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1. Sahab ZJ, Man YG, Semaan SM, Newcomer RG, Byers SW, Sang QX: Alteration in protein expression in estrogen receptor alpha-negative human breast cancer tissues indicates a malignant and metastatic phenotype. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2010 Oct;27(7):493-503
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Alteration in protein expression in estrogen receptor alpha-negative human breast cancer tissues indicates a malignant and metastatic phenotype.
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) represents the earliest identifiable breast cancer lesion.
  • Disruption of the myoepithelial cell layer and basement membrane is a prerequisite for DCIS to initiate invasion into the stroma.
  • The majority of epithelial cells overlying a focally-disrupted myoepithelial cell layer are estrogen receptor-alpha negative (ER(-)); however, adjacent cells within the same duct confined by an intact myoepithelial cell layer express high levels of ER.
  • These ER (+) and ER (-) cells were microdissected from the same ducts of breast cancer patients.
  • The upregulated protein, Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 alpha, may induce chemotherapy resistance.
  • The significant findings are that the microdissected ER(-) cells express 12.6 times less cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1, a protein involved in cellular differentiation, and 4.1 times less nucleoside diphosphate kinase A or nm23-H1, a metastasis suppressor, and express fewer proteins than adjacent ER(+) cells.
  • The collective role of the alterations of protein expression in ER(-) cells may be to promote a more malignant phenotype than adjacent ER(+) cells, including a decreased ability to undergo apoptosis and differentiation, and an increased potential to damage DNA, metastasize, and resist to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis


2. Hikino H, Kawashima M, Yamada T, Ozaki N: Motor dominant neuropathy induced by adjuvant therapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by dose-dense paclitaxel in a breast cancer patient. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Aug;11(4):332-5
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  • [Title] Motor dominant neuropathy induced by adjuvant therapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by dose-dense paclitaxel in a breast cancer patient.
  • A 38-year-old woman underwent mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection for invasive ductal carcinoma with multiple lymph node involvement.
  • The patient received adriamycin 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) followed by weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) (without interruption) as adjuvant treatment.
  • After receiving ten courses of paclitaxel, the patient developed motor neuropathy, with difficulty in ascending stairs and rising from a chair.
  • After 2 weeks of withholding paclitaxel treatment, the motor neuropathy was alleviated and the scheduled doses were completed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Motor Neuron Disease / chemically induced


3. Ugnat AM, Xie L, Morriss J, Semenciw R, Mao Y: Survival of women with breast cancer in Ottawa, Canada: variation with age, stage, histology, grade and treatment. Br J Cancer; 2004 Mar 22;90(6):1138-43
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  • [Title] Survival of women with breast cancer in Ottawa, Canada: variation with age, stage, histology, grade and treatment.
  • This study examined the 5-year survival of 2192 breast cancer women diagnosed between 1994 and 1997 in Ottawa, Canada, by age, TNM stage, histology, grade and treatment, including assessment of the independent value of variables in defining prognosis.
  • Our results showed that age, stage, treatment and grade significantly influenced outcome regardless of the confounding factors considered, with histology failing to achieve significant independent prognostic information.
  • The treatment leading to the best survival was surgery plus radiation for stages I-II and surgery combined with chemotherapy for stages III-IV.
  • Lobular carcinoma had a better prognosis than ductal carcinoma; this can be explained by more grade 1 and less grade 3 cases in lobular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasm Staging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Histology. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Ontario / epidemiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15026792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2409653
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4. Semple SI, Staff RT, Heys SD, Redpath TW, Welch AE, Ahearn TS, Hutcheon A, Gilbert FJ: Baseline MRI delivery characteristics predict change in invasive ductal breast carcinoma PET metabolism as a result of primary chemotherapy administration. Ann Oncol; 2006 Sep;17(9):1393-8
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  • [Title] Baseline MRI delivery characteristics predict change in invasive ductal breast carcinoma PET metabolism as a result of primary chemotherapy administration.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-therapy vascular delivery assessment [using dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)] can predict reduction in breast cancer metabolism [detected using 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)F(-)FDG-PET)] after a single cycle of chemotherapy.
  • Reduction in (18)F-FDG PET metabolism has previously been shown to correlate with histological response to primary chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with large or locally advanced invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast were imaged using DCE-MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET prior to therapy and 20 days after the first cycle of chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: A significant association (P <0.05) was observed between pre-therapy DCE-MRI vascular parameters and the reduction in PET metabolism resulting from administration of one cycle of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A relationship was demonstrated between pre-therapy DCE-MRI vascular parameters and the reduction in PET metabolism after a single cycle of chemotherapy.
  • This suggests that reduction in PET metabolism as a result of chemotherapy may be dependent, at least in part, on pre-therapy vascular delivery.
  • These pre-therapy vascular characteristics may be suitable for use as a surrogate measure for initial chemotherapy delivery, a key factor in chemotherapeutic efficacy.

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  • (PMID = 16788001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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5. Health Quality Ontario: Screening mammography for women aged 40 to 49 years at average risk for breast cancer: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser; 2007;7(1):1-32
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  • [Title] Screening mammography for women aged 40 to 49 years at average risk for breast cancer: an evidence-based analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to determine the effectiveness of screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years at average risk for breast cancer.
  • The Canadian Task Force of Preventive Services, which sets guidelines for screening mammography for all provinces, supports neither the inclusion nor the exclusion of this screening procedure for 40- to 49-year-old women from the periodic health examination.
  • In addition to this, 2 separate reviews, one conducted in Quebec in 2005 and the other in Alberta in 2000, each concluded that there is an absence of convincing evidence on the effectiveness of screening mammography for women in this age group who are at average risk for breast cancer.
  • The National Breast Screening Study (NBSS-1), a randomized screening trial conducted in multiple centres across Canada, has shown there is no benefit in mortality from breast cancer from annual mammograms in women randomized between the ages of 40 and 49, relative to standard care (i.e. physical exam and teaching of breast-self examination on entry to the study, with usual community care thereafter).
  • At present, organized screening programs in Canada systematically screen women starting at 50 years of age, although with a physician's referral, a screening mammogram is an insured service in Ontario for women under 50 years of age.
  • International estimates of the epidemiology of breast cancer show that the incidence of breast cancer is increasing for all ages combined, whereas mortality is decreasing, though at a slower rate.
  • These decreasing mortality rates may be attributed to screening and advances in breast cancer therapy over time.
  • Decreases in mortality attributable to screening may be a result of the earlier detection and treatment of invasive cancers, in addition to the increased detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), of which certain subpathologies are less lethal.
  • The incidence of breast cancer is lower in women aged 40 to 49 years than in women aged 50 to 69 years (about 140 per 100,000 versus 500 per 100,000 women, respectively), as is the sensitivity (about 75% versus 85% for women aged under and over 50, respectively) and specificity of mammography (about 80% versus 90% for women aged under and over 50, respectively).
  • The increased density of breast tissue in younger women is mainly responsible for the lower accuracy of this procedure in this age group.
  • In addition, as the proportion of breast cancers that occur before the age of 50 are more likely to be associated with genetic predisposition as compared with those diagnosed in women after the age of 50, mammography may not be an optimal screening method for younger women.
  • Treatment options vary with the stage of disease (based on tumor size, involvement of surrounding tissue, and number of affected axillary lymph nodes) and its pathology, and may include a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy.
  • The subsequent use of radiation, chemotherapy, or hormonal treatments is dependent on the histopathologic characteristics of the tumor and the type of surgery.
  • There is controversy regarding the optimal treatment of DCIS, which is noninvasive.
  • With such controversy as to the effectiveness of mammography and the potential risk associated with women being overtreated or actual cancers being missed, and the increased risk of breast cancer associated with exposure to annual mammograms over a 10-year period, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee requested this review of screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years at average risk for breast cancer.
  • REVIEW STRATEGY: The following questions were asked: Does screening mammography for women aged 40 to 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer reduce breast cancer mortality?What is the sensitivity and specificity of mammography for this age group?What are the risks associated with annual screening from ages 40 to 49?What are the risks associated with false positive and false negative mammography results?What are the economic considerations if evidence for effectiveness is established?THE MEDICAL ADVISORY SECRETARIAT FOLLOWED ITS STANDARD PROCEDURES AND SEARCHED THESE ELECTRONIC DATABASES: Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment.
  • Keywords used in the search were breast cancer, breast neoplasms, mass screening, and mammography.
  • In total, the search yielded 6,359 articles specific to breast cancer screening and mammography.
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA: English-language articles, and English and French-language health technology policy assessments, conducted by other organizations, from 1995 to 2005Articles specific to RCTs of screening mammography of women at average risk for breast cancer that included results for women randomized to studies between the ages of 40 and 49 yearsStudies in which women were randomized to screening with or without mammography, although women may have had clinical breast examinations and/or may have been conducting breast self-examination.UK Age Trial results published in December 2006.
  • EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Observational studies, including those nested within RCTsRCTs that do not include results on women between the ages of 40 and 49 at randomizationStudies in which mammography was compared with other radiologic screening modalities, for example, digital mammography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound.Studies in which women randomized had a personal history of breast cancer.
  • INTERVENTION: Film mammography COMPARATORS: Within RCTs, the comparison group would have been women randomized to not undergo screening mammography, although they may have had clinical breast examinations and/or have been conducting breast self-examination.
  • OUTCOMES OF INTEREST: Breast cancer mortality SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: There is Level 1 Canadian evidence that screening women between the ages of 40 and 49 years who are at average risk for breast cancer is not effective, and that the absence of a benefit is sustained over a maximum follow-up period of 16 years.
  • They provide additional evidence that, when all these RCTs are taken into account, there is no significant reduction in breast cancer mortality associated with screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is Level 1 evidence that screening mammography in women aged 40 to 49 years at average risk for breast cancer is not effective in reducing mortality.

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  • (PMID = 23074501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1915-7398
  • [Journal-full-title] Ontario health technology assessment series
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ont Health Technol Assess Ser
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3377515
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6. Konishi K, Hasegawa N, Kaneko H, Iimura Y, Shoji Y, Kawabata M: [A case of premenopausal stage IV breast cancer responding to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy after chemotherapy with FEC]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Jan;37(1):111-3
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  • [Title] [A case of premenopausal stage IV breast cancer responding to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy after chemotherapy with FEC].
  • A 33-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a complaint of left breast tumor.
  • After examinations, she was diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma with sternum metastasis (T2N0M1(OSS), Stage IV).
  • Primary systemic chemotherapy with FEC was performed.
  • After chemotherapy, endocrine therapy with goserelin and tamoxifen was performed.
  • The efficacy of endocrine therapy was as good as that of chemotherapy.
  • After endocrine therapy for 13 months, breast conserving-surgery was performed.
  • After surgery, radiotherapy for left breast and sternum was performed.
  • She continues to undergo outpatient endocrine therapy with no detectable tumor.
  • It is suggested that neoadjuvant endocrine therapy may be useful with consideration for treatment effectiveness and the patient's quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Goserelin / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Mastectomy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Premenopause

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  • (PMID = 20087042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FEC protocol
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7. Jha AK, Hamal PK, Jha J, Banthia P, Thakali K, Basnet BK: Pattern of breast cancer in a tertiary care center. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc; 2010 Jan-Mar;49(177):1-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pattern of breast cancer in a tertiary care center.
  • INTRODUCTION: Breast Cancer is the second commonest cause of cancer death in women.
  • Almost all women survive breast cancer if it is detected before it starts to spread.
  • The aim of the study is to analyze the demographical profile, stage of presentation, histological type, and treatment modalities of breast cancer in a tertiary care setting.
  • METHODS: Total 1141 cases of breast cancer had been followed retrospectively from 1999 to 2006 A.D. in a tertiary care center and their patterns were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The mean age of presentation of breast cancer was 47.30 +/- 11.57 years in female and 59.03 +/- 14.63 in male, 31 (2.1%) cases of breast cancer were male.
  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest variety 610 (53.5%).
  • Chemotherapy was the mainstay for treatment of breast cancer 341 (29.9%) followed by surgery 287 (25.2%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer trend is rising with more in late and advanced stages, mostly due to lack of awareness.
  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the commonest variety.
  • Chemotherapy is the most commonly used modality of treatment.
  • Male breast cancer present late and is not so uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21180211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2715
  • [Journal-full-title] JNMA; journal of the Nepal Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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8. Holliday DL: A three-dimensional in vitro model of breast cancer: Toward replacing the need for animal experiments. Altern Lab Anim; 2010 Dec;38 Suppl 1:41-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A three-dimensional in vitro model of breast cancer: Toward replacing the need for animal experiments.
  • While the events leading to breast cancer development are not fully understood, a pre-invasive lesion, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), is recognised as the main precursor of invasive disease.
  • Understanding how pre-invasive lesions develop into invasive breast cancer is critical, since currently there is no way of predicting which tumours are likely to progress, leading to unnecessary surgical intervention or chemotherapy.
  • With a lack of good animal models able to mimic DCIS progression in a laboratory setting, there has been a shift toward developing in vitro human models which more accurately represent human disease.
  • By manipulating individual cell populations in these models, we can recapitulate the complex cellular interactions involved in disease progression, an essential step in understanding breast cancer behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Animal Testing Alternatives. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 FRAME.
  • (PMID = 21275482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0261-1929
  • [Journal-full-title] Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Altern Lab Anim
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Peiró G, Adrover E, Guijarro J, Ballester I, Jimenez MJ, Planelles M, Catasús L: Synchronous bilateral breast carcinoma in a patient with cowden syndrome: a case report with morphologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis. Breast J; 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1):77-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous bilateral breast carcinoma in a patient with cowden syndrome: a case report with morphologic, immunohistochemical and genetic analysis.
  • Synchronous bilateral breast carcinoma (SBBC) and early onset are important characteristics of hereditary cases.
  • The lifetime risk for breast carcinoma in Cowden syndrome (CS) is estimated to be 25-50%.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed a moderate-differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma with mixed features of luminal A immunophenotype (Estrogen and/or Progesterone Receptors >50% and/or Ki67 < 30% of positive cells).
  • The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and tamoxifen for 5 years.
  • Thus, analysis of PTEN expression abnormality, easily assessed by immunohistochemistry, may be of clinical value to screen those patients with CS.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / diagnosis. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Mastectomy / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Axilla. Biopsy, Needle. Breast Self-Examination. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Genetic Testing. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome


10. Afsar NA, Kulsoom B, Mateen A, Ahmed S, Tahseen M, Ahmed A: Breast cancer pattern and chemotherapy response--an institutional study in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(3):825-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Breast cancer pattern and chemotherapy response--an institutional study in Pakistan.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was planned to audit female breast cancers and their chemotherapy in a busy public sector institution.
  • RESULTS: A total of 3,431 female breast cancer patients presented during 2001-2008, half being <45 years, mostly suffering from infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast.
  • Further analyzing a subgroup of 183 consecutive patients over six months revealed that only 1.6% were at stage-I, whereas 75% had node-positive disease, including 19.1% with distant metastases.
  • 5-Flourouracil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FAC) constituted the most common chemotherapy.
  • Overall, 33% developed myelotoxicity, more often if age ≥ 45 years (p=0.012), out of which 60% needed active correction.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast is the most common type.
  • FAC is the most common chemotherapy.
  • Tendency for late diagnosis, metastatic disease, treatment failure as well as leukopenia especially in ≥ 45 years is present.
  • Failure to show leukopenia is suggestive of poor therapeutic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21039062.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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11. Capitain O, Lortholary A, Abadie-Lacourtoisie S: [Cytolytic hepatitis and esomeprazole during chemotherapy]. Presse Med; 2005 Oct 08;34(17):1235-6
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  • [Title] [Cytolytic hepatitis and esomeprazole during chemotherapy].
  • INTRODUCTION: Esomeprazole, the pure S isomer form of omeprazole, is indicated for the treatment of peptic esophagitis.
  • CASE: A 41-year-old woman with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast was undergoing chemotherapy with paclitaxel and trastuzumab.
  • These tests returned to normal levels despite continuation of the chemotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION: This cytolytic hepatitis is very probably imputable to esomeprazole, but a synergistic hepatic toxicity of the chemotherapy with esomeprazole cannot be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Ulcer Agents / adverse effects. Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury / pathology. Esomeprazole / adverse effects. Esomeprazole / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Esophagitis / chemically induced. Esophagitis / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 16230965.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; N3PA6559FT / Esomeprazole; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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12. Stiehl A: [Primary sclerosing cholangitis]. Internist (Berl); 2004 Jan;45(1):27-32
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  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease, characterized by fibrosing inflammation and obliteration of intra and/or extrahepatic bile ducts.
  • The disease belongs to the most common cholestatic diseases in adults and at present is diagnosed with increasing frequency.
  • Patients with PSC have an increased incidence of bile duct carcinomas and those with ulcerative colitis also have an increased incidence of colonic carcinomas.
  • Immunosuppressive treatment is little effective.
  • The aim is to treat patients as early as possible to prevent progression to the advanced stages of the disease.
  • During treatment with UDCA stenoses of major ducts may develop and early endoscopic dilatation is highly effective.
  • In patients with endstage disease, UDCA is not effective and liver transplantation is indicated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / etiology. Colitis, Ulcerative / diagnosis. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Colitis, Ulcerative / etiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / etiology. Comorbidity. Humans. Liver Function Tests. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Ursodeoxycholic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 14735241.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-9554
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Internist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Internist (Berl)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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13. Morvan A, de Korvin B, Bouriel C, Carsin A, Tas P, Bendavid C, Dupré PF, Kerbrat P, Mesbah H, Poree P, Levêque J: [MRI evaluation of residual breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy]. J Radiol; 2010 Jun;91(6):693-9
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  • [Title] [MRI evaluation of residual breast carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du sein traité par chimiothérapie néoadjuvante: évaluation du reliquat tumoral par l'IRM mammaire.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the sensibility and specificity of MRI in the detection and size measuring of residual breast cancer in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 32 women, who underwent breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant treatment.
  • RESULTS: The sensibility of MRI to assess pathologic Complete Response (no invasive residual tumor) was excellent (100%) but the specificity was low (55,5%).
  • There was no false negative case and four false positive cases (Two ductal carcinomas in situ and two scars-like fibrosis).
  • When MRI outcomes were compared with the presence or absence of invasive or in situ residual carcinoma, only one false negative case was noticed (one "in situ" residual tumor).
  • Underestimations of tumor size were due to non-continuous tumor regression or invasive lobular carcinoma or association of invasive carcinoma and intra ductal breast cancer.
  • Over estimations of tumor size were due to chemotherapy-induced changes.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI is a sensitive but poorly specific method to assess the pathological complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Estimation of tumor size and detection of isolated residual in situ carcinoma are fare.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20808270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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14. Peker S, Abacioğlu U, Bayrakli F, Kiliç T, Pamir MN: Gamma knife radiosurgery for cavernous sinus plasmacytoma in a patient with breast cancer history. Surg Neurol; 2005 Feb;63(2):174-6; discussion 176-7
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  • [Title] Gamma knife radiosurgery for cavernous sinus plasmacytoma in a patient with breast cancer history.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a 70-year-old female with a medical history of infiltrative ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • She developed cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) 5 months before admission to the hospital.
  • The pathological examination of the tumor tissue revealed a plasmacytoma.
  • Chemotherapy with prednisolone and melphalan was given.
  • Follow-up magnetic resonance images 6 months after the treatment demonstrated complete tumor disappearance.
  • CONCLUSION: This is an unusual MM case with a history of breast cancer, which had CSS and which demonstrated an excellent response to gamma knife radiosurgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology. Cavernous Sinus / surgery. Plasmacytoma / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Comorbidity. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Multiple Myeloma / epidemiology. Treatment Outcome


15. Strittmatter HJ: [Surgical therapy of breast carcinoma. Much of the fright is lost]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2003 Jun 19;145(25):30-4
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  • [Title] [Surgical therapy of breast carcinoma. Much of the fright is lost].
  • [Transliterated title] Die operative Therapie des Mammakarzinoms. Viel an Schrecken verloren.
  • Ever since breast cancer has become looked upon as a local and simultaneously a systemic disease, local treatment has become ever less radical.
  • Today, some 70% of all mamma carcinomas can be treated with breast-preserving techniques.
  • Following pre-operative downstaging by primary neoadjuvant chemotherapy, even the majority of large tumors can be managed with conservative surgery.
  • With the exception of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) axillary lymph node clearance is currently standard practice.
  • Postoperative irradiation of the preserved breast is an element of the overall concept of breast-preserving surgery.
  • The spectrum of surgical options covers breast-preserving procedures, skin-preserving mastectomy and amputation, which cannot always be avoided.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mammaplasty. Mastectomy, Radical. Mastectomy, Segmental
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Patient Acceptance of Health Care. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12891849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. James TA, Edge SB: Sentinel lymph node in breast cancer. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Feb;18(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node in breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become an accepted standard in staging axillary lymph nodes for breast cancer, but there are still unresolved questions regarding the application of the sentinel node procedure.
  • The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments in sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer.
  • The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and ductal carcinoma in situ continues to undergo investigation.
  • SUMMARY: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an accepted standard for stage I and II breast cancer, and is investigational with stage III cancer or with neoadjuvant therapy, as well as with ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Patients should be made aware of relevant issues as part of providing informed consent for surgery and subsequent therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 16493261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-656X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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17. Hammedi F, Trabelsi A, Abdelkrim SB, Abid LB, Jomaa W, Bdioui A, Beizig N, Mokni M: Mucinous carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis in a male breast: A case report. N Am J Med Sci; 2010 Feb;2(2):111-3
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  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis in a male breast: A case report.
  • CONTEXT: Pure mucinous carcinoma of the male breast is an extremely rare neoplasm.
  • It is characterized by a lower incidence of metastatic nodal involvement and a higher survival rate than invasive ductal carcinomas.
  • CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 75-year-old male who presented with a retroareolar mass of the right breast.
  • The tumor was well demarcated and had a friable consistency with a gelatinous appearance.
  • Histologically, the diagnostic of pure mucinous carcinoma with lymph node metastasis was performed.
  • After surgery, the patient received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormonotherapy (Tamoxifen).
  • The patient remained free of disease for 36 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Pure mucinous carcinoma of the male breast is a very rare tumor; in which axillary nodal disease is exceptional.

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  • (PMID = 22624124.001).
  • [ISSN] 2250-1541
  • [Journal-full-title] North American journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N Am J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3354434
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Mucinous carcinoma / axillary lymph node metastasis / male breast cancer
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18. Plunkett TA, Hanby AM, Miles DW, Rubens RD: Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy. Ann Oncol; 2001 Mar;12(3):411-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma: response to docetaxel (Taxotere) chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine porocarcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm of the intra-epidermal sweat gland duct.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A case of eccrine porocarcinoma in a female renal transplant patient aged 45 years is described with a review of pertinent literature.
  • In places large and small cells merged and focally the former component infiltrated the epidermis in a manner akin to Paget's disease of the breast.
  • The majority of the tumour was high grade; using the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system, usually applied to mammary ductal carcinomas, the tumour graded as 3.
  • Metastatic disease developed nine months following primary surgical treatment.
  • The metastatic eccrine porocarcinoma was resistant to epirubicin but responded to docetaxel chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There are no data to support the use of adjuvant therapy in the management of eccrine porocarcinoma.
  • The use of the modified Bloom and Richardson grading system may define cases at high risk of relapse in which adjuvant therapy might be considered.
  • We report the first use of docetaxel in the management of this disease.
  • The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in marked symptomatic and radiological responses.
  • Treatment with docetaxel should be considered in future cases of this rare tumour.

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  • (PMID = 11332156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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19. Hwang RF, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Yi M, Buchholz TA, Meric-Bernstam F, Kuerer HM, Babiera GV, Tereffe W, Liu DD, Hunt KK: Low locoregional failure rates in selected breast cancer patients with tumor-positive sentinel lymph nodes who do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Cancer; 2007 Aug 15;110(4):723-30
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  • [Title] Low locoregional failure rates in selected breast cancer patients with tumor-positive sentinel lymph nodes who do not undergo completion axillary dissection.
  • BACKGROUND: The role for completion axillary dissection (CLND) in patients with breast cancer who have tumor-positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) has been questioned.
  • METHODS: Patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy at the authors' institution between 1993 and July 2005 were reviewed.
  • There were 196 patients with a positive SLN who did not undergo CLND based on clinician and patient preference.
  • Clinicopathologic variables and treatment patterns were analyzed along with locoregional, distant recurrence, and survival.
  • RESULTS: Most tumors were infiltrating ductal carcinomas (74%), estrogen receptor-positive tumors (82%), progesterone receptor-positive tumors (70%), HER-2/neu-negative tumors (78.6%), and tumors were classified predominantly as either T1 or T2 (95.4%).
  • Most patients underwent breast conservation (68.9%), radiation (58.2%), and chemotherapy (neoadjuvant in 14.3%, adjuvant in 55.6%).
  • With a median follow-up of 29.5 months, no patients had an axillary recurrence, 1 patient had a supraclavicular lymph node recurrence, and 3 patients developed distant metastases.
  • The median time to recurrence was 32 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Axilla. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods


20. Stearns V, Coop A, Singh B, Gallagher A, Yamauchi H, Lieberman R, Pennanen M, Trock B, Hayes DF, Ellis MJ: A pilot surrogate end point biomarker trial of perillyl alcohol in breast neoplasia. Clin Cancer Res; 2004 Nov 15;10(22):7583-91
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  • [Title] A pilot surrogate end point biomarker trial of perillyl alcohol in breast neoplasia.
  • PURPOSE: Efficient strategies to screen promising agents in early phase development are essential for rapid progress in breast cancer chemoprevention.
  • We report our experience with the natural compound perillyl alcohol (POH) administered in a short-term surrogate end point biomarker (SEB) protocol, using the "window" between diagnostic and definitive surgery.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients included those with a diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ, lobular carcinoma in situ, or invasive carcinoma (<3 cm in size) that required further surgery.
  • The power to observe changes in candidate SEB was diminished by a 44% incidence of cases in which the index lesion was not present in the definitive surgical specimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative POH exposure was safe and suitable for a more definitive phase II SEB study.
  • Further investigations must overcome logistical obstacles to accrual, and they must focus on approaches to maximize tissue collection and to incorporate genomic analysis of target lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Monoterpenes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apoptosis. Biomarkers. Biopsy. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15569989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CN / N01-CN-65003
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Monoterpenes; 319R5C7293 / perilla alcohol
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21. Biggs RL, Lucha PA Jr, Stoll PM: Anal duct carcinoma: report of case and a survey of the experience of the American Osteopathic College of Proctology. J Am Osteopath Assoc; 2001 Aug;101(8):450-3
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  • [Title] Anal duct carcinoma: report of case and a survey of the experience of the American Osteopathic College of Proctology.
  • Anal duct carcinoma, also known as anal gland carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the anal canal, is an unusual anal cancer that accounts for approximately 0.1% of all gastrointestinal cancers.
  • Multimodality treatment that includes surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy is often recommended.
  • The authors describe a typical case of anal duct carcinoma and its management.
  • They also discuss the findings of a survey of the combined experience of members of the American Osteopathic College of Proctology and review the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Anus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11526879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-6151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Osteopath Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Zhou M, Johnson N, Gruner S, Ecklund GW, Meunier P, Bryn S, Glissmeyer M, Steinbock K: Clinical utility of breast-specific gamma imaging for evaluating disease extent in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient. Am J Surg; 2009 Feb;197(2):159-63
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  • [Title] Clinical utility of breast-specific gamma imaging for evaluating disease extent in the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) is a functional imaging modality that has comparable sensitivity but superior specificity compared with magnetic resonance imaging, yielding fewer false-positive results and thereby improving clinical management of the newly diagnosed breast cancer patient.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed from 2 community-based breast imaging centers of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients in whom BSGI was performed as part of the imaging work-up.
  • RESULTS: A total of 138 patients (69 invasive ductal carcinoma, 20 invasive lobular carcinoma, 32 ductal carcinoma in situ, and 17 mixtures of invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, or ductal carcinoma in situ and other) were reviewed.
  • Twenty-five patients (18.1%) had a positive BSGI study at a site remote from their known cancer or more extensive disease than detected from previous imaging.
  • Fifteen patients (10.9%) were positive for a synchronous or more extensive malignancy in the same or contralateral breast.
  • Findings converted 7 patients to mastectomy, 1 patient to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 7 patients were found to have previously undetected contralateral cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BSGI detected additional or more extensive malignancy in the same or contralateral breast in 10.9% of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.
  • BSGI provides accurate evaluation of remaining breast tissue in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients with few false-positive readings.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 19185109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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23. Kubota K, Ogawa Y, Nishioka A, Murata Y, Itoh S, Hamada N, Morio K, Maeda H, Tanaka Y: Radiological imaging features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast and axillary lymph nodes. Oncol Rep; 2008 Nov;20(5):1143-7
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  • [Title] Radiological imaging features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast and axillary lymph nodes.
  • Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast is of growing clinical significance.
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the radiological imaging features for this type of breast carcinoma and the axillary lymph nodes.
  • The study population consisted of 30 breast cancer patients (8 invasive micropapillary carcinomas and 22 other types of invasive ductal carcinoma).
  • The breast lesions were evaluated with mammography, ultrasonography, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Only contrast-enhanced MRI showed characteristic findings for invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • Although invasive micropapillary carcinoma is commonly irregular in shape (7/8) compared with other types of invasive carcinoma (6/22) (p=0.012, chi(2) test), a careful interpretation of radiological imaging to identify lesion borders helped the complete clearance of cancer cells from 6/8 patients with invasive micropapillary carcinoma in one-time breast conservative surgery.
  • The positive and negative predictive values of sonography in diagnosing axillary lymph node metastases in cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma were 100 and 50%, respectively.
  • In conclusion, contrast-enhanced MRI reveals the irregular shape of invasive micropapillary carcinoma and helps conservative breast surgery to be performed safely.
  • The pathological analysis of axillary nodes in cases of invasive micropapillary carcinoma may prove to be indispensable due to the relatively low negative predictive value of sonography.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography

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  • (PMID = 18949414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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24. Giuliani F, Gebbia V, Maiello E, Borsellino N, Bajardi E, Colucci G, Gruppo Oncologico dell'Italia Meridionale: Gemcitabine and cisplatin for inoperable and/or metastatic biliary tree carcinomas: a multicenter phase II study of the Gruppo Oncologico dell'Italia Meridionale (GOIM). Ann Oncol; 2006 Jun;17 Suppl 7:vii73-7
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  • [Title] Gemcitabine and cisplatin for inoperable and/or metastatic biliary tree carcinomas: a multicenter phase II study of the Gruppo Oncologico dell'Italia Meridionale (GOIM).
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the clinical efficacy and toxicity profile of gemcitabine (GEM) in combination with cisplatin (CDDP) in a series of patients affected by unresectable and/or metastatic biliary tree carcinoma (BTC) previously untreated with chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall 38 consecutive patients who satisfied eligibility criteria (10 with gall-bladder carcinoma and 28 with bile duct carcinoma) were included in this phase II study.
  • Treatment included GEM 1000 mg/m(2)/week as 30 min i.v. on days 1 and 8, and CDDP 75-80 mg/m(2) on day 1 with adequate hydration protocol and forced diuresis.
  • Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks for three cycles before first re-evaluation of disease status.
  • A partial response (PR) was recorded in 11 cases (29%; 95% CI 6% to 48%) with a median duration of 6.4 months (range 5-11 months) for an overall response rate (ORR) of 32%.
  • Stable disease (SD) was seen in eight cases (21%), while the remaining 18 patients showed progressive disease (PD).
  • Objective responses were recorded at loco-regional disease, liver and nodal metastases.
  • Time-to-progression was 4 months (range 2-11 months) and median overall survival was 8+ months (range 2-15 months).
  • In no case was chemotherapy withdrawn for toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: The GEM/CDDP regimen is active against advanced and/or metastatic BTC with a favourable toxicity profile.
  • This regimen represents a reasonable therapeutic choice for palliation of advanced BTC.

