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1. Afsar NA, Kulsoom B, Mateen A, Ahmed S, Tahseen M, Ahmed A: Breast cancer pattern and chemotherapy response--an institutional study in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(3):825-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cancer pattern and chemotherapy response--an institutional study in Pakistan.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was planned to audit female breast cancers and their chemotherapy in a busy public sector institution.
  • RESULTS: A total of 3,431 female breast cancer patients presented during 2001-2008, half being <45 years, mostly suffering from infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast.
  • 5-Flourouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) constituted the most common chemotherapy.
  • Earlier diagnosis was associated with complete remission.
  • Overall, 33% developed myelotoxicity, more often if age ≥ 45 years (p=0.012), out of which 60% needed active correction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast is the most common type.
  • FAC is the most common chemotherapy.
  • Tendency for late diagnosis, metastatic disease, treatment failure as well as leukopenia especially in ≥ 45 years is present.
  • Failure to show leukopenia is suggestive of poor therapeutic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21039062.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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2. Esses KM, Hagmaier RM, Blanchard SA, Lazarchick JJ, Riker AI: Carcinosarcoma of the breast: two case reports and review of the literature. Cases J; 2009;2(1):15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the breast: two case reports and review of the literature.
  • Carcinosarcoma of the breast, often referred to as metaplastic carcinoma of the breast, is a rare malignancy with two distinct cell lines described as a breast carcinoma of ductal type with a sarcoma-like component.
  • Clinically, carcinosarcoma of the breast is an aggressive breast cancer.
  • The prognosis for carcinosarcoma of the breast is less favorable compared to more common types of breast cancer such as infiltrating ductal or lobular carcinoma.
  • Currently, the evaluation of breast carcinoma includes hormone receptor analysis of the tumor tissue, with those positive for estrogen or progesterone responding better to both hormonal and chemotherapy.Trastuzumab (Herceptin(R)) is available as an adjunct treatment for tumors which over-express the HER2/neu gene.
  • Typically, metaplastic carcinomas of the breast do not express the estrogen or progesterone receptors and do not over-express the HER2/neu oncogene.
  • As a result of this "triple negative" phenotype, such tumors tend to be more aggressive and are unlikely to respond to targeted therapy with Herceptin.
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor HER-1/EGFR protein is expressed in the majority of metaplastic carcinomas and thus may serve as a potential therapeutic target for EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and cetuximab.
  • The two cases we describe exemplify the aggressive nature of carcinosarcoma of the breast and support the findings that this tumor type does not express the common receptors found in other breast carcinomas.
  • These case reports also emphasize the need for investigating the role for blockade of the HER-1/EGFR receptor with targeted therapies when found to be over-expressed in the primary tumor.

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  • [Cites] J Clin Pathol. 2006 Oct;59(10):1079-83 [16467167.001]
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  • (PMID = 19126225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627815
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3. Rachid S, Yacouba H, Hassane N: Male breast cancer: 22 case reports at the National Hospital of Niamey-Niger (West Africa). Pan Afr Med J; 2009;3:15

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Male breast cancer: 22 case reports at the National Hospital of Niamey-Niger (West Africa).
  • BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare.
  • The objective of the study is to report clinicopathological characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of MBC.
  • METHOD: This study, which includes two parts (retrospective and prospective), focused on all hospitalized male patients with breast cancer during 17 years (1992-2008) with histological confirmation.
  • MBC represented 5.7% of all breast cancers.
  • Histology found infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 14 cases (63.6%), sarcoma in 3 cases (13.6%), papillary carcinoma in 2 cases (9%), and lobular carcinoma, medullar carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma in 4.6% each of the others cases.
  • The treatment had consisted of a radical mastectomy (Halsted or Patey) in 19 cases (86.4%) with axillary clearance and incomplete resection in 3 cases (13.6%).
  • The absence of radiotherapy and the low access of chemotherapy limited the treatment to radical mastectomy (Halsted) in the majority of cases.

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  • (PMID = 21532724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-8688
  • [Journal-full-title] The Pan African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pan Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Uganda
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2984291
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Male breast cancer / Niger / treatment
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4. Tong AW, Papayoti MH, Netto G, Armstrong DT, Ordonez G, Lawson JM, Stone MJ: Growth-inhibitory effects of CD40 ligand (CD154) and its endogenous expression in human breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Mar;7(3):691-703
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Growth-inhibitory effects of CD40 ligand (CD154) and its endogenous expression in human breast cancer.
