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1. Ong GS, Henley DE, Hurley D, Turner JH, Claringbold PG, Fegan PG: Therapies for the medical management of persistent hypoglycaemia in two cases of inoperable malignant insulinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 May;162(5):1001-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapies for the medical management of persistent hypoglycaemia in two cases of inoperable malignant insulinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Hypoglycaemia poses a significant management challenge in patients with unresectable functional malignant insulinoma.
  • Novel agents such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and radiolabelled peptides may be effective where there is failure of conventional therapy.
  • DESIGN: We present the cases of two men diagnosed with inoperable malignant insulinoma and hepatic metastases who developed severe symptomatic hypoglycaemia, and review potential therapies for glycaemic support.
  • METHOD: Despite treatment with diazoxide, frequent oral carbohydrate, prednisolone and somatostatin analogue therapy, both men required hospital admission for treatment with continuous i.v. dextrose.
  • CONCLUSION: Lutetium-177 octreotate and everolimus are options for managing hypoglycaemia due to unresectable malignant insulinoma when refractory to conventional supportive therapies.

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  • (PMID = 20164213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / (177lutetium-DOTA(O)Tyr3)octreotate; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9HW64Q8G6G / Everolimus; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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2. Albu A, Zirnea A, Georgescu O, Terzea D, Jinga D, Fica S: Malignant insulinoma with hepatic and pulmonary metastases associated with primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report and review of the literature. J Med Life; 2008 Apr-Jun;1(2):210-7
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  • [Title] Malignant insulinoma with hepatic and pulmonary metastases associated with primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Malignant insulinomas are rare tumors (10% of insulinomas) that often present as mnulticentric macro nodules with multiple liver metastases before diagnosis.
  • We report the case of a 55 year old female with a medical history of severe hypoglycemic attacks for two months.
  • Blood tests showed a decreased value of glycemia (30 mg/dl) associated with increased insulin level (l6 microU/ml) and an increased glycemia/insulinemia ratio of 1.87 supporting the diagnosis of insulinoma.
  • Abdominal CT showed a 1.5 cm mass localized in the head of the pancreas with disseminated hepatic tumors, confirmed as neuroendocrine metastases by biopsy (which proved the presence of a malignant insulinoma).
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed based on mild elevation of calcium (10.4 mg/dl) associated with a high level of PTH (71.2 pg/ml).
  • The coexistence of the two endocrinopathies suggested the presence of type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN 1).
  • Somatostatin analog therapy was started with symptomatic control in the beginning, but rapid loss of beneficial effect.
  • Finally, systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin was administered, but the disease was progressive and after three months we decided to stop it.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Insulinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology


3. Kuramitsu T, Naganuma T, Zeniya A, Otani S, Yoshida T, Ito S, Matsudaira N, Kano M, Komatsu M: Poorly vascularized malignant insulinoma displaced the pancreatic ducts around the mass on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Intern Med; 2001 Jan;40(1):28-31
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  • [Title] Poorly vascularized malignant insulinoma displaced the pancreatic ducts around the mass on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed that the main pancreatic duct and its branches were displaced around the mass in the head of the pancreas.
  • On arteriography, a poorly vascularized tumor was observed.
  • Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a low-attenuation mass in the head of the pancreas.
  • Microscopically, the diagnosis was malignant insulinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Glucose / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperinsulinism / etiology. Hypoglycemia / drug therapy. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Insulin / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mesenteric Arteries / radiography. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Unconsciousness / drug therapy. Unconsciousness / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11201365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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4. Hirshberg B, Cochran C, Skarulis MC, Libutti SK, Alexander HR, Wood BJ, Chang R, Kleiner DE, Gorden P: Malignant insulinoma: spectrum of unusual clinical features. Cancer; 2005 Jul 15;104(2):264-72
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  • [Title] Malignant insulinoma: spectrum of unusual clinical features.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant insulinoma occurs in a few patients with insulinoma.
  • Due to the small sample of patients, there are little data regarding their clinical manifestation as well as the preferred treatment modalities.
