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1. Asadauskiene J, Aleknavicius E, Zelviene TP, Jankevicius F: [Bladder preservation possibilities in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2006;42(10):781-7
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  • [Title] [Bladder preservation possibilities in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer].
  • Radical cystectomy is the standard of treatment for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in European Union and in United States.
  • During the last few decades, several clinical trials were performed with the aim to evaluate new treatment methods as an alternative to radical cystectomy for selected patient groups.
  • According to some clinical trials, it is clear that bladder preservation is possible without compromising overall survival of these patients.
  • Organ preservation requires a combined-modality treatment including transurethral resection of bladder tumor, radiation therapy, and systemic chemotherapy.
  • Incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents such as gemcitabine or taxanes in bladder-sparing protocols improves the results of conservative treatment of locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • Pretreatment selection criteria and the most important prognostic factors are macroscopically complete transurethral resection of bladder tumor, absence of hydronephrosis, and lower T stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17090976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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2. Shimabukuro T, Nakamura K, Uchiyama K, Tei Y, Aoki A, Naito K: Angiotensin-II combined intra-arterial chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer: a case series study at a single institution. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Feb;52(2):99-105
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  • [Title] Angiotensin-II combined intra-arterial chemotherapy for locally advanced bladder cancer: a case series study at a single institution.
  • Patients with locally advanced bladder cancer are at significant risk for metastases.
  • We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) combined with angiotensin-II (AT-II) in such patients.
  • The possibility of bladder preservation is also discussed.
  • Patients were enrolled if they had muscle-invasive bladder cancer (stage T2 to T4NxM0).
  • Cisplatin, pirarubicin, and AT-II were infused through the tumor-feeding arteries.
  • Our results suggest that intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with AT-II is a useful treatment for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer, since this modality achieves a favorable response rate without severe toxicity or mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiotensin II / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16541762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11128-99-7 / Angiotensin II; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Gore JL, Litwin MS, Lai J, Yano EM, Madison R, Setodji C, Adams JL, Saigal CS, Urologic Diseases in America Project: Use of radical cystectomy for patients with invasive bladder cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2010 Jun 2;102(11):802-11
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  • [Title] Use of radical cystectomy for patients with invasive bladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines recommend radical cystectomy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • However, many patients receive alternate therapies, such as chemotherapy or radiation.
  • We examined factors that are associated with the use of radical cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer and compared the survival outcomes of patients with invasive bladder cancer by the treatment they received.
  • METHODS: From linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, we identified a cohort of 3262 Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older at diagnosis with stage II muscle-invasive bladder cancer from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 2002.
  • Overall survival was better for those who underwent cystectomy compared with those who underwent alternative treatments (for chemotherapy and/or radiation vs cystectomy, hazard ratio of death = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3 to 1.8; for surveillance vs cystectomy, hazard ratio of death = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.6 to 2.3; 5-year adjusted survival: 42.2% [95% CI = 39.1% to 45.4%] for cystectomy; 20.7% [95% CI = 18.7% to 22.8%] for chemotherapy and/or radiation; 14.5% [95% CI = 13.0% to 16.2%] for surveillance).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Guideline-recommended care with radical cystectomy is underused for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • Many bladder cancer patients whose survival outcomes might benefit with surgery are receiving alternative less salubrious treatments.

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  • (PMID = 20400716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / U55/CCR921930-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N02-PC-15105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35139; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / N01-DK-7-0003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35136
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3245689
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4. Poortmans PM, Richaud P, Collette L, Ho Goey S, Pierart M, Van Der Hulst M, Bolla M, EORTC Radiation Oncology Group: Results of the phase II EORTC 22971 trial evaluating combined accelerated external radiation and chemotherapy with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Acta Oncol; 2008;47(5):937-40
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  • [Title] Results of the phase II EORTC 22971 trial evaluating combined accelerated external radiation and chemotherapy with 5FU and cisplatin in patients with muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • INTRODUCTION: We prospectively evaluated concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer in a phase II EORTC trial to test whether it could be further studied as a potential treatment of bladder cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients up to 75 years of age with invasive transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder up to 5 cm, stage pT2 to pT3b, N0M0, without residual macroscopical tumour after transurethral excision were eligible.
  • Radiotherapy consisted of 2 fractions of 1.2 Gy daily up to 60 Gy delivered in a period of 5 weeks.
  • Five patients had tumour stage pT2, 1 stage pT3a and 3 stage pT3b.
  • All patients completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy as scheduled.
  • All patients were evaluated 3 months after treatment: eight patients had no detectable tumour and one had para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • During further follow-up, a second patient got lymph node metastases and two patients developed distant metastases (lung in the patient with enlarged lymph nodes at the first evaluation and abdominal in one other).
  • DISCUSSION: Despite the small cohort, this combination of concomitant chemotherapy and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer seemed to be well tolerated and to result in satisfactory local control with limited early and late toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue / radiotherapy. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18568488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-37
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Efstathiou JA, Bae K, Shipley WU, Kaufman DS, Hagan MP, Heney NM, Sandler HM: Late pelvic toxicity after bladder-sparing therapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer: RTOG 89-03, 95-06, 97-06, 99-06. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Sep 1;27(25):4055-61
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  • [Title] Late pelvic toxicity after bladder-sparing therapy in patients with invasive bladder cancer: RTOG 89-03, 95-06, 97-06, 99-06.
