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1. Feng W, Duan X, Liu J, Xiao J, Brown RE: Morphoproteomic evidence of constitutively activated and overexpressed mTOR pathway in cervical squamous carcinoma and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Morphoproteomic evidence of constitutively activated and overexpressed mTOR pathway in cervical squamous carcinoma and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the uterine cervix is linked to the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.
  • Preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies using HPV-containing human cervical carcinoma cell lines have shown that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, rapamycin, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib, can induce growth delay of xenografts.
  • Activation of Akt and mTOR are also observed in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and, the expression of phosphorylated mTOR was reported to serve as a marker to predict response to chemotherapy and survival of cervical cancer patients.
  • Therefore, we investigated: a) the expression level of EGFR in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) versus non-neoplastic cervical squamous epithelium;.
  • b) the state of activation of the mTOR pathway in these same tissues; and c) any impact of these signal transduction molecules on cell cycle.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue microarray blocks containing 20 samples each of normal cervix, HSIL and invasive SCC, derived from a total of 60 cases of cervical biopsies and cervical conizations were examined.
  • These results suggest that the mTOR pathway plays a key role in cervical carcinogenesis and targeted therapies may be developed for SCC as well as its precursor lesion, HSIL.


2. Hill SC, Youde SJ, Man S, Teale GR, Baxendale AJ, Hislop A, Davies CC, Luesley DM, Blom AM, Rickinson AB, Young LS, Eliopoulos AG: Activation of CD40 in cervical carcinoma cells facilitates CTL responses and augments chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. J Immunol; 2005 Jan 1;174(1):41-50
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  • [Title] Activation of CD40 in cervical carcinoma cells facilitates CTL responses and augments chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
  • CD40 was present at very low levels in normal cervical epithelium but was overexpressed in human papillomavirus-infected lesions and advanced squamous carcinomas of the cervix.
  • The stimulation of CD40-positive cervical carcinoma cell lines with soluble CD40L (CD154) resulted in activation of the NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling pathways and up-regulation of cell surface markers and intracellular molecules associated with Ag processing and presentation.
  • Concomitantly, the CD154-induced activation of CD40 in carcinoma cells was found to directly influence susceptibility to CTL-mediated killing.
  • Thus, CD40 stimulation in cervical carcinoma cell lines expressing a TAP-dependent human papillomavirus 16 E6 Ag epitope resulted in their enhanced killing by specific CTLs.
  • However, CD154 treatment of carcinoma cells expressing proteasome-dependent but TAP-independent Ags from the EBV-encoded BRLF1 and BMLF1 failed to increase tumor cell lysis by specific CTLs.
  • Moreover, we demonstrate that chemotherapeutic agents that suppress protein synthesis and reverse the CD40-mediated dissociation of the translational repressor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein from the initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, such as 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, and quercetin, dramatically increase the susceptibility of cervical carcinoma cells to CD40L-induced apoptosis.
  • Taken together, these observations demonstrate the functional expression of CD40 in epithelial tumors of the cervix and support the clinical exploitation of the CD40 pathway for the treatment of cervical cancer through its multiple effects on tumor cell growth, apoptosis, and immune recognition.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD40 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigen Presentation / drug effects. Antigen Presentation / immunology. CD40 Ligand / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / immunology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Female. Flow Cytometry. HeLa Cells. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / drug effects. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / metabolism. NF-kappa B / drug effects. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / drug effects. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / immunology. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Signal Transduction / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15611226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD40; 0 / NF-kappa B; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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3. Fadare O, Parkash V, Carcangiu ML, Hui P: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: clinicopathological features with an emphasis on uterine cervical involvement. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):75-82
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  • We report on the clinical and histological features of five cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, with an emphasis on its involvement of the uterine cervix.
  • In three cases of cervical involvement, the neoplastic cells focally replaced endocervical surface and glandular epithelium, simulating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • All patients received total hysterectomy and various regimes of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In summary, with its unusual ability to simulate an invasive squamous cell carcinoma and other epithelioid neoplasms, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor frequently poses a diagnostic challenge, especially when involving the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16258513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen
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4. Tristram A, Fiander A: Clinical responses to Cidofovir applied topically to women with high grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):652-5
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  • [Title] Clinical responses to Cidofovir applied topically to women with high grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • It has previously been used in a number of clinical settings, including high grade intraepithelial disease in the cervix and low grade vulval disease.
