563-4 [16445798.001]
  • (PMID = 16086735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 153
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16. Manuelli M, De Luca L, Iaria G, Tatangelo P, Sforza D, Perrone L, Bellini MI, Angelico R, Anselmo A, Tisone G: Conversion to rapamycin immunosuppression for malignancy after kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc; 2010 May;42(4):1314-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SIROLIMUS .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignancies are a well-known complication of immunosuppressive therapy among renal transplant recipients, representing an important cause of long-term morbidity and mortality.
  • METHODS: Fifteen patients developed the following malignancies at a mean of 90.3 months (range = 10-252) after kidney transplantation: metastatic gastric cancer (n = 1), metastatic colon cancer (n = 1), bilateral nephrourothelioma (n = 1), skin cancer (n = 2), Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 2), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD; n = 4), renal cell carcinoma T1 (n = 1), MALT lymphoma (n = 1), intramucous colon carcinoma (n = 1), liposarcoma of the spermatic cord (n = 1).
  • After the diagnosis of malignancy, the patients were switched from calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression to rapamycin (monotherapy, n = 3), or associated with steroids (n = 6) or with mycophenolate mofetil (n = 6).
  • RESULTS: Both patients with metastatic cancer underwent chemotherapy but succumbed after 6 and 13 months.
  • Two patients with PTLD who underwent chemotherapy died after 12 and 36 months.
  • Renal graft function remained stable in all other patients from diagnosis throughout follow-up.
  • Nevertheless, it is difficult to assess whether tumor regression was due to rapamycin treatment or to the reduced immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation / immunology. Neoplasms / immunology. Sirolimus / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Colonic Neoplasms / immunology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / immunology. Genital Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Humans. Immunosuppression / methods. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liposarcoma / immunology. Liposarcoma / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Skin Neoplasms / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / immunology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20534289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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17. Williams G, Pazdur R, Temple R: Assessing tumor-related signs and symptoms to support cancer drug approval. J Biopharm Stat; 2004 Feb;14(1):5-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessing tumor-related signs and symptoms to support cancer drug approval.
  • While prolongation of survival is an obvious end point for new cancer drug approval, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also utilized end points that evaluate patient symptoms.
  • In this article we discuss the end points, evidence, and analyses supporting cancer drug approvals based on evaluations of tumor-related signs and symptoms.
  • With advice from the Oncologic Drug Advisory Committee (ODAC) in the late 1970s and early 1980s, FDA determined that acceptable end points for cancer drug approval were survival or an improvement in the quality of a patient's life, e.g., an improvement in tumor-related symptoms.
  • This article summarizes 15 FDA cancer drug approvals based on patient symptom assessments and/or physical signs (thought to represent symptomatic improvement) as the primary evidence of effectiveness.
  • These include painful bone events (three cases), cosmetic improvement in Kaposi's sarcoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (six cases), the consequences (decreased transfusions, etc.) of long-duration responses in leukemias and lymphomas (two cases), relief of pulmonary or esophageal obstruction (two cases), and one case each of symptom benefit in pancreatic cancer (also associated with survival benefit) and pulmonary symptom benefit in lung cancer.
  • An instructive example of an individual patient benefit end point is discussed, though it did not lead to a drug approval (the cisplatin-epinephrine gel application).
  • Improved trial designs and analysis plans may allow greater reliance on morbidity assessments to support future cancer drug approvals.
  • Drug sponsors are encouraged to include symptom assessments in cancer clinical trials and to perform further research to improve symptom-assessment methods.
  • The FDA routinely meets with sponsors at End of Phase 2 Meetings to discuss drug development plans and the design of phase 3 trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Approval / statistics & numerical data. Neoplasms / drug therapy. United States Food and Drug Administration / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 15027497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1054-3406
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biopharmaceutical statistics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biopharm Stat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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18. Célestin Schartz NE, Chevret S, Paz C, Kerob D, Verola O, Morel P, Lebbé C: Imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of HIV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions: A phase I to II, open-label trial in 17 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Apr;58(4):585-91
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of HIV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions: A phase I to II, open-label trial in 17 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a virus-associated neoplasm, can be treated locally or systemically with interferon alfa.
  • Therefore, imiquimod, an immune response modifier able to induce interferon-alpha secretion in situ, could prove a good local treatment for KS skin lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of imiquimod 5% cream for the topical treatment of classic or endemic KS skin lesions in patients who are HIV negative.
