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1. Chatterjee S, Vrolix G, Depoortere I, Peeters T, Van Marck E: The therapeutic effect of the neuropeptide hormone somatostatin on Schistosoma mansoni caused liver fibrosis. BMC Infect Dis; 2005;5:45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The therapeutic effect of the neuropeptide hormone somatostatin on Schistosoma mansoni caused liver fibrosis.
  • Based on these results this paper explores the therapeutic potential of somatostatin in a mouse model of hepatic fibrosis associated with S. mansoni infections.
  • METHODS: Groups of outbred Swiss mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae, infection maintained till weeks 10 or 14, and then somatostatin therapy delivered in two regimens -- either a one or a two-day treatment.
  • All animals were sacrificed one week after therapy and controlled for liver, spleen and total body weight.
  • Circulating somatostatin levels in mice plasma were measured at the time of sacrifice by means of a radio-immuno assay.
  • Total liver and spleen weights of S. mansoni infected animals increased over time, with no changes observed due to somatostatin therapy.
  • Total body weights were decreased after infection but were not affected by somatostatin therapy.
  • Snap frozen liver sections were stained with haematoxylin-eosin or Masson's trichrome to study parasite count, hepatocyte status, granuloma size and cellularity.
  • After somatostatin treatment mean egg counts per liver section (43.76 +/- 3.56) were significantly reduced as compared to the egg counts in untreated mice after 10 weeks of infection (56.01 +/- 3.34) (P = 0.03).
  • Similar significant reduction in parasite egg counts were also observed after somatostatin treatment at 14 weeks of infection (56.62 +/- 3.02) as compared to untreated animals (69.82 +/- 2.77)(P = 0.006).
  • Fibrosis was assessed from the spectrophotometric determination of tissue hydroxyproline.
  • Infection with S. mansoni caused increased hydroxyproline levels (9.37 +/- 0.63 micromol at wk 10; 9.65 +/- 0.96 micromol at wk 14) as compared to uninfected animals (1.06 +/- 0.10 micromol).
  • This significant increase in collagen content (P = 0.01; 0.007 respectively) marks the fibrosis observed at these time points.
  • Treatment with somatostatin resulted in a significant decrease in hydroxyproline levels both at wk 10 (4.76 +/- 0.58 micromol) and at wk 14 (5.8 +/- 1.13 micromol) (P = 0.01; 0.03 respectively).
  • Endogenous somatostatin levels were increased at wk 10 (297 +/- 37.24 pg/ml) and wk 14 (206 +/- 13.30 pg/ml) of infection as compared to uninfected mice (119 +/- 11.99 pg/ml) (P = 0.01; 0.008 respectively).
  • Circulating somatostatin levels in infected animals were not significantly affected by somatostatin treatment.
  • Hepatocyte status remained unaltered and granulomas were not remarkably changed in size or cellularity.
  • We have previously shown that the somatostatin receptors SSTR2 and SSTR3 are present on the parasite egg and worms.
  • Our data suggest somatostatin may have therapeutic potential in S. mansoni mediated liver pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Cirrhosis / drug therapy. Liver Cirrhosis / parasitology. Schistosomiasis mansoni / complications. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Routes. Liver / pathology. Male. Mice. Organ Size. Spleen / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15949036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2334
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1166555
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2. Chenevert TL, Stegman LD, Taylor JM, Robertson PL, Greenberg HS, Rehemtulla A, Ross BD: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging: an early surrogate marker of therapeutic efficacy in brain tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2000 Dec 20;92(24):2029-36
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  • [Title] Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging: an early surrogate marker of therapeutic efficacy in brain tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: A surrogate marker for treatment response that can be observed earlier than comparison of sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which depends on relatively slow changes in tumor volume, may improve survival of brain tumor patients by providing more time for secondary therapeutic interventions.
  • Previous studies in animals with the use of diffusion MRI revealed rapid changes in tumor water diffusion values after successful therapeutic intervention.
  • METHODS: The present study examined the sensitivity of diffusion MRI measurements in orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from implanted rat 9L glioma cells.
  • The effectiveness of therapy for individual brain cancer patients was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor volume on neuroimaging studies conducted 6--8 weeks after the conclusion of a treatment cycle.