  • This pilot study was set up to assess whether Cidofovir might be useful in treating high grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Women with high grade non-cervical anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia were treated with a topical formulation of 1% Cidofovir in Unguentum Merck.
  • RESULTS: 12 women with high grade vulval, vaginal or perianal intraepithelial neoplasia were recruited, 10 of whom completed follow up.
  • Diseased tissue underwent ulceration in the majority of cases, with no effect seen on neighbouring normal skin.
  • CONCLUSION: These complete responses, in women with long standing disease, together with preservation of normal tissue, suggest that topical treatment with Cidofovir may have a place in the therapeutic armamentarium of high grade vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Cytosine / analogs & derivatives. Organophosphonates / administration & dosage. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16169066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organophosphonates; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; JIL713Q00N / cidofovir
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5. Kietpeerakool C, Srisomboon J: Medical treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II, III: an update review. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;14(1):37-42
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  • [Title] Medical treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II, III: an update review.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II, III is a preinvasive stage of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The standard treatment for CIN II, III consists of ablation and excision.
  • However, nonsurgical treatment may be necessary for some women to preserve future reproductive potential.
  • This review was conducted to summarize available published data on the efficacy and safety of medical treatment for CIN II, III.
  • Based on existing studies, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors; indole-3-carbinol; and novel immunotherapy agents, including ZYC101a, MVA E2, and HspE7, have been observed as possessing therapeutic activity without any major treatment-related complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Genetic Therapy. Immunotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome


6. Nowak-Markwitz E, Spaczyński M: [Carcinoma of the uterine cervix during pregnancy]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 Sep;78(9):727-32
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] [Carcinoma of the uterine cervix during pregnancy].
  • The only indication for conization during pregnancy is to rule out or confirm microinvasive or invasive cancer, provided such diagnose can change the time and the way of delivery.
  • The decision is easier in the early stage of cancer, because it has been proven that six- to twelve-week delay of the beginning of the therapy does not deteriorate the cancer outcome but it enables the fetus to acquire sufficient lung maturity.
  • Advanced carcinoma of the cervix forces us to take prompt therapeutic decisions.
  • Both, the continuation of the pregnancy and the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy are still possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Colposcopy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 18159829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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7. Buxant F, Bucella D, Anaf V, Simon P, Noël JC: Glucocorticoid receptor expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(3):259-62
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  • [Title] Glucocorticoid receptor expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used in cancer treatment to cause programmed cell death in transformed cells of the hematopoietic system and to lessen side-effects as nausea, vomiting, edema formation and allergies to specific chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Moreover, recently GCs were described as inhibitors of some chemotherapy or radiation-induced apoptosis.
  • METHODS: To clarify the issue, we tested by immunohistochemistry the expression status of GR in normal cervix epithelium (n = 30), in low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL) (n = 30), in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL) (n = 30) and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) (n = 30).
  • CONCLUSION: Because GCs could play a positive role in the progression of cancer, our demonstration of GR persistence in cervix cancer cells raises concern about the widespread combined use of GCs with antineoplastic drugs or agents in the clinical management of cervix cancer in women.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19697616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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8. Kumar JV, Doval DC, Rao R, Rawal S: A retrospective study of patients with locally advanced cancer of the cervix treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Apr;19(3):417-22
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  • [Title] A retrospective study of patients with locally advanced cancer of the cervix treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical surgery.
  • New concept of downstaging locally advanced cancer of the cervix (LACC) with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), to make it resectable, is of great interest and needs to be explored.
  • Recurrences were noted; 46.4% of patients were in stage 2b, followed by 25% in stage IIIb; 92.8% of patients had squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In 20.4% of patients, cervical cancer was reduced to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or microinvasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19407570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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9. Ahdieh-Grant L, Li R, Levine AM, Massad LS, Strickler HD, Minkoff H, Moxley M, Palefsky J, Sacks H, Burk RD, Gange SJ: Highly active antiretroviral therapy and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2004 Jul 21;96(14):1070-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Highly active antiretroviral therapy and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women.
  • BACKGROUND: Women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of persistent squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) of the cervix.