  • Imiquimod cream was applied under occlusion 3 times a week for 24 weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. HIV Seronegativity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Compliance. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18068265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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19. Régnier-Rosencher E, Barrou B, Marcelin AG, Jacobzone-Leveque C, Cadranel J, Leblond V, Francès C: [Primary effusion lymphoma in two kidney transplant recipients]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Apr;137(4):285-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome des séreuses chez le transplanté rénal: deux cas.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a highly malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 infection (KSHV/HHV-8).
  • OBSERVATION: We describe two male kidney transplant recipients, aged 47 and 51 years, followed for Kaposi's sarcoma in skin, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal (GI) tract and lung whose disease was poorly controlled by sirolimus and chemotherapy.
  • Recurrent pleural effusion contrasted with reduction of cutaneous Kaposi lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: The contrast between a very low KHSV viral load in plasma and a very high viral load pleural effusion should alert physicians and prompt suspicion of PEL in Kaposi's sarcoma patients with recurrent serous effusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / etiology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / etiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Digestive System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Digestive System Neoplasms / secondary. Digestive System Neoplasms / virology. Fatal Outcome. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / complications. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / virology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / cytology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Viral Load

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20417362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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20. Flaitz CM, Nichols CM, Walling DM, Hicks MJ: Plasmablastic lymphoma: an HIV-associated entity with primary oral manifestations. Oral Oncol; 2002 Jan;38(1):96-102
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We present a 50 year-old HIV-positive, bisexual, white male with a CD4 count 300/mm(3) and a viral HIV-RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) load of 237 copies/ml, who developed a painful, purple-red mass in the edentulous area of the maxillary right first molar.
  • In addition, the patient was being managed with antiretroviral therapy and liposomal doxorubicin for recurrent cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • Although oral KS was suspected, the gingival lesions were biopsied because they were refractory to chemotherapy and a lymphoma could not be excluded.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Fatal Outcome. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis


21. Soloman R, Gabizon AA: Clinical pharmacology of liposomal anthracyclines: focus on pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2008 Feb;8(1):21-32
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .

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  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) is a liposomal formulation with a distinct pharmacokinetic profile characterized by an extended circulation time and a reduced volume of distribution.
  • Biodistribution animal studies indicate preferential accumulation of PLD into various implanted mouse-human tumors, with an enhancement of liposomal drug tumor levels compared with free drugs.
  • The extended circulation time of pegylated liposomes and their ability to extravasate through the leaky vasculature of tumors results in the enhanced delivery of liposomal drug and/or radiotracers to the tumor site in patients with cancer.
  • In malignant effusions, Kaposi sarcoma skin lesions, and a variety of solid tumors there is evidence of selective tumor uptake detected by various methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Capillary Permeability / drug effects. Heart / drug effects. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Mononuclear Phagocyte System / metabolism. Mucositis / chemically induced. Protein Binding. Skin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18501085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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22. Uslu A, Nart A, Coker I, Köse S, Aykas A, Kahya MC, Yüzbaşioğlu MF, Doğan M: Two-day induction with thymoglobulin in kidney transplantation: risks and benefits. Transplant Proc; 2004 Jan-Feb;36(1):76-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MERCAPTOPURINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • One patient presented with a cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma in the 11th month posttransplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Antilymphocyte Serum / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Transplantation / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / analogs & derivatives. 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Adolescent. Adult. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Graft Survival / drug effects. Graft Survival / immunology. Histocompatibility Testing. Humans. Lymphocyte Depletion. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15013305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antilymphocyte Serum; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / azathiopurine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine
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23. Duvic M, Friedman-Kien AE, Looney DJ, Miles SA, Myskowski PL, Scadden DT, Von Roenn J, Galpin JE, Groopman J, Loewen G, Stevens V, Truglia JA, Yocum RC: Topical treatment of cutaneous lesions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma using alitretinoin gel: results of phase 1 and 2 trials. Arch Dermatol; 2000 Dec;136(12):1461-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALITRETINOIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical treatment of cutaneous lesions of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma using alitretinoin gel: results of phase 1 and 2 trials.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical alitretinoin gel (9-cis-retinoic acid [LGD1057], Panretin gel; Ligand Pharmaceuticals, Inc, San Diego, Calif) in cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • In all patients, 1 or more cutaneous KS lesions were treated with alitretinoin gel, and at least 2 other lesions served as untreated controls for up to 16 weeks.
  • Alitretinoin (0.05% or 0.1% gel) was applied twice daily for the first 2 weeks and up to 4 times daily thereafter, if tolerated.