  • Mean apparent diffusion coefficients in tumors were found to be correlated with and highly sensitive to changes in tumor cellularity (r =.78; two-sided P =.041).
  • Increased diffusion values could be detected in human brain tumors shortly after treatment initiation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that diffusion MRI will provide an early surrogate marker for quantification of treatment response in patients with brain tumors.

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  • (PMID = 11121466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20 CA086442; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24 CA083099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P20CA86442; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24CA83099
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 059QF0KO0R / Water; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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3. Arslan E, Milcan A, Unal S, Demirkan F, Polat A, Bagdatoglu O, Aksoy A, Polat G: The effects of carnitine on distally-burned dorsal skin flap: an experimental study in rats. Burns; 2003 May;29(3):221-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: In ischemia and burn injuries, there are major alterations threatening tissue survival.
  • Increased energy flow requirements are among the major problems in these disorders.
  • Biochemically, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and acetylcholinesterase levels, and histopathologically tissue examination under light microscope were studied.
  • The most distal 3 cm x 3 cm of the flap was burned to full-thickness.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a full-thickness muscle necrosis in addition to skin tissue in the control group, while healing tissue was present with marked cellularity including mixed inflammatory cells and fibroblast proliferation with an increased vascularity in the form of capillary budding in the study group.
  • [MeSH-major] Burns / drug therapy. Carnitine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylcholinesterase / blood. Animals. Ischemia / drug therapy. Malondialdehyde / blood. Necrosis. Nitric Oxide / blood. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Skin / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 12706614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-4179
  • [Journal-full-title] Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Burns
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; EC 3.1.1.7 / Acetylcholinesterase; S7UI8SM58A / Carnitine
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4. Hiçsönmez G, Tunç B, Olcay L, Tuncer MA: Effect of short-course, high-dose steroid therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Dec;18(8):525-9
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  • [Title] Effect of short-course, high-dose steroid therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Here the beneficial effect of short-course HDMP therapy in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is reported.
  • Oral methylprednisolone sodium succinate (Prednol-L) was administered at a single daily dose of 30 mg/kg for 5 days to a 4-year-old girl with refractory anemia with excess of blasts and hypocellular bone marrow before the initiation of chemotherapy.
  • In addition to dramatic clinical improvement, the patient's white blood cell count increased from 2.3 x 10(9)/L to 5.0 x 10(9)/L, and peripheral blood blast cells disappeared 4 days after HDMP treatment.
  • Repeated bone marrow aspirate 1 week after the initiation of HDMP disclosed increased cellularity with no blasts.
  • Furthermore, short-course HDMP treatment stimulated the increase in the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD34+, and NK cells.
  • Results obtained with HDMP from the previous studies and the present case suggest that high-dose methylprednisolone is a promising agent in the treatment of AIDS and it is recommended as an initial treatment especially for MDS children with hypocellular bone marrow at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate / administration & dosage. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Steroids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Blood Cell Count. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Bone Marrow / pathology. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


5. Pratheeshkumar P, Kuttan G: Ameliorative action of Vernonia cinerea L. on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression and oxidative stress in mice. Inflammopharmacology; 2010 Aug;18(4):197-207
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  • Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a widely used antineoplastic drug, which could cause toxicity to normal cells due to its toxic metabolites.
  • The present study reports the protective role of Vernonia cinerea L. against the CTX-induced toxicity in Balb/c mice.
  • Intraperitoneal administration of the extract significantly increased the total WBC Count, bone marrow cellularity, alpha-esterase positive cells, and weights of lymphoid organs in CTX-treated animals, when compared with CTX control mice.
  • Administration of V. cinerea was found to reduce the enhanced level of alkaline phosphatase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, lipid peroxidation, and also significantly increased the reduced glutathione level in CTX-treated animals.
  • The lowered levels of other cytokines like IFN-gamma, IL-2, GM-CSF, after CTX treatment were also found to be increased by extract administration.