  • We assessed the association between use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and regression of SIL in HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a large, multicenter, prospective cohort study.
  • RESULTS: Of 312 women, 141 had lesions that regressed to normal cytology, with a median time to regression of 2.7 years.
  • Overall, the incidence of regression increased (P(trend) =.002) over time after HAART was introduced.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Papillomaviridae. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphocyte Count. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Prospective Studies. Research Design. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Jul 21;96(14):1051-3 [15265960.001]
  • (PMID = 15265968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00079; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR00083; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-31834; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34989; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-34994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-35004; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01-AI-42590; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01-HD-32632
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Eleutério J Jr, Giraldo PC, Cavalcante DI, Gonçalves AK, Eleutério RM, Giraldo HP: Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, high-risk human papilloma virus infection and p16(INK4a) expression: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2009 Mar-Apr;53(2):188-90
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  • [Title] Papillary squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, high-risk human papilloma virus infection and p16(INK4a) expression: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary squamous cell carcioma is rare form of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix occurring in women in the sixth decade of life and is frequently misdiagnosed as high-grade intraepithelial lesion.
  • CASE: A 58-year-old woman who had 8 gestations (no abortions) and mitral cardiopathy treated with coumarin medication was referred for transvaginal bleeding of 20 days' duration.
  • Specular examination showed an exophytic, easily bleeding lesion occupying all of the uterine cervix and superior third of the vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anticoagulants / therapeutic use. Coumarins / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitral Valve Insufficiency / complications. Mitral Valve Insufficiency / drug therapy. Vaginal Smears


11. Hoareau F, Croue A, Marchetta J, Kettani S, Verret JL: [Pemphigus vulgaris and intraepithelial neoplasia localized to the vagina]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Jun-Jul;134(6-7):564-6
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  • [Title] [Pemphigus vulgaris and intraepithelial neoplasia localized to the vagina].
  • DISCUSSION: Intra-epithelial carcinoma associated with pemphigus vulgaris has been described in rare cases in the cervix but never in the vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Pemphigus / pathology. Vagina. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17657185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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12. Ruan YH, Wei WL, Zhang HX, Liang ZN, Liu BY, Chen Y: [Comparison and analysis of expression of c-myc and p16 in cervical carcinoma]. Ai Zheng; 2003 Jun;22(6):602-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] [Comparison and analysis of expression of c-myc and p16 in cervical carcinoma].
  • It is still unclear whether abnormal expression of c-myc and p16 cooperate in the occurrence and progression of cervical carcinoma, and whether there exists a connection between the expression of two genes and the chemotherapy response of cervical carcinoma.
  • This study was designed to investigate the correlation between the expression of c-myc and p16 and their roles in the genesis and development of the uterine cervical carcinoma and chemotherapy response.
  • METHODS: Using in situ hybridization, 37 cases of cervical carcinoma (including 11 cases after chemotherapy), 21 cases of precancerous lesion and 5 cases of normal cervix were observed for c-myc and p16 mRNA with dig-labeled probes.
  • RESULTS: The positive expression rates of p16 in normal cervix,CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) and cervical carcinoma were 100%, 71.4%, and 21.6%, respectively (P=0.0001), whereas the expression rates of c-myc were 0%, 42.9%, and 75.7% (P=0.0011), respectively.
  • The expression rates of c-myc were decreased in cervical carcinoma after chemotherapy.
  • Expression of p16 and c-myc showed no significant difference between effectual and ineffectual chemotherapy groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Both over expression of c-myc and descended expression of p16 may play an important role in the genesis and development of uterine cervical carcinoma.
  • The increased expression of c-myc in different grade CIN suggests that carcinogenesis of cervix be progressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. Genes, myc. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 12948409.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
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13. Zhu H, Hu Y, Shuai CX, Shi ZZ, Zhang HX: [Expression of survivin, bcl-2 in cervical carcinoma and its association with HPV16/18 infection]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Feb 23;90(7):469-73
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of survivin, bcl-2 in cervical carcinoma and its association with HPV16/18 infection].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and the correlation of surviving, bcl-2 and HPV16/18 in cervical carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Hybridization in situ was used to detect the expression of survivin mRNA and HPV16/18 DNA in 74 cases of CIN and 81 cases of cervical carcinoma and 20 cases of normal cervical tissues.