  • METHODS: The authors identified 10 patients with metastatic insulinoma.
  • First, four patients presented with lymph node metastasis and, after surgical excision, maintained a prolonged tumor-free survival.
  • Third, one patient presented with a large alpha-fetoprotein-secreting liver mass.
  • Various treatment modalities were used to control hypoglycemia.
  • Less successful modalities included radiofrequency ablation, radical debulking surgery, verapamil therapy, octreotide therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current study, as well as others, suggested that metastatic insulinoma may have a variable natural history.
  • After the initial surgical resection, the biology of the tumor, rather than any treatment modality, was most likely the major determinant of long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15937909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425894; NLM/ PMC4136659
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5. Ilkhchoui Y, Appelbaum DE, Pu Y: FDG-PET/CT findings of a metastatic pituitary tumor. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:114-6
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  • [Title] FDG-PET/CT findings of a metastatic pituitary tumor.
  • The authors report the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography(PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of a rare case of growth hormone-secreting pituitary carcinoma with multiple metastatic lesions to the skeleton.
  • A 31-year-old male had presented with acromegaly and had received transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary tumor and adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • However, the tumor recurred with local invasions and the patient underwent more resections and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Several months later, the patient developed rising levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and whole-body FDG-PET/CT scanning revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions throughout the skeleton compatible with metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Pituitary Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male

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  • (PMID = 20299302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2842182
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6. Moscetti L, Saltarelli R, Giuliani R, Fornarini G, Bezzi M, Cortesi E: Intra-arterial liver chemotherapy and hormone therapy in malignant insulinoma: case report and review of the literature. Tumori; 2000 Nov-Dec;86(6):475-9
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  • [Title] Intra-arterial liver chemotherapy and hormone therapy in malignant insulinoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant insulinoma is a rare tumor.
  • Metastatic disease confined to the liver can be treated with various locoregional treatments.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of a young woman who developed liver metastases twelve years following resection of a pancreatic insulinoma positive to anti-insulin antibodies.
  • With five cycles of intra-arterial locoregional chemotherapy (fluorouracil and epirubicin) to the liver and monthly hormone therapy (octreotide) the patient obtained a clinical complete response.
  • CONCLUSION: Locoregional therapy for insulinoma metastatic to the liver might represent the treatment of choice; hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy is an interesting therapeutic approach which deserves attention.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Insulinoma / drug therapy. Insulinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Neoplasm / analysis. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Insulin / immunology. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11218190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Insulin; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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7. Lund P, Schubert D, Niketeghad F, Schirmacher P: Autocrine inhibition of chemotherapy response in human liver tumor cells by insulin-like growth factor-II. Cancer Lett; 2004 Mar 31;206(1):85-96
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  • [Title] Autocrine inhibition of chemotherapy response in human liver tumor cells by insulin-like growth factor-II.
  • Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-II is frequently overexpressed in experimental and human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and has been correlated with increased tumor growth.
  • We have analyzed, whether IGF-II affects chemotherapy response and apoptosis in human liver tumor cells.
  • Three liver tumor cell lines highly expressed IGF-II and supported their growth in an autocrine manner by secreting excessive amounts of IGF-II.
  • While blocking of IGF-II did not increase spontaneous cell death in exponentially growing cultures, increased cell death was found under conditions of confluent growth and chemotherapy.
  • Thus in HCC cells, IGF-II is a relevant protumorigenic growth factor that significantly reduces susceptibility to apoptosis and chemotherapeutic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Autocrine Communication. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / pharmacology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Etoposide / pharmacology. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15019164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. Chandra P, Yarandi SS, Khazai N, Jacobs S, Umpierrez GE: Management of intractable hypoglycemia with Yttirum-90 radioembolization in a patient with malignant insulinoma. Am J Med Sci; 2010 Nov;340(5):414-7
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  • [Title] Management of intractable hypoglycemia with Yttirum-90 radioembolization in a patient with malignant insulinoma.
  • Treatment of hypoglycemia in such patients is difficult and frequently fails to respond to numerous therapeutic agents, requiring continuous dextrose infusion.
