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1. Haugen BR: Redifferentiation therapy in advanced thyroid cancer. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord; 2004 Sep;4(3):175-80
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  • [Title] Redifferentiation therapy in advanced thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is a relatively common malignancy with an estimated prevalence of 250,000 in the U.S.
  • A minority of patients have poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma that is unresponsive to radioiodine therapy.
  • Redifferentiation agents that 'reprogram' these tumors to concentrate radioiodine would be of great value in treating patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • It appears that 20-40% of patients respond to isotretinoin treatment by concentration of radioiodine in metastatic tumors, but the clinical utility of this redifferentiation is still unclear.
  • Abnormal DNA methylation may be an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis and methylation of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) may play a role in the loss of iodine concentration in these tumors.
  • Histone acetylation is required for efficient transcription of genes necessary for differentiated function.
  • Proteins that cause histone deacetylation inhibit gene transcription and differentiated function.
  • Inhibitors of histone deacetylation (depsipeptide, trichostatin A) have been shown to increase NIS expression and iodine uptake in poorly differentiated and undifferentiated cell lines.
  • Finally, commonly used agents such as thiazolidinediones (diabetes) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (hypercholesterolemia) have shown promise in preliminary in vitro studies in advanced thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Development of these and other novel agents for the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer is critical for us to treat an uncommon progression of a common malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15379720.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug targets. Immune, endocrine and metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Drug Targets Immune Endocr. Metabol. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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2. Santini F, Bottici V, Elisei R, Montanelli L, Mazzeo S, Basolo F, Pinchera A, Pacini F: Cytotoxic effects of carboplatinum and epirubicin in the setting of an elevated serum thyrotropin for advanced poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2002 Sep;87(9):4160-5
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  • [Title] Cytotoxic effects of carboplatinum and epirubicin in the setting of an elevated serum thyrotropin for advanced poorly differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Chemotherapy represents the only therapeutic option in most poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas, although its effect is limited and short lasting.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increasing the metabolic rate of thyroid cancer cells by TSH stimulation might result in higher response rate to chemotherapy.
  • Fourteen patients with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and nonfunctioning diffuse lung metastases detected at computed tomography scan, entered this study.
  • TSH stimulation was achieved by reduction of the daily dose of L-thyroxine resulting in mild hypothyroidism (eight patients) or by administration of recombinant human TSH (six patients).
  • Two additional patients did not complete the therapeutic protocol due to severe hematological side effects.
  • Results were evaluated by comparison of lung computed tomography scans before and after therapy.
  • Serum thyroglobulin after chemotherapy declined more than 50% in six patients, with respect to basal levels.
  • At the time of this analysis, among the patients who completed the treatment courses, 9 of 14 patients (64.3%) are still alive (median survival from start of chemotherapy = 21 months, range: 15-34).
  • Six of these patients did not show progression of lung disease, whereas regrowth of lung metastases was observed in three patients after 19, 20, and 21 months from chemotherapy, respectively.
  • Five patients died of their disease, including the one who had progression of lung disease during chemotherapy, three who died for brain or bone metastases, and one who died for refractory local tumor invasion.
  • In conclusion, the response rate of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer to chemotherapy observed in this study was favorable and promising.
  • [MeSH-major] Carboplatin / adverse effects. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 12213865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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3. Ruangpratheep C, Lohachittranond C, Poonpracha T, Punyarit P: OCT4 expression on a case of poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland and minireview. J Med Assoc Thai; 2005 Nov;88 Suppl 3:S281-9
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  • [Title] OCT4 expression on a case of poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland and minireview.
  • Poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland is rare and defined as follicular-cell neoplasms that show limited evidence of structural follicular cell differentiation and occupy both morphologically and behaviourally an intermediate position between differentiated (follicular and papillary carcinomas) and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinomas.
  • The authors report a case of a 37-year-old Thai woman who presented with a prolonged left thyroid nodule.
  • Final pathological diagnoses of her mass were poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma with lymphovascular invasion and nodular goiter.
  • The tumor cell arrangements were nest (insular) and trabecular patterns with some follicular formations.