  • RESULTS: The positive rates of survivin mRNA, bcl-2 and HPV16/18 in CIN were 44.6%, 39.2% and 41.0% respectively versus 77.8%, 70.4% and 81.2% in cervical carcinoma.
  • The above three indices gradually rose in normal cervical tissue, CIN and cervical carcinoma.
  • And it was obviously higher in cervical carcinoma with stage IIb-III than those in stage I-IIa.
  • And it was also obviously higher in cervical carcinoma with a poor differentiation than those with a good or medium differentiation.
  • The expression of survivin in cervical carcinoma with lymphatic metastasis was significantly higher than that without lymphatic metastasis.
  • There were no relationship between the expression of survivin or bcl-2 and the pathological type or tumor type of cervical carcinoma.
  • The infection of HPV16/18 also had nothing to do with the clinical stage or pathological type or tumor type of cervical carcinoma.
  • Thus a positive correlation between surviving, bcl-2 and HPV 16/18 was observed in cervical carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Survivin, bcl-2 and HPV16/18 participate in the development of cervical carcinoma.
  • It may be a useful guide in early diagnosis of cervical carcinoma, evaluation of surgery and chemotherapy and prediction of outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Human papillomavirus 16. Human papillomavirus 18. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 20368071.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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14. Machtinger R, Inbar Y, Ben-Baruch G, Korach J, Rabinovici J: MRgFUS for pain relief as palliative treatment in recurrent cervical carcinoma: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jan;108(1):241-3
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MRgFUS for pain relief as palliative treatment in recurrent cervical carcinoma: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Focused ultrasound under real-time MR guidance and control (MRgFUS) can be used for the thermal ablation of tissue.
  • Currently this technique is used clinically for the noninvasive treatment of uterine leiomyomas and is in clinical evaluation for breast cancer, adenomyosis and other indications.
  • This is the first case to report on MRgFUS for pain relief in patients suffering from recurrent cervical carcinoma.
  • CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old patient with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of cervix following radical hysterectomy, chemotherapy and radiation was treated by MRgFUS due to pelvic mass unresponsive to conventional treatment that caused intractable pain.
  • Following two treatments the patient experienced a marked reduction in pain and increase in Karnovsky Performance Status (KPS) from 50% to 80%.
  • DISCUSSION: Palliative treatment of pain with noninvasive MRgFUS in cases of recurrent cervical carcinoma may be a safe and efficient alternative to other invasive techniques.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Pain, Intractable / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ultrasonic Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18028990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. De Palo G: Cervical precancer and cancer, past, present and future. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(3):269-78
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This review is a short summary of the very long history of invasive and in situ carcinomas of the cervix.
  • The items considered in this paper are the etiology of cervical cancer by a sexually transmitted agent proposed about 150 years ago by Domenico Rigoni Stern, the birth of radical surgery for the treatment of cervical invasive carcinoma with the Wertheim operation in 1898, radium therapy and chemotherapy, cytological diagnosis, the birth of colposcopy, microcolposcopy, the definition of carcinoma in situ, dysplasia and microcarcinoma, the birth of the International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy, condylomatosis lesions of the cervix and some HPVs as agents of cervical pre-cancer and cancer, and finally the concept of vaccination against oncogenic HPV types.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / history. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / history. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / history


16. De Vuyst H, Lillo F, Broutet N, Smith JS: HIV, human papillomavirus, and cervical neoplasia and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2008 Nov;17(6):545-54
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HIV, human papillomavirus, and cervical neoplasia and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • The objective of this study was to review the literature on the epidemiological association between human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV, and cervical neoplasia, and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on this association.
  • MEDLINE was searched using the terms 'human papillomavirus', 'HPV', 'HIV', 'cervix', 'neoplasm', and 'antiretroviral' to identify articles published before December 2006.
  • HIV-infection was strongly associated with a higher prevalence, incidence, and persistence of HPV infection and correlated with prevalence, incidence, persistence, and progression of squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • The association between HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma has been more difficult to establish, but is now fully recognized.
  • HAART seems to have little, if any, beneficial effect on the natural history of intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive women.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Viral. Female. HIV Seroprevalence. HIV-1 / genetics. Humans. Prevalence. Viral Load


17. Caprara L, Monari F, De Bianchi PS, Amadori A, Bondi A: [ASCUS in screening]. Pathologica; 2001 Dec;93(6):645-50
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PROGESTERONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The prevalence of diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL) decreased progressively with age while that of high-grade SIL was slightly higher between 30 and 39 years.