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  • (PMID = 16760299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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25. Tan BJ, Quek KS, Wong MY, Chui WK, Chiu GN: Liposomal M-V-05: formulation development and activity testing of a novel dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor for breast cancer therapy. Int J Oncol; 2010 Jul;37(1):211-8
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  • [Title] Liposomal M-V-05: formulation development and activity testing of a novel dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor for breast cancer therapy.
  • In the management of metastatic breast cancer, fewer recognized therapeutic standards are available as compared to the early stages of the disease.
  • Thus, it is pertinent to search for new, effective therapy to improve survival, tolerability and quality of life of patients.
  • In this study, a liposomal formulation was developed for a novel dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitor, M-V-05.
  • Drug encapsulation into liposomes was achieved by the citrate-based, pH gradient loading technique, with a final drug-to-lipid weight ratio of 0.1:1.
  • The liposome formulation exhibited a sustained release profile of the encapsulated drug that followed first order release kinetics.
  • Similar cytotoxicity was observed in primary patient samples of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • Taken together, liposomal M-V-05 represents a promising agent and offers a potential new adjuvant therapy for breast cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Folic Acid Antagonists / administration & dosage. Liposomes / chemical synthesis. Liposomes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Compounding / methods. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Female. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Models, Biological. Spiro Compounds / administration & dosage. Spiro Compounds / chemical synthesis. Spiro Compounds / therapeutic use. Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Time Factors. Triazines / administration & dosage. Triazines / chemical synthesis. Triazines / therapeutic use. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20514413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 7,9-diamino-10-(3'-phenoxypropyloxy)-6,8,10-triazaspiro(4.5)deca-6,8-diene; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Folic Acid Antagonists; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Spiro Compounds; 0 / Triazines; EC 1.5.1.3 / Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase
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26. Tozaki M, Uno S, Kobayashi T, Aiba K, Yoshida K, Takeyama H, Shioya H, Tabei I, Toriumi Y, Suzuki M, Kawakami M, Fukuda K: Histologic breast cancer extent after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: comparison with multidetector-row CT and dynamic MRI. Radiat Med; 2004 Jul-Aug;22(4):246-53
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  • [Title] Histologic breast cancer extent after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: comparison with multidetector-row CT and dynamic MRI.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of dynamic multidetector-row CT (MDCT) in assessing residual cancer extent after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and to compare MDCT results with those derived from dynamic three-dimensional MRI using the volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequence.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: MDCT before and after NAC was performed in 19 consecutive patients with breast cancer.
  • In replaced lesions, accuracy for the detection of tumor extent with a deviation of less than 2 cm in length was 0% (0/7) with early-phase CT/MRI and 100% (7/7) with late-phase CT/MRI.
  • One case of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) could be detected only with late phase MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Tomography, Spiral Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Bridged Compounds / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Contrast Media. Female. Humans. Image Enhancement / methods. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Remission Induction. Taxoids / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15468945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0288-2043
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Taxoids; 1605-68-1 / taxane
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27. Blair SL, Thompson K, Rococco J, Malcarne V, Beitsch PD, Ollila DW: Attaining negative margins in breast-conservation operations: is there a consensus among breast surgeons? J Am Coll Surg; 2009 Nov;209(5):608-13
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  • [Title] Attaining negative margins in breast-conservation operations: is there a consensus among breast surgeons?
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this survey was to ascertain the most common surgical practices for attaining negative (tumor-free) surgical margins in patients desiring breast-conservation treatment for breast cancer to see if a consensus exists for optimal treatment of patients.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We sent a survey to 1,000 surgeons interested in the treatment of breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Answers showed a large variety in clinical practices among breast surgeons across the country.
  • There was little intraoperative margin analysis; only 48% of surgeons examine the margins grossly with a pathologist and even fewer used frozen sections or imprint cytology.
  • Most importantly, there was a large range in answers about acceptable margins with ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results of this survey highlight the wide variety of practice patterns in the US for handling surgical margins in breast-conservation treatment.
  • Consequently, additional study is needed in the modern era of multimodality treatment to examine the minimal amount of surgical treatment necessary, in conjunction with chemotherapy and radiation, to attain adequate local control rates in breast-conservation treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental / standards. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Female. Frozen Sections. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Surveys and Questionnaires. United States

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Coll Surg. 2010 Jun;210(6):1012 [20510813.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Am Coll Surg. 2010 Jun;210(6):1015-6 [20510817.001]
  • (PMID = 19854401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Yu Z, Sun J, Zhen J, Zhang Q, Yang Q: Thymidylate synthase predicts for clinical outcome in invasive breast cancer. Histol Histopathol; 2005 07;20(3):871-8
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  • [Title] Thymidylate synthase predicts for clinical outcome in invasive breast cancer.
  • We analyzed TS and DPD expression in breast carcinomas to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of these enzymes in patients with invasive breast cancer receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy.
  • A total of 197 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma were included in our study.
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that TS expression was an independent prognostic factor for both disease-free and overall survival.
  • The current study demonstrated that TS but not DPD expression was associated with both progression and prognosis in breast cancer receiving 5-FU-based chemotherapy.
  • TS expression in the primary tumor might be useful as a predictive parameter for the efficacy of 5-FU-based chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Thymidylate Synthase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP) / metabolism. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15944938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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29. Sule E, Akpo E, Akhator A, Obaseki D: Axillary breast cancer in a Nigerian woman. N Z Med J; 2010 Oct 15;123(1324):84-7
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  • [Title] Axillary breast cancer in a Nigerian woman.
  • Ectopic breast cancer is rare and diagnosis is commonly delayed.
  • We report the case of a 34-year-old Nigerian woman with a locally advanced invasive ductal carcinoma in the axillary breast.
  • She underwent an axillary mastectomy and is due to receive adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20953227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-8716
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
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30. Brunner TB, Eccles CL: Radiotherapy and chemotherapy as therapeutic strategies in extrahepatic biliary duct carcinoma. Strahlenther Onkol; 2010 Dec;186(12):672-80
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy and chemotherapy as therapeutic strategies in extrahepatic biliary duct carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: this report aims to provide an overview on radiotherapy and chemotherapy in extrahepatic biliary duct carcinoma (BDC).
  • RESULTS: most patients with cholangiocarcinoma present with unresectable disease (80-90%), and more than half of the resected patients relapse within 1 year.
  • Adjuvant and palliative treatment options need to be chosen carefully since 50% of the patients are older than 70 years at diagnosis.
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy after complete resection (R0) has not convincingly shown a prolongation of survival but radiotherapy did after R1 resection.
  • However, data suggest that liver transplantation could offer long-term survival in selected patients when combined with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with marginally resectable disease.
  • For patients with unresectable biliary tract carcinoma (BTC), palliative stenting was previously the treatment of choice.
  • Progress is less pronounced in chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. SEER Program. Stents. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 21136029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-099X
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0700730
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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31. Yamashiro N, Tozaki M, Ogawa T, Kawano N, Suzuki T, Ozaki S, Sakamoto N, Abe S, Fukuma E: Preoperative MRI marking technique for the planning of breast-conserving surgery. Breast Cancer; 2009;16(3):223-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative MRI marking technique for the planning of breast-conserving surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: When performing breast-conserving surgery (BCS), it is essential to achieve a complete resection of the tumor while preserving the cosmetic outcome.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a MRI marking technique for planning of BCS.
  • The preoperative histopathological diagnosis was ductal carcinoma in situ in 11 and invasive ductal carcinoma in 3.
  • All of the patients with invasive ductal carcinoma were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Twelve patients (86%) had negative margins, but two patients (14%) had positive margins: one patient had a medial margin, while the other had a distal margin.
  • One patient showed a pathologically complete response after chemotherapy; the RMTD was not evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods

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  • (PMID = 19205832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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32. Gilleard O, Davies M, Dunn J: Is it safe to omit radiotherapy following wide local excision for ductal carcinoma in situ? Surgeon; 2009 Jun;7(3):146-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is it safe to omit radiotherapy following wide local excision for ductal carcinoma in situ?
  • BACKGROUND: Debate regarding the use of radiotherapy (RT) after breast conserving surgery is currently one of the most controversial areas in breast cancer management.
  • In our centre we prefer to avoid RT, which is not without its own risks, as a primary treatment modality in the majority of cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) that are amenable to wide local excision.
  • METHODOLOGY: Prospectively entered data were reviewed for all patients (n=100) that underwent breast conserving surgery for DCIS by the senior author over a ten year period.
  • The overall rate of recurrence was 6%, one-third of which were invasive.
  • The estimated eight year disease free survival was 91.6%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this group of patients outcome has not been affected by radiation therapy, hormone manipulation or chemotherapy.
  • It has therefore enabled us to assess recurrence rates free of any potentially confounding treatment related influences.
  • The results from this study suggest, that in our hands, the recurrence rates for DCIS following wide local excision alone are similar to those reported in series in which radiotherapy was used as adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19580178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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33. Haid A, Knauer M, Köberle-Wührer R, Wenzl E: [Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: techniques and indications]. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2005 Feb;117(4):121-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: techniques and indications].
  • Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proved to be a useful and accurate procedure for lymph node staging in breast cancer and melanoma and should be standard of care in the treatment of these tumors.
  • SNB in breast cancer was accepted as a sole and reliable diagnostic method in breast cancer from the panel of distinguished experts at the 8th international conference of primary therapy of early breast cancer 2003 in St. Gallen.
  • Accepted indications are uni- and multifocal tumors smaller than 3 cm without suspicious findings in the axilla, furthermore SNB is indicated in patients with large ductal carcinoma in situ (>2cm) and/or with assumed microinvasion.
  • Albeit SNB could be shown to be safe after preoperative chemotherapy and in multicentric breast cancer, due to lack of sufficient data it is still under discussion in these cases.
  • Expedience of this procedure in other lymph node basins, along the mammaria interna vessels or in the infra- and supraclavicular region is considered to be at an investigative stage as well.
  • Detection of additional micrometastases that are found in 10-15% leads to an upgrading from N0 to N1.
  • Broad application and refurbishment led to scientific discussion of prognostic importance of micrometastases and its relevance according axillary dissection and adjuvant systemic treatment.
  • Although many unicentric and multicentric observational studies validated by complete axillary dissection could demonstrate that SNB is accurate and suitable for all operable clinically node-negative breast cancers, longterm results and especially the incidence of axillary recurrence and its sequelae are outstanding.
  • Findings of ongoing large prospective randomized trials like NSABP 32, Z0010 and Z0011 of the American College of Surgeons (ACOSOG), the AMAROS-Trial of the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the ALMANAC-Trial of the British Association of Surgical Oncology (BASO) will give a conclusive answer.
  • Significant improvement in morbidity and quality of life measurements could be revealed several times in unicentric and even in muticentric studies like ALMANAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15847190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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34. Tahmasebi S, Akrami M, Omidvari S, Salehi A, Talei A: Male breast cancer; analysis of 58 cases in Shiraz, South of Iran. Breast Dis; 2010;31(1):29-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Male breast cancer; analysis of 58 cases in Shiraz, South of Iran.
  • INTRODUCTION: male breast cancer (MBC) is very rare and accounts for less than one percent of all cancers in men.
  • The current study is the first cohort of men with breast carcinoma reported in our country to date.
  • Data regarding general characteristics of patients including: age at time of diagnosis, family history of breast cancer, site, stage, size and location of tumor, histopathology of primary tumor, and treatment modalities (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy) were obtained by reviewing medical records.
  • RESULTS: among 58 MBC patients included in current study, 98.3% of patients were presented with a palpable mass, while 22.4% had breast skin deformity, and 12.1% patients had breast discharge.
  • The median age at time of diagnosis was 60 years (range, 34-84 years).
  • Infiltrative ductal carcinoma was found in 96.2% of patients, insitu ductal carcinoma in 3.8% of patients.
  • The histopathological diagnosis of 5 breast tumors was missed.
  • Regional lymph node involvement were diagnosed in 20.7% of patients, and 15.5% patients had distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: this study, in spite of limitations, suggests that the incidence of MBC is increasing, and men are diagnosed with later-stage disease than women.
  • Therefore, MBC screening should become a part of female breast cancer registry system.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology


35. Rachid S, Yacouba H, Hassane N: Male breast cancer: 22 case reports at the National Hospital of Niamey-Niger (West Africa). Pan Afr Med J; 2009;3:15
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  • [Title] Male breast cancer: 22 case reports at the National Hospital of Niamey-Niger (West Africa).
  • BACKGROUND: Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare.
  • The objective of the study is to report clinicopathological characteristics, treatment patterns, and outcomes of MBC.
  • METHOD: This study, which includes two parts (retrospective and prospective), focused on all hospitalized male patients with breast cancer during 17 years (1992-2008) with histological confirmation.
  • MBC represented 5.7% of all breast cancers.
  • Most patients had an advanced disease with skin ulceration and inflammation T3 (31.9%) and T4 (59.1%).
  • Histology found infiltrating ductal carcinoma in 14 cases (63.6%), sarcoma in 3 cases (13.6%), papillary carcinoma in 2 cases (9%), and lobular carcinoma, medullar carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma in 4.6% each of the others cases.
  • The treatment had consisted of a radical mastectomy (Halsted or Patey) in 19 cases (86.4%) with axillary clearance and incomplete resection in 3 cases (13.6%).
  • The absence of radiotherapy and the low access of chemotherapy limited the treatment to radical mastectomy (Halsted) in the majority of cases.

