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1. Aseni P, Vertemati M, Minola E, Arcieri K, Bonacina E, Camozzi M, Osio C, Forti D: Kaposi's sarcoma in liver transplant recipients: morphological and clinical description. Liver Transpl; 2001 Sep;7(9):816-23
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma in liver transplant recipients: morphological and clinical description.
  • The clinical course and outcome of 5 adult patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and developed Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is reported.
  • Five patients developed KS, and the pathological diagnosis was established months 9 to 23 after OLT.
  • Four of 5 patients died of KS, surviving 0 to 6 months after pathological diagnosis.
  • The fifth patient, with KS confined to the skin, is disease free 6 months after diagnosis.
  • All patients were treated with reduction of immunosuppressive therapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Retrospective molecular investigation by polymerase chain reaction for human herpesvirus type 8 DNA detected specific viral sequences in histological specimens of tissues involved by KS.
  • In our experience with adult liver transplant recipients, we registered a slightly lower prevalence of KS compared with other reported data, but observed a high rate of graft involvement and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Humans. Liver / pathology. Liver / physiopathology. Liver / virology. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11552218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6465
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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2. Vogel M, Voigt E, Schäfer N, Goldmann G, Schwarz N, Kalff JC, Sauerbruch T, Wolff M, Rockstroh JK, Spengler U: Orthotopic liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients: outcome of 7 patients from the Bonn cohort. Liver Transpl; 2005 Dec;11(12):1515-21
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  • [Title] Orthotopic liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients: outcome of 7 patients from the Bonn cohort.
  • The outcome and clinical features of 7 HIV-positive patients who were liver transplanted at Bonn University in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between 1997 and 2004, analyzed by retrospective chart review, are reported.
  • Reasons for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) were end-stage liver disease due to chronic hepatitis C (n = 4) or hepatitis B (n = 1) or acute liver failure due to fulminant hepatitis B (n = 2).
  • HAART was reinitiated 1 month after transplantation, and immunosuppression was carefully adapted to account for drug-drug interactions between cyclosporine A and protease inihibitors.
  • The spectrum of postoperative complications was no different from HIV-negative patients apart from Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease in a single patient.
  • Earlier reports on fatal courses of recurrent hepatitis C infection, high rates of organ rejection, and HAART-related liver toxicity were not observed in our patients.
  • In conclusion, even though preliminary, our data suggest that outcomes after liver transplantation of HIV-infected patients can be improved.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV. HIV Seropositivity. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. DNA, Viral / analysis. Follow-Up Studies. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. HIV Antibodies / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16315295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-6465
  • [Journal-full-title] Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Liver Transpl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / HIV Antibodies
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3. Franceschi S, Lise M, Clifford GM, Rickenbach M, Levi F, Maspoli M, Bouchardy C, Dehler S, Jundt G, Ess S, Bordoni A, Konzelmann I, Frick H, Dal Maso L, Elzi L, Furrer H, Calmy A, Cavassini M, Ledergerber B, Keiser O, Swiss HIV Cohort Study: Changing patterns of cancer incidence in the early- and late-HAART periods: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Br J Cancer; 2010 Jul 27;103(3):416-22
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  • BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 led to a decrease in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but not of other cancers, among people with HIV or AIDS (PWHA).
  • Incidence of cancers of the anus, liver, non-melanomatous skin, and Hodgkin's lymphoma increased in the early- compared with the pre-HAART period, but not during the late-HAART period.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Chromosome Mapping. Cohort Studies. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Switzerland / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20588274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2920013
  • [Investigator] Battegay M; Bernasconi E; Böni J; Bucher HC; Bürgisser P; Calmy A; Cavassini M; Dubs R; Egger M; Elzi L; Fischer M; Flepp M; Fontana A; Francioli P; Furrer H; Fux CA; Gorgievski M; Günthard HF; Hirsch HH; Hirschel B; Hösli I; Kahlert C; Kaiser L; Karrer U; Kind C; Klimkait T; Ledergerber B; Martinetti G; Martinez de Tejada B; Müller N; Nadal D; Paccaud F; Pantaleo G; Rauch A; Regenass S; Rickenbach M; Rudin C; Schmid P; Schultze D; Schöni-Affolter F; Schüpbach J; Speck R; Taffé P; Telenti A; Trkola A; Vernazza P; Weber R; Yerly S
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4. Hengge UR, Esser S, Rudel HP, Goos M: Long-term chemotherapy of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with liposomal doxorubicin. Eur J Cancer; 2001 May;37(7):878-83
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  • [Title] Long-term chemotherapy of HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with liposomal doxorubicin.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the outcome, adverse events and clinical complications of long-term chemotherapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PegLiposomal DOX) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • 52 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-patients with advanced KS received long-term chemotherapy (71+/-51 weeks) with a mean of 22.8+/-18.2 cycles and a mean cumulative liposomal doxorubicin dose of 456+/-364 mg/m(2) (120-1040 mg/m(2)).
  • A complete (10%) or partial response (56%) was achieved while on chemotherapy.
  • Importantly, chemotherapy with PegLiposomal DOX was also successful after previous cytostatic therapy with bleomycin and vincristine.
  • The most common adverse events included leucopenia, neutropenia, anaemia, and increased liver function tests.
  • 34 patients (65%) developed new opportunistic infections and 29 patients (56%) died during the study period.
  • To conclude, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is a safe and effective drug for long-term chemotherapy of advanced (AIDS) KS without adverse effects on CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Drug Carriers. HIV-1. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liposomes. Long-Term Care. Male. RNA, Viral / analysis. Survival Analysis


