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1. Kasama S, Furuya M, Toyama T, Ichikawa S, Kurabayashi M: Effect of atrial natriuretic peptide on left ventricular remodelling in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J; 2008 Jun;29(12):1485-94
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  • Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a member of the natriuretic peptide family that exerts various biological effects via acting on the receptor-guanylyl cyclase system, increasing the content of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP).
  • ANP has a variety of cardioprotective effects and is considered to be a very promising adjunct drug for the reperfusion therapy in patients with AMI.
  • [MeSH-major] Atrial Natriuretic Factor / administration & dosage. Myocardial Infarction / therapy. Ventricular Remodeling / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / adverse effects. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Dogs. Humans. Myocardial Reperfusion Injury / prevention & control. Rabbits. Rats. Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects. Sympathetic Nervous System / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18490430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] European heart journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Heart J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 85637-73-6 / Atrial Natriuretic Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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2. Cayli SR, Kocak A, Yilmaz U, Tekiner A, Erbil M, Ozturk C, Batcioglu K, Yologlu S: Effect of combined treatment with melatonin and methylprednisolone on neurological recovery after experimental spinal cord injury. Eur Spine J; 2004 Dec;13(8):724-32
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  • [Title] Effect of combined treatment with melatonin and methylprednisolone on neurological recovery after experimental spinal cord injury.
  • Secondary injury following the primary impact includes a number of biochemical and cellular alterations leading to tissue necrosis and cell death.
  • Methylprednisolone (MP), by reducing edema and protecting the cell membrane against peroxidation, is the only pharmacological agent with a proven clinically beneficial effect on SCI.
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of MP and melatonin on neurological, ultrastructural, and electrophysiological recovery.
  • Weight-drop trauma was performed for each group and a 30-mg/kg single dose of MP for rats in group 1, a 10-mg/kg single dose of melatonin for rats in group 2, and MP and melatonin in the same doses for rats in group 3 were administered immediately after trauma.
  • The motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded at the 4th hour, the 24th hour, and on the 10th day of the study for six rats in each group.
  • Electron microscopic studies were performed to determine the effects of melatonin, MP, and the combined treatment with MP and melatonin on axons, neurons, myelin, nucleus, and intracytoplasmic edema.
  • The groups treated with MP, melatonin, and a combination of both had significantly enhanced electrophysiological, biochemical, and neurological recovery and also showed better ultrastructural findings than the trauma and vehicle groups.
  • Although combined treatment was significantly more effective on lipid peroxidation than melatonin or MP treatments alone, at the 10th day, neurobehavioral, electrophysiological, and ultrastructural recovery were at the same level.
  • In conclusion, MP, melatonin, and MP and melatonin combined treatment modalities improved functional recovery at the same level.
  • Future studies involving different doses of melatonin and different dose combinations with MP could promise better results since each drug has a different anti-oxidative mechanism of action.
  • [MeSH-major] Melatonin / pharmacology. Methylprednisolone / pharmacology. Recovery of Function / drug effects. Spinal Cord / drug effects. Spinal Cord Injuries / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Axons / drug effects. Axons / pathology. Axons / ultrastructure. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Therapy, Combination. Edema / drug therapy. Edema / physiopathology. Edema / prevention & control. Evoked Potentials, Motor / drug effects. Evoked Potentials, Motor / physiology. Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory / drug effects. Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory / physiology. Female. Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology. Free Radical Scavengers / therapeutic use. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Lipid Peroxidation / physiology. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Myelin Sheath / drug effects. Myelin Sheath / pathology. Myelin Sheath / ultrastructure. Nerve Degeneration / drug therapy. Nerve Degeneration / physiopathology. Nerve Degeneration / prevention & control. Neural Pathways / drug effects. Neural Pathways / pathology. Neural Pathways / physiopathology. Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology. Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Oxidative Stress / physiology. Rats. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15232723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-6719
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3454055
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3. Gay F, Palumbo A: Management of disease- and treatment-related complications in patients with multiple myeloma. Med Oncol; 2010 Jun;27 Suppl 1:S43-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of disease- and treatment-related complications in patients with multiple myeloma.
  • Treatment of myeloma has dramatically changed after introduction of novel agents, such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib, with a significant improvement in response rate and survival of patients with myeloma.
  • For newly diagnosed patients not eligible for transplant, the standards of care are now considered melphalan and prednisone (MP) plus thalidomide and MP plus bortezomib.
  • Ongoing randomized trials are evaluating lenalidomide plus MP and lenalidomide plus dexamethasone.
  • For newly diagnosed patients eligible for transplant, new induction regimens included the combination of high-dose dexamethasone plus thalidomide, high-dose dexamethasone plus lenalidomide (RD) and high-dose dexamethasone plus bortezomib (VD).
  • The combinations RD, VD and bortezomib plus pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin have received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of relapsed myeloma.
  • Disease control leads to improvement of all myeloma-related complications (anemia, bone disease, immune dysfunction and renal impairment), but physicians should take into account the choice of the therapeutic strategy, the expected toxicity profile of each of these regimens, together with the patient's biologic age and comorbidities.
  • Supportive care is an essential part of myeloma therapy, both for the treatment of myeloma-related complications, together with anti-myeloma treatment, and for the management of treatment-emergent adverse events.
  • This chapter will provide an overview of frequency and management of main complications related to the disease itself and to the use of new drugs in newly diagnosed and relapsed patients with myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Multiple Myeloma / complications

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  • (PMID = 20467920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Furuse Y, Ogino K, Shimoyama M, Sasaki N, Hisatome I: Ca(2+)-sensitizing effect is involved in the positive inotropic effect of troglitazone. Br J Pharmacol; 2001 Aug;133(8):1307-13
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  • 2. Troglitazone significantly increased peak isovolumic left ventricular pressure (LVP(max)), peak rate of rise of LVP (dP/dt(max)), peak rate of fall of LVP (dP/dt(min)) in isolated rat hearts perfused at a constant coronary flow and heart rate.