  • We examined the growth outcome of CD40 ligation in human breast cancer cells, using CD40+ (T47D and BT-20) and CD40-negative (MCF-7, ZR-75-1) cell lines as defined by flow cytometric analysis, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription-PCR.
  • Treatment with the soluble recombinant CD40 ligand (CD40L) molecules gp39 or CD40L-trimer significantly reduced [3H]thymidine uptake in BT-20 and T47D cells by up to 40%, but did not affect the growth of CD40-negative MCF-7 or ZR-75-1 cells.
  • Pretreatment with two different soluble recombinant CD40L constructs (CD40L and gp39) produced similar xenograft growth-inhibitory effects [67 +/- 24% (n = 4), and 65 +/- 14% (n = 8) inhibition, respectively], which were reversed by co-treatment with the CD40L-neutralizing antibody LL48.
  • Thirty-one and 27% of gp39-treated T47D and BT-20 cells underwent apoptosis, respectively, as compared with 56 and 65% from the same cell lines after treatment with the Fas agonistic antibody CH-11.
  • To explore the clinical relevance of CD40L-CD40 interaction, retrospective immunohistochemical analysis was carried to characterize in situ CD40- and CD40L-expression in breast cancer patient biopsies.
  • All of the infiltrating ductal (5 of 5 cases tested) and lobular (4 of 4 cases) breast carcinomas, carcinomas in situ (6 of 6 cases), and mucinous carcinoma tested (1 case) expressed CD40.
  • Varying proportions of tumor cells also expressed CD40L in the majority of infiltrating ductal (3 of 5 cases) and lobular (3 of 4 cases) carcinomas, and carcinomas in situ (4 of 6 cases), as determined by immunohistochemistry and validated by RT-PCR detection of the CD40L message in only CD40L positive-staining cases.
  • Tumor infiltrating mononuclear cells from infiltrating carcinomas and carcinomas in situ expressed CD40 (10 of 10 cases), but less commonly CD40L (1 case of infiltrating lobular carcinoma, 2 cases of carcinoma in situ).
  • Our findings indicate that the CD40 signaling pathway is active in human breast carcinoma cells.
  • However, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from primary tumor tissues may be limited in their capacity to directly modulate tumor growth through the CD40L-CD40 loop.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. CD40 Ligand / biosynthesis. CD40 Ligand / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Annexin A5 / metabolism. Antigens, CD40 / metabolism. Apoptosis. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Dimerization. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Transplantation. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Ribonucleases / metabolism. Thymidine / metabolism. Time Factors. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 11297266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / Antigens, CD40; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 147205-72-9 / CD40 Ligand; EC 3.1.- / Ribonucleases; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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5. Mathieu MC, Rouzier R, Llombart-Cussac A, Sideris L, Koscielny S, Travagli JP, Contesso G, Delaloge S, Spielmann M: The poor responsiveness of infiltrating lobular breast carcinomas to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be explained by their biological profile. Eur J Cancer; 2004 Feb;40(3):342-51
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  • [Title] The poor responsiveness of infiltrating lobular breast carcinomas to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be explained by their biological profile.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the chemosensitivity of infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma (ILC) in comparison with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC).
  • Between 1987 and 1995, 457 patients with invasive T2>3 cm-T4 breast carcinomas were treated with primary chemotherapy (CT), surgery, radiation therapy.
  • Clinical response, the possibility of breast preservation, pathological response and survival were evaluated according to the histological type.
  • ILC was an independent predictor of a poor clinical response (P=0.02) and ineligibility for breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.03).
  • Preoperative CT did not allow a high rate of conservative treatment for ILC and therefore the use of neoadjuvant CT for ILC patients should be questioned.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 14746851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Farese SA, Aebi S: Infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: systemic treatment. Breast Dis; 2008-2009;30:45-52
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  • [Title] Infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast: systemic treatment.
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common type of breast cancer after invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).
  • We have reviewed selected literature on preoperative (neoadjuvant) and adjuvant systemic therapy of breast cancer focusing on the differential therapy of ILC.
  • Despite the importance of this type of breast cancer, information about its specific treatment is sparse, in particular with regard to adjuvant systemic chemotherapy.