5. Fernández Pérez I, Vázquez Tuñas L, Lázaro Quintela M, Lamas Domínguez P, Gentil González M, Carrasco Alvarez J, López Jato C, Castellanos Díez J: Disseminated classic Kaposi's sarcoma. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(4):255-7
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  • [Title] Disseminated classic Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is characterised by proliferation of vascular endothelial and lymphoreticular cells, frequently with a multicentric expression developed from a single node and evolving to multiple cutaneous lumps or plaque-like appearance.
  • Four types of KS with similar histological patterns have been described in terms of their clinical and epidemiological features: classic KS, endemic (African) KS, iatrogenic KS and epidemic (AIDS-related) KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 8, Human. Sarcoma, Kaposi. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic. Biopsy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leg / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Radiography, Abdominal. Radiography, Thoracic. Remission Induction. Skin / pathology. Splenic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Splenic Neoplasms / radiography. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17462979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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6. Shahmanesh M, Brooks J, Shaw PJ, Miller RF: Inferior vena cava filters for HIV infected patients with pulmonary embolism and contraindications to anticoagulation. Sex Transm Infect; 2000 Oct;76(5):395-7
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  • Contraindications were concomitant intracerebral pathology in two patients (one also had bleeding from gastric Kaposi's sarcoma and the other was cognitively impaired with HIV associated dementia complex) and alcohol induced liver disease/binge drinking in the third patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticoagulants / contraindications. HIV Infections / complications. Pulmonary Embolism / therapy. Vena Cava Filters
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Interactions. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


7. Inoubli S, Toutous-Trellu L, Cathomas G, Oksenhendler E, Hirschel B, El Amari EB: Human herpes virus 8 replication during disseminated tuberculosis in a man with human immunodeficiency virus: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:113

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  • INTRODUCTION: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is mainly responsible for the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease in immunocompromised patients with untreated human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Positive viral loads have been described in cases of Kaposi's sarcoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, with higher values found in the latter.
  • We describe the case of a patient with HIV in whom a high level of HHV-8 replication was detected and who contracted an opportunistic disease other than multicentric Castleman's disease or Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Our first presumptive diagnosis was disseminated tuberculosis.
  • However, since the cultures (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, urine and lymph node biopsies) for mycobacteria were negative, the diagnosis was expanded to include multicentric Castleman's disease which was supported by high HHV-8 viral loads in the patient's blood: 196,000 copies/ml in whole blood, 39,400 copies/ml in plasma and 260 copies/10E5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
  • However, the histology and positive polymerase chain reaction assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of a second lymph node biopsy enabled us to conclude that the patient had disseminated tuberculosis and we started the patient on antituberculosis treatment.
  • The initial analysis was nullified by the diagnosis of a disease that was unrelated to HHV-8.
  • The diagnosis of multicentric Castleman's disease needs to be studied further to determine its sensitivity and specificity.
  • Finally, when faced with the dilemma of urgently starting chemotherapy on a patient whose condition is deteriorating and whose clinical presentation suggests multicentric Castleman's disease, high HHV-8 viral loads should be interpreted with caution and histological analysis of lymph nodes or liver biopsies should be obtained first.