  • PURPOSE: In selected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, combined-modality therapy (transurethral resection bladder tumor [TURBT], radiation therapy, chemotherapy) with salvage cystectomy, if necessary, can achieve survival rates similar to radical cystectomy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2002, 285 eligible patients enrolled on four prospective protocols (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] 8903, 9506, 9706, 9906) and 157 underwent combined-modality therapy, surviving >or= 2 years from start of treatment with their bladder intact.
  • Rates of late genitourinary (GU) and GI toxicity were assessed using the RTOG Late Radiation Morbidity Schema, with worst toxicity grade (scale 0 to 5) occurring >or= 180 days after start of consolidation therapy reported for each patient.
  • Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate relationship between clinical characteristics, frequency, and time to late grade 3+ pelvic toxicity.
  • Covariates included age, sex, stage, presence of carcinoma in situ, completeness of TURBT, and protocol.
  • Notably there were no late grade 4 toxicities and no treatment-related deaths.
  • CONCLUSION: Rates of significant late pelvic toxicity for patients completing combined-modality therapy for invasive bladder cancer and retaining their native bladder are low.

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  • (PMID = 19636019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA32115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA37422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037422; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032115
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2734419
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6. Herchenhorn D, Dienstmann R, Peixoto FA, de Campos FS, Santos VO, Moreira DM, Cardoso H, Small IA, Ferreira CG: Phase II trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with resectable bladder carcinoma. Int Braz J Urol; 2007 Sep-Oct;33(5):630-8; discussion 638
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with resectable bladder carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) is an active combination in the treatment of metastatic bladder cancer.
  • We have prospectively analyzed the efficacy and tolerability of GC as neoadjuvant treatment of invasive bladder cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-institution phase II trial, patients with muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma received three cycles of gemcitabine 1200 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 with cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 prior to surgery.
  • Radiologic response was evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • All patients were referred to surgery after chemotherapy completion.
  • Initial stage was II (T2) in 11 and III (T3-4) in 11 patients.
  • One patient was excluded due to sarcomatoid carcinoma at definitive pathologic examination.
  • Grade III/IV toxicity was infrequent, with no deaths due to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of GC is effective and well-tolerated when used as neoadjuvant therapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Int Braz J Urol. 2007 Nov-Dec;33(6):840-1 [18199355.001]
  • (PMID = 17980060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-5538
  • [Journal-full-title] International braz j urol : official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Braz J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Pruthi RS, Nielsen M, Heathcote S, Wallen EM, Rathmell WK, Godley P, Whang Y, Fielding J, Schultz H, Grigson G, Smith A, Kim W: A phase II trial of neoadjuvant erlotinib in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy: clinical and pathological results. BJU Int; 2010 Aug;106(3):349-54
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of neoadjuvant erlotinib in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy: clinical and pathological results.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathological efficacy of neoadjuvant erlotinib (an epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR, inhibitor) for invasive bladder cancer in patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) as despite definitive surgical therapy, only half of patients undergoing RC will have long-term disease-free survival, and effective adjunctive therapies, especially using agents with lower toxicity, would be a significant advance in the treatment of invasive bladder cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary endpoint of this phase II trial is to determine the effect of neoadjuvant erlotinib (150 mg once daily for 4 weeks) before RC on the pathological complete response rate (pT0 rate) in RC specimens.
  • In addition, the safety of therapy with erlotinib was also evaluated.
  • Patients selected for study included those with histologically confirmed muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had undergone initial transurethral resection.
  • RESULTS: In all, 20 patients with clinical stage T2 disease had neoadjuvant erlotinib therapy followed by RC.
  • Erlotinib was tolerated in all patients, with drug rash being the most common side-effect, in 15 patients (75%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The EGFR inhibitor erlotinib, when administered in the neoadjuvant setting, can have beneficial effects in terms of surgical pathology and short-term clinical outcomes in patients undergoing RC for invasive bladder cancer.
  • Analyses are underway to examine the molecular correlates of the apparent clinical effect of neoadjuvant therapy in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cystectomy / methods. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Treatment Outcome


8. Herr HW, Dotan Z, Donat SM, Bajorin DF: Defining optimal therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer. J Urol; 2007 Feb;177(2):437-43
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  • [Title] Defining optimal therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer.
  • PURPOSE: We defined an optimal curative strategy for muscle invasive bladder cancer and to determine how best to deliver curative therapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed published reports from 1985 to 2006 dealing with the treatment of muscle invasive (stage T2-T4a) bladder cancer.
  • We analyzed all cohort, phase II and randomized phase III studies providing level 1 to 3 evidence impacting survival.
  • RESULTS: Cisplatin based chemotherapy combined with high quality radical cystectomy and complete pelvic lymph node dissection improves survival over that of cystectomy alone.