  • This inotropic effect of troglitazone was not inhibited by pretreatment with carbachol (muscarine receptor agonist), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), H7 (protein kinase C inhibitor), verapamil (L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist), thapsigargin (Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase inhibitor) or ryanodine (ryanodine receptor opener).
  • 3. Radioimmunoassay showed that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentration in the left ventricle was not increased by troglitazone.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / pharmacology. Cardiotonic Agents / pharmacology. Chromans / pharmacology. Thiazoles / pharmacology. Thiazolidinediones. Ventricular Pressure / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium Channels, L-Type / metabolism. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Heart Ventricles / drug effects. Heart Ventricles / metabolism. Isoproterenol / pharmacology. Male. Patch-Clamp Techniques. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Ryanodine / pharmacology. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism. Thapsigargin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 11498516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1188
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channels, L-Type; 0 / Cardiotonic Agents; 0 / Chromans; 0 / Thiazoles; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 15662-33-6 / Ryanodine; 67526-95-8 / Thapsigargin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; I66ZZ0ZN0E / troglitazone; L628TT009W / Isoproterenol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1621161
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5. Issing WJ: [Gastroesophageal reflux -- a common illness?]. Laryngorhinootologie; 2003 Feb;82(2):118-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • For a long time heartburn was not considered a symptom for serious illness.
  • There is strong evidence for a protective effect of Hp-infection in the development of GERD.
  • In pangastritis, caused by Hp-infection, gastric acid production is inhibited resulting in a reduction of stomach-acid-concentration.
  • This may be caused by either the chronic infection itself and the resulting atrophy of the stomach-mucosa, by the ammonia-producing HP-bacteria, or an increase in acid re-absorbtion of gastric epithelium.
  • Today, PPI are the medication of choice in both acute and long-term (prophylactic) therapy of GERD.
  • The so called "step-up-strategy" of medication is no longer recommended.
  • Only in the case of persisting symptoms medication was further increased to high-dose PPI therapy.
  • In the past this increase in medication lead to a prolonged healing process and consequently to higher medication costs.
  • Studies have shown that a "step-down"-therapy, beginning with high dose PPI, is highly preferable, since it is much more effective.
  • Depending on the degree of the symptoms, however, medication may also be applied "on-demand".
  • The BfArM has approved this kind of medication application only for Esomeprazol (Nexium mups 20 mg).
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Ulcer Agents / administration & dosage. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Incidence. Laryngitis / drug therapy. Laryngitis / epidemiology. Laryngitis / etiology. Proton Pump Inhibitors


6. Lehnart SE, Marks AR: Phosphodiesterase 4D and heart failure: a cautionary tale. Expert Opin Ther Targets; 2006 Oct;10(5):677-88
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  • Stimulation of several G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) promotes intracellular production of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and subsequently activates protein kinase A (PKA).
  • Molecular organisation of PKA-effector association occurs by A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which target kinase action to specific intracellular sites.
  • Some AKAPs interact directly with specific cAMP-hydrolysing phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms allowing for the assembly of multi-protein complexes that create focal points of intracellular cAMP signalling.
  • Pharmacological PDE inhibition increases intracellular cAMP concentrations and augments excitation-contraction coupling in heart failure.
  • However, chronic PDE inhibitor treatment causes severe cardiac side effects and increases mortality.
  • Moreover, cAMP hydrolysing PDE activity was found decreased in heart failure which may contribute to disease progression via chronic PKA-dependent dysregulation of Ca2+ transport proteins.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4. Heart Diseases / drug therapy. Heart Diseases / enzymology. Humans. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16981825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7631
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on therapeutic targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; EC 3.1.4.17 / 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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7. Sauerbrei A, Meier C, Meerbach A, Schiel M, Helbig B, Wutzler P: In vitro activity of cycloSal-nucleoside monophosphates and polyhydroxycarboxylates against orthopoxviruses. Antiviral Res; 2005 Sep;67(3):147-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vitro activity of cycloSal-nucleoside monophosphates and polyhydroxycarboxylates against orthopoxviruses.
  • Because variola virus might be used as a pathogen in biological attacks, there is an urgent need to provide effective antiviral drugs for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections.
  • Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the antiviral activity of 3 pro-nucleotides of the acyclic nucleoside analogues aciclovir (ACV), 3 of penciclovir (PCV) and 38 of the cyclic nucleoside analogue brivudin (BVDU), on the basis of cycloSaligenyl-nucleoside monophosphate approach against vaccinia virus and cowpox virus in vitro.
  • As result, three cycloSal-monophosphate derivatives of ACV proved to be potent inhibitors of both vaccinia virus and cowpox virus replication in vitro.
  • Among the tested monophosphate derivatives of cycloSal-PCV and cycloSal-BVDU, selected substances showed a promising antiviral activity against vaccinia virus and cowpox virus.
  • In conclusion, by the delivery of nucleoside monophosphates from neutral, membrane-permeable prodrugs on the basis of the cycloSaligenyl-nucleotide concept, different ACV, PCV and BVDU derivatives can act as potent and selective inhibitors of orthopoxvirus replication.