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  • (PMID = 21532724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1937-8688
  • [Journal-full-title] The Pan African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pan Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Uganda
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2984291
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Male breast cancer / Niger / treatment
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36. Geylan-Su YS, Isgör B, Coban T, Kapucuoglu N, Aydintug S, Iscan M, Iscan M, Güray T: Comparison of NAT1, NAT2 and GSTT2-2 activities in normal and neoplastic human breast tissues. Neoplasma; 2006;53(1):73-8
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  • [Title] Comparison of NAT1, NAT2 and GSTT2-2 activities in normal and neoplastic human breast tissues.
  • In this study, arylamine N-acetyltransferases, NATs (E.C.2.3.1.5) and glutathione-S-transferase-T2-2, GSTT2-2 (E.C.2.5.1.18) enzyme activities in the breast tumor and surrounding tumor-free tissues of 22 female breast cancer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma were measured.
  • The possible impacts of grade of malignancy, chemotherapy treatment, estrogen receptor status and menopausal status on all enzyme activities were evaluated.
  • The results showed that, both NAT2 and GSTT2-2 display significant differences between tumor and tumor-free breast tissues, while no difference was observed in NAT1.
  • Though, both NAT2 and GSTT2-2 have increased mean tumor activities, the grade of malignancy, chemotherapy status, menopausal status or estrogen receptor status are not correlated statistically.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. Breast / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / enzymology. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Isoenzymes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16416017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 2.3.1.5 / Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.5 / N-acetyltransferase 1; EC 2.3.1.5 / NAT2 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.- / GSTT2 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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37. Kwon GY, Hong SA, Hong ME, Park ES, Yoo JH, Lee TJ: Fine needle aspiration biopsy for the diagnosis of thymoma metastatic to the breast: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):798-802
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration biopsy for the diagnosis of thymoma metastatic to the breast: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Extrathoracic metastases of thymomas are extremely rare, with only 9 documented cases in the cytologic literature, and a thymoma metastasis to the breast has not been reported before.
  • Here we report the cytologic findings on fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for the diagnosis of a case of thymoma metastatic to the breast.
  • CASE: A 73-year-old woman presented with a palpable mass in the right breast.
  • A sonogram revealed a discrete, hypoechoic nodule in the upper inner quadrant of the breast.
  • She had a history of mediastinal thymoma 2 years earlier, which was treated with chemotherapy because of inoperability.
  • FNAB was performed: the cytologic specimen showed epithelial cell clusters with a few entrapped lymphocytes, suggestive of metastatic thymoma.
  • However, the differential diagnosis also included a primary malignancy such as poorly differentiated ductal carcinoma or medullary carcinoma of the breast.
  • CONCLUSION: An FNAB-based diagnosis of this rare entity can be an appropriate, simple and minimally invasive procedure in the right clinical setting and with the appropriate patient history.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Larsen CJ: [The inhibition of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) pathway improves the effects of chemotherapy in a model of ductal carcinoma of the pancreas in mice]. Bull Cancer; 2009 Sep;96(9):829
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  • [Title] [The inhibition of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) pathway improves the effects of chemotherapy in a model of ductal carcinoma of the pancreas in mice].
  • [Transliterated title] L'inhibition de la voie Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) améliore les effets de la chimiothérapie dans un modèle d'adénocarcinome pancréatique canalaire chez la souris.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / drug therapy. Hedgehog Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Veratrum Alkaloids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacokinetics. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / pharmacokinetics. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Mice

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  • (PMID = 19810163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Hedgehog Proteins; 0 / IPI-926; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Shh protein, mouse; 0 / Veratrum Alkaloids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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39. Aoyagi H, Kaneko J, Makinose T, Someno Y, Katsuta E, Saguchi M, Okubo K, Hamada S, Sekine T, Sato T, Sugihara K, Maejima S: [A case of stage IV breast cancer responding to S-1 therapy after FEC and PTX therapies]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2474-6
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  • [Title] [A case of stage IV breast cancer responding to S-1 therapy after FEC and PTX therapies].
  • In November 2005, a 34-year-old female presented to our department with a bleeding tumor on her right breast.
  • An exposed tumor was observed with a diameter of approximately 8 cm located in the right breast.
  • It was diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma by biopsy (ER (+), PgR (+), and HERS2: 1 +).
  • The diagnosis was made as right breast cancer (T4c, N3c, M1, and stage IV).
  • The patient received 4 courses of FEC therapy and 4 courses of PTX therapy.
  • Thus, an administration of S-1 was initiated.
  • A total of 24 courses have been performed to the present time, and the patient's conditions have not been aggravated in approximately 3 years and 5 months.
  • S-1 administrations can be an effective treatment for advanced breast cancer resistant to anthracycline and taxane when considering a satisfactory QOL of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal / drug therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Pentoxifylline / therapeutic use. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20037460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; SD6QCT3TSU / Pentoxifylline; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FEC protocol
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40. Palma M, Mancuso A, Grifalchi F, Lugini A, Pizzardi N, Cortesi E: Atrial fibrillation during adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel: a case report. Tumori; 2002 Nov-Dec;88(6):527-9
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  • [Title] Atrial fibrillation during adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel: a case report.
  • A 46-year-old woman had an episode of atrial fibrillation during infusion of docetaxel as adjuvant chemotherapy for an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • All cardiological tests performed before treatment were normal and there was no evidence of thyroid dysfunction nor any objective or anamnestic data indicating acute or chronic cardiovascular disease.
  • None of the drugs administered has ever shown any proarrhythmic activity.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12597151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FEC protocol
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41. Maughan KL, Lutterbie MA, Ham PS: Treatment of breast cancer. Am Fam Physician; 2010 Jun 1;81(11):1339-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of breast cancer.
  • Understanding breast cancer treatment options can help family physicians care for their patients during and after cancer treatment.
  • This article reviews typical treatments based on stage, histology, and biomarkers.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ does not require treatment.
  • Ductal carcinoma in situ can progress to invasive cancer and is treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy without further lymph node exploration or systemic therapy.
  • Stages I and II breast cancers are usually treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy.
  • Radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery decreases mortality and recurrence.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy is considered for most breast cancers with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, and it does not have the adverse effects of arm swelling and pain that are associated with axillary lymph node dissection.
  • Choice of adjuvant systemic therapy depends on lymph node involvement, hormone receptor status, ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu) overexpression, and patient age and menopausal status.
  • In general, node-positive breast cancer is treated systemically with chemotherapy, endocrine therapy (for hormone receptor-positive cancer), and trastuzumab (for cancer overexpressing ERBB2).
  • Anthracycline- and taxane-containing chemotherapeutic regimens are active against breast cancer.
  • Stage III breast cancer typically requires induction chemotherapy to downsize the tumor to facilitate breast-conserving surgery.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer, although considered stage III, is aggressive and requires induction chemotherapy followed by mastectomy, rather than breastconserving surgery, as well as axillary lymph node dissection and chest wall radiation.
  • Prognosis is poor in women with recurrent or metastatic (stage IV) breast cancer, and treatment options must balance benefits in length of life and reduced pain against harms from treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • [CommentIn] Am Fam Physician. 2010 Jun 1;81(11):1330-2 [20521750.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am Fam Physician. 2011 Mar 1;83(5):507; author reply 507 [21391515.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am Fam Physician. 2011 Mar 1;83(5):502-6; author reply 507 [21391514.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am Fam Physician. 2010 Jun 1;81(11):1347-9 [20527363.001]
  • (PMID = 20521754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0650
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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42. Haid A: [Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. Technique and indication-standard of care]. Rozhl Chir; 2005 Mar;84(3):117-23
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  • [Title] [Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. Technique and indication-standard of care].
  • Sentinel node biopsy proved to be a useful and accurate procedure for axillary staging in breast cancer.
  • Accepted indications are uni- and multifical tumor less than 3 cm without suspicious findings in the axilla, further in patients with large ductal carcinoma in situ and after preoperative chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 15938375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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43. Ohyama C, Takyu S, Yoshikawa K, Suzuki H, Tezuka F, Hasuda A, Inaba Y, Hoshi S, Orikasa S: Adenocarcinoma arising from the prostatic duct mimicking transitional cell carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2001 Jul;8(7):408-11
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma arising from the prostatic duct mimicking transitional cell carcinoma.
  • A 71-year-old man was first diagnosed with primary transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate with a skip lesion on the distal urethra.
  • The patient received three courses of intra-arterial chemotherapy of cisplatin (CDDP) and pirarubicin (THP-ADM) followed by a radical prostatectomy.
  • Histopathologic examination of the prostatectomy specimen revealed adenocarcinoma invasion along the prostatic duct extending to the peripheral acini, which was diagnosed as ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • This rare histopathologic feature should be recognized as 'ductal carcinoma of the prostate', to distinguish it from papillary adenocarcinoma or adenocarcinoma with endometrioid features.
  • CDDP-based chemotherapy followed by radical prostatectomy may be one of the promising therapeutic modalities for this rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11442666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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44. Levsky JM, Shanmugam N, Jana S: Benign tongue FDG uptake in a patient with tardive dyskinesia. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 May;33(5):342-3
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  • Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET-CT) is the modality of choice for diagnosis, staging, and restaging of many malignancies.
  • We present a case of benign uptake in the tongue secondary to tardive dyskinesia in a 62-year-old woman referred for staging of ductal carcinoma of the breast who was concurrently receiving oral therapy for schizoaffective disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Akathisia, Drug-Induced / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Tongue / radionuclide imaging. Tongue Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18431151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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45. Perera F, Yu E, Engel J, Holliday R, Scott L, Chisela F, Venkatesan V: Patterns of breast recurrence in a pilot study of brachytherapy confined to the lumpectomy site for early breast cancer with six years' minimum follow-up. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Dec 1;57(5):1239-46
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  • [Title] Patterns of breast recurrence in a pilot study of brachytherapy confined to the lumpectomy site for early breast cancer with six years' minimum follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: In this pilot study of high-dose-rate brachytherapy to the lumpectomy site as the sole radiation, ipsilateral and contralateral breast recurrences are documented with specific attention to the location of recurrence relative to the lumpectomy site.
  • METHODS: Between March 1992 and January 1996, 39 patients with T1 (32 patients) and T2 breast cancers received 37.2 Gy in 10 fractions (b.i.d.) over 1 week prescribed to a volume encompassing the surgical clips.
  • Thirteen received adjuvant tamoxifen, and 4 received chemotherapy.
  • Follow-up included annual bilateral mammograms and clinical breast examination every 3 to 6 months.
  • The latter group and 7 of the former group had surgical clips marking the lumpectomy site, which allowed estimates of the distance of any ipsilateral breast recurrence from the lumpectomy site, using the mediolateral and cranio-caudad mammographic views.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 91 months, 33 women are alive, 4 have died of disease, and 2 have died of other causes.
  • The 5-year actuarial rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 16.2%.
  • One of the 2 patients had a 1-mm microscopic margin at initial diagnosis; the recurrence was a 3.5-mm microscopic focus of duct carcinoma in situ.
  • The other patient had a 1.5-cm, high-grade infiltrating mammary carcinoma with no residual at wider resection at first diagnosis; the 5-mm invasive recurrence was also of high grade.
  • Four women developed invasive recurrences at least 1.6 cm or more from the lumpectomy site (out-of-field recurrences).
  • All ipsilateral breast recurrences were salvaged by mastectomy (4 patients) or by repeat lumpectomy (2 patients) and whole-breast radiation.
  • There were two contralateral breast recurrences at intervals of 34 and 36 months; 1 of these patients also had a multifocal, ipsilateral recurrence at 58 months, as previously described.
  • Among patients with any breast recurrence, 1 patient had a family history of prostate cancer; there was no family history of breast or ovarian cancer.
  • Of 17 patients who received adjuvant systemic therapy, only 1 had a breast recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, breast recurrences outside of the lumpectomy site were the predominant pattern of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pilot Projects. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Dec 1;57(5):1214-6 [14630253.001]
  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Dec 1;57(5):1210-3 [14630252.001]
  • (PMID = 14630257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Wang ZB, Zhao P, Liu M, Li XH: [Expression of ER, PR and cyclin D1 in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma and their clinicopathological significance]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Mar 2;85(8):514-7
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  • [Title] [Expression of ER, PR and cyclin D1 in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma and their clinicopathological significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of cyclin D1, ER, and PR gene proteins and to analyze their relevance to tumor biological characteristics, chemotherapy effects, diseases free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining techniques was used to detect the expression of cyclin D1, ER and PR gene protein in 100 samples of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma patients, all female, aged 49.49 +/- 10.81 (28 approximately 92).
  • For those patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, the expression of ER and PR were correlated with a better prognosis and longer DFS.
  • The patients with cyclin D1 negative tumor, who received CAF, had a mean DFS of 51.6 months and a mean OS of 57 months in comparison with 24.8 months and 31.2 months for those patients who received other chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma patients expression of ER and of PR are correlated with longer DFS, cyclin D1 expression is correlated with longer OS.
  • For the patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, the expression of ER and PR correlated to a better prognosis and longer DFS.
  • The patients with cyclin D1 negative tumor who receive CAF chemotherapy have longer DFS and OS than those receiving other chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15949328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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47. Ottini L, Palli D, Rizzo S, Federico M, Bazan V, Russo A: Male breast cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2010 Feb;73(2):141-55
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  • [Title] Male breast cancer.
  • Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors.
  • During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC).
  • About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns.
  • To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC.
  • Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice.
  • When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy


48. Gundry KR: The application of breast MRI in staging and screening for breast cancer. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Feb;19(2):159-69; discussion 170, 173-4, 177
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  • [Title] The application of breast MRI in staging and screening for breast cancer.
  • Contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a relatively new but increasingly used modality for the detection of breast cancer.
  • MRI has demonstrated utility in identifying additional tumor foci and extent of disease in patients with known breast cancer.
  • This is especially useful with invasive lobular carcinoma, which is difficult to evaluate on mammography.
  • MRI has been found to identify the primary tumor in 70% to 86% of cases of occult breast cancer.
  • Contrast-enhanced breast MRI has shown some usefulness in the detection of residual cancer following surgery but is limited by postoperative changes.
  • In patients who have undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy, breast MRI is most accurate in those patients in whom there is little or no response to chemotherapy.
  • The use of contrast-enhanced breast MRlfor breast cancer screening is controversial.
  • The limitations of breast MRI include uptake in benign lesions and normal tissue, sensitivity for ductal carcinoma in situ, cost, and availability.
  • This paper will discuss the uses, benefits, and limitations of contrast-enhanced breast MRI in the staging and screening of breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 15770888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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49. Hurley J, Franco S, Gomez-Fernandez C, Reis I, Velez P, Doliny P, Harrington W Jr, Wilkinson J, Kanhoush R, Lee Y: Breast cancer and human immunodeficiency virus: a report of 20 cases. Clin Breast Cancer; 2001 Oct;2(3):215-20; discussion 221
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  • [Title] Breast cancer and human immunodeficiency virus: a report of 20 cases.
  • Carcinoma of the breast is the most common malignancy in women in the United States.
  • More than 40% of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection develop cancer during their illness, but breast cancer has seldom been reported.
  • Twenty patients with breast cancer and HIV infection seen at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital between January 1988 and August 2000 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Seventeen patients had a previous or concurrent diagnosis of HIV at the time of the breast cancer diagnosis.
  • All stages of breast cancer were seen: ductal carcinoma in situ (2 patients), stage I (1 patient), stage II (9 patients), stage III (6 patients), and stage IV (2 patients).
  • Seven patients received chemotherapy with very poor tolerance.
  • Of the 18 patients who presented with local disease, 7 have died: 2 of breast cancer, 4 of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and 1 of cardiac arrest.
  • Nine patients remain free of disease (5 of them > 5 years) and 2 patients are alive with metastatic disease.
  • Breast cancer in the HIV-positive population is similar to that seen in seronegative women.
  • The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy are not clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / virology. HIV Seropositivity / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Cause of Death. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Florida / epidemiology. Hospitals, University. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Premenopause. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


50. Chen JH, Feig B, Agrawal G, Yu H, Carpenter PM, Mehta RS, Nalcioglu O, Su MY: MRI evaluation of pathologically complete response and residual tumors in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer; 2008 Jan 1;112(1):17-26
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  • [Title] MRI evaluation of pathologically complete response and residual tumors in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study investigated the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of pathologically complete response and residual tumors in patients who were receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for both positive and negative HER-2 breast cancer.
  • On the basis of the final MRI, response was determined to be a clinically complete response ([CCR], no enhancement), probable CCR (residual enhancement equal to or less than that of glandular tissue), or residual tumor.
  • Pathological outcomes were categorized as 1) no residual cancer, 2) no residual invasive cancer but ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) present, or 3) residual invasive cancer.
  • The pathologically complete response (pCR) was defined as no invasive cancer.
  • The accuracy of MRI in identifying pCR varied according to the chemotherapy agent that was administered.
  • The high false-negative rate found in HER-2 negative patients was associated with residual disease that presented as scattered cells or small foci.
  • Results indicate that the chemotherapy agent should be taken into consideration when using MRI to interpret therapeutic outcomes.

