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1. Pan B, Cheng T, Nan KJ, Qiu GQ, Sun XC: Effect of Fuzheng Yiliu decoction combined with chemotherapy on patients with intermediate and late stage gastrointestinal cancer. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jan 21;11(3):439-42
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  • [Title] Effect of Fuzheng Yiliu decoction combined with chemotherapy on patients with intermediate and late stage gastrointestinal cancer.
  • AIM: To investigate the therapeutic effects of Fuzheng Yiliu (strengthening the body resistance to inhibit tumor) decoction combined with chemotherapy on the patients with intermediate and late stage gastrointestinal cancer.
  • METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly divided into treatment group (chemotherapy combined with Fuzheng Yiliu decoction) and control group (chemotherapy alone).
  • Four indexes, including the tumor recent remission rate (RR), the change of main symptoms, the toxic and side effects caused by chemotherapy and the change of performance status, were observed in the patients.
  • Peripheral blood contents of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ cells, CD4+/CD8+ and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) were tested before and after treatment and the values were compared with those of healthy peoples.
  • RESULTS: The improving rate of main symptoms (69.6%) and performance status (56.7%) were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (34.8%, 26.7%, P<0.05).
  • The occurrence rates of grade II toxic and side-effects on both bone marrow (13.3%) and digestive tract (30%) were lower in the treatment group compared to the control group (36.7%, 63.3%, P<0.05).
  • Before treatment, the proportion of CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ decreased and the proportion of CD8+ and sIL-2R raised markedly both in the control group and treatment group as compared to the healthy people.
  • After treatment, that increased of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ increased (62.25+/-10.01% vs 68.31+/-9.72%, 36.83+/-10.44% vs 42.6+/-9.62%, 1.24+/-0.65 vs 1.66+/-0.85, P<0.05) and the values of CD8+ and sIL-2R decreased obviously (33.06+/-7.69% vs 29.24+/-6.25%, 588.23+/-216.86 U/mL vs 475.87+/-211.36 U/mL, P<0.05) in the treatment group, whereas these values were opposite in the control group (64.22+/-6.91% vs 60.63+/-5.75%, 35.62+/-7.49% vs 31.53+/-5.53%, 32.95+/-8.28% vs 37.14+/-7.48%, 1.17+/-0.43 vs 0.94+/-0.43, 573.63+/-214.32 U/mL vs 692.17+/-221.33 U/mL, P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Fuzheng Yiliu decoction can enhance therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on malignant gastrointestinal tumor, and also reduce the toxic and side effects on bone marrow and digestive tract, thereby improving the quality of life and cellular immunity in patients with malignant gastrointestinal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4-CD8 Ratio. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15637764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4205358
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2. Willman JH, Holden JA: Immunohistochemical staining for DNA topoisomerase II-alpha in benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the prostate. Prostate; 2000 Mar 1;42(4):280-6
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining for DNA topoisomerase II-alpha in benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the prostate.
  • BACKGROUND: The DNA topoisomerase II-alpha (topo II-alpha)-targeting drug etoposide was recently shown to be an active agent in the combined chemotherapy of hormone-insensitive prostatic carcinoma.
  • Much experimental data indicate that cells sensitive to topo II-targeting chemotherapeutic drugs are rapidly proliferating and show elevated topo II expression.
  • Using a new immunohistochemical stain, specific for the alpha isoform of DNA topo II, enzyme expression was evaluated in 54 prostatic adenocarcinomas, 22 lesions of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and 10 cases of benign prostatic nodular hyperplasia.
  • The average topo II-alpha index of 2.3 (range, 0-8.6) for high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was intermediate between the invasive tumors and benign prostate.
  • Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia has an average topo II-alpha index intermediate between nodular hyperplasia and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. Isoenzymes / analysis. Prostate / enzymology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / enzymology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / enzymology. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. DNA-Binding Proteins. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Staining and Labeling

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10679757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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3. Ramos D, Navarro S, Villamón R, Gil-Salom M, Llombart-Bosch A: Cytokeratin expression patterns in low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Cancer; 2003 Apr 15;97(8):1876-83
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  • [Title] Cytokeratin expression patterns in low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder.