  • However, most of the cycloSal-monophosphate derivatives of BVDU had a higher cytotoxicity than their parent nucleosides.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyclovir / analogs & derivatives. Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Bromodeoxyuridine / analogs & derivatives. Organophosphates / pharmacology. Orthopoxvirus / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cercopithecus aethiops. Cowpox virus / drug effects. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Tetrazolium Salts / metabolism. Vaccinia virus / drug effects. Vero Cells. Viral Plaque Assay. Virus Replication / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16076502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-3542
  • [Journal-full-title] Antiviral research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antiviral Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Organophosphates; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 117038-70-7 / 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-((phenylamino)carbonyl)-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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8. Liao ZY, Sordet O, Zhang HL, Kohlhagen G, Antony S, Gmeiner WH, Pommier Y: A novel polypyrimidine antitumor agent FdUMP[10] induces thymineless death with topoisomerase I-DNA complexes. Cancer Res; 2005 Jun 1;65(11):4844-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • FdUMP[10], a 10mer of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate (FdUMP), the thymidylate synthase inhibitory metabolite of 5-fluorouracil (FU), is most closely correlated with the DNA topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitor camptothecin in the National Cancer Institute COMPARE analysis, but not with FU.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Fluorodeoxyuridylate / analogs & derivatives. Fluorodeoxyuridylate / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / pharmacology. Cell Death / drug effects. DNA Damage. DNA, Single-Stranded / metabolism. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Fluorouracil / metabolism. Fluorouracil / pharmacology. Leukemia P388 / drug therapy. Leukemia P388 / enzymology. Mice. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Thiophenes / pharmacology. Thymidine / deficiency. Thymidine / metabolism. Thymidylate Synthase / antagonists & inhibitors. Thymidylate Synthase / metabolism. Topoisomerase I Inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15930305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA102532
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Single-Stranded; 0 / FdUMP(10); 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Thiophenes; 0 / Topoisomerase I Inhibitors; 134-46-3 / Fluorodeoxyuridylate; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; FCB9EGG971 / raltitrexed; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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9. Aristimuño C, Navarro J, de Andrés C, Martínez-Ginés L, Giménez-Roldán S, Fernández-Cruz E, Sánchez-Ramón S: Expansion of regulatory CD8+ T-lymphocytes and fall of activated CD8+ T-lymphocytes after i.v. methyl-prednisolone for multiple sclerosis relapse. J Neuroimmunol; 2008 Nov 15;204(1-2):131-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The gold standard of therapy at MS relapse are iv glucocorticoids (GC).
  • The aim of the study was to assess the changes on the different subsets of circulating CD8+ T-lymphocytes at relapse and after iv GC therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We consecutively studied 20 patients at MS relapse before and at day 5 after initiation of i.v. methyl-prednisolone (MP) therapy (1 g/day for 3-5 days).
  • RESULTS: Treatment with i.v.
  • MP suppressed activated (CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+, p=0.05) and effector memory (CD8+CD27-CD45RO+) T-lymphocytes (p=0.07).
  • After i.v. MP treatment, positive correlation between regulatory CD4+CD25+high T-lymphocytes and CD8+CD25+ T-lymphocytes was observed (r=0.74; p<0.0001).
  • MP may contribute to changes observed on the differentiation of CD8+ T-lymphocytes, namely blocking their complete maturation, and expansion of regulatory CD8+ T-lymphocytes.
  • MP in inhibiting axonal damage which may add a neuroprotective effect on MS relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive / drug therapy. Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / immunology. Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit / metabolism. Linear Models. Male. Middle Aged. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / drug effects. T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18835045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-5728
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroimmunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroimmunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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10. Park Y, Lee DG, Hahm KS: HP(2-9)-magainin 2(1-12), a synthetic hybrid peptide, exerts its antifungal effect on Candida albicans by damaging the plasma membrane. J Pept Sci; 2004 Apr;10(4):204-9
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  • [Title] HP(2-9)-magainin 2(1-12), a synthetic hybrid peptide, exerts its antifungal effect on Candida albicans by damaging the plasma membrane.
  • In our previous study, HP(2-9)-MA(1-12), HP-MA for short, a hybrid peptide incorporating residues 2-9 of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1 (HP) and residues 1-12 of magainin 2 (MA) was shown to have strong antibacterial activity.
  • In this study the antifungal activity of HP-MA was evaluated using various fungi, and it was shown that the activity was increased when compared with the parent peptides.
  • In order to investigate the fungicidal mechanism(s) of HP-MA its action against fungal cell membranes was examined by the potassium-release test, which showed that HP-MA caused an increase in the amount of K+ released from the cells.
  • Furthermore, HP-MA induced significant morphological changes.
  • These facts suggested that the fungicidal effect of HP-MA involves damaging the fungal cell membranes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / pharmacology. Candida albicans / drug effects. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides / chemistry. Candidiasis / drug therapy. Circular Dichroism. Magainins. Potassium / metabolism. Ribosomal Proteins / chemistry. Xenopus Proteins / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15119592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-2617
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of peptide science : an official publication of the European Peptide Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pept. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; 0 / Magainins; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Ribosomal Proteins; 0 / Xenopus Proteins; 0 / ribosomal protein L1; 108433-95-0 / magainin 2 peptide, Xenopus; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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11. Savoia C, Schiffrin EL: Reduction of C-reactive protein and the use of anti-hypertensives. Vasc Health Risk Manag; 2007;3(6):975-83
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  • [Title] Reduction of C-reactive protein and the use of anti-hypertensives.
  • Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein are increased in the blood of patients with hypertension and predict the development of cardiovascular disease.
  • Moreover, C-reactive protein may be a pro-inflammatory molecule under certain circumstances.
  • C-reactive protein and high blood pressure in combination have additional predictive value for cardiovascular outcomes, as they contribute as independent determinants of cardiovascular risk.