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  • (PMID = 19946591.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2783054
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8. Deplanque G, Madhusudan S, Jones PH, Wellmann S, Christodoulos K, Talbot DC, Ganesan TS, Blann A, Harris AL: Phase II trial of the antiangiogenic agent IM862 in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2004 Nov 1;91(9):1645-50
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  • A significant anticancer activity has been reported recently in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, a tumour of endothelial cell origin.
  • The main inclusion criteria were WHO performance status </=2, age over 18 years, expected survival >3 months, normal marrow, kidney and liver functions.
  • IM862 was given intranasally at a dose of 20 mg three times daily.
  • Each cycle consisted of 8 consecutive weeks of treatment.
  • No grade 2 or 3 toxicities related to the study drug have been recorded.
  • Eight patients had stable disease (SD) and 17 progressed while on treatment.
  • Median time to progression was 1.9 months (range 1.2-12.6).
  • Analysis of blood angiogenic markers showed a significant decrease of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy.
  • Treatment with IM862 has no toxicity, but does not lead to any significant objective responses in metastatic RCC.
  • The decrease in VEGF levels warrants further investigation of IM862 as an antiangiogenic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Dipeptides / therapeutic use. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bone Neoplasms / blood supply. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / blood supply. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / blood supply. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15354209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Dipeptides; 122933-59-9 / thymogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2409952
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9. Girelli CM, Serio G, Rocca E, Rocca F: Refractory ulcerative colitis and iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma. Dig Liver Dis; 2009 Feb;41(2):170-4
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  • [Title] Refractory ulcerative colitis and iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpes virus-8 associated mesenchymal tumour, is exceedingly rare in human immunodeficiency virus-negative subjects and almost always reported in association with severe, refractory, inflammatory bowel disease.
  • In this paper we report a case--the second from Italy--of a colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative, heterosexual man with severe refractory ulcerative colitis.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma developed after starting glucocorticosteroid therapy, supporting the theory that colorectal Kaposi's sarcoma associated with ulcerative colitis is iatrogenic.
  • [MeSH-major] Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / chemically induced. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 18054849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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10. Dhrif AS, Kilani B, Ammari L, Kanoun F, Tiouri H, Ben Chaaben T: [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jun;85(6):494-9
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  • [Title] [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Kaposi associee au SIDA: etude de 22 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated malignancy.
  • Our aim was to analyse the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic findings in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed between 1991 and 2005.
  • Epidemiological data, the stage of human immunodeficiency virus's (HIV) infection, clinical characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma, treatment rendered and outcome were collected.
  • They were 17 men and 5 females (sex-ratio=3.4/ 1) with a mean age of 33.6 years at the diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma appeared after a period varying between 0 and 10 years.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma uncovered the infection in 5 cases.
  • The mean rate of CD4 was 216 21/mm3 at the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Mucocutaneous lesions were isolated in 12 cases and associated with visceral involvement in 10 cases; lung (10 cases), gastrointestinal tract (5 cases), lymphadenopathy (5 cases), liver (4 cases), spleen (2 cases).
  • Antiretroviral therapy was prescribed for 13 patients.
  • Six patients received chemotherapy and 3 others radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma is a severe condition because of visceral localisations and the field of immunodeficiency.
  • It requires a precocious diagnosis and collaboration.
  • The identification of HHV8 in the aetiopathogenic mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma can lead to the development new therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Splenic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Tunisia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17644904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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11. Verucchi G, Calza L, Trevisani F, Zambruni A, Tadolini M, Giuliani R, Manfredi R, Andreone P, Chiodo F, Bernardi M: Human herpesvirus-8-related Kaposi's sarcoma after liver transplantation successfully treated with cidofovir and liposomal daunorubicin. Transpl Infect Dis; 2005 Mar;7(1):34-7
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus-8-related Kaposi's sarcoma after liver transplantation successfully treated with cidofovir and liposomal daunorubicin.
  • The iatrogenic form of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is typically observed among transplant recipients, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach (usually including reduction of immunosuppression, specific chemotherapy, and/or administration of antiviral agents against human herpes virus-8) is still controversial.
  • Available experiences on the effect of the anti-herpes viruses drug cidofovir provide conflicting results.
  • Herein, we report the clinical, histological, and virological features of a liver transplant recipient successfully treated with a combined therapy of cidofovir and liposomal daunorubicin, associated with a reduction of the immunosuppressive regimen, for an advanced cutaneous and visceral KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cytosine / analogs & derivatives. Cytosine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Organophosphonates / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Male. Middle Aged. Viral Load. Viremia