  • The authors believe that poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland probably develops from the remnant of thyroid stem cells and is not associated with dedifferentiation (anaplasia or loss of cellular differentiation) from nodular goiter or cells of other thyroid carcinomas.
  • Although there was negative immunostain for OCT4 in the presented case, the authors assumed that the tumor cells behave with an intermediate position between thyroid stem cells and prothyrocytes Also they do not behave with thyroblasts.
  • However, there is only one case of immunohistochemistry of OCT4 in poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • Further research on expression of OCT4 gene on thyroid cancers and other malignant tumors relating to tumorigenic cancer cells (cancer stem cells) may be useful to prognostic evaluation and administration of a new chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy that is specific for tumor-initiating cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16858970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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4. Catalano MG, Fortunati N, Pugliese M, Costantino L, Poli R, Bosco O, Boccuzzi G: Valproic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Mar;90(3):1383-9
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  • [Title] Valproic acid induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells.
  • Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive human cancer that is resistant to conventional therapy.
  • Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a promising class of drugs, acting as antiproliferative agents by promoting differentiation, as well as inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
  • Valproic acid (VPA), a class I selective histone deacetylase inhibitor widely used as an anticonvulsant, promotes differentiation in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells by inducing Na(+)/I(-) symporter and increasing iodine uptake.
  • Here, we show that it is also highly effective at suppressing growth in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cell lines (N-PA and BHT-101).
  • Both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest are induced by treatment with 1 mm VPA, a dose that promotes cell redifferentiation and that is slightly above the serum concentration reached in patients treated for epilepsy.
  • These multifaceted properties make VPA of clinical interest as a new approach to treating poorly differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma, Papillary. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms. Valproic Acid / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15585556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
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5. Grosse J, Grimm D, Westphal K, Ulbrich C, Moosbauer J, Pohl F, Koelbl O, Infanger M, Eilles C, Schoenberger J: Radiolabeled annexin V for imaging apoptosis in radiated human follicular thyroid carcinomas--is an individualized protocol necessary? Nucl Med Biol; 2009 Jan;36(1):89-98
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  • [Title] Radiolabeled annexin V for imaging apoptosis in radiated human follicular thyroid carcinomas--is an individualized protocol necessary?
  • INTRODUCTION: Induction of apoptosis is a widely used strategy for cancer therapy, but evaluating the degree and success of this therapy still poses a problem.
  • Radiolabeled annexin V has been proposed to be a promising candidate for detecting apoptotic cells in tumors following chemotherapy in vivo.
  • In order to see whether radiolabeled annexin V could be a suitable substance for the noninvasive in vivo detection of apoptosis in thyroid tissue and to establish an optimized study protocol, we investigated two poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma cell lines: ML-1 and FTC-133.
  • METHODS: Apoptosis was evaluated before as well as 2 and 4 days after in vitro irradiation with 30 Gy X-rays.
  • A reliable evaluation of apoptosis induced by radiotherapy in thyroid tumors was possible 48 h after irradiation, when binding of radiolabeled annexin V is most significantly enhanced.
  • Using two poorly differentiated cell lines of thyroid carcinoma, one may expect to find a nearly similar response to external irradiation.
  • However, an individualized study protocol for each type of tumor and probably within each type is necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Annexin A5 / analysis. Annexin A5 / metabolism. Apoptosis / radiation effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19181273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-8051
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FAS protein, human; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; I223NX31W9 / Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
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6. Siironen P, Hagström J, Mäenpää HO, Louhimo J, Heikkilä A, Heiskanen I, Arola J, Haglund C: Anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: therapeutic strategies and treatment outcome of 52 consecutive patients. Oncology; 2010;79(5-6):400-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: therapeutic strategies and treatment outcome of 52 consecutive patients.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most lethal malignancies; poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is a new diagnosis for rare aggressive thyroid tumours.
  • Surgery is often considered the only chance for survival, but the benefit of surgery and subsequent multimodal therapy is unclear.
  • Multimodal therapy was successful for 9 (20%) ATC patients, and their median survival was the longest (11.6 months) among treatment groups.