  • Surgery quality is an important predictor of survival even in patients receiving chemotherapy.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is favored over adjuvant chemotherapy because it is better tolerated and more patients are able to receive effective therapy before rather than after surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy and complete pelvic lymph node dissection is the optimal curative strategy in most patients presenting with muscle invasive bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystectomy. Humans. Muscle, Smooth. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2008 Jun;53(6):1295-6 [18471557.001]
  • (PMID = 17222605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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9. Dozić J, Bogdanović J: [Current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to invasive bladder cancer]. Med Pregl; 2005 Sep-Oct;58(9-10):465-71
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  • [Title] [Current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to invasive bladder cancer].
  • INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer is the second most common urological cancer (after prostate cancer, and before kidney and testicular tumors).
  • After setting a diagnosis for bladder cancer, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), 25% of pts have extravesical spread of the disease, and almost 50% dies in the follow-up period and after radical surgical procedures.
  • T2 stage is underestimated in 40-50% of cases, whereas lymph nodes are positive in 10% of cases in T1 stage of the disease.
  • The aim of this study was to present modern diagnostic-therapeutic procedures, which are being used in multimodal treatment of invasive bladder tumors (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy), indications for their use, and treatment outcome in regard to the stage of the disease.
  • PATHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS: Pathological diagnosis is a key factor for correct and on-time treatment.
  • TREATMENT OF BLADDER CANCER: Treatment of bladder tumors is multimodal, multidisciplinary and includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • In regard to indications and established protocols, surgery is partial, simple or radical cystectomy, followed by different types of urine derivation (wet stoma--Bricker's ileal conduit, dry stoma--Kock pouch, ureterosigmoidostomy--Mainz pouch II, or orthotopic ileal bladder substitution).
  • The use of new operative procedures can be done only during the early stage of the disease.
  • Orthotopic substitution of bladder with ileum, significantly improves the quality of life in these patients.
  • Also, the use of new chemotherapeutics (Methotrexate, Vinblastine, Cisplatine, Gemcitabine, Taxol, alone or in combination) or radiotherapy together with surgery increases the survival rate, even in patients with invasive form of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Using new diagnostic equipment, up-to date therapeutic procedures, bladder cancer becomes a curable disease (depending on the stage of the disease) with high survival rate and better quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy


10. Schrag D, Mitra N, Xu F, Rabbani F, Bach PB, Herr H, Begg CB: Cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: patterns and outcomes of care in the Medicare population. Urology; 2005 Jun;65(6):1118-25
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  • [Title] Cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer: patterns and outcomes of care in the Medicare population.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the population-based patterns of care among patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database identified 4664 patients aged 65 years or older with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1991 and 1999.
  • The use of particular treatment modalities was evaluated according to the clinical and demographic characteristics available in the SEER-Medicare database.
  • RESULTS: Considerable variation was found in the treatments delivered to the cohort members.
  • Overall, 39% had undergone cystectomy; 30% of Stage II, 57% of Stage III, and 38% of Stage IV patients underwent this operation within 6 months of diagnosis.
  • For 36% of Stage II, 18% of Stage III, and 27% of Stage IV patients, no evidence was found of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy within 6 months of diagnosis.
  • Other management strategies included chemotherapy alone (14% Stage II, 6% Stage III, and 12% Stage IV), radiotherapy alone (11% for each stage), or combined modality chemoradiotherapy (10% Stage II, 8% Stage III, and 12% Stage IV).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A marked heterogeneity exists in the strategies used to treat muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystectomy. Medicare. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15922428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Bamias A, Deliveliotis C, Karayiannis A, Varkarakis I, Zervas I, Pantazopoulos D, Gika D, Dimopoulos MA: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with high-risk resectable bladder carcinoma: long term results. Eur Urol; 2004 Sep;46(3):344-50; discussion 350-1
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with high-risk resectable bladder carcinoma: long term results.
  • OBJECTIVES: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been used to improve outcome after cystectomy or for selection for bladder preservation in patients with bladder cancer.
  • We have shown encouraging results using docetaxel and cisplatin in patients with advanced urothelial cancer.
  • We are reporting the results of a phase II study using this combination as neoadjuvant treatment in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer.
  • RESULTS: Chemotherapy was well tolerated.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that clinical stage (cT) < or = 3a was associated with improved 5-year survival (86.42% vs. 40.81%, p = 0.027).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and cisplatin is feasible and produced high pathological complete remission rate and excellent outcome in patients with no residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystectomy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15306106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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12. Kaufman DS, Winter KA, Shipley WU, Heney NM, Wallace HJ 3rd, Toonkel LM, Zietman AL, Tanguay S, Sandler HM: Phase I-II RTOG study (99-06) of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing transurethral surgery, paclitaxel, cisplatin, and twice-daily radiotherapy followed by selective bladder preservation or radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Urology; 2009 Apr;73(4):833-7
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  • [Title] Phase I-II RTOG study (99-06) of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer undergoing transurethral surgery, paclitaxel, cisplatin, and twice-daily radiotherapy followed by selective bladder preservation or radical cystectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety, tolerance, protocol completion rate, tumor response rate, and patient survival of chemoradiotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive operable bladder cancer.