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  • (PMID = 15984947.001).
  • [ISSN] 1398-2273
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl Infect Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Organophosphonates; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; JIL713Q00N / cidofovir; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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12. Akay S, Karasu Z, Akyildiz M, Tokat Y, Goker E: Successful treatment of liver transplant-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with long-term vincristine. Transplant Proc; 2005 Jun;37(5):2188-9
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of liver transplant-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with long-term vincristine.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma has a higher incidence in organ transplant recipients.
  • We report on a 41-year-old Turkish man with liver transplantation-associated Kaposi's sarcoma that involved the skin and the gut.
  • Immediately after discontinuation of immunosuppressive medication, there was an acute rejection episode.
  • After controlling the acute rejection with steroids, the immunosuppressive treatment was continued together with vincristine, which resulted in disease remission.
  • In conclusion, long-term vincristine may be an effective, safe treatment option for Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Hepatitis B / surgery. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome


13. Al Zolibani AA, Al Robaee AA: Primary palmoplantar Kaposi's sarcoma: an unusual presentation. Skinmed; 2006 Sep-Oct;5(5):248-9
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  • [Title] Primary palmoplantar Kaposi's sarcoma: an unusual presentation.
  • A systemic clinical examination was unremarkable other than an amputation of the distal phalanx of the left index.
  • Result of routine laboratory investigations including complete blood cell count, liver and renal function tests, and chest x-ray were normal.
  • The treatment options, including cryotherapy and intralesional chemotherapy, were discussed with the patient but, unfortunately, he did not return for follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / pathology. Hand. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16957440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Ho CM, Huang SF, Hu RH, Ho MC, Wu YM, Lee PH: Sirolimus-induced signaling modifications in Kaposi's sarcoma with resolution in a liver transplant recipient. Clin Transplant; 2010 Jan-Feb;24(1):127-32
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  • [Title] Sirolimus-induced signaling modifications in Kaposi's sarcoma with resolution in a liver transplant recipient.
  • Sirolimus is one treatment option in transplant recipients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which involves dysregulation of Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.
  • Signal modifications after sirolimus therapy in organ recipients with KS are largely unknown and not verified.
  • We reported a case of KS found two yr after liver transplantation in which the immunosuppression was changed from tacrolimus, MMF, and steroid to sirolimus alone.
  • In skin, which was found to have persistent KS after a two-month treatment of sirolimus and was removed completely one yr later, KS was no longer present.
  • In addition, p-Akt and p-mTOR, which were decreased at two months, could not be detected after one yr of treatment.
  • Moreover, p-p70 S6 kinase, expressed strongly in overlying epidermis initially, was suppressed completely after two months of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liver Transplantation. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Liver Diseases / etiology. Liver Diseases / metabolism. Liver Diseases / surgery. Male. Middle Aged


15. Yuksekkaya HA, Arikan C, Yazici A, Baran M, Aydogdu S, Kilic M: Successful treatment of a child having generalized Kaposi's sarcoma after living donor liver transplantation with conversion to sirolimus. Pediatr Transplant; 2009 May;13(3):375-8
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of a child having generalized Kaposi's sarcoma after living donor liver transplantation with conversion to sirolimus.
  • Herein, we report a child with Kaposi's sarcoma that was diagnosed 30 months after LDLT and treated successfully with only conversion to SRL monotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sirolimus / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant. Living Donors. Tacrolimus / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18452496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-3046
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Transplant
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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16. Lichterfeld M, Qurishi N, Hoffmann C, Hochdorfer B, Brockmeyer NH, Arasteh K, Mauss S, Rockstroh JK, German Clinical AIDS Working Group (KAAD): Treatment of HIV-1-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and HAART simultaneously induces effective tumor remission and CD4+ T cell recovery. Infection; 2005 Jun;33(3):140-7
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  • [Title] Treatment of HIV-1-associated Kaposi's sarcoma with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and HAART simultaneously induces effective tumor remission and CD4+ T cell recovery.
  • BACKGROUND: The combination of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and liposomal doxorubicin is a promising approach for the treatment of progressive HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • Here, we determined the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of liposomal doxorubicin and HAART as a combined treatment approach for advanced KS, and assessed the impact of liposomal doxorubicin on HAART-mediated immune reconstitution and viral suppression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In an uncontrolled observational trial, KS treatment responses were assessed in 54 HIV-1-infected patients with advanced KS according to ACTG criteria.
  • Immunological and virological treatment responses were compared to 54 non-KS-affected HIV-1 patients who were individually matched to the study participants according to sex, age (+/- 5 years), CD4+ T cell count (+/- 25%), HIV RNA load (+/- 25%) and previous antiretroviral therapy exposure.
  • Treatment-related side effects were predominantly confined to leukopenia (44.4% of patients) and mild-to-moderate liver enzyme elevation (22.3% of patients).
  • Relative CD4+ T cell counts increased to a similar degree both in study patients and matched pairs (7% vs 6%, respectively), yet, absolute CD4+ T cell counts augmented considerably stronger in chemotherapy-naive matched pairs than in the study patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The simultaneous administration of HAART and liposomal doxorubicin is a safe and effective treatment approach for advanced KS and HAART-mediated recovery of relative CD4+ T cell counts does not seem to be impaired by concomitant treatment with liposomal doxorubicin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. HIV-1. Humans. Liposomes. Male. Remission Induction