  • BACKGROUND: The differential expression patterns of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and 34betaE12 antigen in low-grade papillary urothelial tumors of the bladder are discussed.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of 120 patients with low-grade papillary bladder tumors (45 neoplasms of low malignant potential and 75 low-grade WHO G1 carcinomas) was performed.
  • The mean follow-up was 76.6 months (range, 36-168 mos), considering for prognostic purposes the time to first recurrence, or relapse-free interval (RFI), and the total number of recurrent patients.
  • Independent of adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy, these 2 markers showed a strong statistical correlation (p < 0.001) in univariate studies with both the prediction of disease recurrences and RFI.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Keratin-20. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12673713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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4. Frohlich DE, Chen JL, Neuberg D, Kehoe KM, Van den Abbeele AD: When is hilar uptake of 67Ga-citrate indicative of residual disease after CHOP chemotherapy? J Nucl Med; 2000 Feb;41(2):269-74
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  • [Title] When is hilar uptake of 67Ga-citrate indicative of residual disease after CHOP chemotherapy?
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characterize the patterns of hilar uptake (HU) on 67Ga-citrate imaging after cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy regimens for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), to differentiate hilar lymphoma (HL) from HU of benign etiology.
  • METHODS: A total of 930 studies (698 planar, 232 thoracic SPECT) was reviewed retrospectively in 100 NHL patients (29 low-grade, 60 intermediate-grade, and 11 high-grade) treated with CHOP and followed up longitudinally with serial gallium studies (planar: median, 7; range, 3-16 studies in 100 patients; SPECT: median, 1; range, 0-11 studies in 72 patients) over a median duration of 36 mo (range, 6-112 mo) from diagnosis.
  • Clinical outcome and size changes over time on correlative CT and/or radiographs were used to evaluate benign versus malignant changes within the hila.
  • The prevalence of HU and HL at various time points was as follows: baseline HU, 52% with HL 60%; mid-CHOP HU, 59% with HL2%; post-CHOP HU, 52% with HL6%; follow-up HU, 76% with HL 9%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Citrates. Gallium. Gallium Radioisotopes. Lung / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Predictive Value of Tests. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10688110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Citrates; 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 27905-02-8 / gallium citrate; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; CH46OC8YV4 / Gallium; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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5. Chan JK, Tian C, Monk BJ, Herzog T, Kapp DS, Bell J, Young RC, Gynecologic Oncology Group: Prognostic factors for high-risk early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer; 2008 May 15;112(10):2202-10
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  • BACKGROUND: The purpose was to identify the factors predictive of recurrence and survival in patients with high-risk (stage I, grade 3; stage IC, stage II, or clear cell) epithelial ovarian cancer after adjuvant therapy.
  • METHODS: Data was extracted from patients who underwent primary surgery followed by adjuvant therapy in 2 randomized trials by the Gynecologic Oncology Group (Protocols 95 and 157).
  • On multivariate analysis, older age, higher stage, higher grade, and malignant cytology were independent prognostic factors predictive for recurrence and poorer survival.
  • The risk of recurrence was higher for those >/=60 versus < 60 years (hazards ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.19), stage II (stage II: HR = 2.70, 95% CI, 1.41-5.16) versus stage IA or IB, grade 2 (HR = 1.84, 95% CI, 1.04-3.27) and grade 3 (HR = 2.47, 95% CI, 1.39-4.37) versus grade 1, and positive versus negative cytology (HR = 1.72, 95% CI, 1.21-2.45).