  • METHODS: After transurethral resection of the tumor in patients with Stage T2-T4a bladder cancer, twice-daily radiotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy induction (TCI) was administered.
  • If repeat biopsy showed less than Stage T1 disease, consolidation with TCI was given.
  • If repeat biopsy showed greater than Stage T1 disease, cystectomy was recommended.
  • Four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were completed per protocol or with minor deviations in 70% of the patients.
  • Adjuvant treatment was associated with grade 3 toxicity in 46% and grade 4 in 26%.
  • Late bladder radiation toxicity was evaluated in 53 patients with > or = 2 years of follow-up.
  • Of these 53 patients, 3 experienced self-limited, late grade 3 bladder toxicity.
  • The postinduction complete response rate was 81% (65/80), 36 of the 80 patients died (22 of bladder cancer).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These favorable tumor response rates with possible increased bladder preservation rates suggest that this treatment regimen deserves further study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cystectomy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Urethra. Urologic Surgical Procedures / methods


13. Harshman LC, Bepler G, Zheng Z, Higgins JP, Allen GI, Tibshirani R, Srinivas S: Correlation of RRM1 expression in muscle invasive locally advanced urothelial cancer with age. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16021

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  • [Title] Correlation of RRM1 expression in muscle invasive locally advanced urothelial cancer with age.
  • : e16021 Background: RRM1, the regulatory subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, plays a role in DNA repair after chemotherapy damage and in gemcitabine metabolism.
  • Prior studies demonstrated a survival benefit to high expression in resected early stage lung cancer and a trend toward longer time to progression with low expression in advanced bladder cancers treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin.
  • METHODS: 84 radical cystectomy specimens with muscle invasive TCC were identified from existing tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 343 specimens.
  • The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed to confirm pathology and stage.
  • There was near equal distribution of stages: 30%, 38%, and 32% for stage II, III, and IV respectively.

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  • (PMID = 27962985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Carrizo MN, Sade JP, Costanzo MV, Chacon M, Chacon C, Orlando M, Chacon RD: Combined modality treatment for organ preservation in patients with invasive bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16129

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined modality treatment for organ preservation in patients with invasive bladder cancer.
  • : e16129 Purpose: To evaluate long term results of chemoradiation and organ preservation in invasive T2-T4a bladder carcinoma in a single institution with prolonged follow up.
  • METHODS: Sixty one patients with clinical stage II and III (T3N0) muscle invasive bladder carcinoma were treated between February 1991 and December 2007.
  • Forty four received sequential treatment (chemo followed by radiation) and seventeen concurrent treatments.
  • Chemotherapy was platinum based in all patients, fifth teen with Carboplatin.
  • All underwent maximal citoreduction with TUR .First 20 patients received pelvic radiation (1991-1993),while the other 41 three-dimensional radiotherapy (median dose 60 Gy).
  • Male/female 55/6: median age 64 (range 46-80); transitional type 58 and mixed-epidermoid 6.
  • Grade II: 3, grade III: 48 and grade IV: 10.
  • Clinical stage II:50 and III:11.
  • Of all predictive factors analyzed only clinical stage reached statistical significance for relapse (p=0.0029), and borderline significance for overall survival (p=0.064).
  • No patient required cystectomy because of bladder morbidity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Trimodality treatment in selected patients offers rates of event free survival and overall survival similar to those reported for surgery with acceptable toxicity and no treatment related cystectomy.
  • In this small group of patient results were similar with concurrent and sequential treatment.

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  • (PMID = 27963372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Startsev VY: The role of combined method in organ-sparing treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Jun;74(2):54-6
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  • [Title] The role of combined method in organ-sparing treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrences.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the local control and survival of patients with bladder cancer recurrences (BCR) treated by operative methods, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT).
  • All patients received different operations (transurethral resection and partial cystectomies) and definitive EBRT (total dose varied from 50 to 64 Gy with a mean of 60.5 Gy, 5 days a week).
  • In a second group of patients we performed 3 courses of 4-drug regimen ACT administered with EBRT.
  • ACT consisting of cisplatin and adriamycin i.a. and methotrexate and vinblastin i.v. (M-VAC) was administered on the fourth week after radiation therapy.
  • The complete response rates in patients with clinical stage T2 and T3a disease was 64.4 and 44.4%, respectively and it was slightly higher in patients with a non-papillary cancer than in those with a papillary one.
  • The acute toxicity was mild: no hematological and renal toxicity over grade II, 14 (7.8%) cases of bowel or rectal reversible grade II toxicity and 12 (6.7%) cases of reversible grade III cystitis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Four-drug ACT is feasible without major toxicity and offers a potentially curative and conservative treatment for patients with localized muscle-invasive BC (bladder cancer) recurrences.
  • Bladder conservation therapy may be offered to selected patients with BC recurrences as an alternative option to radical cystectomy, and its use should be limited to teams of uro-oncologists, experienced in multi-modalty treatment.

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  • (PMID = 12161935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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16. Patton SE, Hall MC, Ozen H: Bladder cancer. Curr Opin Oncol; 2002 May;14(3):265-72
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  • [Title] Bladder cancer.