  • Most PDTC patients (88%) underwent total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine ablation; the only 2 who received chemotherapy survived longest.
  • Although ATC and PDTC are both aggressive thyroid carcinomas, multimodal therapy for both can provide a chance of prolonged survival in patients with locoregional disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21455012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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7. Schoenberger J, Grimm D, Kossmehl P, Infanger M, Kurth E, Eilles C: Effects of PTK787/ZK222584, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on the growth of a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: an animal study. Endocrinology; 2004 Mar;145(3):1031-8
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  • [Title] Effects of PTK787/ZK222584, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on the growth of a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma: an animal study.
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis including thyroid carcinomas.
  • The principal aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that inhibition of VEGF activity by PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK), a specific blocker of both VEGF-receptor tyrosine kinases, could inhibit the growth of a poorly differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Human follicular thyroid tumor xenografts were implanted sc into nude mice.
  • Treatment was orally administered using a gastric tube.
  • Treatment with PTK/ZK induced a 41.4% reduction in tumor volumes.
  • These results showed that VEGF receptor blockade is a rational approach to the therapy of thyroid cancer.
  • The combination of radioiodine or external radiation with VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors might be a new option, especially for poorly differentiated thyroid cancers with limited or no response to conventional therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Phthalazines / pharmacology. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyridines. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line, Tumor. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [CommentIn] Endocrinology. 2004 Mar;145(3):1027-30 [14976150.001]
  • (PMID = 14607854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Phthalazines; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 5DX9U76296 / vatalanib; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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8. Marinuzzi G, Bellini V, Antimi M: [Anaplastic, insular, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid]. Clin Ter; 2000 Nov-Dec;151(6):427-32
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic, insular, and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma anaplastico, insulare e midollare della tiroide.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma, insular carcinoma and medullary carcinoma (both familiar and sporadic forms) represent the 7-25% of all thyroid tumors.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma is one of most aggressive human tumors and the therapeutic options proposed have failed to improve the prognosis of these patients.
  • Insular carcinoma is a not well known thyroid neoplasia described for the first time in 1984 and showing intermediate biological behaviour between differentiated and anaplastic forms.
  • Medullary carcinoma arises from parafollicular"C" cells of the gland and then may be considered a neuroendocrine tumor.
  • Choice therapy is surgery, tiroxine is only substitutive, familiar screening is mandatory.
  • Chemotherapy (dacarbazine or cisplatin and doxorubicine), radiotherapy and recently octreotide anologues, may be useful for relapsing not operable forms.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 11211477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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9. Tulloch-Reid M, Skarulis MC, Sherman SI, Sarlis NJ, Santarpia L: Long-term eradication of locally recurrent invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma after taxane-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Anticancer Res; 2009 Nov;29(11):4665-71
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  • [Title] Long-term eradication of locally recurrent invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma after taxane-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy.
  • A 46-year-old woman with history of radioiodine-refractory follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) presented with locally recurrent, high-risk, invasive disease.
  • This case highlights the possibility of combining taxane-based chemotherapy with definitive radiotherapy (as CRT) for the management of locally aggressive recurrences in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, thereby resulting in rapid and persistent disease eradication.
  • Even in the light of recent data on the potential benefit of novel targeted therapy agents in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, this approach in similar clinical settings deserves future investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20032418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA DK047053-04
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS294986; NLM/ PMC3109502
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10. Ghofrani M, Sosa JA, Ocal IT, Angeletti C: Fine needle aspiration of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):560-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) carcinomas are a more recently described variant of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and are characterized by a prominent Hürthle cell component in a solid or trabecular arrangement.
  • Clinically, poorly differentiated oxyphilic carcinomas behave more aggressively as compared to classic Hürthle cell carcinomas, which have a predominantly follicular pattern.
  • Although the histology of these rare thyroid tumors has been reported in the literature, the cytologic features on fine needle aspiration biopsy have not been described before.
  • CASE: A 73-year-old man with a long history of radioactive iodine and levothyroxine therapy for multinodular goiter presented with a painful, rapidly expanding, 6-cm, left thyroid mass with aggressive radiologic features.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the mass yielded extremely cellular smears with a dual population of medium-sized follicular cells and numerous Hürthle cells.