  • The authors present our experience with Yttirum-90 radioembolization in a patient with metastatic malignant insulinoma who failed to respond to distal pancreatectomy, systemic chemotherapy with capecitabine and everolimus and medical treatment with somatostatin analogues, diazoxide and corticosteroids.
  • Treatment with repeated Y-90 radioembolization resulted in rapid resolution of hypoglycemic events, allowing discontinuation of dextrose infusion and hospital discharge.
  • However, the effect of Y-90 administration seems to be transient and without evidence of tumor shrinkage in imaging studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Embolization, Therapeutic / methods. Hypoglycemia / radionuclide imaging. Hypoglycemia / surgery. Insulinoma / radionuclide imaging. Insulinoma / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Pancreatectomy. Yttrium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20724903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes
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9. Schmitt J, Boullu-Sanchis S, Moreau F, Drui S, Louis B, Chabrier G, Pinget M, Jeandidier N: Association of malignant insulinoma and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case report. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2008 Feb;69(1):69-72
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  • [Title] Association of malignant insulinoma and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case report.
  • We report a case of recurrent hypoglycemia due to malignant insulinoma in a type 2 diabetic patient correctly controlled for years with the same doses of oral antidiabetic agents.
  • She had a history of type 2 diabetes since 2000.
  • Severe hypoglycemia continued despite interrupting diabetes medications.
  • At admission, results showed inappropriately elevated insulin, C-peptide and proinsulin levels despite significant hypoglycemia.
  • Liver biopsy found a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma with positive staining for chromogranin A and negative staining for insulin.
  • Association of diabetes mellitus and insulinoma is extremely rare.
  • Malignant insulinoma survival is less than two years, shorter when hepatic localizations are present at diagnosis.
  • Association of diabetes with insulinoma delays the diagnosis, but does not alter prognosis or favor carcinoma frequency.
  • Insulinoma should be considered as a cause of unusual and recurrent hypoglycemia in a diabetic patient especially if it persists after interrupting antidiabetic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications. Insulinoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Creatinine / blood. Diabetic Angiopathies / drug therapy. Female. Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated / metabolism. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Insulin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


10. Schütt M, Lorch H, Krüger S, Klingenberg RD, Peters A, Klein HH: [Recurrent hypoglycemia caused by malignant insulinoma: chemoembolization as a therapeutic option]. Med Klin (Munich); 2001 Oct 15;96(10):632-6
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  • [Title] [Recurrent hypoglycemia caused by malignant insulinoma: chemoembolization as a therapeutic option].
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Recurrent episodes of fasting hypoglycemia let us to proceed with a fasting test.
  • The test was stopped after 24 hours when the patient became presyncopal and was found to have a blood sugar value of 2.2 mmol/l (accompanied by inadequately increased values for proinsulin, insulin and C-peptide).
  • Core needle biopsies revealed typical histopathological findings of a neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • TREATMENT AND COURSE: Eight cycles of chemotherapy were given using streptozotocin/doxorubicin for three cycles and streptozotocin/5-fluorouracil for the remaining therapy over a period of 16 months resulting in a reduction in size of liver metastases and improvement of symptoms.
  • Following 6 months without any therapy new episodes of severe hypoglycemia and progression of the liver metastases occurred.
  • Despite seven further cycles of chemotherapy and additional treatment with diazoxide/octreotide the patient remained hypoglycemic and continuous glucose infusions became necessary.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemoembolization is an effective possibility in the palliative treatment of advanced malignant insulinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Insulinoma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Recurrence


11. Schott M, Feldkamp J, Lettmann M, Simon D, Scherbaum WA, Seissler J: Dendritic cell immunotherapy in a neuroendocrine pancreas carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2001 Aug;55(2):271-7
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  • [Title] Dendritic cell immunotherapy in a neuroendocrine pancreas carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinomas of the pancreas frequently fail to respond to conventional therapies, including radiation and chemotherapy.
  • We therefore tested a dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in an attempt to eradicate residual tumour masses in a patient suffering from a metastatic insulin-producing pancreatic carcinoma.