  • Bladder cancer is a common and chemotherapy-responsive tumor, related to tobacco smoking, environmental arsenic exposure, industrial dye exposure, and parasitic schistosomiasis exposure.
  • Although 10-year survival can be achieved in 87% of early-stage patients with muscle-invasive disease rendered T(0) and 57% of those rendered T(1) at second look after transurethral resection bladder tumor, most still require radical cystectomy.
  • Continued improvements in surgical techniques permit gains in quality of life after the procedure.
  • A recent meta-analysis indicates that preoperative irradiation is unlikely to be beneficial, but definitive chemoradiation can produce significant 5-year survival rates in nonoperative candidates and those desiring bladder preservation.
  • It has been adopted as the standard arm in a phase III trial for advanced bladder cancer, comparing it with the triplet of gemcitabine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin.
  • Other active agents in bladder cancer include ifosfamide, carboplatin, docetaxel, and vinorelbine, and various doublets of these agents are being tested in phase II trials, with promising results.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemoprevention. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 11981270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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17. Izawa JI, Slaton JW, Kedar D, Karashima T, Perrotte P, Czerniak B, Grossman HB, Dinney CP: Differential expression of progression-related genes in the evolution of superficial to invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Oncol Rep; 2001 Jan-Feb;8(1):9-15
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  • [Title] Differential expression of progression-related genes in the evolution of superficial to invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • It is generally accepted that there are dichotomous biologic pathways that lead to the development of either: i) superficial papillary (Ta) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) or ii) precursor lesions to muscle-invasive (CIS, T1) TCC and muscle-invasive (> or =T2) TCC.
  • Using a colorimetric in situ hybridization technique, we examined the expression of mRNAs of several progression-related genes in archival, pathologic specimens from 77 patients with bladder TCC.
  • Gene expression was normalized using poly (dT) and the expression of each factor in a panel of specimens of normal urothelium.
  • Patients were stratified according to disease stage, and the level of gene expression among the stratified groups was compared.
  • VEGF, bFGF, IL-8, and MMP-9 expression was increased in muscle-invasive compared with superficial papillary tumors, (p<0.05) and VEGF expression was increased in muscle-invasive tumors compared with CIS specimens (p<0. 05).
  • The pattern of expression of bFGF, VEGF, IL-8, MMP-9, and EGFR represent the divergent developmental pathways in the pathogenesis of bladder TCC, which characterizes superficial or invasive bladder cancer. bFGF, IL-8, and EGFR appear to be upregulated in early precursor lesions (CIS), whereas VEGF appears to be upregulated at later stages in the development of muscle-invasive TCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11115562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA56973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67914
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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18. Smith DC, Mackler NJ, Dunn RL, Hussain M, Wood D, Lee CT, Sanda M, Vaishampayan U, Petrylak DP, Quinn DI, Beekman K, Montie JE: Phase II trial of paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol; 2008 Dec;180(6):2384-8; discussion 2388
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the bladder.
  • PURPOSE: This 2-arm phase II multicenter trial was designed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of neoadjuvant paclitaxel, gemcitabine and carboplatin in patients with invasive bladder cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients in arm I had clinical stage T2 with hydronephrosis or T3 bladder cancer.
  • They received 3 cycles of chemotherapy (200 mg/m(2) paclitaxel on day 1, AUC 5 carboplatin on day 1, and 800 mg/m(2) gemcitabine on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle).
  • Patients in arm II with T4 or lymph node positive disease received up to 6 cycles of paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine.
  • In arm II, 37 patients were enrolled and 29 were evaluable for response with 24 suitable for surgical resection (83% of evaluable and 65% by intent to treat).
  • The most common toxicity was neutropenia with 39 events in arm I and 68 in arm II.
  • There were 7 deaths on study (5 during chemotherapy and 2 after cystectomy).
  • More studies of novel agents and combinations are needed to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of neoadjuvant therapy for bladder cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18930256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA046592-209034; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046592-209034
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS109651; NLM/ PMC2716704
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19. Zharinov GM, Agafonova MV, Tarazov PG, Suvorova IuV, Kozlov AA: [Preliminary results of selective combined therapy for patients with urinary bladder cancer]. Vopr Onkol; 2003;49(5):636-8
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  • [Title] [Preliminary results of selective combined therapy for patients with urinary bladder cancer].
  • The paper discusses the methods of complex treatment for invasive bladder cancer which includes radiation therapy, regional intraarterial chemotherapy with cisplatin drugs, selective hyperglycemia and local SHF-hyperthermia.
  • Complete local response was reported in 18 (56%) out of 32 patients with stage II-IV tumors, partial--8 (25%), no response--6 (19%).
  • The method appeared effective and safe; it offers good perspectives in bladder cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperglycemia. Hyperthermia, Induced. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14682138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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20. Lebret T, Bohin D, Kassardjian Z, Herve JM, Molinie V, Barre P, Lugagne PM, Botto H: Recurrence, progression and success in stage Ta grade 3 bladder tumors treated with low dose bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations. J Urol; 2000 Jan;163(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Recurrence, progression and success in stage Ta grade 3 bladder tumors treated with low dose bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations.