  • Responses occurred with low CD4(+) lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/microL) and in some patients with refractory response to previous systemic anti-KS therapy.
  • Alitretinoin gel generally was well tolerated, with 90% of treatment-related adverse events confined to the application site and only mild or moderate in severity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Alitretinoin gel has significant antitumor activity as a topical treatment for AIDS-related KS lesions, substantially reduces the incidence of disease progression in treated lesions, and is generally well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Gels. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2000 Dec;136(12):1544-6 [11115168.001]
  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2000 Dec;136(12):1554-6 [11115173.001]
  • (PMID = 11115156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR39915; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672-22
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Gels; 5300-03-8 / alitretinoin; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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24. Zhang H, Yang XY, Hong T, Feldman T, Bhattacharyya PK: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus type 8)-associated extracavitary lymphoma: Report of a case in an HIV-positive patient with simultaneous kaposi sarcoma and a review of the literature. Acta Haematol; 2010;123(4):237-41
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  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus type 8)-associated extracavitary lymphoma: Report of a case in an HIV-positive patient with simultaneous kaposi sarcoma and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8), is consistently identified in 2 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease.
  • Rarely, KSHV/HHV8-positive extracavitary solid tissue lymphomas occur, often at extranodal sites, which are not associated with an effusion.
  • CASE REPORT: Here we report a case of a 46-year-old HIV-positive patient with lymphadenopathy and Kaposi sarcoma of the skin.
  • The lymph node biopsy shows a KSHV/HHV8-positive high-grade B-cell lymphoma with co-infection with Epstein-Barr virus, which supports the diagnosis of a solid variant of PEL.
  • The same lymph node is also multifocally involved in Kaposi sarcoma.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of solid tissue PEL along with Kaposi sarcoma involving the same anatomic site.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Seropositivity / pathology. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / drug therapy. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / metabolism. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / pathology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Viral Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20484888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Viral Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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25. Sharif-Kashani B, Ahmadi ZH, Bikdeli B, Tabarsi P, Dorudinia A, Shahabi P, Raeissi S, Shadafza B, Estahbanati G, Naji A, Saliminejad L, Bakhshayesh-Karam M, Karimi S, Khodadad K, Masjedi MR, Gavazzi A: Bilateral diffuse pulmonary infiltration in a heart transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis; 2010 Jun;12(3):258-60
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  • Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumor that can involve the skin as well as visceral organs.
  • We describe a case of visceral and cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma that presented with diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration and breathlessness 6 month after heart transplantation.
  • Following modulation of the immunosuppressive regimen and addition of chemotherapy, the patient had an excellent response and has had an uneventful 1-year follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Transplantation / adverse effects. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology


26. Kocyigit P, Akay BN, Karaosmanoglu N: Linear IgA bullous dermatosis induced by interferon-alpha 2a. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2009 Jul;34(5):e123-4
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  • Linear Ig A bullous dermatosis (LABD) is an acquired autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder with linear deposits of IgA along the basement membrane zone.
  • Idiopathic, systemic disorder-related, and rarely drug-induced forms of LABD have been described.
  • We describe a case of LABD associated with interferon-alpha 2A used for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Immunoglobulin A / analysis. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Recombinant Proteins. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19508467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2230
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulin A; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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27. Iaria G, Anselmo A, De Luca L, Manuelli M, Lucchesi C, Tariciotti L, Monaco A, Sforza D, Nigro F, Abruzzese E, Tisone G: Conversion to rapamycin immunosuppression for malignancy after kidney transplantation: case reports. Transplant Proc; 2007 Jul-Aug;39(6):2036-7
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  • INTRODUCTION: Malignancies are a well-known complication of immunosuppressive therapy among renal transplant recipients, representing an important cause of long-term morbidity and mortality.
  • METHODS: Eight patients developed the following malignancies after kidney transplantation (mean 102.6 months; range 12 to 252): metastatic gastric cancer (n = 1), metastatic colon cancer (n = 1), bilateral nephrourothelioma (n = 1), skin cancer (n = 1), Kaposi's sarcoma (n = 2), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) (n = 2).
  • After the diagnosis of malignancy, the patients were switched from calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression to rapamycin (monotherapy, n = 2), associated with steroids (n = 4) or mycophenolate mofetil (n = 2).
  • RESULTS: Both patients with metastatic cancer underwent chemotherapy and then succummbed after 6 and 13 months.