  • Therapeutic intervention aimed to reduce vascular inflammation in hypertensive patients has been proposed.
  • Recent lines of evidence suggest that lifestyle modification and pharmacological approaches may reduce blood pressure and inflammation in patients with hypertension.
  • [MeSH-major] Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Inflammation / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers / pharmacology. Biomarkers / analysis. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy. Hypertension / physiopathology. Renin-Angiotensin System / drug effects. Renin-Angiotensin System / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18200816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6344
  • [Journal-full-title] Vascular health and risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vasc Health Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 93
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2350124
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12. Abdel Baky NA, Zaidi ZF, Fatani AJ, Sayed-Ahmed MM, Yaqub H: Nitric oxide pros and cons: The role of L-arginine, a nitric oxide precursor, and idebenone, a coenzyme-Q analogue in ameliorating cerebral hypoxia in rat. Brain Res Bull; 2010 Aug 30;83(1-2):49-56
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  • Evidence exists that nitric oxide (NO) may mediate both protective and pathological responses during brain hypoxia (HP).
  • Reactive oxygen species have also been implicated in the pathophysiological response of the brain tissues to HP.
  • Therefore, this study investigated whether a NO precursor, l-arginine (l-arg), a free radical scavenger, idebenone (ID), and their combination would reduce neurological injury resulting from hemic hypoxia (HP) in rats.
  • Moreover, brain lipid peroxides were significantly enhanced, while reduced glutathione, l-ascorbic acids, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, were significantly reduced in the brain tissue.
  • Histopathological examination of the brain tissue supported these biochemical findings.
  • This study showed that ID and l-arg were capable of reducing neurological injury following HP in rat, and support the idea of the usefulness of l-arg and ID as prophylaxis from hypoxic brain injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Arginine / therapeutic use. Hypoxia, Brain / prevention & control. Nitrates / adverse effects. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Ubiquinone / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism. Animals. Brain / pathology. Catalase / metabolism. Creatine Kinase / blood. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Gliosis / etiology. Hemoglobins / metabolism. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Nervous System Diseases / drug therapy. Nervous System Diseases / etiology. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / pathology. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20637840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2747
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Nitrates; 1339-63-5 / Ubiquinone; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; 8M4L3H2ZVZ / sodium nitrate; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase; HB6PN45W4J / idebenone
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13. Torres S, Salgado-Ceballos H, Torres JL, Orozco-Suarez S, Díaz-Ruíz A, Martínez A, Rivera-Cruz M, Ríos C, Lara A, Collado C, Guizar-Sahagún G: Early metabolic reactivation versus antioxidant therapy after a traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rats. Neuropathology; 2010 Feb 1;30(1):36-43
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  • [Title] Early metabolic reactivation versus antioxidant therapy after a traumatic spinal cord injury in adult rats.
  • In order to prove if early metabolic reactivation is a better therapeutic option than antioxidant therapy in the acute phase of TSCI, spinal cord contusions were performed in adult rats using a well-characterized weight drop technique at thoracic 9 level.
  • After TSCI, pyrophosphate of thiamine or non-degradable cocarboxylase (NDC) enzyme was used to maintain energy levels, antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase and catalase (ANT) were used to decrease oxidative damage and methylprednisolone (MP), which has both therapeutic properties, was used as a control.
  • Rats were divided into one sham group and six with TSCI; one of them received no treatment, and the rest were treated with NDC, MP, NDC + MP, NDC + ANT or ANT.
  • The ANT group decreased lactate and creatine phosphokinase levels and increased the amount of preserved tissue (morphometric analysis) as well as functional recovery (Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan or BBB motor scale).
  • In contrast, NDC treatment increased lipid peroxidation, measured through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, as well as spinal cord tissue destruction and functional deficit.
  • While increased antioxidant defence after a TSCI may currently be an ideal therapeutic strategy, the usefulness of metabolic reactivation should be tested in the sub-acute or chronic phases of TSCI and new strategies must continue to be tested for the early ones.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Spinal Cord Injuries / drug therapy. Thiamine Pyrophosphate / therapeutic use. Vitamin B Complex / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aging. Animals. Catalase / therapeutic use. Creatine Kinase / metabolism. Female. Lactic Acid / metabolism. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Male. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Long-Evans. Recovery of Function. Spinal Cord / drug effects. Spinal Cord / metabolism. Spinal Cord / pathology. Superoxide Dismutase / therapeutic use. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19563509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1789
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 2.7.3.2 / Creatine Kinase; Q57971654Y / Thiamine Pyrophosphate
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14. Zou J, Yang ZX, Qin ZM: [Laboratory and clinical study of levofloxacin against Helicobacter pylori]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2003 Oct 25;83(20):1778-81
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  • OBJECTIVE: To assess antibacterial activity of levofloxacin to Helicobacter pylori (Hp) strains In Vitro and In Vivo.
  • To examine the effects of pH variation on the susceptibility of Hp to levofloxacin, Mueller-Hinton agar with 7% defibrinated sheep blood was adjusted to a pH range of 4.0, 5.0, 7.0 by adding hydrochloric acid.
  • 85 Hp-positive Patients with chronic active gastritis or active peptic ulcer disease were consecutively recruited in a prospective, open-label study.
  • Their Hp status was assessed by (13)C-urea breath test and/or endoscopy 4 - 6 weeks after the end of treatment.
  • A dual-resistance to amoxicillin and clarithromycin was demonstrated in five Hp strains (9.6%), which were all susceptible to levofloxacin.
  • 76 patients (PP and ITT analysis, 91.7%; 90.6%) become Hp-negative.
  • CONCLUSION: In the present study, we report a high rate of resistance to amoxicillin and clarithromycin in this region.