  • PURPOSE: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is considered to be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic agent for high risk superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • Nevertheless, in a select uncommon population of stage Ta grade 3 superficial lamina-free tumors the results of this treatment have not yet been well established.
  • We evaluated recurrence and progression rates, and the success of BCG therapy in a population with stage Ta grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 605 patients treated at our institution from 1982 to 1996 for the histopathological diagnosis of primary bladder cancer 32 (5.3%) with stage Ta grade 3 noninvasive primary bladder tumor were treated with intravesical instillations of 75 mg.
  • Recurrence, grade and stage progression, death and causality were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 32 patients 9 (28%) responded positively to BCG without recurrence, while disease recurred as stage Ta in 8 (25%) and T1 in 7 (22%), and progressed to muscle layer infiltration in 8 (25%).
  • Four patients (12%) died of bladder cancer.
  • Urine cytology (I to II versus III to IV) appeared to correlate highly with progression and BCG response (p<0.001) with excellent sensitivity (1) but low specificity (0.67).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the high progression potential of stage Ta grade 3 tumors, since nearly 50% recurred and 25% progressed to invasive disease.
  • These results may be closely compared with the results of previous trials of stage T1 grade 3 disease.
  • We suggest that recurrence should be detected at an early stage using long-term followup with strict observance of the surveillance protocols during a minimum 5-year tumor-free period.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2000 Jan;163(1):79-80 [10604318.001]
  • (PMID = 10604315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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21. Heudel P, El Karak F, Ismaili N, Droz JP, Flechon A: Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of Léon Bérard Cancer Center experience. BMC Urol; 2009;9:5
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  • [Title] Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of Léon Bérard Cancer Center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Micropapillary bladder cancer is a rare and aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma.
  • A retrospective review of our experience in management of patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic micropapillary bladder cancer was performed to better define the behavior of this disease.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of the 11 patients with micropapillary bladder cancer who were evaluated and treated at Léon Bérard Cancer Center between 1994 and 2007, accounting for 1,2% of all urothelial tumors treated in this institution.
  • Two patients presented with stage II, one with stage III and eight with stage IV disease All 5 patients who had node positive metastases and treated with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy relapsed and had a disease free survival of 9.6 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Micropapillary bladder cancer is probably an underreported variant of urothelial carcinoma associated with poor prognosis.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy might have a questionable efficacy and the optimal treatment strategy is yet to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cancer Care Facilities. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Mar;26(3):358-64 [11859208.001]
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  • (PMID = 19534791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2713271
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22. Rödel C: Current status of radiation therapy and combined-modality treatment for bladder cancer. Strahlenther Onkol; 2004 Nov;180(11):701-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current status of radiation therapy and combined-modality treatment for bladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy.
  • Combined-modality treatment (CMT), including transurethral resection (TURBT), radiation therapy (RT) and systemic chemotherapy, has been shown to produce survival rates comparable to those of radical cystectomy.
  • With these programs, cystectomy has been reserved for patients with incomplete response or local relapse after trimodality treatment.
  • METHODS: This review summarizes series of radical RT with different fractionation schedules and focuses on CMT for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • Current protocols of the bladder-sparing approach will be discussed and the background of future developments, including incorporation of promising new chemotherapeutic agents as well as the role of predictive and prognostic factors in selecting patients for the respective treatment alternatives, will be given.
  • RESULTS: There is moderate evidence that hyperfractionated and accelerated regimens are superior to conventional RT at least in situations where no concomitant chemotherapy is applied.
  • Several phase II studies and one phase III study indicate that concomitant radiochemotherapy is superior to RT alone.
  • In modern series of CMT, 5-year survival rates in the range of 50-60% have been published, and about three quarters of the surviving patients maintained their own bladder.
  • Clinical criteria helpful in determining patients for bladder preservation include such variables as early tumor stage, unifocal tumor, a visibly and microscopically complete TURBT, and absence of ureteral obstruction.
  • CONCLUSION: CMT for bladder cancer is a reasonable treatment option for patients who are deemed medically unfit for cystectomy and for those seeking an alternative to radical cystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystectomy / trends. Drug Therapy / trends. Radiotherapy / methods. Radiotherapy / trends. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / trends. Humans. Patient Selection. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15549188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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23. Startsev V, Pouline I: Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2005 Jun;77(2):93-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We assessed and compared the outcomes of two different courses of adjuvant therapy to patients with superficial bladder TCC.
  • METHODS: The study included 142 patients (28 women and 114 men with a median age of 58.5 years) with newly diagnosed bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) between October 2002 and October 2003.
  • Pathological findings showed pTa stage in 20 (14.1%), pT1G1-2 in 99 (69.7%), pT1G3 in 15 (10.6%) and pTis in 3 (2.1%) cases; we additionally examined prostate specimens after TURP.
  • The main criteria for adjuvant treatment were: grade, number and location of the tumor in the bladder The group of patients (group A) with G3 and multicentric lesions, localized at the lower third of the bladder, underwent BCG-therapy according the conventional schedule (60 patients, 42.3%).