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  • [Copyright] 2007 American Cancer Society
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2008 Apr 1;112(7):1642. Feig, Byon [corrected to Feig, Byron]
  • (PMID = 18000804.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA062203; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90437
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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51. Gilleard O, Goodman A, Cooper M, Davies M, Dunn J: The significance of the Van Nuys prognostic index in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:61
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  • [Title] The significance of the Van Nuys prognostic index in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Debate regarding the benefit of radiotherapy after local excision of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) continues.
  • Recently published interim data from the Sloane project has showed that the VNPI score did significantly affect the chances of getting planned radiotherapy in the UK, suggesting that British clinicians may already be using this scoring system to assist in decision making.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all patients (n = 215) who underwent breast conserving surgery for DCIS at a single institution between 1997-2006.
  • No patients included in the study received additional radiotherapy or hormonal treatment.
  • Kaplan Meier survival curves were calculated, to determine disease free survival, for the total sample and a series of univariate analyses were performed to examine the value of various prognostic factors including the VNPI.
  • The observed and the actuarial 8 year disease-free survival rates in this study were 91% and 83% respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: This follow-up study of 215 patients with DCIS treated with local excision and observation alone is one of the largest series in which rates of recurrence are unaffected by radiation therapy, hormone manipulation or chemotherapy.
  • It has afforded us the opportunity to assess the prognostic impact of patient and tumour characteristics free of any potentially confounding treatment related influences.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18564426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2459183
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52. Treré D, Montanaro L, Ceccarelli C, Barbieri S, Cavrini G, Santini D, Taffurelli M, Derenzini M: Prognostic relevance of a novel semiquantitative classification of Bcl2 immunohistochemical expression in human infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast. Ann Oncol; 2007 Jun;18(6):1004-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic relevance of a novel semiquantitative classification of Bcl2 immunohistochemical expression in human infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: Bcl2 is an important prognostic parameter in human breast cancer.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the clinical relevance of a novel, semiquantitative classification of the Bcl2 immunostaining based on both the distribution and the intensity of the staining reaction.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The proposed classification was first validated in 69 breast cancer specimens by comparing the Bcl2 immunostaining with the Bcl2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels evaluated by real-time RT-PCR.
  • Since a highly significant association was found between protein and mRNA for Bcl2, the immunohistochemical scoring system was applied to 442 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinomas of the breast with long-term follow-up (median observation time 106 months).
  • In this regard, of particular interest was the observation of a subgroup of node-negative breast cancer patients with a negative Bcl2 immunostaining, who had a very high probability of relapse or death (respectively about five and seven times greater than patients with a positive Bcl2 immunostaining).
  • Moreover, the Bcl2 variable retained prognostic significance also in subgroups of patients treated with either adjuvant endocrine therapy or chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that in breast cancer, Bcl2 protein expression parallels its mRNA level, and it has a highly significant and independent prognostic relevance.

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  • (PMID = 17372162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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53. Nagahama M, Sica DA: Pamidronate-induced kidney injury in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. Am J Med Sci; 2009 Sep;338(3):225-8
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  • [Title] Pamidronate-induced kidney injury in a patient with metastatic breast cancer.
  • The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends bisphosphonate use, such as intravenous pamidronate, for women with breast cancer who have radiographic evidence of bone destruction.
  • However, pamidronate therapy has been associated with the development of the nephrotic syndrome.
  • This renal abnormality has been posited to be due to a number of different mechanisms, including collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).
  • We present one such case of a patient who developed collapsing FSGS with nephrotic-range proteinuria after treatment with pamidronate for osteolytic bone metastases from an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • Thus, prevention or early detection rather than effective therapy should be the primary consideration.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diphosphonates / adverse effects. Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / chemically induced. Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apoptosis. Female. Humans. Mitochondria / drug effects


54. Baslaim MM, Bakheet SM, Bakheet R, Ezzat A, El-Foudeh M, Tulbah A: 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in inflammatory breast cancer. World J Surg; 2003 Oct;27(10):1099-104
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  • [Title] 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in inflammatory breast cancer.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of locally advanced breast cancer.
  • We evaluated the usefulness of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans for diagnosing and staging IBC.
  • Four patients had follow-up PET scans after chemotherapy.
  • All seven patients presented with diffuse breast enlargement, redness, and peau d'orange for 1 to 5 months' duration.
  • In addition, four patients had a palpable breast mass, and three had axillary lymph node enlargement.
  • There was no evidence of distant metastasis on computed tomography of the chest or abdomen.
  • Pathologic examination of breast biopsy specimens showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma in six patients, and one had lobular carcinoma.
  • All patients had prechemotherapy whole-body PET scans that showed diffuse FDG uptake in the breast with superimposed intense foci in the primary tumor.
  • The FDG-PET scan is thus useful for displaying the pattern of FDG breast uptake that reflects the extent of the pathologic involvement in IBC (i.e., diffuse breast involvement and dermal lymphatic spread).
  • It can also detect the presence of lymph node and skeletal metastases, demarcating the extent of the disease locally as well as distally.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnostic imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Mastitis / diagnostic imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Tomography, Emission-Computed


55. Bakkali H, Marchal C, Lesur-Schwander A, Verhaeghe JL: [Breast cancer in women thirty years old or less]. Cancer Radiother; 2003 Jun;7(3):153-9
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  • [Title] [Breast cancer in women thirty years old or less].
  • [Transliterated title] Le cancer du sein chez la femme de 30 ans et moins.
  • PURPOSE: Breast cancer rarely occurs in very young women, its diagnosis and management could sometimes be difficult.
  • Our aim is to analyse the epidemiological and clinicopathological features of a group of very young women and especially to evaluate the results of therapeutic strategy.
  • METHODS: We report a retrospective study conducted at the department of radiotherapy in Alexis-Vautrin Centre, concerning 30 patients aged < or = 30 years in whom a diagnosis of invasive breast carcinoma was made between 1986 and 2001.
  • RESULTS: Six patients had familial history of breast cancer.
  • Eleven patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 23 (82%) of 28 operable cases of invasive malignancy underwent breast conservative surgery (BCS).
  • We found an invasive ductal carcinoma with grade III in 13/27 cases and a nodal involvement in a half of cases, 11 patients of 26 had no expression of oestrogen receptor.
  • The average follow-up was 5 years: six patients (20%) recurred locally (all of them were initially treated by BCS), four patients developed a contralateral breast cancer and three developed a second malignancy.
  • Ten patients died of their metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with those of the published reports and suggest that very young women with breast cancer have a poorer prognosis compared with the older ones.
  • They should receive, according to their prognostic factors, an appropriate regional, systemic and hormonal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / epidemiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. France / epidemiology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Palpation. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12834769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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56. Cao S, Kang HG, Liu YX, Ren XB: Synchronous infiltrating ductal carcinoma and primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the breast. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:43
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  • [Title] Synchronous infiltrating ductal carcinoma and primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the breast.
  • Plasmacytomas of the breast are rare, especially when not associated multiple myeloma.
  • Synchronous infiltrating ductal carcinoma and primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the breast have not previously reported.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-years-old woman with an untreated upper outer quadrant breast mass for 1-year was referred to our cancer hospital for surgical evaluation of increasing breast pain.
  • Postoperatively, microscopic examination revealed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma complicated by an extramedullary plasmacytoma divided by fibrous tissue in one section.
  • Following surgery, the patient received chemotherapy for the carcinoma and radiotherapy for the plasmacytoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In this case, careful histopathology examination was essential to make the correct diagnosis and therapy for these synchronous lesions.
  • The patient finished chemotherapy and radiotherapy without significant adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Plasmacytoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19393076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2680856
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57. Yeh CN, Jan YY, Yeh TS, Hwang TL, Chen MF: Hepatic resection of the intraductal papillary type of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2004 Jun;11(6):606-11
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  • [Title] Hepatic resection of the intraductal papillary type of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (PCC) can be grossly classified into mass-forming, periductal-infiltrating, and intraductal papillary (IP) types.
  • However, more IP-PCC patients exhibited signs during admission, and more had ALT values >36 IU/L; they also had smaller tumors, more mucobilia association, and tumors in earlier stages and had undergone more postoperative chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IP-PCC patients had significantly better survival than non-IP-PCC patients, and aggressive curative hepatic resection is associated with a longer survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Hepatectomy

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  • (PMID = 15172934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Kim HJ, Im YH, Han BK, Choi N, Lee J, Kim JH, Choi YL, Ahn JS, Nam SJ, Park YS, Choe YH, Ko YH, Yang JH: Accuracy of MRI for estimating residual tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer: relation to response patterns on MRI. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(7):996-1003
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  • [Title] Accuracy of MRI for estimating residual tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer: relation to response patterns on MRI.
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for estimating residual tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer and assessed whether the tumor pattern on MRI after chemotherapy influenced the accuracy of the MRI measurement of the residual tumor size.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and docetaxel for locally advanced breast cancer were evaluated with MRI before and after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MRI is an accurate method for predicting the extent of residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy; however, it may overestimate the residual disease, especially in cases showing a nest or rim tumor pattern and in those having combined lesions with ductal carcinoma in situ or multiple scattered nodules after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17851879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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59. Sauter ER, Ehya H, Mammen A, Klein G: Nipple aspirate cytology and pathologic parameters predict residual cancer and nodal involvement after excisional breast biopsy. Br J Cancer; 2001 Dec 14;85(12):1952-7
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  • [Title] Nipple aspirate cytology and pathologic parameters predict residual cancer and nodal involvement after excisional breast biopsy.
  • We previously demonstrated that abnormal nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) cytology predicted residual breast cancer (RC) and tumour size after excisional biopsy (EB), although normal NAF cytology did not exclude RC.
  • Tumour size correlates with the risk of lymph node (LN) metastases.
  • LN metastases provide prognostic information allowing medical and radiation oncologists to determine the need for adjuvant therapy.
  • We hypothesized that pathologic factors known after EB, combined with NAF cytology, would predict with a high degree of accuracy the presence of RC and LN spread.
  • NAF cytology and pathologic parameters: tumour distance from biopsy margins, multifocal and multicentric disease, sub-type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive cancer (IC), grade of DCIS or IC, tumour and specimen size, tumour and biopsy cavity location, presence or absence of extensive DCIS, and biopsy scar distance from the nipple were evaluated bivariately and then by logistic regression (LR) for their association with RC and involved LN (> or = 1 (+) LN, useful to determine chemotherapy need, and > or = 4 (+) LN, useful to determine radiation need to the chest and axilla).
  • Tumour size and NAF cytology predicted which patients had > or = 1 (+) LN, whereas tumour and specimen size predicted which patients had > or = 4 (+) LN.
  • We propose an algorithm which, if confirmed in a larger study, may allow clinicians to be more selective in their recommendations of re-excision breast biopsy or mastectomy.

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  • (PMID = 11747339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 87391
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364009
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60. Ross JS, Gray GS: Targeted therapy for cancer: the HER-2/neu and Herceptin story. Clin Leadersh Manag Rev; 2003 Nov-Dec;17(6):333-40
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  • [Title] Targeted therapy for cancer: the HER-2/neu and Herceptin story.
  • In this article, the association of HER-2/neu gene and protein abnormalities with prognosis and response to therapy with Herceptin and other therapies in breast cancer is presented.
  • By considering a series of 80 published studies encompassing more than 25,000 patients, the relative advantages and disadvantages of Southern blotting, polymerase chain reaction amplification, and fluorescence in situ hybridization assays designed to detect HER-2/neu gene amplification are compared with HER-2/neu protein overexpression assays performed by immunohistochemical techniques applied to frozen and paraffin-embedded tissues and enzyme immunoassays performed on tumor cytosols.
  • The significance of HER-2/neu overexpression in ductal carcinoma in situ and the HER-2/neu status in uncommon female breast conditions and male breast cancer also are considered.
  • The role of HER-2/neu testing for the prediction of response to Herceptin therapy in breast cancer is presented as well as its potential impact on responses to standard and newer hormonal therapies, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and radiation.
  • The review also will evaluate the status of serum-based testing for circulating HER-2/neu receptor protein and its ability to predict disease outcome and therapy response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, erbB-2 / genetics. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Biomarkers, Tumor. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 14692077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3954
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical leadership & management review : the journal of CLMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Leadersh Manag Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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61. Rodríguez-Pinilla SM, Rodríguez-Gil Y, Moreno-Bueno G, Sarrió D, Martín-Guijarro Mdel C, Hernandez L, Palacios J: Sporadic invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features display a basal-like phenotype: an immunohistochemical and gene amplification study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):501-8
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  • [Title] Sporadic invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features display a basal-like phenotype: an immunohistochemical and gene amplification study.
  • It is not clear whether invasive breast carcinomas with medullary features (IBCMFs, atypical medullary carcinomas) constitute a specific phenotype of breast cancer that is of biologic significance.
  • Because medullary features are common in BRCA1-associated carcinomas and these tumors frequently show a basal-like phenotype, we examined whether IBCMFs expressed basal/myoepithelial markers and had a basal-like phenotype.
  • We studied the immunohistochemical expression of 15 markers in tissue microarrays containing samples from 35 IBCMFs and 39 grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCG3s) of no special type.
  • The identification of IBCMF as an independent group of tumors could be of clinical significance, given the high incidence of cases with a basal-like phenotype, which is a group of tumors with different prognosis and chemotherapy response from those of IDCG3s of no special type.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin E / genetics. Female. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-1. Genes, myc. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Tissue Array Analysis