  • Omeprazole/levofloxacin-based triple therapy, including amoxicillin, is attractive because they combine a high eradication efficacy with an excellent tolerability and safety profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori / drug effects. Levofloxacin. Ofloxacin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Drug Resistance, Bacterial. Female. Humans. Male. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 14642083.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6GNT3Y5LMF / Levofloxacin; A4P49JAZ9H / Ofloxacin
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15. Liu Z, Geboes K, Heremans H, Overbergh L, Mathieu C, Rutgeerts P, Ceuppens JL: Role of interleukin-12 in the induction of mucosal inflammation and abrogation of regulatory T cell function in chronic experimental colitis. Eur J Immunol; 2001 May;31(5):1550-60
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  • In the present study, the potential role of IL-12 was analyzed in an experimental colitis model in scid mice reconstituted with syngeneic CD45RBhighCD4+ T cells.
  • Real-time reverse transcription-PCR studies demonstrated that IL-12 p40 mRNA in inflamed colon is induced shortly after T cell transfer and maintained at a stable level after week 4, at the time when wasting disease starts.
  • Administration of anti-IL-12 on days 0,14, and 28 (early treatment) or on days 28, 42, and 56 (delayed treatment) after T cell transfer, effectively prevented or, respectively cured wasting disease and colitis in scid recipients.
  • Anti-IL-12 treatment abrogated mucosal inflammation with significantly diminished leukocyte infiltration (CD4 cells, macrophages) and CD54 expression, and down-regulated proinflammatory cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-2.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies / immunology. Antibodies / pharmacology. Antibodies / therapeutic use. Cells, Cultured. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / drug effects. Chronic Disease. Colon / drug effects. Colon / immunology. Colon / metabolism. Colon / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Inflammation / drug therapy. Inflammation / immunology. Inflammation / metabolism. Inflammation / pathology. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism. Interferon-gamma / metabolism. Kinetics. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, SCID. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Recurrence. Spleen / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11465113.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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16. Ngure R, Burke J, Eckersall PD, Jennings FW, Mbai FN, Murray M: Secondary bacterial infection in plasma endotoxin levels and the acute-phase response of mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Parasite Immunol; 2009 Jul;31(7):357-65
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  • Murine Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection leads to elevated plasma endotoxin-like activity levels not related to parasitaemia levels accompanied by the development of acute-phase response and increased plasma levels of serum amyloid P (SAP) and haptoglobin (Hp).
  • Plasma endotoxin-like activity levels, irrespective of treatment, were elevated three- to fourfold, beginning 7 days after infection.
  • Plasma protein concentrations increased markedly following infection from 7 days after infection (DAI).
  • Peak Hp and SAP concentrations in ciprofloxacin-treated and -untreated infected mice were attained 7 and 14 DAI, respectively.
  • Thereafter, both protein levels gradually declined until the end of the experiment, but Hp levels for non-treated mice declined up to 21 DAI and thereafter significantly increased on 28 and 35 DAI.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Bacterial Infections / drug therapy. Ciprofloxacin / therapeutic use. Female. Haptoglobins / analysis. Mice. Serum Amyloid P-Component / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19527451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3024
  • [Journal-full-title] Parasite immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parasite Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Endotoxins; 0 / Haptoglobins; 0 / Serum Amyloid P-Component; 5E8K9I0O4U / Ciprofloxacin
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17. Hong L, Qiao T, Han Y, Han S, Zhang X, Lin T, Gao J, Zhao P, Chen Z, Fan D: ZNRD1 mediates resistance of gastric cancer cells to methotrexate by regulation of IMPDH2 and Bcl-2. Biochem Cell Biol; 2006 Apr;84(2):199-206
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  • Ten genes, involved in cell cycle control, nucleic acid binding, and protein phosphorylation, among other functions, underwent more than 5-fold change.
  • Of the downregulated genes we chose Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2) for further validation by quantitative RT-PCR.
  • In vitro and in vivo drug sensitivity analyses revealed that inhibition of ZNRD1 and IMPDH2 activity sensitized SGC7901/VCR cells to methotrexate.
  • Taken together, the findings suggest that ZNRD1 could act as a modulator of methotrexate chemotherapy in gastric cancer cells through the regulation of IMPDH2 and Bcl-2.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Genes, bcl-2. IMP Dehydrogenase / antagonists & inhibitors. Methotrexate / pharmacology. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Base Sequence. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics. Drug Resistance, Multiple / physiology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Glutathione / metabolism. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16609701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0829-8211
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / ZNRD1 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMPDH2 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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18. El-Nakeeb A, Fikry A, Abd El-Hamed TM, Fouda el Y, El Awady S, Youssef T, Sherief D, Farid M: Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on ulcer recurrence after simple closure of perforated duodenal ulcer. Int J Surg; 2009 Apr;7(2):126-9
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  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to elucidate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with a perforated duodenal ulcer and to determine whether eradication of H. pylori prevent ulcer recurrence following simple repair of the perforation.
  • Antral mucosal biopsies (to determine the status of HP by rapid urease test, culture and histological examination/staining) were obtained during laparotomy by passing a biopsy forceps through the perforation site. H. pylori positive patients who had undergone patch repair were randomized into the eradication group who received amoxicillin, metranidazole plus omperazole and the control group was given omeprazole alone.
  • These patients were randomly divided into the triple therapy group (34 patients) and the control group (31 patients).
  • Eradication of H. pylori was significantly higher in the triple therapy group than the control group and initial ulcer healing was significantly better in the eradication group.