  • DESIGN: Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) were generated from peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-4 and tumour necrosis factor alpha.
  • DCs were loaded with tumour-derived lysate (TL), and were delivered by subcutaneous injections in 4-week intervals.
  • RESULTS: Three weeks after first treatment, the patient developed a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction with an erythema and induration after the challenge with TL-pulsed DCs, which indicates the efficient generation of antigen-specific memory T-cells.
  • Stimulation with TL revealed a dose-dependent T-cell proliferation with a stimulation index of 1.1-5.7 compared to 1.1-1.4 before vaccination (P < 0.01).
  • Most strikingly, DC-based vaccination was accompanied by a steady decrease of the tumour marker chromogranin A from 2.93 umol/l initially to below the detection limit of 0.15 umol/l within 9 months of therapy.
  • The ultrasound examination revealed a tumour regression of the metastasis in the right lobe of the liver.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that vaccination with tumour lysate-pulsed DCs induced a significant antitumour immune response in a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • This approach represents an alternative strategy for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine carcinomas that are resistant to conventional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells / immunology. Immunotherapy / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cell Division. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / blood. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Hypersensitivity, Delayed / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / immunology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Pulse Therapy, Drug. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11531937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins
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12. Størling J, Allaman-Pillet N, Karlsen AE, Billestrup N, Bonny C, Mandrup-Poulsen T: Antitumorigenic effect of proteasome inhibitors on insulinoma cells. Endocrinology; 2005 Apr;146(4):1718-26
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  • [Title] Antitumorigenic effect of proteasome inhibitors on insulinoma cells.
  • Malignant insulinoma is a critical cancer form with a poor prognosis.
  • Because cure by surgery is infrequent, effective chemotherapy is in demand.
  • Induction of cell death in tumor cells by proteasome inhibitors is emerging as a potential strategy in cancer therapy.
  • Here we investigated whether inhibition of the proteasome has an antitumorigenic potential in insulinoma cells.
  • Exposure of mouse betaTC3 insulinoma cells to the proteasome inhibitor N-Acetyl-Leu-Leu-Nle-CHO (ALLN) reduced cell viability, activated caspase-3, induced apoptosis, and suppressed insulin release.
  • Treatment with ALLN also resulted in phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and an increase in in vitro phosphorylation of c-jun.
  • In insulinoma cells with impaired JNK signaling, ALLN-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed.
  • Another proteasome inhibitor, lactacystin, also stimulated JNK activation, caused activation of caspase-3, suppressed cell viability, and induced apoptosis in betaTC3 and rat INS-1E cells.
  • Both ALLN and lactacystin caused a marked decrease in the cellular amount of the JNK scaffold protein JNK-interacting protein 1/islet-brain-1.
  • In primary pancreatic rat islet cells, proteasome inhibition reduced insulin secretion but had no impact on cell viability and even partially protected against the toxic effect of proinflammatory cytokines.
  • Our findings demonstrate that proteasome inhibitors possess antitumorigenic and antiinsulinogenic effects on insulinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetylcysteine / analogs & derivatives. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Insulinoma / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Proteasome Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / antagonists & inhibitors. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Binding Sites. Cell Line, Tumor. JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Leupeptins / pharmacology. Mice. Rats. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15618349.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Mapk8ip protein, mouse; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 110044-82-1 / acetylleucyl-leucyl-norleucinal; 133343-34-7 / lactacystin; EC 2.7.11.24 / JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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13. Erdogan A, Kose F, Akkaya H, Bascil Tutuncu N, Ozyilkan O: Rapidly progressing malignant insulinoma presented with multiple liver metastases: a case report. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2010 Dec;41(4):272-4
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  • [Title] Rapidly progressing malignant insulinoma presented with multiple liver metastases: a case report.
  • Her blood glucose level from fingertip was 33 mg/dl, and insulin level was 55 (normal range, 4-17 IU).
  • Abdominal ultrasonography revealed pancreatic mass with diffuse liver metastases.