  • Renal graft function was unchanged from diagnosis throughout the follow-up.
  • Nevertheless, it is difficult to assess whether tumor regression was attributed to Rapamycin treatment or to the reduced immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Sirolimus / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17692685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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28. Zaraa I, Maubec E, Valeyrie-Allanore L, Essig M, Charachon A, Chosidow D, Debray MP, Marinho E, Picard-Dahan C, Descamps V, Crickx B: [Haemolytic uremic syndrome and acute mesenteric ischemia caused by interferon-alpha-2b in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma in an AIDS patient]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Jan;134(1):65-7
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  • [Title] [Haemolytic uremic syndrome and acute mesenteric ischemia caused by interferon-alpha-2b in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma in an AIDS patient].
  • [Transliterated title] Syndrome hémolytique et urémique et ischémie mésentérique aiguë lors d'un traitement par interféron alpha-2b pour une maladie de Kaposi associée au VIH.
  • BACKGROUND: Interferon alpha is approved for the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV infected patients.
  • CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old HIV-infected woman from Cameroon was admitted for treatment of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • DISCUSSION: To our knowledge this is the first case of HUS induced by interferon alpha given for Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / chemically induced. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Ischemia / chemically induced. Mesentery / blood supply. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17384548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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29. Mylona EE, Baraboutis IG, Lekakis LJ, Georgiou O, Papastamopoulos V, Skoutelis A: Multicentric Castleman's disease in HIV infection: a systematic review of the literature. AIDS Rev; 2008 Jan-Mar;10(1):25-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The objective of this study is to systematically review the epidemiology and the clinical and virologic aspects of multicentric Castleman's disease in HIV-positive patients and to evaluate treatment strategies and outcome, especially in relation to HAART administration.
  • Of them, the majority (90%) were men with 33 months median time from detection of HIV-positivity to multicentric Castleman's disease diagnosis in the HAART era.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma was present in 72% of the patients and respiratory system involvement in 34%.
  • Although the majority of cases reported were positive for human herpesvirus-8, none of the reviewed patients was found to suffer from polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome.
  • Of the 48 patients on HAART, 64% were already on HAART at multicentric Castleman's disease diagnosis, having a better immunologic profile and a lower incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma than the 35% of patients who initiated HAART after multicentric Castleman's disease diagnosis.
  • At multicentric Castleman's disease diagnosis, a wide range of CD4 counts was recorded, suggesting that disease presentation could occur at any CD4 count.
  • With regard to treatment, the study confirmed the high rates of response with rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal).
  • Other regimens used in the treatment of HIV-related multicentric Castleman's disease were antiviral agents, immunomodulatory agents, and thalidomide.
  • Infection, multiorgan failure, Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and progressive multicentric Castleman's disease were the most often reported causes of death.
  • In conclusion, multicentric Castleman's disease is a lymphoproliferative disorder with an increasing prevalence in HIV-infected individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / complications. HIV Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Humans


30. Ganière V, Christen G, Bally F, Guillou L, Pica A, de Ribaupierre S, Stupp R: Listeria brain abscess, Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma after temozolomide. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2006 Jun;3(6):339-43; quiz following 343
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  • [Title] Listeria brain abscess, Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi's sarcoma after temozolomide.
  • This therapy was curtailed after three cycles because of nausea, asthenia, and neuropsychological deterioration.
  • During a subsequent course of radiotherapy, the patient developed fever, headaches, and cutaneous lesions.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, cerebral MRI, brain biopsy, skin biopsy, immunohistochemistry, bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, and laboratory tests.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Severe temozolomide-induced immunosuppression, exacerbated by corticosteroids, with profound T-cell lymphocytopenia and simultaneous opportunistic infections with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, brain abscess with Listeria monocytogenes, and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • MANAGEMENT: Discontinuation of temozolomide, discontinuation of radiotherapy, antibiotic treatment with amoxicillin and gentamicin, and administration of atovaquone and pentamidine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Brain Abscess / chemically induced. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Listeriosis / chemically induced. Pneumocystis jirovecii. Pneumonia, Pneumocystis / chemically induced. Sarcoma, Kaposi / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16757971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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31. Grinyó JM, Gil-Vernet S, Cruzado JM, Caldés A, Riera L, Serón D, Rama I, Torras J: Calcineurin inhibitor-free immunosuppression based on antithymocyte globulin and mycophenolate mofetil in cadaveric kidney transplantation: results after 5 years. Transpl Int; 2003 Nov;16(11):820-7
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  • In an attempt to avoid the use of cyclosporine, we carried out a prospective study in low-immunological risk recipients of suboptimal kidneys, using an immunosuppressive protocol combining Thymoglobuline in induction with a bi-therapy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and steroids.