  • ILC has significantly lower rates of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared with IDC; however, the low chemosensitivity seems not to result in a survival disadvantage.
  • Adjuvant hormonal therapy studies do not distinguish between ILC and IDC.
  • Thus, recommendations about endocrine therapies are made using the same criteria as for IDC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 19850995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors
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7. Espié M, Hocini H, Cuvier C, Giacchetti S, Bourstyn E, de Roquancourt A: [Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: specific diagnosis and evolution]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Jan;34(1):3-7
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  • [Title] [Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: specific diagnosis and evolution].
  • Invasive lobular carcinoma accounts for 4 to 10% of breast cancers.
  • The clinical and radiological diagnosis is difficult to make.
  • Its progression is slower than that of ductal cancer, and the prognostic factors are more favourable.
  • Its prognosis is not different from that of infiltrating ductal carcinomas.
  • The choice of therapies depends on the individual characteristics of each patient and of the biological features of each tumour.
  • However, lobular carcinomas seem to be less responsive to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Lobular / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16406734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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8. Gimbergues P, Abrial C, Durando X, Le Bouedec G, Cachin F, Penault-Llorca F, Mouret-Reynier MA, Kwiatkowski F, Maublant J, Tchirkov A, Dauplat J: Sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is accurate in breast cancer patients with a clinically negative axillary nodal status at presentation. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 May;15(5):1316-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is accurate in breast cancer patients with a clinically negative axillary nodal status at presentation.
  • BACKGROUND: In breast cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is widely used in order to enable a conservative surgery.
  • METHODS: Between March 2001 and December 2006, 129 patients with infiltrating breast carcinoma were studied prospectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show that clinical nodal status is the main clinicopathological factor influencing the false-negative rate of SLN biopsy after NAC for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Axilla. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. False Negative Reactions. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Compounds. Tin Compounds

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  • (PMID = 18311507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Compounds; 0 / Tin Compounds; 0 / technetium Tc 99m tin colloid
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9. Cutuli B, Cottu PH, Guastalla JP, Mechin H, Costa A, Jourdan R: A French national survey on infiltrating breast cancer: analysis of clinico-pathological features and treatment modalities in 1159 patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2006 Jan;95(1):55-64
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  • [Title] A French national survey on infiltrating breast cancer: analysis of clinico-pathological features and treatment modalities in 1159 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite the approximate 42,000 yearly new cases of breast cancer in France, there have been very few exhaustive studies on the clinicopathological features and treatment options of this disease.
  • METHODS: Thus, a prospective, non-selective, nationwide survey on infiltrating breast cancer (IBC) was conducted in France from September 2001 to April 2002, in order to assess the epidemiological features of newly diagnosed disease, the prognostic and predictive variables with a special emphasis on hormone receptors, and the current approaches to therapy in everyday clinical practice.
  • RESULTS: In total, 1159 patients were evaluable (median age 57 years); two-thirds of women were postmenopausal and 38% had undergone hormonal replacement therapy (HRT).
  • Ductal and lobular infiltrating cancers represented 82.3% and 11.6% of cases, respectively.
  • All patients underwent surgery as first treatment: 77.5% breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and 22.5% mastectomy; 1024 patients also underwent axillary surgery.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was delivered in 58.7% of patients and hormonal treatment was provided in 76.5% of patients; tamoxifen was the most widely used hormonal treatment.
  • Postoperative treatments were widely used, in accordance with national and international guidelines.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Health Surveys
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Mastectomy. Menopause. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16261401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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10. Prasad ML, Osborne MP, Giri DD, Hoda SA: Microinvasive carcinoma (T1mic) of the breast: clinicopathologic profile of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Mar;24(3):422-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microinvasive carcinoma (T1mic) of the breast: clinicopathologic profile of 21 cases.
  • Clinicopathologic data on microinvasive carcinoma of the breast (MICB) as defined by the 1997 TNM criteria (T1mic < or = 1 mm) is scarce.
  • MICB was ductal in 18 patients, including one tubular carcinoma, and was lobular in three patients.
  • The accompanying duct carcinoma in situ had high-grade nuclei and necrosis in 16 of 18 patients (89%), 13 of which (72%) were comedo-type.