17. Boeckle E, Boesmueller C, Wiesmayr S, Mark W, Rieger M, Tabarelli D, Graziadei I, Hoefer D, Antretter H, Stelzmueller I, Krugmann J, Zangerle R, Huemer H, Poelzl G, Margreiter R, Bonatti H: Kaposi sarcoma in solid organ transplant recipients: a single center report. Transplant Proc; 2005 May;37(4):1905-9
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  • [Title] Kaposi sarcoma in solid organ transplant recipients: a single center report.
  • BACKGROUND: Human herpes virus (HHV8) is associated with Castleman's disease, primary effusion lymphoma, and the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • RESULTS: There were one cardiac, one liver, and three renal allograft recipients of median age of 52 (range 38 to 60) years, three of whom were females.
  • Diagnosis of KS was based in all cases on histology.
  • The heart recipient developed a tumor on the planta pedis; one renal recipient, on both legs.
  • The liver and the two remaining renal recipients presented with disseminated disease.
  • Treatment in all cases consisted of reduction in immunosuppression, together with surgery (n = 1), chemotherapy (n = 1), or irradiation (n = 2).
  • In the liver recipient a complete response was achieved; he died, however, due to noncompliance followed by graft failure.
  • Nevertheless, awareness of KS is important for early diagnosis and optimal treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Transplantation / physiology. Kidney Transplantation / physiology. Liver Transplantation / physiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppression / methods. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15919500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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18. Adebamowo CA, Akarolo-Anthony S: Cancer in Africa: opportunities for collaborative research and training. Afr J Med Med Sci; 2009 Jun;38 Suppl 2:5-13
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  • Breast and cervical cancers, and Kaposi sarcoma are the commonest cancers in women, while Kaposi sarcoma, liver and prostate cancers are the commonest in men.
  • In developing countries, poverty, limited government health budget and poor health care systems complicate cancer prevention, treatment and outcomes.
  • More action is also needed on ensuring safety and quality of chemotherapy and the price needs to be reduced.
  • Research to develop these new treatments and others, particularly from natural products is urgently needed and this can be done safely within established health research ethics regulatory frameworks.

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  • (PMID = 20229733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] African journal of medicine and medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Afr J Med Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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19. Hasegawa H, Katano H, Tanno M, Masuo S, Ae T, Sato Y, Takahashi H, Iwasaki T, Kurata T, Sata T: BCL-6-positive human herpesvirus 8-associated solid lymphoma arising from liver and spleen as multiple nodular lesions. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Oct;45(10):2169-72
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  • [Title] BCL-6-positive human herpesvirus 8-associated solid lymphoma arising from liver and spleen as multiple nodular lesions.
  • A human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient developed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma, which was found exclusively in the liver and spleen with the absence of lymphadenopathy and effusion in any body cavities.
  • The patient was serologically positive for HHV-8, and HHV-8 was detected in the liver biopsy tissue both by polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry for HHV-8-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen.
  • Other HHV-8-associated diseases, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, or multicentric Castleman's disease were not detected in the patient.
  • Chemotherapy was effective and reduced the size of the lymphoma dramatically.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology. Splenic Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinal Center / pathology. Germinal Center / virology. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 15370268.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL6 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins
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20. Di Benedetto F, Di Sandro S, De Ruvo N, Berretta M, Montalti R, Guerrini GP, Ballarin R, De Blasiis MG, Spaggiari M, Smerieri N, Iemmolo RM, Guaraldi G, Gerunda GE: Human immunodeficiency virus and liver transplantation: our point of view. Transplant Proc; 2008 Jul-Aug;40(6):1965-71
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  • [Title] Human immunodeficiency virus and liver transplantation: our point of view.
  • INTRODUCTION: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been able to improve the immune system function and survival of HIV patients with a consequent increase in the number of HIV patients affected by end-stage liver disease (ESLD).
  • Between June 2003 and October 2006, 10 HIV-positive patients underwent liver transplantations in our center.
  • METHODS: All patients were treated with HAART before transplantation; treatment was interrupted on transplantation day and was restarted once the patients' conditions stabilized.
  • Four patients suffered from a cholestatic HCV recurrent hepatitis treated with antiviral therapy (peginterferon and Ribavirin).
  • DISCUSSION: The outcome of liver transplantation in HIV patients was influenced by infections (HCV, CMV, and EBV) and Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • Drug interaction between HAART and immunosuppressants occurs; longer follow-up and better experience may improve the management of these drug interactions.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Hepatitis C / complications. Hepatitis C / surgery. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liver Failure / complications. Liver Failure / surgery. Liver Transplantation / contraindications. Liver Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. HIV Seropositivity. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi. Tissue Donors. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis


21. Di Benedetto F, Di Sandro S, De Ruvo N, Montalti R, Ballarin R, Guerrini GP, Spaggiari M, Guaraldi G, Gerunda G: First report on a series of HIV patients undergoing rapamycin monotherapy after liver transplantation. Transplantation; 2010 Mar 27;89(6):733-8
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  • [Title] First report on a series of HIV patients undergoing rapamycin monotherapy after liver transplantation.
  • We present the preliminary results of a prospective nonrandomized trial concerning the first HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation (LT).
  • METHODS: Since June 2003, 14 HIV patients have received cadaveric donor LT due to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) associated or not associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, scored by the model for ESLD system.
  • Primary immunosuppression was based on calcineurin inhibitors (CI), whereas switch to RAPA monotherapy occurred in cases of CI complications or Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1 / drug effects. Hepatitis B / surgery. Hepatitis C / surgery. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Liver Transplantation. Sirolimus / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Graft Rejection / etiology. Graft Rejection / prevention & control. Graft Survival. Hepacivirus / genetics. Hepatitis B virus / genetics. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. RNA, Viral / blood. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load


22. Hong RL, Tseng YL, Chang FH: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in treating a case of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with severe hepatic dysfunction and pharmacokinetic study. Ann Oncol; 2000 Mar;11(3):349-53
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  • [Title] Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in treating a case of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with severe hepatic dysfunction and pharmacokinetic study.
  • BACKGROUND: There is lack of effective and safe chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Polyethylene glycol-coated (pegylated) liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has long circulation time and enhanced drug accumulation in the tumor tissues.
  • It has significant activity in Kaposi's sarcoma, breast and ovarian cancers and the acute adverse effects of free drug are reduced.
  • RESULTS: Compared to cases with normal liver function, increased volume of distribution of doxorubicin correlated with a large amount of ascites (P < 0.05).
  • The clearance of drug was unexpectedly higher than in cases with normal liver function (P < 0.05).
  • According to the pharmacokinetic studies, the disposition of PLD in this case has not been retarded even in the presence of severe liver dysfunction.
  • The tumor had a partial remission and the patient survived nine months after PLD treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: PLD could serve as a safe and effective treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma even in the presence of impaired liver function.

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  • (PMID = 10811504.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Liposomes; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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23. Blanco Barrios A, Zancada Díaz de Entre-Sotos F, Gutiérrez Vivas A, Calderón Mariño N: [Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in AIDS patients. Hepatotoxicity of HAART in patients with hepatitis B or C]. An Med Interna; 2005 Aug;22(8):376-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Leucoencefalopatía multifocal progresiva en pacientes con sida. Hepatotoxicidad de la terapia de alta eficacia (TARGA) en pacientes con coinfección por VHB o VHC.
  • PML presents mainly in severely immunocompromised male intravenous drug users, having viral loads greater than log5 RNA copies/mL and CD4 populations lower than 150 cells/mm3.
  • Death of AIDS patients with PML occurred after only 4 to 6 months before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART), the only ones that have shown to prolong survival.
  • Viral hepatitis is not the only liver condition affecting patients with AIDS, opportunistic infections and neoplasms, such as lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma, as well as biliary disease are also encountered but, fortunately, they are currently less frequent as a result of the new antiretroviral treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Hepatitis B / complications. Hepatitis C / complications. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal / etiology