  • Subsequent thyroidectomy confirmed the malignant nature of this Hürthle cell-rich tumor, warranting a diagnosis of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Poorly differentiated oxyphilic thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive variant of Hürthle cell carcinomas and must enter the differential diagnosis when fine needle aspiration biopsy of a radiologically aggressive thyroid mass yields extremely hypercellular smears with a prominent Hürthle cell component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Goiter, Nodular / drug therapy. Goiter, Nodular / radiotherapy. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17017447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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11. Walczyk A, Kowalska A, Sygut J: The clinical course of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (insular carcinoma) - own observations. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):467-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The clinical course of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (insular carcinoma) - own observations.
  • INTRODUCTION: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC, insular carcinoma) occurs rarely.
  • It is described with more aggressive behaviour, poorer prognosis, and higher mortality than well differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC).
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical course of patients with PDTC, in addition to frequency, clinical stage at the time of diagnosis and the possibility of radical surgical resection, the necessity and kind of complementary treatment, occurrence of distant metastases, and the survival of patients.
  • RESULTS: PDTC was diagnosed in 14 among 801 patients with thyroid carcinoma (1.75%).
  • Clinical stages (UICC 2002) at the time of diagnosis were as follows: 3 patients - pT(₁-₂)N(o-x)M(x) (21.5%); 10 patients - pT(₃ ₄)N(x o ₁)M(x-₁)(71.4%); and 1 was unresectable - T(x)N₁M₁ (7.1%).
  • Complementary radioiodine treatment was given to 12 patients (85.8%).
  • Radiation therapy of the neck was applied to 7 patients, palliative radiotherapy of the brain to 1 patient, and chemotherapy to 1 patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma is still a challenge both for pathologists and clinicians.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 21049460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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12. Heron DE, Karimpour S, Grigsby PW: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: comparison of conventional radiotherapy and hyperfractionation chemoradiotherapy in two groups. Am J Clin Oncol; 2002 Oct;25(5):442-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: comparison of conventional radiotherapy and hyperfractionation chemoradiotherapy in two groups.
  • Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm with a poor prognosis.
  • Treatment modalities including surgery and fractionated radiotherapy have had limited success in controlling these tumors.
  • Median survival time is often measured in months.
  • A review of all patients treated between 1952 and 1999 identified 32 patients with anaplastic or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Most group 1 patients received once-daily radiotherapy and most group 2 patients received twice-daily radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of doxorubicin, paclitaxel, vincristine, or cisplatin.
  • In group 2, 1 patient was treated with surgery only; 3 with surgery and radiotherapy; 10 with radiotherapy and chemotherapy; 5 with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy; and 5 with radiotherapy alone.
  • Among patients with ATC surgery, hyperfractionated radiotherapy in conjunction with chemotherapy is associated with better survival but not PFS compared to conventional radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Dosage. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 12393980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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13. Kotchetkov R, Cinatl J, Krivtchik AA, Vogel JU, Matousek J, Pouckova P, Kornhuber B, Schwabe D, Cinatl J Jr: Selective activity of BS-RNase against anaplastic thyroid cancer. Anticancer Res; 2001 Mar-Apr;21(2A):1035-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selective activity of BS-RNase against anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive solid tumor that fails to adequately respond to any known chemotherapeutic regimen.
  • The development of effective chemotherapy agents would provide the best chance for long-term survival of patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) against thyroid carcinoma cell lines with different degrees of differentiation in comparison to non-malignant cells, including human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), were tested using the MTT dye reduction assay.
  • The antitumoral in vivo effects of BS-RNase were assessed on established xenografts of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line 8505C in nude mice using subcutaneous injections of BS-RNase (12.5 mg/kg once a day, on 20 consecutive days).
  • The greatest growth inhibition was seen in the 8505C line, while IC50 values for papillary (B-CPAP) and poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells were about 6-fold higher.
  • In vivo treatment induced significant tumor regression after the course of 20 consecutive days.
  • No apparent toxic effects of BS-RNase toward non-malignant cells were observed during the in vivo treatment.