  • Biopsy of liver metastases showed differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Diazoxide and chemotherapy stabilized her glucose level for more than 4 months.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this case may suggest that biologic behavior may differ from histological behavior in insulinoma and platin-based systemic chemotherapy may provide some benefit in patients those who had diazoxide- and octreotide-resistant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Diazoxide / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Vasodilator Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [ErratumIn] J Gastrointest Cancer. 2010 Dec;41(4):288. Askin, Erdogan [corrected to Erdogan, Askin]; Fatih, Kose [corrected to Kose, Fatih]; Hampar, Akkaya [corrected to Akkaya, Hampar]; Tutuncu, Neslihan Bascil [corrected to Bascil Tutuncu, Neslihan]; Ozgur, Ozyilkan [corrected to Ozyilkan, Ozgur]
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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2005 Oct 15;104(8):1590-602 [16134179.001]
  • (PMID = 20419482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-6636
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; O5CB12L4FN / Diazoxide; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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14. Romeo S, Milione M, Gatti A, Fallarino M, Corleto V, Morano S, Baroni MG: Complete clinical remission and disappearance of liver metastases after treatment with somatostatin analogue in a 40-year-old woman with a malignant insulinoma positive for somatostatin receptors type 2. Horm Res; 2006;65(3):120-5
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  • [Title] Complete clinical remission and disappearance of liver metastases after treatment with somatostatin analogue in a 40-year-old woman with a malignant insulinoma positive for somatostatin receptors type 2.
  • Insulinoma is the most common pancreatic endocrine tumor, accounting for 40% of all pancreatic functional neoplasm, and is characterized by hypersecretion of insulin and hypoglycemia.
  • Elective treatment for insulinomas is surgical enucleation.
  • Medical therapy with diazoxide, followed by somatostatin analogues in some cases, may be necessary to treat the hypoglycemic symptoms.
  • We report a case of a patient affected by metastatic insulinoma with severe hypoglycemia.
  • After surgery, histopathology confirmed the presence of a malignant insulinoma with multiple metastases in the liver.
  • Due to the persistence of hypoglycemia, the patient was started on octreotide LAR treatment, which determined a complete clinical remission with regression of the metastatic lesions in the liver after one year.
  • To our knowledge, the complete regression of the disease in insulinomas treated with long-standing somatostatin analogue therapy has never been reported.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis in tissue specimens showed a strong membrane immunoreactivity for somatostatin receptors type 2 (SSTR2) in both the primary nodule and the metastases.
  • The capacity of somatostatin analogues to negatively regulate cell proliferation through indirect and direct mechanisms has been experimentally demonstrated.
  • This case underlies the potential impact of the treatment of pancreatic insulinomas with somatostatin analogues, and, if confirmed, the usefulness of SSTR determination in these neoplastic specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Insulinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Apoptosis. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16479142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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15. Kawakami M, Hirayama A, Tsuchiya K, Ohgawara H, Nakamura M, Umezawa K: Promotion of beta-cell differentiation by the alkaloid conophylline in porcine pancreatic endocrine cells. Biomed Pharmacother; 2010 Mar;64(3):226-31
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  • [Title] Promotion of beta-cell differentiation by the alkaloid conophylline in porcine pancreatic endocrine cells.
  • We previously found that conophylline, an alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Ervatamia microphylla, induced beta-cell differentiation in rat pancreatic acinar carcinoma cells and in cultured fetal rat pancreatic tissue and that it also decreased the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-treated fetal rats.
  • In the present research, we looked into the effect of conophylline on the differentiation of newborn pig pancreatic endocrine cells into insulin-secreting cells.
  • Conophylline potentiated the differentiation of monolayer cells into insulin-producing cells in the presence of nicotinamide in 3 weeks.
  • Next we prepared islet-like cell clusters (ICC).
  • Cononophylline together with nicotinamide also increased the number of insulin-producing cells and the insulin content in ICC in 3-6 weeks.
  • The ICC thus prepared were sensitive to the glucose concentration for the insulin secretion.
  • Conophylline increased the mRNA expression of PDX-1, neurogenin3, neuroD/Beta2, and insulin in ICC.