62. Lanitis S, Sivakumar S, Behranwala K, Zacharakis E, Al Mufti R, Hadjiminas DJ: A case of Meigs syndrome mimicking metastatic breast carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:10
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  • [Title] A case of Meigs syndrome mimicking metastatic breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Adnexal masses are not uncommon in patients with breast cancer.
  • Breast cancer and ovarian malignancies are known to be associated.
  • In patients with breast cancer and co-existing pleural effusions, ascites and adnexal masses, the probability of disseminated disease is high.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year old woman presented with a 4 cm, grade 2, invasive ductal carcinoma of her left breast.
  • Pre-treatment staging investigations showed a 13.5 cm mass in her left ovary, a small amount of ascites and a large right pleural effusion.
  • The patient was strongly against mastectomy and she was commenced on neo-adjuvant Letrozole 2.5 mg daily with a view to perform breast conserving surgery.
  • After a good response to the hormone manipulation, the patient had breast conserving surgery, axillary sampling and laparoscopic excision of the ovarian mass which was eventually found to be a benign ovarian fibroma.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the high probability of disseminated malignancy when an ovarian mass associated with ascites if found in a patient with a breast cancer and pleural effusion, clinicians should be aware about rare benign syndromes, like Meigs', which may mimic a similar picture and mislead the diagnosis and management plan.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Fibroma / diagnosis. Meigs Syndrome / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Pleural Effusion / diagnosis. Pleural Effusion / drug therapy. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19161612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 7LKK855W8I / letrozole
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2633000
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63. Sauer T: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years. Cytojournal; 2010;7:10
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of extra mammary metastatic lesions in the breast: A retrospective study of 36 cases diagnosed during 18 years.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic tumors in the breast require treatment according to origin and type of tumor.
  • It is important to recognize these lesions in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in order to avoid unnecessary mastectomy or non-relevant chemotherapy.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytological features of metastatic tumors and possible criteria that could alert us as to the possibility of a metastasis from an extra mammary malignancy.
  • METHODS: The material included 36 confirmed or suspected metastases in the breast registered in the pathology files at Oslo University Hospital, Ulleval, during 1990-2007.
  • There were a total of 6,325 cases of malignant breast FNAC, representing 30 men and 6,295 women.
  • All carcinomas were graded.
  • A large proportion of them (88%) are high-grade adenocarcinomas and poorly differentiated carcinomas that may resemble grade 3 ductal carcinomas.
  • Unusual clinical and/or radiological presentation in combination with high-grade malignant cells should alert us to consider the possibility of a metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 20806071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924528
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast / FNAC / cytological features / extra mammary / grade / metastases
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64. Lemos LB, Qu Z, Garg K, Papasozomenos S: Pseudoneoplastic proliferation of histiocytes with paclitaxel-induced ultrastructural changes in a mastectomy specimen. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2004 Oct;8(5):299-304
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  • A 49-year-old Hispanic woman with a T4N1M0 infiltrating duct carcinoma of the left breast underwent four courses of FAC (doxorubicin 86 mg, 5-fluorouracil 860 mg, cyclophosphamide 86 mg, and dexamethasone 10 mg) adjuvant chemotherapy plus four courses of paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Oncology, Princeton, NJ) and subsequent mastectomy.
  • The tumor shrunk from 6.5 cm to 2.5 cm after the treatment.
  • The tumor showed typical chemotherapy changes and a massive proliferation of histiocytes that mimicked a neoplasm.
  • A nodular proliferation of the same cells in one axillary node raised the impression of a second malignant tumor in the breast spreading to the node.
  • These findings ruled out histiocytoid carcinoma, granular cell tumor, and Erdheim-Chester disease.
  • The treated breast carcinoma cells were tubulin-positive but the proliferating histiocytes were tubulin-negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Histiocytes / ultrastructure. Mastectomy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Intermediate Filaments / drug effects. Intermediate Filaments / ultrastructure. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Tubulin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15494938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tubulin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CAF protocol
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65. Terashima M, Ogawa Y, Kariya S, Inomata T, Nishioka A, Shimizu K, Yamanishi T, Tanaka Y, Tochika N, Yoshida S: Breast-conservation treatment for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ. Oncol Rep; 2000 Nov-Dec;7(6):1247-52
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  • [Title] Breast-conservation treatment for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Fourteen cases with symptomatic ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were treated with breast-conservation treatment intensified with endocrine therapy.
  • There was no patient selection for breast-conservation treatment in our department.
  • All patients received tangential and boost radiation, and were treated with endocrine therapy using anti-estrogen drugs.
  • The reason that nine cases had close margins (<5 mm) might be on account of the treatment including lumpectomy with 1 cm of surgical margin.
  • Therefore, our breast-conservation treatment intensified with systemic therapy is thought to be adequate for patients with symptomatic DCIS.
  • Six of eight cases who received preoperative treatment containing endocrine therapy with or without CAF chemotherapy showed a decrease in tumor size.
  • Preoperative treatment may effect the microinvasion and/or breast tissue surrounding a DCIS tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mammography. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Toremifene / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11032924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GREECE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CAF protocol 2
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66. Fehr MK: [Limitations of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch; 2005 Jun;45(3):127-31
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  • [Title] [Limitations of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a widely accepted new surgical procedure in the treatment of early breast cancer.
  • However, not only numerous details of the technique, but also limitations of the method, such as maximal tumor size, multifocal disease, accuracy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and appropriateness in ductal carcinoma in situ are being debated.
  • In unifocal T1 disease with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, the method is considered to be standard of care.
  • Evidence is growing that it may also be appropriate in larger and multifocal tumors while the method is unreliable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Quality Assurance, Health Care. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15990436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8843
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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67. Mabry H, Giuliano AE, Silverstein MJ: What is the value of axillary dissection or sentinel node biopsy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ? Am J Surg; 2006 Oct;192(4):455-7
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  • [Title] What is the value of axillary dissection or sentinel node biopsy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ?
  • BACKGROUND: Some surgeons have advocated sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Both patients had mastectomies, were upstaged, received chemotherapy, and survived for more than 10 years without local or distant recurrence.
  • Two patients who underwent SNB had local recurrence, neither developed distant or regional recurrence.
  • Six of 564 patients in the ALND group developed local invasive recurrence and died of metastatic breast cancer, but none of them had positive nodes.
  • It may be indicated for DCIS at high risk for upgrading to invasive cancer on final excision, but reliable criteria for identifying these tumors are not yet available.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / therapy. Lymph Node Excision. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16978948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Bedoschi GM, de Albuquerque FO, Ferriani RA, Navarro PA: Ovarian stimulation during the luteal phase for fertility preservation of cancer patients: case reports and review of the literature. J Assist Reprod Genet; 2010 Aug;27(8):491-4
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  • PURPOSE: To report the case of a patient with a diagnosis of infiltrative ductal carcinoma of the breast (case 1) and of a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma (case 2), both submitted to ovarian stimulation during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in order to cryopreserve embryos and oocytes, respectively, in view of the need to start chemotherapy within a maximum of three weeks.
  • RESULTS: Both patients were submitted to ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone together with pituitary blockade with a GnRH antagonist during the luteal phase of the cycle.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These cases demonstrate that it is possible to obtain mature oocytes when ovarian stimulation is started in the luteal phase in situations in which there is not sufficient time for conventional stimulation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal. Cryopreservation. Embryo, Mammalian. Female. Hodgkin Disease. Humans. Oocytes

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  • (PMID = 20455017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2941583
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69. Kuroi K, Toi M: [Male breast cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2003 May;30(5):599-605
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  • [Title] [Male breast cancer].
  • As male breast cancer remains rare entity (less than 1% of cases of breast cancer), most of our current knowledge of it has been extrapolated from its female counterpart.
  • The prevalence of male breast cancer increases with age, and the presentation occurs at an average age of approximately 60 years, 10 years older than in females with the disease.
  • The majority of patients present with a painless, firm, subareolar mass, and the tumors are usually larger than 2 cm in diameter.
  • Mammography and ultrasonography are useful to distinguish between breast cancer and gynecomastia.
  • Pathologically, invasive ductal carcinoma is the predominant subtype, and lobular carcinoma is rare.
  • Modified radical mastectomy is a principal surgical approach, and adjuvant therapy has been advocated in men based on the beneficial results of it in women.
  • Hormonal manipulations constitute an essential part of adjuvant therapy, as male breast cancers have a high rate of hormone-receptor positivity.
  • Although orchiectomy was practiced in the past, today, tamoxifen is the standard hormone therapy.
  • With respect to systemic chemotherapy, the most common regimens are CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil), or other anthracyclin-based regimens.
  • In cases of disease recurrence, hormonal manipulations, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy can be administered for palliative purposes.
  • Further studies are needed to characterize the biologic and molecular properties of male breast cancer and their prognostic significance, and to devise optimal treatment strategies.
  • However, it is interesting to note that p53 and c-erbB-2, are expressed and angiogenesis occurs in male breast cancer.
  • Moreover, male breast cancer patients can carry BRCA2 mutations.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gynecomastia / radiography. Gynecomastia / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Mammography. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Ultrasonography, Mammary


70. Bonadona V, Dussart-Moser S, Voirin N, Sinilnikova OM, Mignotte H, Mathevet P, Brémond A, Treilleux I, Martin A, Romestaing P, Raudrant D, Rudigoz RC, Lenoir GM, Lasset C: Prognosis of early-onset breast cancer based on BRCA1/2 mutation status in a French population-based cohort and review. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2007 Jan;101(2):233-45
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  • [Title] Prognosis of early-onset breast cancer based on BRCA1/2 mutation status in a French population-based cohort and review.
  • PURPOSE: The debate concerning poorer survival for patients with breast cancer (BC) carrying a BRCA1 germline mutation is unresolved, and requires additional data from population-based studies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We followed 232 women with invasive BC under age 46, ascertained prospectively through a French population-based BC registry and tested for BRCA1/2 mutations (median follow-up: 82 months).
  • RESULTS: As compared to sporadic tumours, BRCA1/2 tumours showed higher grade (P = 0.02), fewer ductal carcinoma in situ (P = 0.02), more frequent medullary histology (P = 0.02), more frequent negative oestrogen and progesterone receptors (P = 0.001 each).
  • 76% of BRCA1/2 carriers received chemotherapy.
  • The high rate of BRCA1 carriers who received chemotherapy for their BC should question the positive impact of this treatment, as suggested by preclinical studies showing increased chemosensitivity of BRCA1-associated tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Genetic Predisposition to Disease


71. Hikino H, Yasui K, Ozaki N, Nagaoka S: Significance of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and thin-slice computed tomography on sentinel node assessment: metastatic sentinel node in a lateral paramammary lesion out of axillary nodes from breast cancer. Radiat Med; 2006 Oct;24(8):583-6
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  • [Title] Significance of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and thin-slice computed tomography on sentinel node assessment: metastatic sentinel node in a lateral paramammary lesion out of axillary nodes from breast cancer.
  • Sentinel node status was evaluated using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in a 43-year-old woman who presented with an invasive ductal carcinoma in the lower outer quadrant of the right breast.
  • The faint accumulation was considered to represent a small paramammary node on thin-slice computed tomography (CT) and was confirmed by node biopsy to be a sentinel node grossly involved with tumor cells.
  • Immediate axillary dissection and adjuvant chemotherapy was subsequently performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


72. Jones RL, Lakhani SR, Ring AE, Ashley S, Walsh G, Smith IE: Pathological complete response and residual DCIS following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2006 Feb 13;94(3):358-62
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  • [Title] Pathological complete response and residual DCIS following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma.
  • Patients who have no residual invasive cancer following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma have a better overall survival than those with residual disease.
  • Many classification systems assessing pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy include residual ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) only in the definition of pathological complete response.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether patients with residual DCIS only have the same prognosis as those with no residual invasive or in situ disease.
  • A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database identified 435 patients, who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable breast cancer between February 1985 and February 2003.
  • Of these, 30 (7%; 95% CI 5-9%) had no residual invasive disease or DCIS and 20 (5%; CI 3-7%) had residual DCIS only.
  • With a median follow-up of 61 months, there was no statistical difference in disease-free survival, 80% (95% CI 60-90%) in those with no residual invasive or in situ disease and 61% (95% CI 35-80%) in those with DCIS only (P=0.4).
  • No significant difference in 5-year overall survival was observed, 93% (95% CI 75-98%) in those with no residual invasive or in situ disease and 82% (95% CI 52-94%) in those with DCIS only (P=0.3).
  • Due to the small number of patients and limited number of events in each group, it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions from this study.
  • Further analyses of other databases are required to confirm our finding of no difference in disease-free and overall survival between patients with residual DCIS and those with no invasive or in situ disease following neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16421590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361141
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73. Kakagia D, Trichas M, Papadopoulos N, Tsalkidis A, Jivannakis T, Tamiolakis D: Ulcerative locally advanced breast cancer: the efficacy of combined anthracycline-based and hormonal therapy. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(6):716-8
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  • [Title] Ulcerative locally advanced breast cancer: the efficacy of combined anthracycline-based and hormonal therapy.
  • AIM: In the literature there are numerous large prospective studies on patients with locally advanced breast cancer, however little is reported on the management of ulcerative breast cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the employment of combined anthracycline-based chemotherapy and hormonal therapy in ulcerative locally advanced mammary carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four patients, aged from 67 to 83 years, presented with ulcerative breast cancer resulting in breast destruction.
  • Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed highly differentiated estrogen receptor-positive ductal carcinomas.
  • Due to their religious beliefs all patients refused any other treatment but chemotherapy.
  • In these patients hemostasis and reduction of bacterial overgrowth were followed by administration of anthracycline-based chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.
  • RESULTS: All patients responded well; ulcer healing and partial remission were achieved for a period ranging from 19 to 28 months before disease progression.
  • CONCLUSION: There is clinical evidence from this study that the combination of anthracycline-based palliative chemotherapy coupled with tamoxifen is beneficial for patients with inoperable ulcerative breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Charcoal / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Greece / epidemiology. Humans. Silver / administration & dosage. Skin Ulcer / pathology. Skin Ulcer / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15597849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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74. Maestroni U, Ferretti S, Dinale F, Froio E, Pilato FP, Ciuffreda M, Mellissari M, Cortellini P: A renal cancer with intermediate characteristics between collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma: case report and review of the literature. Tumori; 2006 Nov-Dec;92(6):545-8
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  • [Title] A renal cancer with intermediate characteristics between collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.
  • Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney is a rare and aggressive neoplasm of the distal collecting tube, often metastatic at the time of the diagnosis, for which there is no established therapy.
  • We herein describe the case of a 65-year-old man with a renal cancer with a particular immunohistochemical pattern and pathologic aspect.
  • The lesion was diagnosed as a tumor borderline between a urothelial carcinoma with intraductal spreading and a collecting duct carcinoma with calyceal and pelvic spreading.
  • The patient is disease-free 11 months after diagnosis, after radical surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin and gemcitabine) and radiotherapy of a local recurrence.
  • Owing to the common embryologic origin of collecting duct and transitional urothelial cells, several authors have reported an association between collecting duct carcinoma and urothelial cancer.
  • The literature is reviewed to evaluate drugs active against urothelial cancer (like ifosfamide, paclitaxel, carboplatin and gemcitabine).
  • This field should be investigated in the future, in the framework of a neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy able to support radical surgery for local and advanced collecting duct carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Urothelium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy / methods


75. Sugie T, Takeuchi E, Kunishima F, Yotsumoto F, Kono Y: A case of ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation in malignant phyllodes tumor. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(3):327-32
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  • [Title] A case of ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation in malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • Carcinoma derived from the lining epithelial cells in malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare neoplasm of the breast and belongs to the category of carcinosarcoma.
  • We report a case of ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation arising in malignant phyllodes tumor.
  • A 54-year-old woman was admitted with a rapidly enlarging left breast mass.
  • A breast tumor with a diameter of 6 cm was located mainly in the left outer area of the breast.
  • A pathological diagnosis of ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation was made by fine needle aspiration and a core needle biopsy.
  • She underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by a modified radical mastectomy with a skin flap.
  • Histopathological examination revealed that the invasive ductal carcinoma with squamous differentiation originated from the lining epithelial cells in malignant phyllodes tumor and that there was no transition area between the carcinomatous and the sarcomatous component.
  • She experienced lung and facial bone metastases, microscopic features of which were consistent with the sarcomatous component of the original breast carcinosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Phyllodes Tumor / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17690514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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76. Kuwahara K, Sasaki T, Kobayashi K, Noma B, Serikawa M, Iiboshi T, Miyata H, Kuwada Y, Murakami M, Yamasaki S, Kariya K, Morinaka K, Chayama K: Gemcitabine suppresses malignant ascites of human pancreatic cancer: correlation with VEGF expression in ascites. Oncol Rep; 2004 Jan;11(1):73-80
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  • Gemcitabine has been prescribed for patients with inoperable human pancreatic ductal carcinoma as a first-line chemotherapy.
  • However, the response rates of patients with malignant ascites who were undergoing systemic chemotherapy were extremely limited.
  • In the present study, we investigated the role of VEGF and the effects of gemcitabine on malignant ascites of human pancreatic ductal carcinoma.
  • As an in vitro assay, the human pancreatic cancer cell line (SUIT-2) was incubated in DMEM supplemented with serially diluted concentrations of gemcitabine for 24 h.
  • As an in vivo assay, a cell suspension (1 x 10(7) cells in 100 microliters PBS) was injected into the intraperitoneal region.
  • The ascites formation and peritoneal dissemination within mice were suppressed by the treatment with gemcitabine.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that expression of VEGF and CD31 in peritoneal nodules was suppressed by gemcitabine treatment, and the VEGF protein level in ascites was significantly decreased by gemcitabine (p<0.05).
  • Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of gemcitabine may be a useful therapeutic approach for patients with malignant ascites in pancreatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Ascitic Fluid / chemistry. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Random Allocation. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 14654905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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77. Hao LS, Wang G, Qian K, Luo T, Li XJ, Wu XT: [HIF-1alpha expression and relationship involving tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis in human breast carcinoma]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2007 Jan;38(1):60-3
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  • [Title] [HIF-1alpha expression and relationship involving tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis in human breast carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of hypoxia- inducible 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) in human breast cancer and its relationship with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA ) protein, other tumor biomarkers and clinical pathologic factors.
  • METHODS: The immunohistochemical staining (SP) was used to measure the expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF and PCNA in human breast fibroadenoma, usual hyperplasia and breast carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: HIF-1alpha was not found expressing in breast fibroadenoma and hyperplastic lesions.
  • In contrast, the positive rate of HIF-1alpha was found in the ductal carcinoma in situ 55% (DCIS, 11/20) and the invasive breast carcinoma 85% (51/60).
  • VEGF positivity in breast carcinoma was 81.3% (65/80).
  • The total positive rate of PCNA in breast carcinoma was 75% (60/80), that in DCIS was 65% (13/20) and that in invasive carcinoma was 78.3% (47/66).
  • Conclusion The upregulated expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF in breast carcinoma has a close relationship with tumor angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation, lymph node metastasis, ER status and stages of histology.
  • This suggests that HIF-1alpha plays an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression of breast carcinoma; is wished to become a new target for radiotherapy, chemotherapy and biotherapy of tumor, which will offer the new ways to diagnosis and treatment of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17294729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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78. Wolff AC, Davidson NE: Use of SERMs for the adjuvant therapy of early-stage breast cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2001 Dec;949:80-8
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  • [Title] Use of SERMs for the adjuvant therapy of early-stage breast cancer.
  • Tamoxifen was the first in a class of drugs now commonly referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs.
  • SERMs exhibit tissue-specific estrogenic agonist/antagonist activity through their ability to bind to the estrogen receptor alpha (ER) protein and interact with coregulatory proteins, thereby modulating transcription of estrogen target genes.
  • Since its first approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1977, tamoxifen has been found to (a) lower the risk of recurrence and death for women with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, irrespective of menopausal and node status or use of adjuvant chemotherapy;.
  • (b) reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer following breast conservation in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); and (c) reduce the risk of breast cancer in high-risk women.
  • Toremifene is the only other SERM approved by the FDA for breast cancer treatment.
  • In addition, strategies to combine SERMs with other endocrine therapy like ovarian suppression or aromatase inhibitors are active areas of investigations.
  • At present, SERMs are recognized as the first targeted and relatively nontoxic medical therapy for women with high-risk or steroid hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen

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  • (PMID = 11795384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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79. Nio Y, Iguchi C, Yamasawa K, Sasaki S, Takamura M, Toga T, Dong M, Itakura M, Tamura K: Apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas. Pancreas; 2001 Apr;22(3):230-9
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  • [Title] Apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas.
  • The present study was designed to assess the clinicopathologic significance of apoptosis and the expression of the apoptosis-inhibitory Bcl-2 protein (pBcl-2) and the apoptosis-promoting Bax protein (pBax) in human invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) of the pancreas.
  • Univariate analysis demonstrated that the degree of apoptosis had no significant influence on the patients' prognosis, pBax or pBcl-2 expression was significantly associated with a better prognosis, and in particular, the pBax(+)pBcl-2(+) group had a significantly higher survival than the other groups.
  • On the other hand, the survival curve of the adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) group was also higher than that of the surgery alone (SA) group, with borderline statistical signfiicance.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pancreatectomy. Prognosis. Survival Rate. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 11291923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0885-3177
  • [Journal-full-title] Pancreas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pancreas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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80. Xue Y, Guo XT, Liu WC: [Clinical research advancement on male breast cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Oct;26(10):1148-52
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  • [Title] [Clinical research advancement on male breast cancer].
  • Male breast cancer is a rare disease and the incidence has increased over the past 25 years.
  • Current knowledge regarding its biology, natural history, and treatment strategies is mainly based on the research findings on female breast cancer.
  • Hormonal imbalances, such as gonadal dysfunction, obesity, and radiation exposure also contribute to the occurrence of male breast cancer.
  • Most cases are ductal tumors and 10% of the cases are ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Indications for radiotherapy, as well as the steps and methods, are similar to that for female breast cancer.
  • Because 90% of the patients are estrogen receptor-positive, tamoxifen is a standard adjuvant therapy, but some individuals could also benefit from chemotherapy.
  • In this article, the latest information on the epidemiology, biology, and treatment of male breast cancer is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Mastectomy / methods. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging


81. Horii R, Akiyama F, Kasumi F, Koike M, Sakamoto G: Spontaneous " healing" of breast cancer. Breast Cancer; 2005;12(2):140-4
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  • [Title] Spontaneous " healing" of breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Healing is a phenomenon by which the intraductal component of breast cancer disappears and is replaced by fibrous tissue.
  • Focally localized healing often prevents confirmation of the continuity of intraductal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of breast cancer with healing.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: At our hospital, 308 patients (311 breasts) underwent breast conservation therapy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer in 2000.
  • We assessed the proportion and the characteristics of breast cancer with healing. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The proportion of breast cancer with healing was 7% (21/311). (2) In the 21 patients, the mean age was 59.2 years, and the mean diameter was 2.8 cm. (3) The histological type of the breast cancer varied: noninvasive ductal carcinoma in 2 cases, papillotubular carcinoma in 5, solid-tubular carcinoma in 8, scirrhous carcinoma in 5, invasive lobular carcinoma in 1, and Paget's disease in 1.
  • However in all cases, the histologic type of the intraductal carcinoma foci was the comedo/solid type and the nuclear grade of cancer cells was high. (4) In cases with healing, areas of healing were seen in an average of 5 (1-26) blocks, compared with intraductal carcinoma foci in 13 blocks (2-40).
  • CONCLUSION: The proportion of breast cancer cases with healing was 7% and these cases were intraductal carcinoma of the comedo/solid type, consisting of highly malignant cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15858446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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82. Tubbs RR, Pettay JD, Roche PC, Stoler MH, Jenkins RB, Grogan TM: Discrepancies in clinical laboratory testing of eligibility for trastuzumab therapy: apparent immunohistochemical false-positives do not get the message. J Clin Oncol; 2001 May 15;19(10):2714-21
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  • [Title] Discrepancies in clinical laboratory testing of eligibility for trastuzumab therapy: apparent immunohistochemical false-positives do not get the message.
  • BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported what seem to be false-positive results using the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HercepTest (Dako Corp, Carpinteria, CA) to profile Her-2/neu amplification and overproduction in breast carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred infiltrating ductal carcinomas of breast were evaluated by IMH using monoclonal (CB11; Ventana Medical Systems, Inc, Tucson, AZ) and polyclonal (HercepTest;.
  • A total of 145 of 400 carcinomas were subsequently evaluated by direct and digoxigenin-labeled (Dig) FISH, and 144 of 400 were evaluated by detection of mRNA overexpression via autoradiographic RNA:RNA in situ hybridization.
  • CONCLUSION: Discordant HercepTest/FISH results, and to a lesser extent discordance with CB11 IMH, are most commonly false-positive results with a score of 2+.
  • The 2+ score as defined in the guidelines for the FDA-approved HercepTest should not be used as a criterion for trastuzumab therapy unless confirmed by FISH.
  • Determination of Her-2 gene copy number by FISH may be a more accurate and reliable method for selecting patients eligible for trastuzumab therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Genes, erbB-2 / genetics


83. Straver ME, van Adrichem JC, Rutgers EJ, Rodenhuis S, Linn SC, Loo CE, Gilhuijs KG, Oldenburg HS, Wesseling J, Russell NS, Antonini N, Vrancken Peeters MT: [Neoadjuvant systemic therapy in patients with operable primary breast cancer: more benefits than breast-conserving therapy]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Nov 15;152(46):2519-25
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  • [Title] [Neoadjuvant systemic therapy in patients with operable primary breast cancer: more benefits than breast-conserving therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Neoadjuvante systemische therapie bij het primair operabel mammacarcinoom: meer voordelen dan alleen borstsparende behandeling.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the extent to which primary systemic therapy (PST) achieves the main goals in patients with operable primary breast cancer, these goals being breast-conserving therapy and pathological complete remission (pCR), and to evaluate the response.
  • METHOD: In a retrospective analysis of 254 patients treated with PST in 2000-2007 in the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, patients with inoperable disease (T4 and/or N3) were excluded.
  • The response was mostly evaluated using contrast-enhanced MRI, whereby the chemotherapy regimen was switched if the reduction in the largest diameter of contrast washout was less than 25%.
  • pCR was defined as no evidence of invasive cancer in the breast and axilla in the resection specimen.
  • RESULTS: In patients with ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma an increase in breast-conserving therapy was seen in 32% and 17% of patients respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis indicated that molecular type, defined on the basis of the expression of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), i.e. luminal (oestrogen receptor-positive), basal (hormone receptor-negative and HER2-negative) and HER2-positive tumours treated with trastuzumab was the only independent predictor of pCR; 2%, 28% and 35% respectively (p=0.004).
  • In 43 patients the chemotherapy regimen was adjusted because the tumour did not respond sufficiently.
  • CONCLUSION: The observed increase in the number of breast-conserving therapies after PST was clinically relevant.
  • PST may be more effective when contrast-enhanced MRI is used for interim evaluation, based on which the treatment may be switched.
  • There was a clear difference in histological and molecular types of tumour and therefore the choice of treatment may be adjusted accordingly.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult


84. Ota K, Yamamoto T, Matsumura T, Fukunaga M, Ohzato H, Miwa H, Furukawa H: [A case of surgical treatment of solitary liver metastasis from pancreatic cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2407-9
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  • [Title] [A case of surgical treatment of solitary liver metastasis from pancreatic cancer].
  • Histological examination demonstrated a poorly differentiated ductal carcinoma fT4N2M0, fStage IVb.
  • The postoperative irradiation to pancreatic bed was performed one month after surgery, followed by an adjuvant chemotherapy using gemcitabine.
  • Eight months post operation, CT examination showed liver and lung metastases, resulting in conversion of the drug to S-1.
  • CT revealed disappearance of recurrence during 7 months without any chemotherapy.


85. Krishnamurthy S, Sneige N, Thompson PA, Marcy SM, Singletary SE, Cristofanilli M, Hunt KK, Kuerer HM: Nipple aspirate fluid cytology in breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2003 Apr 25;99(2):97-104
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  • [Title] Nipple aspirate fluid cytology in breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) cytology is a simple noninvasive method to study cells exfoliated into the ductal system of the breast.
  • In the current study, the significance of cytologic findings in NAF was determined by correlating them with histopathologic findings from corresponding breast tissue.
  • METHODS: Nipple aspirate fluid was collected by breast massaging and by using a breast aspiration device from 74 women with biopsy confirmed intraductal or invasive carcinoma with or without a history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Finally, they were correlated with tissue findings.
  • RESULTS: Nipple aspirate fluid was obtained from 74 women, including 24 who had received preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Patients treated with chemotherapy had fewer epithelial cells in their NAF compared with patients who were not treated with chemotherapy.
  • Of the five cases with mildly atypical cytology, three were intraductal papilloma, one was low-grade papillary intraductal carcinoma, and one was low-grade intracystic papillary carcinoma with invasion in the corresponding tissue specimen.
  • The single case with markedly atypical NAF cytology had extensive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Of the four cases with malignant NAF cytology, two were extensive DCIS and two had invasive carcinoma with extensive DCIS in the breast specimen.
  • Overall, 3 (27%) of 11 cases of DCIS were detected in NAF and only 2 (4%) of 52 invasive carcinomas including the only two cases with extensive DCIS were detected in NAF.
  • Nipple aspirate fluid is not a sensitive test for detecting invasive carcinoma of the breast.
  • Atypical cytology in NAF is associated with papillary lesions in the underlying breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / cytology. Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Nipples

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12704689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Pendas S, Jakub J, Giuliano R, Gardner M, Swor GB, Reintgen DS: The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or with locally advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Cancer Control; 2004 Jul-Aug;11(4):231-5
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  • [Title] The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or with locally advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: A significant number of patients who are initially diagnosed with pure DCIS will harbor missed or occult invasive disease at their definitive surgery.
  • The role of SLN biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer is controversial.
  • METHODS: A review of the literature was performed to determine the role of SLN biopsy in patients with DCIS or advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The success rate of SLN biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was investigated as well as the percentage of positive SLNs in patients with DCIS.
  • RESULTS: Two consecutive studies revealed metastatic disease to the regional lymph nodes in up to 13% of DCIS patients.
  • In addition, 10% of DCIS patients were upstaged to infiltrating ductal carcinoma at their definitive therapy.
  • The ability of the SLN to predict the status of the remaining non-SLNs after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is unknown.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SLN biopsy is a minimally invasive technique that can be used to evaluate the regional nodal status of DCIS patients.
  • Performing a SLN biopsy during the initial surgical procedure may avoid a second operation in some DCIS patients who are diagnosed with invasive disease at their definitive operation.
  • The success rate of sentinel node identification does not seem to be altered after neoadjuvant therapy.
  • Therefore, until further prospective randomized trials are conducted, it cannot be assumed that all the regional nodes have the same biologic response to chemotherapy as the SLN.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / secondary. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15284714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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87. Groves AM, Warren RM, Godward S, Rajan PS: Characterization of pure high-grade DCIS on magnetic resonance imaging using the evolving breast MR lexicon terminology: can it be differentiated from pure invasive disease? Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jul;23(6):733-8
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  • [Title] Characterization of pure high-grade DCIS on magnetic resonance imaging using the evolving breast MR lexicon terminology: can it be differentiated from pure invasive disease?
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now a recognized method of imaging the breast.
  • Unfortunately, there is lack of standardization in the MRI terminology used to characterize the appearance of breast lesions.
  • We retrospectively identified cases of pure high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using the recently introduced breast MRI lexicon and characterized the lesions in order to try and identify features that might distinguish high-grade DCIS from invasive disease.
  • Five-year review of our institution's database revealed 637 patients underwent gadolinium-enhanced breast MRI examination.
  • After excluding patients with previous chemotherapy or inadequate MRI examination, 13 patients were analyzed and compared to the 13 most recent cases of pure invasive breast carcinoma.
  • High-grade DCIS cases were significantly more likely to show focal branching pattern (P=.03) and to have an irregular contour (P=.03), compared with invasive disease.
  • Although of marginal statistical significance, DCIS lesions are more likely to have a lower morphological score than invasive carcinoma (P=.06), whilst the latter is more likely to show ring enhancement (P=.07).
  • Use of breast MRI for staging at our institution shows that pure DCIS and pure invasive cancers are both rare entities.
  • Despite the relatively limited numbers, we identified features that would help to differentiate high-grade DCIS from invasive carcinoma on MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / standards. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16198828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-725X
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Euhus DM: Cytokeratin staining and other sentinel node controversies. Clin Breast Cancer; 2003 Apr;4 Suppl 1:S49-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer staging has been widely accepted because it is more sensitive and less morbid than axillary dissection.
  • Sentinel nodes can be thoroughly scrutinized using a variety of techniques increasing the detection of micrometastases; however, the clinical relevance of micrometastases has been challenged.
  • The available data suggest that the prognostic significance of axillary metastases is related to the size of the metastases, and the best data suggest that outcome for patients with metastases < 0.2 mm is similar to patients with node-negative disease.
  • Because micrometastases can be artifactual, SLN biopsy in ductal carcinoma in situ can lead to harmful overtreatment and is best performed in the context of clinical trials.
  • Lymphoscintigraphy has allowed the detection of alternate drainage patterns to internal mammary, infraclavicular, and supraclavicular lymph nodes.
  • Although patients are occasionally identified who have metastases to these basins but not the axilla, this information will not impact the decision for chemotherapy in most cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Keratins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods

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  • (PMID = 12756079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-8209
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical breast cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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89. Li J, Merl M, Lee MX, Kaley K, Saif MW: Safety and efficacy of single-day GemOx regimen in patients with pancreatobiliary cancer: a single institution experience. Expert Opin Drug Saf; 2010 Mar;9(2):207-13
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  • Pharmacokinetic profiles of both drugs did not show statistically significant difference regardless of the order of administration.
  • RESULTS: In all, 34 patients (median age 60 years, male/female: 17/17) received S-GemOx including locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (26) and biliary duct carcinoma (8).
  • Median treatment was six cycles with duration of 12 weeks (range (r): 2 - 56).
  • A total of 27 of 34 patients were evaluated for efficacy after initial staging: 1 (3.7%) complete response (CR), 4 (14.8%) partial response (PR), 18 (66.7%) stable disease and 4 (14.8%) progression of disease.
  • No deaths occurred due to therapy.
  • Prospective studies of S-GemOx in a large patient population are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / mortality. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20095915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-764X
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; gemcitabine-oxaliplatin regimen
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90. Viani GA, Afonso SL, Stefano EJ, De Fendi LI, Soares FV: Adjuvant trastuzumab in the treatment of her-2-positive early breast cancer: a meta-analysis of published randomized trials. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:153
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  • [Title] Adjuvant trastuzumab in the treatment of her-2-positive early breast cancer: a meta-analysis of published randomized trials.
  • BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. and Western Europe.
  • Amplification of the her-2/neu gene occurs in approximately 25% of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast.
  • Trastuzumab therapy prolongs the survival of patients with metastático HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer when combined with chemotherapy and has recently been demonstrated to lead to dramatic improvements in disease-free survival when used in the adjuvant therapy setting in combination with or following chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) was performed comparing adjuvant trastuzumab treatment for HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC) to observation.
  • RESULTS: Pooled results from that five randomized trials of adjuvant Trastuzumab showed a significant reduction of mortality (p < 0.00001), recurrence (p < 0.00001), metastases rates (p < 0.00001) and second tumors other than breast cancer (p = 0.007) as compared to no adjuvant Trastuzumab patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The results from this meta-analysis are sufficiently compelling to consider 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment for women with HER-2-positive EBC based on the risk: benefit ratio demonstrated in these studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Causality. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Comorbidity. Female. Gene Amplification / drug effects. Global Health. Heart Diseases / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Odds Ratio. Recurrence. Survival Analysis. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17686164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
  • [Number-of-references] 31
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1959236
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91. Grimsby GM, Gray R, Dueck A, Carpenter S, Stucky CC, Aspey H, Giurescu ME, Pockaj B: Is there concordance of invasive breast cancer pathologic tumor size with magnetic resonance imaging? Am J Surg; 2009 Oct;198(4):500-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is there concordance of invasive breast cancer pathologic tumor size with magnetic resonance imaging?
  • BACKGROUND: In the era of breast conservation therapy, preoperative imaging is imperative in planning a single definitive surgical treatment.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patients treated at a single institution for invasive breast cancer over 5 years.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and lymph node status were associated with discordance.
  • Among tumors overestimated by MRI, 65% had additional significant findings in the breast tissue around the main lesion: satellite lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ, and/or lymphovascular invasion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast MRI is concordant with pathologic tumor size within .5 cm among 53% of patients.
  • Most patients with tumors overestimated by MRI have significant findings in the surrounding breast tissue, the excision of which would be expected to benefit the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


92. Oudard S, Banu E, Vieillefond A, Fournier L, Priou F, Medioni J, Banu A, Duclos B, Rolland F, Escudier B, Arakelyan N, Culine S, GETUG (Groupe d'Etudes des Tumeurs Uro-Génitales): Prospective multicenter phase II study of gemcitabine plus platinum salt for metastatic collecting duct carcinoma: results of a GETUG (Groupe d'Etudes des Tumeurs Uro-Génitales) study. J Urol; 2007 May;177(5):1698-702
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  • [Title] Prospective multicenter phase II study of gemcitabine plus platinum salt for metastatic collecting duct carcinoma: results of a GETUG (Groupe d'Etudes des Tumeurs Uro-Génitales) study.
  • PURPOSE: Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney is a rare and aggressive neoplasm of the distal collecting tubules for which there is no established treatment.
  • Since the histology of collecting duct carcinoma is similar to that of urothelial carcinoma, the standard chemotherapy regimen defined by a gemcitabine and platinum salts combination was prospectively investigated in patients with metastatic collecting duct carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 23 patients with metastatic collecting duct carcinoma with no prior systemic chemotherapy were treated with 1,250 mg/m(2) gemcitabine on days 1 and 8 plus 70 mg/m(2) cisplatin or carboplatin (AUC 5) in patients with renal insufficiency on day 1.
  • The drugs were repeated every 21 days for 6 cycles according to toxicity and efficacy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first prospective, multicenter, phase II study showing that the platinum salts combination is an active and safe regimen as first line treatment in patients with metastatic collecting duct carcinoma.
  • This platinum based chemotherapy should be considered the standard regimen in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


93. Wang ZB, Zhao P, Liu M, Li XH: [Expression of the genes FHIT, Bcl-2 and Bax in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma and clinicopathological significance thereof]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Aug 22;86(31):2171-6
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  • [Title] [Expression of the genes FHIT, Bcl-2 and Bax in breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma and clinicopathological significance thereof].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of the genes fragile histidine triad (FHIT), Bcl-2, and Bax, biological markers of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma in this carcinoma and clinicopathological significance thereof.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 100 patients with breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma, all females, aged 435 (28 - 92), were collected.
  • Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the protein expression of FHIT, Bcl-2 and Bax in the carcinoma tissues resected during operation.
  • RESULTS: The protein expression rates of FHIT, Bcl-2 and Bax in the tumor tissues were 73%, 50%, and 34% respectively.
  • The disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of the FHIT positive patients were 81.8 months and 123.6 months, both significantly longer than those of the FHIT-negative patients (27.7 months and 74 months, both P < 0.05).
  • The mean DFS of the Bcl-2-positive patients who received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was 54.8 months, significantly longer than that of the Bcl-2-negative patients who received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (41.6 months).
  • However, the expression of Bax failed to show correlation with the prognosis of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of FHIT and expression of Bcl-2 are positively correlated to the DFS and OS of the breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • Bax is not predictive to the prognosis of breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / biosynthesis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17064501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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94. Perez-Fidalgo JA, Chirivella I, Laforga J, Colio JM, Blanes MD, Baydal R, Roselló S, De-la-Morena E, Lluch A: Parotid gland metastasis of a breast cancer. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(4):264-5
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  • [Title] Parotid gland metastasis of a breast cancer.
  • A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed with an early breast cancer with no expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors.
  • After total parotidectomy, microscopic analysis of the gland demonstrated an invasive duct carcinoma (IDC) with positive expression of oestrogen receptor.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy followed by complementary local radiotherapy.
  • Diagnosis of a metastasic tumour in parotid gland poses a challenge.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy, Radical. Middle Aged. Nitriles / administration & dosage. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Gland / surgery. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Triazoles / administration & dosage. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17462982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Triazoles; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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95. Schmidberger H, Hermann RM, Hess CF, Emons G: Interactions between radiation and endocrine therapy in breast cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2003 Sep;10(3):375-88
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  • [Title] Interactions between radiation and endocrine therapy in breast cancer.
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy and adjuvant endocrine therapy are commonly given to patients with invasive breast cancer or with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • Although both therapies have been well established through a number of randomized studies, little is known about a possible interaction of both treatment modalities if they are given simultaneously.
  • A number of in vitro studies have indicated that tamoxifen treatment might reduce the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
  • Conversely, estradiol treatment increases the intrinsic radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells.
  • Retrospective analyses of randomized clinical studies have not indicated an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen on the effectiveness of XRT, since local control has been consistently higher when XRT was combined with tamoxifen, compared with treatment with XRT alone, regardless of whether tamoxifen was started simultaneously with radiotherapy or after completion of radiotherapy.
  • Currently there are no clinical data available that would suggest an adverse effect of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment started prior to or simultaneously with radiotherapy in breast cancer or DCIS.
  • However, since an antagonistic effect of tamoxifen and simultaneous chemotherapy has been reported recently, the issue of simultaneous versus sequential radiation and tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer should be addressed in further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Drug Interactions. Radiation Tolerance
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14503914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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96. Soucy G, Bélanger J, Leblanc G, Sideris L, Drolet P, Mitchell A, Leclerc YE, Dufresne MP, Beaudet J, Dubé P: Surgical margins in breast-conservation operations for invasive carcinoma: does neoadjuvant chemotherapy have an impact? J Am Coll Surg; 2008 Jun;206(6):1116-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical margins in breast-conservation operations for invasive carcinoma: does neoadjuvant chemotherapy have an impact?
  • BACKGROUND: Regression of breast tumors in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is variable.
  • The goal of breast-conservation operation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is generally to resect any residual tumor with negative margins.
  • The purpose of this study was to compare surgical margin involvement of breast-conservation resection specimens from patients treated initially with operation with those from patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Between January 2003 and June 2006, 478 breast-conservation operations were performed for invasive breast cancer at our institution.
  • Seventy-six patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Data collected included age, tumor size, nodal status, hormonal receptors and Her-2-neu status, lymphovascular invasion, histologic grade and type, use of guidewire, preoperative chemotherapy regimens, and microscopic evaluation of surgical margins.
  • RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed for margin involvement between patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and those treated initially with operation (21% versus 18%; p = 0.52).
  • Variables associated with positive margins in a logistic regression model were carcinoma type (43% of all lobular carcinomas had positive margins versus 16% in ductal carcinomas; p = 0.002) and hormonal receptor status (margin involvement was present in 20% of tumors that exhibited hormonal receptors versus 10% in negative receptors tumors; p = 0.014).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breast conservation after neoadjuvant systemic therapy yields no higher incidence of positive margins than primary surgical treatment.
  • Special consideration should be accorded to lobular carcinoma, because our findings, consistent with previous studies, demonstrate an association with margin involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18501808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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97. Shigematsu H, Nakamura Y, Tanaka K, Shiotani S, Koga C, Kawaguchi H, Nishimura S, Taguchi K, Nishiyama K, Ohno S: A case of HER-2-positive advanced inflammatory breast cancer with invasive micropapillary component showing a clinically complete response to concurrent trastuzumab and paclitaxel treatment. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;15(6):615-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of HER-2-positive advanced inflammatory breast cancer with invasive micropapillary component showing a clinically complete response to concurrent trastuzumab and paclitaxel treatment.
  • We report a case of HER-2-positive advanced inflammatory breast cancer with invasive micropapillary component showing a complete response to trastuzumab and paclitaxel treatment.
  • A 37-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for right breast swelling with broad skin redness and right axillary tumor.
  • The histopathological findings of core-needle biopsy specimens from primary breast tumor and ipsilateral axillary lymph node were invasive ductal carcinoma with a micropapillary component.
  • Advanced inflammatory breast cancer with an invasive micropapillary component was diagnosed (T4d N3 M1 (LYM), stage IV).
  • The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy using weekly paclitaxel and trastuzumab.
  • After administration of three courses, the breast swelling, skin redness, and lymph node swelling disappeared completely.
  • She maintained complete remission of disease for 12 months and was judged to have a clinically complete response by the RECIST criteria.
  • Invasive micropapillary carcinoma is known to be an aggressive histological type associated with a high incidence of lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis.
  • This is the first reported case of advanced inflammatory breast cancer with an invasive micropapillary component showing a clinically complete response to trastuzumab-containing treatment.
  • This report suggests trastuzumab-containing chemotherapy is a promising therapy for HER-2-positive advanced invasive micropapillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20473628.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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98. Schulz-Wendtland R, Heywang-Köbrunner SH, Aichinger U, Krämer S, Wenkel E, Bautz W: [Do tissue marker clips after sonographically or stereotactically guided breast biopsy improve follow-up of small breast lesions and localisation of breast cancer after chemotherapy?]. Rofo; 2002 May;174(5):620-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Do tissue marker clips after sonographically or stereotactically guided breast biopsy improve follow-up of small breast lesions and localisation of breast cancer after chemotherapy?].
  • [Transliterated title] Verbessert die Clipmarkierung im Rahmen der sonographischen oder stereotaktischen Brustbiopsie die Verlaufsbeurteilung kleiner Mammaläsionen und Lokalisation von Tumoren nach Chemotherapie?
  • PURPOSE: We wanted to determine if tissue marker clips after sonographically or stereotactically guided breast biopsy improve the follow-up of small breast lesions classified BI-RADS 4/5 and the localisation of breast cancer (TNM stage 2 or 3) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective analysis was performed of 108 breast lesions 1 cm or smaller mammographically classified as BI-RADS 4/5 and 14 breast lesions larger than 2 cm mammographically classified as BI-RADS 5.
  • 33 of the 108 breast lesions 1 cm or smaller underwent sonographic core cut breast biopsy (group 1) and 75 stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (group 2).
  • All 14 lesions greater than 2 cm were stereotactically vacuum-assisted breast biopsied (group 3).
  • Mammographies were performed in all patients of group 1 and 2 with a histologically benign finding (n = 31, n = 69, respectively) and in all patients of group 3 directly after clip placement and after 6 and 12 months.
  • RESULTS: Two patients of group 1 and 6 patients of group 2 had breast conservative surgery (BET) because of the histological diagnosis of a ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive breast cancer.
  • The tissue marker clips of the remaining 31 patients of group 1 and 69 patients of group 2 diverged with a mean value of 0.4 cm (standard deviation +/- 0.23 cm; range 0.1 cm to 0.9 cm) from their placement position after 6 months.
  • After 12 months the marker clips deviated with a mean value of 0.4 cm (standard deviation +/- 0.21 cm; range 0.1 cm to 0.9 cm) in 94 patients and 0.8 cm (standard deviation +/- 0.25 cm; range 0.1 cm to 0.9 cm) in 6 patients from their original location.
  • In all patients of group 3 the tissue marker clips were the only possibility to localize the tumour after neoadjuvant chemotherapy as all other diagnostic methods showed inconsistent results.
  • CONCLUSION: Positioning a tissue marker clip in the tumour centre seems to be reasonable after interventional biopsy of breast lesions of 1.0 cm or smaller and before neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Breast / pathology. Breast Diseases / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Reproducibility of Results. Surgical Instruments

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  • (PMID = 11997863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-9029
  • [Journal-full-title] RöFo : Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rofo
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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99. Takamura M, Nio Y, Yamasawa K, Dong M, Yamaguchi K, Itakura M: Implication of thymidylate synthase in the outcome of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil or its derivatives. Anticancer Drugs; 2002 Jan;13(1):75-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Implication of thymidylate synthase in the outcome of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil or its derivatives.
  • Thymidine synthase (TS) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of pyrimidine in the de novo pathway of DNA synthesis and a major target of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but the implications of TS regarding human pancreatic cancer have not been reported.
  • We assessed the expression of TS in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the pancreas by immunostaining and evaluated its clinicopathological significance, especially its implications regarding the efficacy of chemotherapy with 5-FU or its derivatives.
  • The implications of TS immunoreactivity regarding the efficacy of 5-FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) was also assessed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / enzymology. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / enzymology. Thymidylate Synthase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Tissue Distribution. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11914644.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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100. Riethdorf S, Müller V, Zhang L, Rau T, Loibl S, Komor M, Roller M, Huober J, Fehm T, Schrader I, Hilfrich J, Holms F, Tesch H, Eidtmann H, Untch M, von Minckwitz G, Pantel K: Detection and HER2 expression of circulating tumor cells: prospective monitoring in breast cancer patients treated in the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 May 1;16(9):2634-45
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  • [Title] Detection and HER2 expression of circulating tumor cells: prospective monitoring in breast cancer patients treated in the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial.
  • PURPOSE: This study was aimed at detecting and characterizing circulating tumor cells (CTC) before and after neoadjuvant therapy (NT) in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The clinical trial GeparQuattro incorporated NT approaches (epirubicin/cyclophosphamide prior to randomization to docetaxel alone, docetaxel in combination with capecitabine, or docetaxel followed by capecitabine) and additional trastuzumab treatment for patients with HER2-positive tumors.
  • We used the Food and Drug Administration-approved CellSearch system for CTC detection and evaluation of HER2 expression and developed HER2 immunoscoring for CTC.
  • CTC detection did not correlate with primary tumor characteristics.
  • Furthermore, there was no association between tumor response to NT and CTC detection.
  • HER2-overexpressing CTC were observed in 14 of 58 CTC-positive patients (24.1%), including 8 patients with HER2-negative primary tumors and 3 patients after trastuzumab treatment.
  • HER2 overexpression on CTC was restricted to ductal carcinomas and associated with high tumor stage (P = 0.002).
  • CONCLUSION: CTC number was low in patients with primary breast cancer.
  • The decrease in CTC incidence during treatment was not correlated with standard clinical characteristics and primary tumor response.
  • Information on the HER2 status of CTC might be helpful for stratification and monitoring of HER2-directed therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Capecitabine. Cell Line, Tumor. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Time Factors. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 AACR.
  • (PMID = 20406831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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