  • Eleven patients underwent mastectomy, nine received radiation therapy, one received chemotherapy, and two underwent lumpectomy only.
  • One patient had a chest wall recurrence of infiltrating duct carcinoma and another recurred with duct carcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10716157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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11. McLemore EC, Pockaj BA, Reynolds C, Gray RJ, Hernandez JL, Grant CS, Donohue JH: Breast cancer: presentation and intervention in women with gastrointestinal metastasis and carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;12(11):886-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cancer: presentation and intervention in women with gastrointestinal metastasis and carcinomatosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract or peritoneum is rare.
  • We reviewed the natural history of ductal and lobular carcinoma in women with breast cancer metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, or both.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients (1985-2000) with a pathologic diagnosis of breast cancer metastatic to the gastrointestinal tract or peritoneum.
  • The median age at initial breast cancer diagnosis was 55 years.
  • The mean interval between the primary diagnosis and metastatic presentation was 7 years.
  • Infiltrating lobular carcinoma represented 34 (64%) of the 53 gastrointestinal metastases.
  • The median overall survival after diagnosis was 28 months.
  • Advanced age at diagnosis and gastric metastases had a negative effect on survival, whereas treatment with systemic chemotherapy or tamoxifen had a positive effect on survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal metastasis occurred more often in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16177864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Cuan Martínez JR, Mainero Ratchelous FE, Aguilar Gallegos IU, Bernechea Miranda A, Buenrostro Pineda MA, Burgos Portillo I, Cortés Herrera AE, Burguete Vera JJ: [Comparative study of clinical and pathological features of breast cancer in women with 40 years old and younger vs 70 years old and older]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2008 Jun;76(6):299-306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Comparative study of clinical and pathological features of breast cancer in women with 40 years old and younger vs 70 years old and older].
  • [Transliterated title] Comparación de las características de pacientes de 40 o menos y 70 años o más de edad con carcinoma mamario.
  • BACKGROUND: Invasive breast cancer is the most common neoplasia in women attended at IMSS health system since 2004.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical and radiological characteristics on initial appraisal, as well as surgical treatment, pathological features and adjuvant treatment in women with primary breast cancer of 40 years old and younger vs 70 years old and older.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Clinical, radiological and pathological data of 150 patients with breast cancer treated at Hospital de ginecoobstetricia Luis Castelazo Ayala, from January 2003 to June 2006 were collected, and after divided in two groups:.
  • Group 1 and group 2 had 22 and 13%, respectively, of family history of breast cancer.
  • Most frequent histological type in both groups was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, followed by infiltrating lobular carcinoma, most common in older women (19 vs 12%), and we found more well differentiated ductal carcinomas in the group of 70 years old and older (12 vs 4%).
  • Seventy-six percent of group 1 and 75% of group 2 were classified as early stage breast cancer (stages I and II).
  • Cytotoxic therapy was offered mostly to group 1, 92 vs 35%.
  • Radiotherapy (80 vs 59%), and hormonal therapy was given only to 56% of group 1 vs 80% of group 2.
  • There was a trend to perform more conservative surgery at group 1, as well as they underwent more adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Use of hormonal therapy was more common at group 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18800585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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13. Ayantunde AA, Agrawal A, Parsons SL, Welch NT: Esophagogastric cancers secondary to a breast primary tumor do not require resection. World J Surg; 2007 Aug;31(8):1597-601
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  • [Title] Esophagogastric cancers secondary to a breast primary tumor do not require resection.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is rare.
  • When it does occur, the upper GIT is more frequently involved, and lobular infiltrating carcinoma apparently has a greater apparent predilection for the GIT than the ductal type does.
  • This study reviewed the clinicopathological features of esophagogastric secondary tumors from breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with breast cancer metastases to the upper GIT referred to us for treatment of either esophageal or gastric cancers between November 1997 and November 2004 were identified from our database.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients with mean age of 71 (range: 57-90) years had median time of 6.5 (2.8-32.8) years between primary breast cancer diagnosis and upper GI metastasis.
  • Histological typing indicated 7 cases of the lobular form and 2 cases of ductal carcinoma.
  • Treatment included hormonal therapy and stent in 3 patients, hormonal therapy alone in 1 patient, chemotherapy alone in 1 patient, chemotherapy and gastrojejunostomy in 1 patient, dilatation and stent in 1 patient, and palliative care only in 2 patients.