  • Thus, the vinca alkaloid conophylline potentiated beta-cell differentiation in porcine pancreatic endocrine-rich cells in cluster cultures.
  • Pig pancreatic cells are practical candidate for use in transplantation therapy.
  • Conophylline may thus be useful for the large-scale preparation of porcine insulin-producing cells for the regeneration therapy of type-1 diabetes mellitus.
  • [MeSH-major] Islets of Langerhans / drug effects. Vinca Alkaloids / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Newborn. Biomarkers. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Drug Synergism. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Glucose / pharmacology. Insulin / secretion. Molecular Structure. Niacinamide / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sus scrofa. Swine

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20079600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1950-6007
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Vinca Alkaloids; 0 / conophylline; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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16. Baker JL, Aleman M, Madigan J: Intermittent hypoglycemia in a horse with anaplastic carcinoma of the kidney. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2001 Jan 15;218(2):235-7
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  • [Title] Intermittent hypoglycemia in a horse with anaplastic carcinoma of the kidney.
  • Hypoglycemia is a well-recognized paraneoplastic syndrome in humans and dogs with non-insulin-secreting tumors and may occur in horses as well.
  • Hypoglycemia associated with non-insulin-secreting tumors is believed to result from production of an abnormal form of insulin-like growth factor II.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Horse Diseases / etiology. Hypoglycemia / veterinary. Kidney Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Abscess / drug therapy. Abscess / veterinary. Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Biopsy / veterinary. Blood Glucose / analysis. Clonixin / analogs & derivatives. Clonixin / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Gentamicins / therapeutic use. Horses. Insulin / blood. Liver / ultrasonography. Male

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  • (PMID = 11195830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Gentamicins; 0 / Insulin; 356IB1O400 / flunixin; V7DXN0M42R / Clonixin
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17. Starke A, Saddig C, Mansfeld L, Koester R, Tschahargane C, Czygan P, Goretzki P: Malignant metastatic insulinoma-postoperative treatment and follow-up. World J Surg; 2005 Jun;29(6):789-93
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  • [Title] Malignant metastatic insulinoma-postoperative treatment and follow-up.
  • The rarity of malignant insulinoma limits reports on therapeutic strategies and outcome.
  • The treatment and follow-up of 10 patients, all presenting an insulinoma with metastatic disease of the liver and newly diagnosed between 1992 and 2002, is reported.
  • Pancreatic surgery with successful removal of the primary tumor preferentially located in the tail was performed in 7 women and 3 men, median age 55 years (range 36-82 years).
  • The current median survival time for all 10 patients is 2.6 years (range: 1.6-9.7 years).
  • Six patients are currently alive with a median survival of 3.7 years (1.7-9.7 years), five of them with stable disease and free of hypoglycemia.
  • It is concluded that the necessity to treat debiliating and life-threatening hypoglycemia in metastatic malignant insulinoma warrants the option of radical endocrine surgery in combination with extended and repeated postoperative chemoembolization of liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Hypoglycemia / prevention & control. Insulinoma / secondary. Insulinoma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Streptozocin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Embolization, Therapeutic. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatectomy. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatectomy. Retrospective Studies


18. Galbiati F, Polastri L, Gregori S, Freschi M, Casorati M, Cavallaro U, Fiorina P, Bertuzzi F, Zerbi A, Pozza G, Adorini L, Folli F, Christofori G, Davalli AM: Antitumorigenic and antiinsulinogenic effects of calcitriol on insulinoma cells and solid beta-cell tumors. Endocrinology; 2002 Oct;143(10):4018-30
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  • [Title] Antitumorigenic and antiinsulinogenic effects of calcitriol on insulinoma cells and solid beta-cell tumors.
  • Malignant insulinoma is a rare form of cancer with a poor prognosis because of metastatic dissemination and untreatable hypoglycemia.
  • Effective chemotherapy of patients who are not cured by surgery is needed.
  • Calcitriol has known anticancer properties on different neoplastic cell lines, but no data are available regarding its activity on tumorigenic pancreatic beta-cells.