  • By using these factors in a prognostic index, those with low-risk (no or 1 risk factor), intermediate-risk (2 factors), and high-risk (3-4 risk factors) disease had survivals of 88%, 82%, and 75%, respectively (P < .05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age, stage, grade, and cytology are important prognostic factors in high-risk early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / mortality. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18348296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37517
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Langfort R, Rudziński P, Burakowska B: [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol; 2010;78(1):33-46
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The spectrum of histologic subtypes and current concept on diagnosis and treatment].
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung represent a broad spectrum of morphologic types that share specific morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular characteristics.
  • Because of differences in clinical behavior, therapy, and prognosis, a reliable histological diagnosis, as well as clinical and pathological staging system are essential for an appropriate medical proceedings.
  • The most effective treatment of bronchial carcinoids and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in an early stage is complete surgical resection, whereas chemotherapy remains the primary treatment for small cell carcinoma.
  • All carcinoids are malignant tumors with the potential to metastasize.
  • In practice, it could be easiest to conceptualize this group of pulmonary tumors as a spectrum of malignancy ranging from the low grade typical carcinoid to the highly malignant large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma.
  • Typical carcinoid tumors associated with a fairly benign behavior should be classified as low-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G1) and atypical carcinoid tumors as intermediate-grade tumor/carcinoma (G2).
  • Whereas, large cell neuroendocrine and small cell carcinoma should be grouped together under the designation of high-grade neuroendocrine tumor/carcinoma (G3).
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Carcinoma, Large Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Large Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20162517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumonologia i alergologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumonol Alergol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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7. Fosså SD, Paluchowska B, Horwich A, Kaiser G, de Mulder PH, Koriakine O, van Oosterom AT, de Prijck L, Collette L, de Wit R, EORTC GU Group: Intensive induction chemotherapy with C-BOP/BEP for intermediate- and poor-risk metastatic germ cell tumours (EORTC trial 30948). Br J Cancer; 2005 Nov 28;93(11):1209-14
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  • [Title] Intensive induction chemotherapy with C-BOP/BEP for intermediate- and poor-risk metastatic germ cell tumours (EORTC trial 30948).
  • New chemotherapy regimens are continuously explored in patients with high-risk malignant germ cell tumours (MGCTs).
  • This multicentre phase II trial assessed the efficacy and toxicity of C-BOP/BEP chemotherapy in intermediate and poor prognosis MGCT (IGCCCG criteria).
  • C-BOP/BEP treatment consisted of cycles of cisplatin, vincristine, bleomycin and carboplatin, followed by one cycle of vincristine and bleomycin and three cycles of BEP (bleomycon, etoposide, cisplatin).
  • In total, 16 European hospitals entered 66 eligible patients (intermediate prognosis group: 37; poor prognosis group: 29).
  • A total of 45 patients (68.2%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 56.9-79.4%) achieved a complete response (intermediate prognosis: 30; poor prognosis: 15).
  • After a median observation time of 40.4 months (range: 13.7-66.3), the 1-year progression-free survival rate was 81.8% 95% CI: 72.5-91.1%).
  • In all, 51 patients experienced at least one episode of WHO grade 3/4 leucopenia, and at least one event of grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 30 patients.
  • With an 82% 1-year progression-free survival and a lower limit of the 95% CI above 70%, the efficacy of C-BOP/BEP is comparable to that of published alternative chemotherapy schedules in high-risk MGCT patients.
  • The treatment's toxicity is manageable in a multicentre setting.
  • In poor prognosis patients, C-BOP/BEP should be compared to standard chemotherapy of four cycles of BEP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16251877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361516
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8. Grillo-López AJ, Dallaire BK, McClure A, Weaver R, Varns C, Wei A, Allen R, Lee D, Shen D, Leonard J, Multani P, White CA: Monoclonal antibodies: a new era in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Curr Pharm Biotechnol; 2001 Dec;2(4):301-11
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  • [Title] Monoclonal antibodies: a new era in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been used as therapeutic agents for many years.
  • Rituxan served to heighten interest in the therapeutic applications of MAbs.
  • Literally dozens of antibodies are currently under investigation for a variety of malignant and non-neoplastic indications.