  • In group B (82 patients, 57.7%) patients underwent local chemotherapy (Thiotepa 80 mg p/week or Doxorubicin 50 mg p/week), started within 24 hours after operation.
  • A second-look TURBT was performed within 6 weeks of treatment course in both groups.
  • Adjuvant therapy was continued in all patients, except four patients with G3 and two patients with T2 stage who underwent more aggressive treatment (4 cystectomies and 2 external beam radiotherapy).
  • We switched 16 patients in group B with recurrent cancer to BCG treatment.
  • Nobody of TURP-operated patients had recurrence in the distal part of urethra, and toxicity level of TURP-operated patients was not worse than in the whole patients cohort (not more than grade II).
  • CONCLUSION: BCG adjuvant therapy demonstrated good results in the treatment of the recurrence of superficial TCC.
  • However, in patients with low recurrence risk we used chemotherapy successfully.
  • Patients with T1G3 tumors, being at high risk of residual, or even invasive, cancer, could be offered definitive therapy within a 1-year period.
  • Patients who underwent simultaneous TURP for relief of LUTS did not show cancer recurrences in the operated area or an higher toxicity of adjuvant treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16146269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
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24. van der Heijden AG, Moonen PM, Cornel EB, Vergunst H, de Reijke TM, van Boven E, Barten EJ, Puri R, van Kalken CK, Witjes JA: Phase II marker lesion study with intravesical instillation of apaziquone for superficial bladder cancer: toxicity and marker response. J Urol; 2006 Oct;176(4 Pt 1):1349-53; discussion 1353
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  • [Title] Phase II marker lesion study with intravesical instillation of apaziquone for superficial bladder cancer: toxicity and marker response.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 patients with multiple pTa or pT1 bladder tumors underwent visible lesion resection except for 1 marker tumor.
  • RESULTS: One patient withdrew informed consent and refused the last treatment due to side effects.
  • Progression to invasive stage was not observed.
  • Local side effects in this study were comparable to those due to other chemotherapy instillations, such as mitomycin C and epirubicin, but less severe and less frequent compared to those of bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The histological complete response rate after 6 consecutive instillations of apaziquone in patients with superficial bladder cancer was 67% (95% CI 51 to 80).
  • Local side effects were comparable to side effects due to other chemotherapy instillations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Aziridines / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Indolequinones / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2007 May;4(5):248-9 [17389884.001]
  • (PMID = 16952629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Aziridines; 0 / Indolequinones; H464ZO600O / apaziquone
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25. Kaufman DS, Winter KA, Shipley WU, Heney NM, Chetner MP, Souhami L, Zlotecki RA, Sause WT, True LD: The initial results in muscle-invading bladder cancer of RTOG 95-06: phase I/II trial of transurethral surgery plus radiation therapy with concurrent cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by selective bladder preservation or cystectomy depending on the initial response. Oncologist; 2000;5(6):471-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The initial results in muscle-invading bladder cancer of RTOG 95-06: phase I/II trial of transurethral surgery plus radiation therapy with concurrent cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by selective bladder preservation or cystectomy depending on the initial response.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the safety, tolerance, and efficacy of transurethral surgery plus concomitant cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and radiation therapy in conjunction with selective bladder preservation in patients with muscle-invading bladder cancer.
  • Thirty-four eligible patients with clinical stage T2-T4a, Nx M0 bladder cancer without hydronephrosis were entered into a protocol aimed at selective bladder preservation.
  • Treatment began with as complete a transurethral resection as possible followed by induction chemoradiation.
  • On d 1, 3, 15, and 17, radiation was given immediately following the chemotherapy using twice-a-day 3 Gy per fraction cores to the pelvis for a total radiation dose of 24 Gy.
  • Patients with a complete response received consolidation therapy with the same drugs and doses on d 1, 2, 3, 15, 16, and 17 combined with twice-daily radiation therapy to the bladder and bladder tumor volume of 2.5 Gy per fraction for a total consolidation dose of 20 Gy and a total induction plus consolidation dose to the bladder and bladder tumor of 44 Gy.
  • Patients who did not achieve a complete response were advised to undergo prompt cystectomy, as were those with a subsequent invasive recurrence.
  • One patient did not complete induction treatment due to acute hematologic toxicity.
  • After induction treatment, 22 (67%) of the 33 patients had no tumor detectable on urine cytology or rebiopsy.
  • Six patients have died of bladder cancer.
  • The probability of surviving with an intact bladder is 66% at three years.
  • A total of seven patients (21%) developed grade 3 or grade 4 hematologic toxicity in conjunction with this treatment.
  • Both the 67% complete response rate to induction therapy and the 66% three-year survival with an intact bladder are encouraging.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystectomy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11110598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21661; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32115
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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26. Josephson DY, Pasin E, Stein JP: Superficial bladder cancer: part 1. Update on etiology, classification and natural history. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Dec;6(12):1723-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Superficial bladder cancer: part 1. Update on etiology, classification and natural history.
  • Superficial 'nonmuscle-invasive' bladder tumors represent a heterogeneous group of cancers, which include those that are papillary in nature and limited to the mucosa (Ta), high grade, flat and confined to the epithelium (Tis) and those that invade the submucosa or lamina propria (T1).