  • We analyzed the in vitro effects of calcitriol on the murine insulinoma cell line betaTC(3) and primary cultures of human isolated islets and benign insulinoma.
  • The effect of in vivo calcitriol administration on insulinoma of recombinant insulin/Simian virus 40 oncogene-expressing transgenic mice was also investigated.
  • In betaTC(3), calcitriol induced growth inhibition; apoptosis; down-regulation of insulin gene expression; and nongenomic activation of the MAPK pathway.
  • MAPK kinase inhibitor (UO126) and staurosporine reduced calcitriol-mediated betaTC(3) death, and down-regulation of insulin gene transcription was prevented by staurosporine but not UO126.
  • Calcitriol significantly decreased insulin release and mRNA levels of human islets and insulinoma cells.
  • Finally, recombinant insulin/Simian virus 40 oncogene-expressing transgenic mice treated with calcitriol showed reduced insulinoma volumes because of increased apoptosis of adenomatous cells.
  • Together, these findings provide the rationale for testing the efficacy of calcitriol in the treatment of patients with solid beta-cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Calcitriol / pharmacology. Insulin Antagonists / pharmacology. Insulinoma / metabolism. Insulinoma / pathology. Islets of Langerhans. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Humans. Insulin / genetics. Insulin / metabolism. Mice. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 12239113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / A.118; Italy / Telethon / / E.0739
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Insulin Antagonists; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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19. Healy ML, Dawson SJ, Murray RM, Zalcberg J, Jefford M: Severe hypoglycaemia after long-acting octreotide in a patient with an unrecognized malignant insulinoma. Intern Med J; 2007 Jun;37(6):406-9
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  • [Title] Severe hypoglycaemia after long-acting octreotide in a patient with an unrecognized malignant insulinoma.
  • Insulinomas are the most common hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), and patients usually present with symptoms secondary to hypoglycaemia.
  • Octreotide has been widely used in the symptomatic treatment of patients with pancreatic NETs, including insulinomas.
  • We describe a case of a patient with a metastatic NET, subsequently identified as a malignant insulinoma, who developed severe hypoglycaemia after treatment with long-acting octreotide.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypoglycemia / chemically induced. Insulinoma / drug therapy. Octreotide / adverse effects. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17535385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-5994
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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20. Wicki A, Wild D, Storch D, Seemayer C, Gotthardt M, Behe M, Kneifel S, Mihatsch MJ, Reubi JC, Mäcke HR, Christofori G: [Lys40(Ahx-DTPA-111In)NH2]-Exendin-4 is a highly efficient radiotherapeutic for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-targeted therapy for insulinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Jun 15;13(12):3696-705
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  • [Title] [Lys40(Ahx-DTPA-111In)NH2]-Exendin-4 is a highly efficient radiotherapeutic for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-targeted therapy for insulinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Although metabolic changes make diagnosis of insulinoma relatively easy, surgical removal is hampered by difficulties in locating it, and there is no efficient treatment for malignant insulinoma.
  • We have previously shown that the high density of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in human insulinoma cells provides an attractive target for molecular imaging and internal radiotherapy.
  • In this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of [Lys(40)(Ahx-DTPA-(111)In)NH(2)]-Exendin-4, an (111)In-labeled agonist of GLP-1, in a transgenic mouse model of human insulinoma.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: [Lys(40)(Ahx-DTPA-(111)In)NH(2)]-Exendin-4 was assessed in the Rip1Tag2 mouse model of pancreatic beta-cell carcinogenesis, which exhibits a GLP-1R expression comparable with human insulinoma.
  • Tumor uptake and response, the mechanism of action of the radiopeptide, and therapy toxicity were investigated.
  • RESULTS: Tumor uptake was >200% injected activity per gram, with a dose deposition of 3 Gy/MBq at 40 pmol [Lys(40)(Ahx-DTPA-(111)In)NH(2)]-Exendin-4.
  • Other GLP-1R-positive organs showed > or =30 times lower dose deposition.
  • A single injection of [Lys(40)(Ahx-DTPA-(111)In)NH(2)]-Exendin-4 resulted in a reduction of the tumor volume by up to 94% in a dose-dependent manner without significant acute organ toxicity.