  • The median survival following treatment of these metastases was 20 (range: 2.1-96.6) months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The onset of nonspecific GIT symptoms in patients with a history of breast carcinoma should prompt the clinician to rule out the possibility of upper GIT metastasis even many years after the original breast cancer.
  • The use of systemic therapy for breast cancer may result in longer survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Cites] Tumori. 2002 Sep-Oct;88(5):427-9 [12487566.001]
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  • (PMID = 17578645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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14. Meyniel J, Cottu PH, Stern M, Lebigot I, Mignot L, Roman-Roman S, Sastre-Garau X: A genomic and transcriptomic approach to distinguish primary and metastatic ovary tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e22150

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  • : e22150 Background: Distinction of primary ovarian tumors from metastatic tumors involving the ovary is in some cases challenging for final pathologic diagnosis and for treatment with efficient chemotherapy Methods: We gathered from our biobank 16 pairs of breast/ovarian tumors for some of which the diagnosis was uncertain.
  • We investigated the possibility to improve diagnosis using genomic and transcriptomic tools.
  • The pangenomic profiles of 16 pairs of primary breast carcinoma and ovary tumors (primary tumors or metastases from breast carcinoma) from the same patients were analyzed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 50K (XbaI) SNP arrays.
  • RESULTS: Primary infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) was observed in 6 patients, infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) in 7 patients, 1 patient had one ILC and one IDC, 1 patient had a mixed IDC+ILC and 1 patient an undifferentiated cancer.
  • All patients received adequate loco-regional and systemic therapies.
  • Median time to diagnosis of ovarian tumor was 54 months.
  • Ovarian tumors were considered as primary in 7 patients, and metastatic in 9 patients, and diagnosis was ambiguous in 4 of them.
  • Four patients developed extra-abdominal metastases.
  • Median survival from breast cancer diagnosis was 78 months, and from ovarian tumor diagnosis was 29 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We clearly established in this training series that CGH array analysis could help to discriminate between primary and secondary ovarian tumors from breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 27963541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Bollet MA, Sigal-Zafrani B, Mazeau V, Savignoni A, de la Rochefordière A, Vincent-Salomon A, Salmon R, Campana F, Kirova YM, Dendale R, Fourquet A: Age remains the first prognostic factor for loco-regional breast cancer recurrence in young (&lt;40 years) women treated with breast conserving surgery first. Radiother Oncol; 2007 Mar;82(3):272-80
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  • [Title] Age remains the first prognostic factor for loco-regional breast cancer recurrence in young (<40 years) women treated with breast conserving surgery first.
  • PURPOSE: To ascertain the loco-regional recurrence (LRR) rate and its major prognostic factors in patients younger than 40 and to determine the influence of age on the features of breast cancer and its treatment in two age groups: 35 years and [36-39] years.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1985 and 1995, 209 premenopausal women, younger than 40, were treated for early breast cancers with primary breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: LRR rate was 38% at 10 years, contralateral breast cancer rate 12%.
  • The annual risk of local recurrence peaked between 2 and 3 years after the initial diagnosis and returned to the level of contra-lateral breast cancer at 10 years.
  • The younger population had infiltrating carcinomas that were significantly more commonly ductal, less commonly lobular, and of higher grade - they received chemotherapy more often.
  • CONCLUSION: Using conventional methods we could find no explanation as to why age remained the most important prognostic factor for breast cancer LRR.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Segmental. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Radiother Oncol. 2008 Feb;86(2):286-7; author reply 287-8 [17963905.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Radiother Oncol. 2007 May;83(2):215
  • (PMID = 17287037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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16. Teller P, Jefford VJ, Gabram SG, Newell M, Carlson GW: The utility of breast MRI in the management of breast cancer. Breast J; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):394-403
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  • [Title] The utility of breast MRI in the management of breast cancer.
  • Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in the evaluation of breast cancer.
  • A retrospective review was performed for 114 breast cancer patients who had breast MRI as part of their diagnostic evaluation.
  • Clinical information, mammograms, breast ultrasounds and MRI scans were reviewed to determine whether the MRI findings led to a change in patient management.
  • Outcomes as the result of breast MRI were stratified as favorable and unfavorable.