24. Gourin CG, Terris DJ: Head and neck cancer in transplant recipients. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2004 Apr;12(2):122-6
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  • Head and neck sites are involved in more than 50% of patients, and as a result the otolaryngologist should be familiar with the diagnosis and management of posttransplant malignancies.
  • Patients who undergo liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis appear to be at particularly increased risk for developing posttransplant malignancy of the head and neck.
  • A number of uncommon malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma occur with a greatly increased incidence in transplant recipients.
  • SUMMARY: A high index of suspicion may reduce morbidity and mortality through early detection of malignant disease in the transplant recipient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / immunology. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology. Skin Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15167049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9508
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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25. Monaco AP: The role of mTOR inhibitors in the management of posttransplant malignancy. Transplantation; 2009 Jan 27;87(2):157-63
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  • Posttransplant Kaposi's sarcoma and nonmelanotic skin malignancies (NMSC) frequently undergo remission/regression after conversion to mTORi immunosuppression (IS), especially early, small, and low-grade lesions, whereas larger, aggressive, and metastatic skin tumors are less likely to respond. mTORi-based IS is effective and well tolerated in orthotopic liver transplant patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) achieving excellent survival and disease-free intervals, particularly with extended criteria tumors, although the evidence that mTORi prevents HCC recurrence after orthotopic liver transplantation is only suggestive.
  • Nevertheless, reduced incidence of all of dNPTMs and remission/regression of the commonest posttransplant tumors with mTOR therapy are strong reasons to expand the use of mTORi.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein Kinases / metabolism. Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcineurin Inhibitors. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / etiology. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / etiology. Neoplasms, Experimental / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Experimental / enzymology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases

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  • (PMID = 19155967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6080
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Calcineurin Inhibitors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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26. ter Hofstede HJ, de Marie S, Foudraine NA, Danner SA, Brinkman K: Clinical features and risk factors of lactic acidosis following long-term antiretroviral therapy: 4 fatal cases. Int J STD AIDS; 2000 Sep;11(9):611-6
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  • [Title] Clinical features and risk factors of lactic acidosis following long-term antiretroviral therapy: 4 fatal cases.
  • Our objective was to describe clinical features and predisposing factors attributed to lactic acidosis in 4 HIV-infected patients on long-term nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) therapy.
  • All patients had received at least 6-20 months of NRTI-containing antiretroviral therapy: all used stavudine (d4T), in one combined with lamivudine (3TC), in the other 3 with didanosine (ddI); in one hydroxyurea was added.
  • In all, the initial symptoms were gastrointestinal (nausea and vomiting), followed by tachypnoea preceding the lactic acidosis; death followed 6-22 days after admission (liver failure and uncontrollable arrhythmias).
  • Treatment with riboflavin was unsuccessful in one patient.
  • The only definite risk factor in all cases was NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity; one patient was concomitantly treated for Kaposi's sarcoma (with bleomycin and vinblastine) and one just recovered from pneumococcal sepsis.
  • Lactic acidosis occurred after months of NRTI therapy in patients who had already suffered other forms of NRTI toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Acidosis, Lactic / chemically induced. Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 10997508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-4624
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of STD & AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J STD AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
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27. Guiguet M, Boué F, Cadranel J, Lang JM, Rosenthal E, Costagliola D, Clinical Epidemiology Group of the FHDH-ANRS CO4 cohort: Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Dec;10(12):1152-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND: The relative roles of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the onset of individual cancers have rarely been examined.
  • METHODS: We investigated the incidence of both AIDS-defining cancers (Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (Hodgkin's lymphoma, lung cancer, liver cancer, and anal cancer) in 52 278 patients followed up in the French Hospital Database on HIV cohort during 1998-2006 (median follow-up 4.9 years, IQR 2.1-7.9; 255 353 person-years).
  • Compared with patients with CD4 count greater than 500 cells per microL, rate ratios (RR) ranged from 1.9 (95% CI 1.3-2.7) for CD4 counts 350-499 cells per microL to 25.2 (17.1-37.0) for counts less than 50 cells per microL for Kaposi's sarcoma (p<0.0001), from 1.3 (0.9-2.0) to 14.8 (9.7-22.6) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p<0.0001), from 1.2 (0.7-2.2) to 5.4 (2.4-12.1) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (p<0.0001), from 2.2 (1.3-3.6) to 8.5 (4.3-16.7) for lung cancer (p<0.0001), and from 2.0 (0.9-4.5) to 7.6 (2.7-20.8) for liver cancer (p<0.0001).
  • The risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma increased for current plasma HIV RNA greater than 100 000 copies per mL compared with patients with controlled viral load (RR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.2, p<0.0001; and 2.9, 2.1-3.9, p<0.0001, respectively), whereas cART was independently associated with a decreased incidence (0.3, 0.2-0.4, p<0.0001; and 0.8, 0.6-1.0, p=0.07, respectively).
  • The risk of anal cancer increased with the time during which the CD4 count was less than 200 cells per microL (1.3 per year, 1.2-1.5; p=0.0001), and viral load was greater than 100 000 copies per mL (1.2 per year, 1.1-1.4, p=0.005).
  • INTERPRETATION: cART would be most beneficial if it restores or maintains CD4 count above 500 cells per microL, thereby indicating an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection and an earlier treatment initiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cohort Studies. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Viral Load