  • The therapeutic effect was due to increased tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis and decreased proliferation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that [Lys(40)(Ahx-DTPA-(111)In)NH(2)]-Exendin-4 is a promising radiopeptide capable of selectively targeting insulinoma.
  • Furthermore, Auger-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (111)In are able to produce a marked therapeutic effect if a high tumor uptake is achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Insulinoma / radionuclide imaging. Organometallic Compounds / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Peptides / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Receptors, Glucagon / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Pentetic Acid / pharmacokinetics. Pentetic Acid / therapeutic use. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17575235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / (Lys(40)(Ahx-DTPA-111In)NH2)exendin-14; 0 / GLP1R protein, human; 0 / Glp1r protein, mouse; 0 / Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Glucagon; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid
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21. Vaikkakara S, Al-Ozairi E, Lim E, Advani A, Ball SG, James RA, Quinton R: The investigation and management of severe hyperandrogenism pre- and postmenopause: non-tumor disease is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and typically responds to insulin-sensitization with metformin. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2008 Feb;24(2):87-92
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  • [Title] The investigation and management of severe hyperandrogenism pre- and postmenopause: non-tumor disease is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome and typically responds to insulin-sensitization with metformin.
  • BACKGROUND: An androgen-secreting tumor needs to be excluded in any woman with severe hyperandrogenism.
  • We sought to characterize patients with biochemical hyperandrogenism in respect of tumor versus non-tumor etiologies, explore possible links between non-tumor hyperandrogenism and metabolic syndrome, and ascertain whether metformin therapy can elicit diagnostic reductions in serum testosterone (T).
  • Non-tumor hyperandrogenism was defined by normalization of serum T or >40% reduction from baseline.
  • RESULTS: Four out of 18 cases had adrenal carcinoma that was clinically obvious at initial presentation (one virilized, three Cushingoid).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Non-tumor hyperandrogenism with markedly elevated serum T and associated metabolic syndrome is a defined clinical entity in postmenopause as well as in premenopausal women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • A fall in serum T level in response to insulin-sensitizing therapy with metformin and lifestyle change may be a reassuring indicator that such women are highly unlikely to harbor an androgen-secreting tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperandrogenism / drug therapy. Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology. Metabolic Syndrome X / drug therapy. Metformin / pharmacology. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / drug therapy


22. Colao A, Dorato M, Pulcrano M, Rossi FW, Auriemma RS, Lombardi G, Lastoria S: [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):181-91
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

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  • The medical approach to patients with secreting or clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma as made considerable progress thanks to the use of new somatostatin analogs.
  • Good results were obtained using slow-release analog treatment also in TSH-secreting adenomas, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of these peptides in clinically non-functioning adenomas is still controversial.
  • Treatment with somatostatin analogs improves symptoms, normalises hormone secretion and in some cases may induce a reduction in the volume of pituitary adenomas.
  • Scintigraphy with octreotide may help to select patients who respond to this form of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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23. Armbruster S, Dorrance C, Voorhees P, Pingpank JF, Kurland JE: Malignant insulinoma: a rare presentation of a rare tumor. Gastrointest Endosc; 2007 Dec;66(6):1228-9; discussion 1229
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Insulinoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant insulinoma: a rare presentation of a rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulinoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17719587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Schütt M, Aries SP, Rosenfeldt M, Peters A, Klein HH: Short-term treatment with indinavir fails to reduce the glucose requirement in a patient with malignant insulinoma. Am J Med; 2000 Apr 15;108(6):524
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GLUCOSE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short-term treatment with indinavir fails to reduce the glucose requirement in a patient with malignant insulinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Indinavir / therapeutic use. Insulinoma / complications. Insulinoma / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Blood Glucose / drug effects. Female. Glucose / therapeutic use. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Insulin Resistance. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Insulinoma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hypoglycemia.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pancreatic Cancer.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. INDINAVIR SULFATE .
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  • (PMID = 10866594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 5W6YA9PKKH / Indinavir; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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