  • The indications for breast MRI included: high risk screening (n = 3), diagnostic evaluation of disease after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 24) or prior to re-excision (n = 8), extent of in situ ductal, infiltrating ductal or infiltrating lobular disease histology (DCIS n = 3, IDC n = 24, ILC n = 17), identification of unknown primary (n = 2), assessment of contralateral breast (n = 4), recurrence surveillance (n = 5), and other (n = 5).
  • Diagnostic evaluation of the breast by MRI alters patient management in 30% of cases depending upon the indications.
  • Evaluation of the breast by MRI alters the clinical management of nearly one-third of patients.
  • Patients undergoing evaluation for contralateral disease, invasive lobular carcinoma and assessment of chemotherapeutic response may derive a more meaningful benefit from MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20545940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Baslaim MM, Bakheet SM, Bakheet R, Ezzat A, El-Foudeh M, Tulbah A: 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in inflammatory breast cancer. World J Surg; 2003 Oct;27(10):1099-104
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  • [Title] 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in inflammatory breast cancer.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of locally advanced breast cancer.
  • We evaluated the usefulness of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans for diagnosing and staging IBC.
  • Four patients had follow-up PET scans after chemotherapy.
  • All seven patients presented with diffuse breast enlargement, redness, and peau d'orange for 1 to 5 months' duration.
  • In addition, four patients had a palpable breast mass, and three had axillary lymph node enlargement.
  • There was no evidence of distant metastasis on computed tomography of the chest or abdomen.
  • Pathologic examination of breast biopsy specimens showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma in six patients, and one had lobular carcinoma.
  • All patients had prechemotherapy whole-body PET scans that showed diffuse FDG uptake in the breast with superimposed intense foci in the primary tumor.
  • The FDG-PET scan is thus useful for displaying the pattern of FDG breast uptake that reflects the extent of the pathologic involvement in IBC (i.e., diffuse breast involvement and dermal lymphatic spread).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Mastitis / diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2000 Apr;18(8):1676-88 [10764428.001]
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  • (PMID = 12917770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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18. Tse GM, Yeung DK, King AD, Cheung HS, Yang WT: In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of breast lesions: an update. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Sep;104(3):249-55
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  • [Title] In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of breast lesions: an update.
  • In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) has been demonstrated to be successful in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions in a non-invasive manner by detecting increased levels of composite choline (Cho) compounds.
  • Currently there is molecular evidence of increased Cho metabolism in breast cancer cells.
  • In breast malignancies, (1)H-MRS achieved a high-overall sensitivity (82%).
  • Most test cases were infiltrating duct carcinoma, but infiltrating lobular, medullary, mucinous and adenoid cystic carcinomas were also positive by (1)H-MRS.
  • Another potential of (1)H-MRS is to assess patients' response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In ductal carcinoma in situ, the results of (1)H-MRS on the limited number of cases were negative.
  • Most of the assessed benign breast lesions including fibroadenoma, fibrocystic changes, cysts and galactoceles, papilloma, tubular adenoma and phyllodes tumours and were mostly negative by (1)H-MRS, with an overall false positive rate was about 8%.
  • Normal breast tissue was almost always negative by (1)H-MRS, whereas, lactating breast tissue showed positivity with a slightly different spectrum on further analysis.
  • With these improvements, (1)H-MRS may potentially be useful in detection of smaller malignant lesions, characterization of malignant lesions into non-invasive or invasive, and as an invaluable tool in disease progression monitoring.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / pathology. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Choline / metabolism. Disease Progression. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Protons. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17051424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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19. Cowen D, Houvenaeghel G, Bardou V, Jacquemier J, Bautrant E, Conte M, Viens P, Largillier R, Puig B, Resbeut M, Maraninchi D: Local and distant failures after limited surgery with positive margins and radiotherapy for node-negative breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 May 1;47(2):305-12
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  • [Title] Local and distant failures after limited surgery with positive margins and radiotherapy for node-negative breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the outcome of patients with positive margins after lumpectomy for breast cancer and to address the issue of the relationship between local recurrences and distant metastasis in the absence of chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Among 3697 patients with primary breast cancer, we retrospectively analyzed 152 patients who had undergone conservative surgery with axillary dissection, had infiltrating carcinomas with positive margins, were node-negative, and received radiotherapy without chemotherapy.
  • One-third received hormonal therapy.