  • The natural history of these bladder cancers is that of disease recurrence and progression to higher grade and stage.
  • Furthermore, recurrence and progression rates of superficial bladder cancer vary according to several tumor characteristics.
  • The goal in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer is twofold: reducing tumor recurrence and the subsequent need for additional therapies, such as cystoscopy, transurethral resections, intravesical therapy and the morbidity associated with these treatments; and preventing tumor progression and the subsequent need for more aggressive therapy, such as radical cystectomy.
  • The administration of intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy has become an important component in accomplishing these goals.
  • This update is the first part of two articles reviewing important contemporary concepts in the etiology, classification and natural history of superficial bladder cancer, while part II of the series will review and highlight important aspects in management of superficial bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinogens, Environmental / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Chromosome Aberrations. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Occupational Diseases / chemically induced. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17181486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental
  • [Number-of-references] 124
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27. Fakhr I, El-Hossieny H, Salama A: Delayed Cystectomy for T1G3 Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the Urinary Bladder, NCI Retrospective Case Series. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Dec;20(4):387-94

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Delayed Cystectomy for T1G3 Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of the Urinary Bladder, NCI Retrospective Case Series.
  • AIM: We aim to evaluate the National Cancer Institute (NCI) treatment protocol and its outcome regarding recurrence, progression and survival in patients with T1G3 urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, between January 2001 and December 2007, all 34 patients with T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), after complete transurethral resection (TURBT), received intravesical BCG as adjuvant therapy.
  • Two (20.0%) of them, were staged as TNM stage II, 6 (60.0%) as TNM stage III and 2 (20.0%) patients were TNM stage IV.
  • Eight (72.7%) of these 11 patients had post-cystectomy radiotherapy alone; while the 2 (6.0%) other patients with stage IV had adjuvant concomitant Cisplatin and Gemcitabine chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Adjuvant intravesical therapy with BCG with repeated cystoscopies, and delayed radical cystectomy until progression to the invasive disease carries a significant risk of mortality from invasive disease.
  • This treatment policy may be acceptable for T1G3 bladder TCC, without concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), who don't recur after intravesical BCG, however, patients who progress to invasive disease may skip stage II disease and present with stage III or IV, with consequent poor survival.
  • Therefore, due to the aggressive biologic behavior of T1G3 cancer, a determination of a cutoff number for recurrence(s) or better evaluation parameters are needed, to proceed with cystectomy without awaiting muscle invasion.
  • KEY WORDS: Superficial bladder cancer - T1G3 TCC - Delayed cystectomy - BCG.

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  • (PMID = 20571597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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28. Okegawa T, Kinjo M, Nutahara K, Higashihara E: Value of reverse transcription polymerase chain assay in peripheral blood of patients with urothelial cancer. J Urol; 2004 Apr;171(4):1461-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Value of reverse transcription polymerase chain assay in peripheral blood of patients with urothelial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used to determine expression of uroplakin II (UP II) or cytokeratin 20 (CK-20) in cells separated from the peripheral blood of patients with urothelial cancer.
  • We examine whether UP II or CK-20 expression can be used as a urothelial cancer marker for urothelial cancer in cells isolated from peripheral blood.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood was taken from 20 healthy volunteers without a history of urothelial cancer, from 10 patients with a negative bladder biopsy for urothelial cancer and from 108 patients with urothelial cancer.
  • Results of a nested RT-PCR assay were compared with pathological stage and recurrence.
  • Among 108 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder nested RT-PCR for UP II was positive in 25 (23%) versus 31 (29%) for CK-20 (p >0.05).
  • Nested RT-PCR for UP II was positive in 5 (8%) patients with superficial stage disease (pTa and pT1) versus 8 (11%) positive for CK-20.
  • Nested RT-PCR for UP II was positive in 15 (58%) patients with a stage of pT2 or advanced stages versus 17 (65%) positive for CK-20.
  • Nested RT-PCR for UP II was positive in 13 (20%) and 10 (56%) patients with grades 2 and 3, respectively, versus 17 (27%) and 12 (67%) nested RT-PCR positive for CK-20.
  • A significant difference in the Kaplan-Meier recurrence-free actuarial curve was noted among patients with superficial stage who were positive and negative on nested RT-PCR for UP II and CK-20 in peripheral blood, respectively, but not in the invasive stage.
  • On multivariate analysis nested RT-PCR for UP II and CK-20 in peripheral blood were independent prognostic factors in patients with superficial stage disease but not with invasive stage disease.
  • Lung and/or liver metastasis developed in 5 (80%) of 6 patients whose results after chemotherapy (consisting of cisplatin, doxorubicin hydrochloride, vinblastine sulfate and methotrexate) for nested RT-PCR for UP II and CK-20 remained positive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results seem to indicate that UP II and CK-20 mRNA in the blood may be useful tumor markers for predicting patient survival and the extent of urothelial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / blood. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Cells / chemistry. Female. Humans. Keratin-20. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uroplakin II

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  • (PMID = 15017198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / UPK2 protein, human; 0 / Uroplakin II
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