  • CONCLUSION: H. pylori was present in a high proportion of patients with duodenal ulcer perforation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Duodenal Ulcer / surgery. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Peptic Ulcer Perforation / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amoxicillin / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Metronidazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Omeprazole / therapeutic use. Prevalence. Secondary Prevention

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  • (PMID = 19138577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 804826J2HU / Amoxicillin; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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19. Jost R, Berkowitz O, Masle J: Magnetic quantitative reverse transcription PCR: a high-throughput method for mRNA extraction and quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Biotechniques; 2007 Aug;43(2):206-11
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  • [Title] Magnetic quantitative reverse transcription PCR: a high-throughput method for mRNA extraction and quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
  • Over the past few years high-throughput platforms for real-time quantitative PCR have become widely available.
  • One method that stands out with respect to free up- or downscaling of sample size and reliability is the isolation of mRNA using oligodeoxythymidylate [oligo(dT)25]-coated magnetic particles.
  • In combining this magnetic separation of mRNA with real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), we have achieved a highly reproducible, economic, and fast way of analyzing large sample numbers.
  • We present a solution to this problem that enables excellent adjustment of cDNA amounts prior to the real-time PCR.
  • Furthermore, as the mRNA is rapidly isolated from crude plant extracts, our method is widely applicable to herbaceous plant species and various tissue types without cumbersome adjustments.
  • Lastly, due to its flexibility, the method presented here can easily be adapted to specific requirements of various users and has great potential for further automation.

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  • (PMID = 17824388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-6205
  • [Journal-full-title] BioTechniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BioTechniques
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Plant
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21. Okubo T, Ideguchi H, Ihata A, Nakamura M, Ueda A, Ohno S, Hagiwara E, Aoki A, Shirai A, Ishigatsubo Y: [Assessment on intermittent intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis]. Ryumachi; 2000 Jun;40(3):605-11
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  • [Title] [Assessment on intermittent intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy in diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy (IVCY) is effective for treating patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) who were 1) refractory to methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MP) or 2) could not be treated with MP because of severe diabetes or steroid induced psychosis.
  • Five of them received IVCY after a failure to achieve renal remission with at least 2 cycles of MP therapy.
  • Bolus therapy with cyclophosphamide (0.5 g/m2 body surface area) was given once a month for 6 consecutive months and then once every 3 months for a total treatment period of 1 year.
  • Adverse events were mild and did not require any treatment, with 2 cases of leukocytopenia without fever or major infection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IVCY was 1) effective in the treatment of DPLN which was refractory to MP and 2) relatively safe with minimal side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Lupus Nephritis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Pulse Therapy, Drug. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10920685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9157
  • [Journal-full-title] Ryūmachi. [Rheumatism]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ryumachi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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22. Steers WD: Viability and safety of combination drug therapies for erectile dysfunction. J Urol; 2003 Aug;170(2 Pt 2):S20-3; discussion S23
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  • [Title] Viability and safety of combination drug therapies for erectile dysfunction.
  • PURPOSE: In some patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) oral, topical or intracavernous drug therapy fails.
  • However, several classes of drugs demonstrate efficacy for ED, creating the potential for pharmacological combinations preferable to implantation of a penile prosthesis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preliminary reports suggest that combining oral, topical or intracavernous drugs may salvage patients in whom monotherapy fails.
  • RESULTS: Agents that lead to activation or increases in cyclic nucleotides (cyclic adenosine monophosphate and guanosine monophosphate) with or without nitric oxide donors or nitrates, or alpha-adrenergic antagonists have been used to treat ED.
  • Combination strategies may allow lower drug doses and reduced adverse effects.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The encouraging preliminary observations combined with the potential for adverse events provide a scientific rationale for prospective, randomized clinical trials with adequate numbers of subjects.
  • [MeSH-major] Alprostadil / administration & dosage. Erectile Dysfunction / drug therapy. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Vasodilator Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Apomorphine / administration & dosage. Dopamine Agonists. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Purines. Sildenafil Citrate. Sulfones

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  • (PMID = 12853768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Purines; 0 / Sulfones; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; BW9B0ZE037 / Sildenafil Citrate; F5TD010360 / Alprostadil; N21FAR7B4S / Apomorphine
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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23. Shaw LM, Korecka M, DeNofrio D, Brayman KL: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and outcome investigations as the basis for mycophenolic acid therapeutic drug monitoring in renal and heart transplant patients. Clin Biochem; 2001 Feb;34(1):17-22
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  • [Title] Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and outcome investigations as the basis for mycophenolic acid therapeutic drug monitoring in renal and heart transplant patients.
  • The following are important experimentally-based reasons for recommending the incorporation of target therapeutic concentration monitoring of mycophenolic acid:.
  • (1) the MPA dose-interval area-under-the-concentration-time curve, and less precisely, MPA predose concentrations predict the risk for development of acute rejection;.
  • (3) the greater than 10-fold interindividual variation of MPA area under the concentration time curve values in heart and renal transplant patients receiving a fixed dose of the parent drug;.
  • (4) drug-drug interactions involving other immunosuppressives are such that when switching from one to another (eg, from cyclosporine to tacrolimus or vice-versa) substantial changes in MPA concentrations can occur in patients receiving a fixed dose of the parent drug;.
  • (5) significant effects of liver and kidney diseases on the steady-state total and free mycophenolic acid area under the concentration time curve values;.
  • Current investigations are focused on determination of the most optimal sampling time and for mycophenolic acid target therapeutic concentration monitoring.