  • The observed peak reflects the prevalence of (1) cytological changes closely associated with perimenopausal age and at least compatible with the ASCUS diagnosis, and (2) cytological abnormalities induced by hormone replacement therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mass Screening. Papanicolaou Test. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Estrogens / pharmacology. False Positive Reactions. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Italy. Menopause. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Stem Cells / ultrastructure. Progesterone / pharmacology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


18. Helm CW, Lorenz DJ, Meyer NJ, Rising WR, Wulff JL: Retinoids for preventing the progression of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007;(4):CD003296
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Invasive cervical carcinoma is preceded by a precancerous phase, cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN), which can be detected on cervical smears and confirmed by colposcopy and biopsy.
  • Moderate and severe intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2 and CIN3) are treated mainly with surgery to prevent progression to invasive carcinoma.
  • Retinoids are potent modulators of epithelial cell growth and differentiation and may have potential for the treatment of CIN.
  • Two studies examined the effect on CIN2 and CIN3 of retinoids N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide) (Follen 2001) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (aliretinoin) (Alvarez 2003) given orally and two examined the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid given topically to the cervix (Meyskens 1994; Ruffin 2004).
  • In general, the retinoid medications were well tolerated.
  • At the doses given and duration of treatment studied, the retinoids were reasonably well-tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;6:CD003296 [23740788.001]
  • (PMID = 17943787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Retinoids
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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19. Van Calsteren K, Vergote I, Amant F: Cervical neoplasia during pregnancy: diagnosis, management and prognosis. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2005 Aug;19(4):611-30
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The only absolute indication for conization in pregnancy is to rule out (micro-)invasive disease or make the diagnosis of invasive carcinoma when such a diagnosis will alter the timing or mode of delivery.
  • Although stage of disease and gestational age will largely influence the timing of the interventions, treatment of invasive cervical cancer is similar to the non-pregnant state.
  • In strongly desired pregnancies, the use of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in order to obtain fetal maturity should be considered and discussed with the patient.
  • Although good evidence supports short-term safety, long-term data regarding the in-utero exposure of cytotoxic drugs need to be consolidated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / methods. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Colposcopy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Delivery, Obstetric / methods. Female. Fetus. Gestational Age. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy. Prognosis


20. Stanley MA: Prognostic factors and new therapeutic approaches to cervical cancer. Virus Res; 2002 Nov;89(2):241-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors and new therapeutic approaches to cervical cancer.
  • Recent advances in the detection and therapy of carcinoma of the cervix and its squamous intra-epithelial precursor lesions exploit the knowledge that these lesions are a consequence of infection with high risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Detection of HR HPV DNA in smears from selected patient groups will improve detection of high grade precursor lesions and immunodetection of the cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) seems to specifically and sensitively identify HGSIL.
  • Immunisation with HPV early proteins has been shown to have both prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in animal papillomavirus infections and immunotherapies for low grade intra-epithelial lesions are realistic.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Papillomaviridae / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Female. Genes, p16. Humans. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Prognosis. Tumor Virus Infections / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12445663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-1702
  • [Journal-full-title] Virus research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virus Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Viral Vaccines
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21. Trimble C, Lin CT, Hung CF, Pai S, Juang J, He L, Gillison M, Pardoll D, Wu L, Wu TC: Comparison of the CD8+ T cell responses and antitumor effects generated by DNA vaccine administered through gene gun, biojector, and syringe. Vaccine; 2003 Sep 8;21(25-26):4036-42
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We have previously linked Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 in the context of a DNA vaccine.
  • The success of our strategy has led to two phases I/II clinical trial proposals in patients with HPV-16 associated high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) of the cervix and in patients with advanced HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibody Specificity. Biolistics. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Female. Flow Cytometry. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / immunology. Injections, Intramuscular. Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Papilloma / drug therapy. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / prevention & control. Papillomaviridae / immunology. Plasmids / genetics. Vaccines, DNA / administration & dosage. Vaccines, DNA / immunology

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  • (PMID = 12922140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Vaccines, DNA; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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