  • Infiltrating carcinoma on the margins was associated with early local relapse as opposed to intraductal carcinoma.
  • Hazard of relapsing from metastasis was 2.5 times higher after a local recurrence.
  • In the multivariate analysis, negative estrogen receptors (ER-)(p = 0.0012), histologic multifocality (p = 0.0028), and no hormonal therapy (p = 0.017) predicted local relapses, while ER- (p = 0.004) and pathologic grade (p = 0.009) predicted metastasis.
  • Hormonal therapy did not prevent early local recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes. Neoplasm, Residual

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  • (PMID = 10802353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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20. Spigel JJ, Evans WP, Grant MD, Langer TG, Krakos PA, Wise DK: Male inflammatory breast cancer. Clin Breast Cancer; 2001 Jul;2(2):153-5
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  • [Title] Male inflammatory breast cancer.
  • A case of a 48-year-old male with an inflammatory breast cancer is used to illustrate this uncommon malignancy.
  • The physical examination of thickening and erythema made the clinical diagnosis.
  • Mammographic findings of increased density in the right breast with coarsened stroma and an underlying mass confirmed the clinical findings.
  • The pathologic examination of the mastectomy specimen showed an infiltrating duct cell carcinoma with lobular features.
  • Male breast cancer afflicts 1500 men each year.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Gynecomastia / pathology. Humans. Inflammation / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Mammary


21. Fisher B, Dignam J, Tan-Chiu E, Anderson S, Fisher ER, Wittliff JL, Wolmark N: Prognosis and treatment of patients with breast tumors of one centimeter or less and negative axillary lymph nodes. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2001 Jan 17;93(2):112-20
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  • [Title] Prognosis and treatment of patients with breast tumors of one centimeter or less and negative axillary lymph nodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Uncertainty about prognosis and treatment of axillary lymph node-negative patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or ER-positive invasive breast tumors of 1 cm or less prompted the analysis of data from five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project randomized clinical trials.
  • Patients with ER-negative tumors received surgery alone or surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Patients with ER-positive tumors received surgery alone; surgery and tamoxifen; or surgery, tamoxifen, and chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The 8-year RFS of women with ER-negative tumors who received surgery alone or with chemotherapy was 81% and 90%, respectively (P = .06).
  • The 8-year RFS of women with ER-positive tumors was 86% after surgery alone, 93% when tamoxifen was added (P = .01), and 95% after the addition of tamoxifen and chemotherapy (P = .07 compared with tamoxifen).
  • Regardless of ER status or treatment, overall mortality was 8%; one half of the deaths were related to breast cancer.
  • Risk was greater in women with tumors of 1 cm than in those with tumors of less than 1 cm, in women aged 49 years or younger than in those aged 50 years or older, and in women with infiltrating ductal or lobular carcinoma than in those with other histologic tumor types.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen should be considered for the treatment of women with ER-negative or ER-positive tumors of 1 cm or less and negative axillary lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Canada. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Sep 19;93(18):1420-1; author reply 1421-2 [11562395.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001 Jan 17;93(2):80-2 [11208870.001]
  • (PMID = 11208880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA12027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA37377; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA69651
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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22. d'Annibale M, Piovanello P, Cerasoli V, Campioni N: Liver metastases from breast cancer: the role of surgical treatment. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Nov-Dec;52(66):1858-62
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  • [Title] Liver metastases from breast cancer: the role of surgical treatment.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate short- and long-term outcomes in the surgical treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer METHODOLOGY: Between 1984 and 1999 we observed 26 patients with secondary liver localization (25 metachronous) from breast cancer.
  • Median age at the time of liver surgery was 56 years (36-76).
  • Fifteen patients had infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 2 a lobular carcinoma and 1 patient a mixed-component carcinoma.
  • In 9 cases the patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy (5 of them following postoperative radiotherapy) and in 14 cases Tamoxifen was used.
  • Nine patients died; six patients are still living, 4 of them "disease-free", 2 having advanced metastatic disease, in treatment.
  • The overall 5-year-survival was 25% in patients whose liver metastases developed within 3 years after breast surgery compared with 40% in those ones with metastatic disease diagnosed more than 3 years after.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgery of liver metastases from breast cancer can be performed with low morbidity and mortality in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatectomy / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16334793.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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