  • Further investigations are needed to evaluate the pharmacologic activity of the newly described acyl glucuronide metabolite of mycophenolic acid which has been shown to inhibit, in vitro, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Transplantation / methods. Kidney Transplantation / methods. Mycophenolic Acid / pharmacokinetics. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Area Under Curve. Graft Rejection / drug therapy. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacokinetics. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11239510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9120
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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24. Ohtaka K, Miwa H, Sato N: [Indication of H. pylori eradication therapy]. Nihon Rinsho; 2003 Jan;61(1):97-101
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  • [Title] [Indication of H. pylori eradication therapy].
  • In the guideline, for H. pylori the Japanese Society of Helicobacter published diagnosis and treatment in July 2000.
  • Only peptic ulcers and low grade MALT lymphomas are recommended as an indication of H. pylori eradication and other diseases such as atrophic gastritis, post EMR state for early gastric cancer and post-operated stomach due to gastric cancer, hyperplastic polyps and non-ulcer dyspepsia, were not included.
  • In addition, Japanese social security foundation approves only peptic ulcers for indication of H. pylori eradication treatment.
  • However, eradication therapy for atrophic gastritis should be considered in aspect of decreasing gastric cancer risk.
  • Since accumulated epidemiological, experimental and clinical data strongly support its positive correlation with cancer risk, patients in high risk group for gastric cancer should be included for a target eradication therapy.
  • Indication of the treatment should be expanded to histological gastritis caused by H. pylori in our country, where prevalence of gastric cancer is very high.
  • [MeSH-major] Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Peptic Ulcer / drug therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Stomach Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 12607324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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25. Lee DK, Gray RD, Wilson AM, Robb FM, Soutar PC, Lipworth BJ: Single and short-term dosing effects of levocetirizine on adenosine monophosphate bronchoprovocation in atopic asthma. Br J Clin Pharmacol; 2004 Jul;58(1):34-9
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  • [Title] Single and short-term dosing effects of levocetirizine on adenosine monophosphate bronchoprovocation in atopic asthma.
  • AIMS: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) acts indirectly via primed airway mast cells to induce bronchial hyper-responsiveness, which in turn correlates with eosinophilic asthmatic inflammation and atopic disease expression.
  • There was a 1-week washout period prior to each randomized treatment.
  • The provocative concentration of AMP producing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) was measured after each washout at baseline and at 4-6 h following the first and last doses of each randomized treatment.
  • RESULTS: Baseline mean +/- SEM values after washout prior to each randomized treatment comparing levocetirizine vs placebo were not significantly different for prechallenge FEV1 (% predicted) 83 +/- 4 vs 82 +/- 4, or AMP PC20 (mg ml(-1)) 45 +/- 24 vs 45 +/- 22, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Asthma / drug therapy. Cetirizine / administration & dosage. Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Monophosphate. Adult. Aged. Bronchial Hyperreactivity / drug therapy. Bronchial Provocation Tests. Cross-Over Studies. Double-Blind Method. Female. Forced Expiratory Volume / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15206990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-5251
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of clinical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Clin Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; YO7261ME24 / Cetirizine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1884543
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26. Forouzesh B, Takimoto CH, Goetz A, Diab S, Hammond LA, Smetzer L, Schwartz G, Gazak R, Callaghan JT, Von Hoff DD, Rowinsky EK: A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of ILX-295501, an oral diarylsulfonylurea, on a weekly for 3 weeks every 4-week schedule in patients with advanced solid malignancies. Clin Cancer Res; 2003 Nov 15;9(15):5540-9
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  • The incidences of dose-limiting toxicity, principally neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, were unacceptably high at ILX-295501 doses exceeding 1000 mg/m(2), which was determined to be the MTD for both minimally pretreated and heavily pretreated (HP) patients.
  • One HP patient with non-small cell lung carcinoma experienced a partial response.
  • The initial drug distribution phase was rapid [harmonic mean half-life (t(1/2alpha)), 2.1 +/- 7.0 min], whereas the terminal elimination phase was slow (harmonic mean t(1/2beta,) 150.6 +/- 80.2 h).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The recommended dose for Phase II studies of the oral DSU ILX-295501 administered weekly for 3 weeks every 4 weeks is 1000 mg/m(2)/day for both minimally pretreated and HP patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sulfonylurea Compounds / pharmacokinetics. Sulfonylurea Compounds / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Benzofurans. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Middle Aged. Phenylurea Compounds. Tablets

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  • (PMID = 14654534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzofurans; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Sulfonylurea Compounds; 0 / Tablets; 150869-74-2 / N-(5-(2,3-dihydrobenzofuryl)sulfonyl)-N'-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)urea
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27. Sarfati M, Mateo V, Baudet S, Rubio M, Fernandez C, Davi F, Binet JL, Delic J, Merle-Beral H: Sildenafil and vardenafil, types 5 and 6 phosphodiesterase inhibitors, induce caspase-dependent apoptosis of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Blood; 2003 Jan 1;101(1):265-9
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  • [Title] Sildenafil and vardenafil, types 5 and 6 phosphodiesterase inhibitors, induce caspase-dependent apoptosis of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
  • Type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) inhibitors reportedly induce apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.
  • Following clinical improvement of one previously untreated CLL patient with sildenafil therapy, we evaluated the in vitro induction of apoptosis in CLL cells by 4 PDE5/6 inhibitors, including sildenafil, vardenafil, zaprinast, and methoxyquinazoline (MQZ).
  • Vardenafil was 3 and 30 times more potent an inducer of apoptosis than sildenafil and MQZ, respectively.
  • Both vardenafil and sildenafil failed to elevate adenosine 3'5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels, largely excluding an inhibitory effect on cAMP-PDE3, -PDE4, and -PDE7.
  • Drug-induced apoptosis was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD.fmk, prevented by interleukin-4 (IL-4), and significantly reduced by stromal-derived factor1-alpha (SDF-1alpha).