  • Methanolic extract of V. cinerea given intraperitoneally (i.p.) showed a significant chemoprotective activity without compromising the chemotherapeutic efficacy of CTX, indicating its possible use as an adjuvant during chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclophosphamide / toxicity. Immunosuppression. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Phytotherapy. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Protective Agents / pharmacology. Vernonia
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / blood. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / toxicity. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Cytokines / analysis. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20473572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-5608
  • [Journal-full-title] Inflammopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inflammopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Protective Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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6. Fazzi R, Pacini S, Testi R, Azzarà A, Galimberti S, Testi C, Trombi L, Metelli MR, Petrini M: Carboxy-terminal fragment of osteogenic growth peptide in vitro increases bone marrow cell density in idiopathic myelofibrosis. Br J Haematol; 2003 Apr;121(1):76-85
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  • At present, no efficacious therapy for this disease exists.
  • Synthetic carboxy-terminal pentapeptide of osteogenic growth factor (sOGP10-14) can increase bone marrow cellularity and the number of haematopoietic colonies; this study evaluated the activity of sOGP10-14 in IMF.
  • After 14 d, bone marrow cellularity was significantly increased in samples cultured with the pentapeptide.
  • TPO-primed proliferation of M07-e was reduced by sOGP10-14, and the pentapeptide significantly reduced CFU-Mk on IMF bone-marrow-derived cells. sOGP10-14 increased ex vivo bone marrow cellularity in IMF.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Bone Marrow Cells / secretion. Cell Count. Cell Division / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Depression, Chemical. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Megakaryocytes / cytology. Megakaryocytes / drug effects. Middle Aged. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology. Thrombopoietin / pharmacology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / secretion. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12670334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endorphins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 105250-85-9 / historphin; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; 9014-42-0 / Thrombopoietin
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7. Smith K, Hamza S, Germain M, Skelton H: Does imiquimod histologically rejuvenate ultraviolet radiation-damaged skin? Dermatol Surg; 2007 Dec;33(12):1419-28; discussion 1428-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine what histologic and immunohistologic changes were present in actinically damaged skin after treatment with IMI.
  • RESULTS: After IMI therapy there was less compact hyperkeratosis, a more uniform rete ridge pattern with a more ordered proliferation of the epidermis, and a decrease in sun-damaged melanocytes.
  • The papillary dermis showed a more uniform cellularity, and there was increased cellularity within the area of solar elastosis.
  • After therapy, staining for p53, p63, and PCNA was decreased within the epidermis; staining for c-kit was decreased but more uniform in the basal cell; and Factor XIIIa expression was increased within the papillary dermis with a more ordered pattern of staining.
  • CONCLUSION: These morphologic and immunohistochemical patterns may explain some of the improvement in overall skin appearance after IMI therapy and may be related to the spectrum of signaling pathways induced by the imidazoquinolines.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / pharmacology. Dermatologic Agents / pharmacology. Skin / drug effects. Skin / radiation effects. Skin Aging / drug effects. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratosis / drug therapy. Keratosis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / pathology. Pilot Projects. Rejuvenation. Signal Transduction. Skin Diseases / drug therapy. Skin Diseases / pathology. Sunlight / adverse effects


9. Hasserjian RP, Boecklin F, Parker S, Chase A, Dhar S, Zaiac M, Olavarria E, Lampert I, Henry K, Apperley JF, Goldman JM: ST1571 (imatinib mesylate) reduces bone marrow cellularity and normalizes morphologic features irrespective of cytogenetic response. Am J Clin Pathol; 2002 Mar;117(3):360-7
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  • [Title] ST1571 (imatinib mesylate) reduces bone marrow cellularity and normalizes morphologic features irrespective of cytogenetic response.
  • The tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 (imatinib mesylate, Gleevec) is an effective treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
  • We examined bone marrow samples from 53 patients with CML who were receiving STI571 in 3 multicenter phase 2 trials to assess morphologic changes and cytogenetic response to this drug.
  • In most patients with initially increased blasts, the bone marrow blast count rapidly decreased during STI571 therapy.
  • Reductions in cellularity, the myeloid/erythroid ratio (commonly with relative erythroid hyperplasia), and reticulin fibrosis (if present pretreatment) also were seen in most patients, resulting in an appearance resembling normal marrow in many cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Clin Pathol. 2002 Mar;117(3):355-7 [11888074.001]
  • (PMID = 11888075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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