  • Rituxan is effective in patients with low-grade or follicular, relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • The response rate and time to progression (responders) are in the 50% and 13 months range, respectively.
  • It is also active in intermediate-grade NHL where a large randomized study, in combination with CHOP chemotherapy, has shown a statistically significant increase in complete response (CR) rate (75% vs. 60%), prolongation of 1 year event-free survival (69% vs. 49%) and of overall survival (83% vs. 68%) as compared to CHOP alone.
  • This marks the first time that any agent has shown results superior to CHOP, the curative gold standard for this type of NHL.
  • The safety profile, clinical activity, and mechanism of action of these MAbs make them ideal candidates for combination with chemotherapy or biologicals.
  • Over the next few years, we will see very significant therapeutic advances emerge as this important research yields additional clinical results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 11762412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-2010
  • [Journal-full-title] Current pharmaceutical biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Pharm Biotechnol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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9. Ganly I, Gross ND, Patel SG, Bilsky MH, Shah JP, Kraus DH: Outcome of craniofacial resection in patients 70 years of age and older. Head Neck; 2007 Feb;29(2):89-94
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  • Seventeen (47%) patients had had prior single-modality or combined treatment, which included surgery in 14 (40%), radiation in 13 (36%), and chemotherapy in 2 (6%).
  • Thirty-five patients had a malignant tumor and 1 patient a benign tumor; 15 (42%) had high-grade, 17 (47%) intermediate-grade, and 4 (11%) low-grade pathology.
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy was given in 15 (42%) and chemotherapy in 1 (3%).
  • With a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 1-237), the 3 year OS and DSS were significantly poorer than patients less than 70 years of age (OS: 53% versus 69%, p = .0004; DSS: 61% versus 70%, p = .01) due to increased medical comorbidity (53% versus 24%, p = .001) and poorer histology (high-, intermediate-, low-grade histology: 42%, 47%, 11% versus 26%, 47%, 27%, p = .05, respectively) in patients over 70 years of age.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Anterior / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Middle / surgery. Databases as Topic. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / mortality. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / pathology. Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Surgical Flaps. Survival Analysis


10. Hage R, de la Rivière AB, Seldenrijk CA, van den Bosch JM: Update in pulmonary carcinoid tumors: a review article. Ann Surg Oncol; 2003 Jul;10(6):697-704
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  • Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine malignant tumors that make up 1% to 2% of all lung tumors.
  • Carcinoids can be placed in a spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors, ranging from low-grade malignant TC to intermediate AC to high-grade large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small-cell lung carcinoma.
  • The treatment of choice is surgical resection, and prognosis is relatively good in TC, although it is worse in AC.
  • The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as part of multimodality treatment or palliation is still debated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cough / etiology. Fever / etiology. Hemoptysis / etiology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radioimmunodetection. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Respiratory Sounds / etiology. Somatostatin

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  • (PMID = 12839856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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11. Savage P: Malignant melanoma (non-metastatic). BMJ Clin Evid; 2007;2007
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  • [Title] Malignant melanoma (non-metastatic).
  • INTRODUCTION: The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over the past 25 years in the UK, but death rates have remained fairly constant.
  • METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent malignant melanoma?
  • What are the effects of elective lymph node dissection in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes?
  • What are the effects of sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes?
  • What are the effects of adjuvant treatment for malignant melanoma?
  • We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
  • We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: adjuvant vaccines; elective lymph node dissection; low-, intermediate-, and high-dose adjuvant interferon alfa; sentinel lymph node biopsy; suncreens; surveillance for early recurrence; and wide excisions.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 19454081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-8526
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ clinical evidence
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Clin Evid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2943794
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12. Ashraf S, Ashraf HM, Mamoon N, Luqman M: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2007 May;17(5):280-2
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  • Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is an intermediate grade malignant neoplasm of vascular origin.