  • Patients with panel reactive antibodies (PRA) <50% receiving a first renal transplant from a suboptimal donor (age >or=50, non heart beating, arterial hypertension, or acute renal failure) or a kidney at risk of delayed graft function (DGF) because of a prolonged cold ischaemia time (CIT) of 24 h or more, were eligible for this trial.
  • There were 14 episodes of opportunistic infection (cytomegalovirus (CMV 10), Herpes zoster 2, Listeria monocytogenes 1, Pseudomonas aeuruginosa 1), and 7 malignancies (skin 2, thyroid 1, lung 1, Kaposi's sarcoma 2, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Antilymphocyte Serum / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Transplantation. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cadaver. Calcineurin Inhibitors. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Graft Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Opportunistic Infections / chemically induced. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tissue Donors

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  • (PMID = 12879230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antilymphocyte Serum; 0 / Calcineurin Inhibitors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid
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32. Plurien F, Le Lostec Z, Pauwels C, Welker Y, Glaser C, de Mazancourt P, Peltier JY, Mornet P: [Activated C protein resistance manifested by cutaneous necrosis after interferon alpha injection: case report]. Rev Med Interne; 2000 Sep;21(9):791-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Activated C protein resistance manifested by cutaneous necrosis after interferon alpha injection: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Nécrose cutanée après injection d'interféron alpha révélant une résistance à la protéine C activée: rapport d'un cas.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous necrosis occurring in the course of treatment by alpha interferon is an uncommon side-effect.
  • EXEGESIS: A 64-year-old male patient with human immunodeficiency virus-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma presented cutaneous necrosis after a 9-month treatment by interferon alpha, while his resistance to activated protein C had already been demonstrated.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case ever described regarding the association of interferon-induced cutaneous necrosis with activated protein C resistance.
  • CONCLUSION: This suggests that in case of interferon treatment-induced cutaneous necrosis coagulation disorders should be investigated and questions the existence of a particular "pro-coagulant profile" facilitating this side effect.

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  • (PMID = 11039175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a
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33. Abderrahim E, Jbali H, Ounissi M, Hedri H, Bakir S, Ben Abdallah T, Ben Maïz H, Kheder A: [Association of disseminated nocardiosis and Kaposi's sarcoma after kidney transplantation]. Rev Med Interne; 2009 May;30(5):446-9
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  • [Title] [Association of disseminated nocardiosis and Kaposi's sarcoma after kidney transplantation].
  • [Transliterated title] Nocardiose disséminée associée à un sarcome de Kaposi après transplantation rénale.
  • We report a 40-year-old kidney recipient who developed disseminated nocardiosis associated with cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and prolonged antibiotic therapy, including imipenem and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, resulted in a favourable outcome of both disorders.
  • Three years later, graft function remains stable with a complete regression of skin and pulmonary abnormalities.
  • This case report illustrates the predisposing role of immunosuppressive treatment in the occurrence of infectious and neoplastic complications observed after solid-organ transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 18926605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 71OTZ9ZE0A / Imipenem; AN164J8Y0X / Trimethoprim
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34. Casquero A, Barroso A, Fernández Guerrero ML, Górgolas M: Use of rituximab as a salvage therapy for HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease. Ann Hematol; 2006 Mar;85(3):185-7
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  • [Title] Use of rituximab as a salvage therapy for HIV-associated multicentric Castleman disease.
  • Several approved therapies for multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) cannot be uniformly applied due to intolerable side effects.
  • There is also a high percentage of recurrence of this disease despite treatment.
  • We observed an aggravation of concomitant cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma, and hypothesize that rituximab could have exacerbated it.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16341862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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35. Rosen T: Limited extent AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma responsive to imiquimod 5% cream. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Jul;45(7):854-6
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  • [Title] Limited extent AIDS-related cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma responsive to imiquimod 5% cream.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adult. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16863526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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36. Atasoyu EM, Bilgi O, Kinalp C, Karagoz B, Haholu A, Unver S, Evrenkaya TR: Cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma following immunosuppressive therapy for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Clin Nephrol; 2009 Nov;72(5):420-1
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  • [Title] Cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma following immunosuppressive therapy for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative / drug therapy. Immunosuppression / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19863890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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