  • After cessation of therapy (day 20) tumor volume continued to decrease and the tumor was no longer detectable after 30 days of treatment induction in all animals.
  • CONCLUSION: BS-RNase may have beneficial effects for treatment of aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Endoribonucleases / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11396137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Fasl protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 3.1.- / Endoribonucleases; EC 3.1.27.- / ribonuclease SPL
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14. Dackiw AP, Ezzat S, Huang P, Liu W, Asa SL: Vitamin D3 administration induces nuclear p27 accumulation, restores differentiation, and reduces tumor burden in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer. Endocrinology; 2004 Dec;145(12):5840-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vitamin D3 administration induces nuclear p27 accumulation, restores differentiation, and reduces tumor burden in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer.
  • We have previously demonstrated in vitro that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) treatment increases p27 expression and decreases cell proliferation in cultured thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • We hypothesized that in vivo treatment with calcitriol would have a beneficial effect on thyroid carcinoma growth and progression.
  • Five x 10(6) WRO (human thyroid follicular carcinoma derived) cells were implanted in the neck in 4- to 5-wk-old female SCID mice in an orthotopic xenograft model.
  • Animals (n = 15) were treated i.p. three times a week for 21 d with 0.75 microg/kg calcitriol or vehicle.
  • Mice were killed 21 d after tumor implantation, tumor volume was measured, and excised tumor tissue was examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry for p27 and thyroglobulin reactivity.
  • Average tumor volume in control mice after 21 d of vehicle treatment was 2002 +/- 207 mm3 compared with a mean tumor volume of 1241 +/- 115 mm3 in animals receiving calcitriol, reflecting a 38% reduction in tumor volume size (P < 0.003).
  • Tumors from vehicle-treated animals demonstrated morphological features of epithelial malignancies with characteristics of insular carcinoma and multiple metastases to the lungs.
  • This was associated with a marked accumulation of p27 immunoreactivity in the nuclear compartment.
  • These studies demonstrate that in vivo calcitriol administration can effectively restore p27 accumulation in thyroid carcinoma cells, an effect associated with appreciably enhanced cellular differentiation, reduction in tumor burden, and prevention of metastatic growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Cholecalciferol / pharmacology. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Mice. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


15. Patel KN, Shaha AR: Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Cancer Control; 2006 Apr;13(2):119-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid carcinoma (ATC) comprise a small subset of thyroid tumors that are associated with a poor prognosis and account for a significant portion of the morbidity and mortality related to thyroid cancer.
  • PDTC may represent an intermediate entity in the progression of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma to ATC.
  • The roles of radiotherapy and chemotherapy have not been well described.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


16. Broecker-Preuss M, Sheu SY, Worm K, Feldkamp J, Witte J, Scherbaum WA, Mann K, Schmid KW, Schott M: Expression and mutation analysis of the tyrosine kinase c-kit in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Oct;40(10):685-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression and mutation analysis of the tyrosine kinase c-kit in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma are aggressive tumors failing to res-pond to conventional therapy.
  • Imatinib mesylate offers an effective therapeutic option in patients with various types of malignancies by inhibiting tyrosine kinases such as c-kit.
  • In this study we investigated c-kit expression in anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma compared to differentiated carcinoma and adenoma and the presence of c-kit mutations.
  • In total, 224 thyroid tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • Mutation analysis of exon 9, 11, 13, and 17 of the c-kit gene was performed in anaplastic and poorly differentiated carcinoma. c-Kit expression was negative in all anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, while c-kit expression of poorly differentiated carcinoma showed a high variability with a more intense staining in tumors showing obvious differentiated malignant follicular tumor areas.
  • Differentiated carcinoma showed a slight, but not significantly stronger c-kit expression than poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • All tumors revealed wild type sequences of c-kit gene in exons 9, 11, 13, and 17.
  • The low or lacking c-kit expression in undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma together with the lack of mutations argue against a crucial role of c-kit in thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation.
  • Further molecular targets of imatinib mesylate have to be analyzed to estimate a potential benefit of this drug for patients with dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18622894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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