  • Surgical resection of isolated lesions is the treatment of choice; with unpredictable results reported for chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and resection of multiple lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17553327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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13. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • Microscopically, the neuroendocrine component was usually composed of large and/or intermediate oval to round cells.
  • In 2 cases, the intermediate cells were intermixed with small cells.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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14. Schöffski P, Seeland G, Engel H, Grünwald V, Paul H, Merkle K, Kowalski R, Ganser A: Weekly administration of bendamustine: a phase I study in patients with advanced progressive solid tumours. Ann Oncol; 2000 Jun;11(6):729-34
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  • The clinically tolerated dose for single bolus bendamustine is 215 mg/m2, for fractionated therapy on four consecutive days 85 mg/m2.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with refractory malignant tumours qualified for the trial after written informed consent was obtained.
  • At the starting dose of 80 mg/m2, two patients had dose-limiting toxicity (fatigue grade 3, mouth dryness grade 3, fever grade 4 Common Toxicity Criteria).
  • An intermediate dose level of 70 mg/m2 was studied in three younger, less heavily pretreated patients, was well tolerated and not associated with dose-limiting events.
  • Haematological toxicity was mild except for grade 3-4 lymphocytopenia, occurring in 11 of 12 patients.

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  • (PMID = 10942063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitrogen Mustard Compounds; 981Y8SX18M / Bendamustine Hydrochloride
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15. Punt SE, Eary JF, O'Sullivan J, Conrad EU: Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in leiomyosarcoma: imaging characteristics. Nucl Med Commun; 2009 Jul;30(7):546-9
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  • [Title] Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in leiomyosarcoma: imaging characteristics.
  • OBJECTIVE: Leiomyosarcoma, a malignant neoplasm of smooth muscle, accounts for 7% of the sarcomas.
  • These tumors, which are derived from mesenchymal tissues, are difficult to diagnose, and treatment options remain controversial.
  • The relatively rare incidence of this soft tissue sarcoma subtype has limited the number of patients available for studies and research.
  • This study examines whether the imaging characteristics of positron emission tomography (PET) with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) provide a reliable, noninvasive means to predict tumor behavior in patients with leiomyosarcomas.
  • METHODS: [18F]-FDG-PET was performed on the tumors of participating patients before the neoadjuvant chemotherapy or resection, and a maximum tumor standard uptake value (SUVmax) was calculated.
  • RESULTS: The SUVmax was correlated with tumor grade (P=0.001) and tumor size as greatest dimension (P=0.004).
  • Analysis of these data indicated the potential effectiveness of FDG-PET imaging in predicting tumor grade.
  • The results of this study suggest that a large (by greatest dimension) intermediate grade tumor is expected to have the same predicted outcome as a high-grade tumor and should be treated in the same manner, as they share the same prognosis by definition of tumor grade.
  • Improvements made in the clinical treatment of leiomyosarcomas by use of FDG-PET imaging data may lead to an increase in patient survival.

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  • (PMID = 19440162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5628
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA065537-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA065537; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 65537; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA065537-13
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS121746; NLM/ PMC2752415
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16. Hicks J, Flaitz C: Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands in children and adolescents: assessment of proliferation markers. Oral Oncol; 2000 Sep;36(5):454-60
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  • Malignant neoplasms represent one-third of all pediatric salivary gland tumors.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) composes 51% of malignant tumors and 16% of all salivary gland neoplasms in pediatrics.
  • MEC grade was nine low grade (LG), 15 intermediate grade (IG) and two high grade (HG).
  • Treatment was surgical in 21 cases, and surgery with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in five cases.
  • Two patients with high grade MECs died of disease (21, 44 months).
  • MECs were second malignancies in two children with prior radiotherapy and chemotherapy for leukemia and histiocytosis.
  • Low and intermediate grade salivary gland MECS in a pediatric population may have a favorable outcome when compared with high grade MECs.