28. Ulu EM, Tutar NU, Coskun M, Tore HG, Guvenc Z, Haberal M: Abdominal computed tomography findings of malignant tumors in patients with solid organ transplants. Transplant Proc; 2007 May;39(4):1066-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Abdominal computed tomography findings of malignant tumors in patients with solid organ transplants.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize distribution and appearance of abdominal malignant tumors detected with spiral computed tomography (CT) examination in patients with solid organ transplantation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 1994 and April 2006, 198 patients underwent liver transplantation and 568 patients underwent renal transplantation in our center.
  • All abdominal CT examinations were performed prior to immunomodulation or chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Eleven renal and one liver transplantation patient developed an abdominal malignancy.
  • Among 11 renal transplantation patients eight were diagnosed as abdominal Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and three as posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) upon spiral CT examination.
  • In two patients the transplanted organ itself had malignant tumors: one patient had PTLD with Burkitt lymphoma in the transplanted liver and the other a renal cell carcinoma in the transplanted kidney.
  • The most common pathologies in KS were liver lesions (n=6) and lymphadenopathy (n=6).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The early diagnosis of abdominal malignancies after solid organ transplantation is crucial for the patient's prognosis, especially under immunosuppression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen. Adult. Female. Humans. Incidence. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Male. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17524893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Sitas F, Parkin DM, Chirenje M, Stein L, Abratt R, Wabinga H: Part II: Cancer in Indigenous Africans--causes and control. Lancet Oncol; 2008 Aug;9(8):786-95

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Although the relative importance of many lifestyle factors is becoming better understood in developed countries, more work is needed to understand the importance of these factors in different African settings.
  • We argue that risks for several exposures related to certain cancers differ from the patterns seen in developed countries.
  • In this paper, we review the current knowledge of causes of some of the leading cancers in Africa, namely cancers of the cervix, breast, liver, prostate, stomach, bladder, and oesophagus, Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and tobacco-related cancers.
  • There are no comprehensive cancer-control programmes in Africa and provision of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and palliation is inadequate.
  • Certain cost-effective interventions, such as tobacco control, provision of antiretroviral therapy, and malarial and bilharzial control, can cause substantial decreases in the burden of some of these cancers.

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  • (PMID = 18672214.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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30. Valbuena JR, Levenback C, Mansfield P, Liu J: Angiosarcoma of the spleen clinically presenting as metastatic ovarian cancer. A case report and review of the literature. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Oct;9(5):289-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Grossly, this neoplasm appears as hemorrhagic and/or cystic nodules, with a low-density signal seen on computed tomographic scans.
  • The differential diagnosis includes a variety of benign and malignant vascular proliferations (littoral cell angioma and Kaposi's sarcoma) as well as metastatic tumors.
  • The liver is the most common site.
  • We report a case of the 43-year-old woman with a long-standing history of recurrent ovarian carcinoma treated with surgery and multiple courses of radiation therapy and chemotherapy who clinically appeared to have a metastatic ovarian cancer to the spleen and treated with partial resection of stomach and splenectomy.
  • We believe that the lengthy exposure to radiation may have played a role in the histopathogenesis of this neoplasm in this patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


31. Orr RM: Technology evaluation: electroporation therapy, Genetronics Inc. Curr Opin Mol Ther; 2000 Apr;2(2):205-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Technology evaluation: electroporation therapy, Genetronics Inc.
  • Genetronics Inc has developed a MedPulser and a needle array applicator that delivers electric pulses to tumors and induces a transient permeabilization.
  • Used in conjunction with intratumoral injections of anticancer drugs, this form of therapy, termed electroporation therapy, allows for intracellular accumulation of cytotoxic drugs without the toxic side effects associated with systemic administration.
  • Accrual of preclinical data of electroporation therapy with bleomycin has led to clinical studies in patients with cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors.
  • Other indications for this form of treatment include liver and pancreatic cancers, Kaposi's sarcoma and melanoma [273388,290144].
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Electroporation / methods. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biotechnology. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11249643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-8431
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in molecular therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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