  • Proliferation markers appear to be linked to histocytologic MEC grade and may provide information regarding biologic behavior of salivary gland MECs in children and adolescents.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cell Division. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / chemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis


17. Takamura H, Terashima K, Yamashita H: Diagnosis and treatment of orbital malignant lymphoma: a 14-year review at Yamagata University. Jpn J Ophthalmol; 2001 May-Jun;45(3):305-12
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of orbital malignant lymphoma: a 14-year review at Yamagata University.
  • PURPOSE: With the recent increase in the incidence of orbital malignant lymphoma, it is important to make the appropriate decision on effective treatment.
  • The purpose of the current study was to develop a protocol to treat orbital malignant lymphoma based on evidence from histopathological examination.
  • The tentative strategy for selecting the treatment was as follows: the cases at clinical stage I (Ann Arbor criteria) were treated with curative intent, and the cases at stages II-IV were treated with palliative intent.
  • RESULTS: Histopathologically, all 6 cases of isolated orbital disease were classified as low-grade malignancy, 3 of the systemic disease cases were classified as low-grade, and 9 were classified as intermediate-grade malignancy.
  • The isolated orbital disease cases at stage I were treated by radiation or chemotherapy.
  • The systemic disease cases at stages II-IV were treated by chemotherapy and/or radiation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is important to determine the histological features and clinical stages in order to choose the appropriate treatment methods.
  • All the isolated orbital disease cases were treated effectively by radiation or chemotherapy.
  • Our strategy for the treatment of the systemic disease cases contributed to the decrease in ocular complications and the improvement in the quality of life for the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / therapy. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Academic Medical Centers. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Clinical Protocols. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11369383.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5155
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Stoeckle E, Coindre JM, Bonvalot S, Kantor G, Terrier P, Bonichon F, Nguyen Bui B, French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group: Prognostic factors in retroperitoneal sarcoma: a multivariate analysis of a series of 165 patients of the French Cancer Center Federation Sarcoma Group. Cancer; 2001 Jul 15;92(2):359-68
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  • However, despite progress, surgery alone is rarely curative, and analysis of the causes of failures and of other prognostic factors are warranted to ascertain treatment orientations.
  • Liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma represented 66% of the tumors.
  • Eighty-four percent of the tumors were of high or intermediate grade.
  • Multimodality treatment included surgery (150 patients), radiotherapy (92 patients), and chemotherapy (77 patients).
  • The main prognostic factors for survival were initial metastases and surgery, which represented the major treatment-linked factor.
  • High-grade of tumors affected local recurrence, metastatic recurrence, and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11466691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Stanojevic Z, Djordjevic B, Todorovska I, Lilic V, Zivadinovic R, Dunjic O: Risk factors and adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer. J BUON; 2008 Jan-Mar;13(1):23-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk factors and adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of endometrial cancer.
  • Endometrial carcinoma is the most common and potentially curable gynecologic malignant neoplasm.
  • Recent studies suggest a therapeutic benefit associated with extensive retroperitoneal lymph node evaluation to determine the disease extent and thereby more effectively direct potentially life-saving adjuvant therapy.
  • Due to the increasing number of endometrial cancer patients who undergo surgical staging, some independent prognostic factors have been identified in early stages (stage I-II), including lymph-vascular space involvement, histologic grade 3, aggressive histologic subtypes (uterine papillary serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma), depth of myometrial invasion, cervical invasion and the age of patients.
  • Adjuvant radiation therapy, known to offer survival benefit in advanced-stage disease, may also offer survival benefit in intermediate-risk surgical stage I, but this is followed by a significant risk of serious complications.
  • Based on randomized clinical trials, this review identified that only a limited body of evidence is available which can help clinicians make decisions about adjuvant chemotherapy of patients with high-risk stage I and II, as well as stage IIIA endometrial cancer.
  • Further investigations are required to define the subgroup of patients who benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Thereby, combination of carboplatin plus paclitaxel represents an efficacious, low-toxicity regimen for managing intermediate-risk surgical stage I, as well as advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18404782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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