  • We conclude that vardenafil and sildenafil induce caspase-dependent apoptosis of B-CLL cells in vitro and thus might be considered in the treatment of CLL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / pathology. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Piperazines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] 3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases. Case-Control Studies. Caspases / physiology. Cell Culture Techniques. Chemokine CXCL12. Chemokines, CXC / metabolism. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5. Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases / chemistry. Purines. Sildenafil Citrate. Sulfones. Triazines. Vardenafil Dihydrochloride

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  • (PMID = 12393651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Purines; 0 / Sulfones; 0 / Triazines; 5O8R96XMH7 / Vardenafil Dihydrochloride; BW9B0ZE037 / Sildenafil Citrate; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.35 / 3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases; EC 3.1.4.35 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5; EC 3.1.4.35 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 6; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE5A protein, human; EC 3.1.4.35 / PDE6B protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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28. Clark TD, Semba RD: Iron supplementation during human immunodeficiency virus infection: a double-edged sword? Med Hypotheses; 2001 Oct;57(4):476-9
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  • (1) faster HIV disease progression in thalassemia major patients receiving inadequate doses of iron-chelating drug;.
  • (3) higher iron stores and mortality among patients with haptoglobin Hp 2-2 phenotype; and (4) shorter survival among patients with high bone marrow iron deposition.
  • These studies largely involved men in developed countries.
  • Among HIV-infected pregnant women in Africa with a high prevalence of iron deficiency, no relationship was found between indicators of iron status and HIV disease severity.
  • The available data do not contraindicate the current practice of iron supplementation in developing countries where there is a high prevalence of both HIV infection and iron deficiency.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / complications. Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / drug therapy. Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Infant. Pregnancy. Prevalence

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 11601873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-9877
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI41956; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD30042; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD32247
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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29. Potter LR, Abbey-Hosch S, Dickey DM: Natriuretic peptides, their receptors, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent signaling functions. Endocr Rev; 2006 Feb;27(1):47-72
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  • [Title] Natriuretic peptides, their receptors, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent signaling functions.
  • The mammalian members are atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide, and possibly osteocrin/musclin.
  • Single allele-inactivating mutations in the promoter of human NPR-A are associated with hypertension and heart failure, whereas homozygous inactivating mutations in human NPR-B cause a form of short-limbed dwarfism known as acromesomelic dysplasia type Maroteaux.
  • The physiological effects of natriuretic peptides are elicited through three classes of cGMP binding proteins: cGMP-dependent protein kinases, cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases, and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels.
  • In this comprehensive review, the structure, function, regulation, and biological consequences of natriuretic peptides and their associated signaling proteins are described.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Growth Disorders / drug therapy. Heart Diseases / drug therapy. Humans. Hypertension / drug therapy. Obesity / drug therapy. Protein Structure, Tertiary / physiology. Receptor Cross-Talk / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16291870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01HL66397
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Natriuretic Peptides; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
  • [Number-of-references] 344
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30. Kalgaonkar S, Gross HB, Yokoyama W, Keen CL: Effects of a flavonol-rich diet on select cardiovascular parameters in a Golden Syrian hamster model. J Med Food; 2010 Feb;13(1):108-15
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  • The concept that the consumption of a diet rich in flavonoids can be associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease is becoming increasingly accepted.
  • In the present study we investigated the effects of the following four diets on blood pressure and cholesterol ester levels in hypercholesterolemic Golden Syrian hamsters: a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFHC); a HFHC with 2% cranberry concentrate powder (HFHC+CE); a HFHC with 0.1% rutin (HFHC+Rutin); and a HFHC with 30 mg/kg vitamin E (HFHC+Vit.E).
  • Ratios of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and of plasma HDL-C to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly higher in animals consuming HFHC+Vit.E than in animals fed the other three diets.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control. Diet. Flavonols / therapeutic use. Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy. Plant Preparations / therapeutic use. Vitamin E / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Fat / drug effects. Animals. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Cholesterol / blood. Cholesterol, Dietary / administration & dosage. Cricetinae. Dietary Fats / administration & dosage. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Therapy, Combination. Heart Rate / drug effects. Mesocricetus. Phytotherapy. Powders. Rutin / pharmacology. Rutin / therapeutic use. Vaccinium macrocarpon / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20136443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7600
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal food
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Food
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Cholesterol, Dietary; 0 / Dietary Fats; 0 / Flavonols; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / Powders; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 5G06TVY3R7 / Rutin; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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31. Sowa NA, Voss MK, Zylka MJ: Recombinant ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) has long lasting antinociceptive effects that are dependent on adenosine A1 receptor activation. Mol Pain; 2010 Apr 14;6:20
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  • BACKGROUND: Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, also known as CD73) hydrolyzes extracellular adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine in nociceptive circuits.
  • Recombinant mNT5E hydrolyzed AMP in biochemical assays and was inhibited by alpha,beta-methylene-adenosine 5'-diphosphate (alpha,beta-me-ADP; IC50 = 0.43 microM), a selective inhibitor of NT5E. mNT5E exhibited a dose-dependent thermal antinociceptive effect that lasted for two days when injected intrathecally in wild-type mice.

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  • (PMID = 20398264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8069
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular pain
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Pain
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS067688-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS060725-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS060725; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS067688-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS060725-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS060725-04; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS060725-02; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32GM008719; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS060725-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS067688-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS067688-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01NS067688; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS060725-02; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / F30NS063507; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS060725-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS060725-01; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS067688; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01NS060725
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Receptor, Adenosine A1; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; EC 3.1.3.5 / 5'-Nucleotidase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2874211
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32. Uchiumi H, Matsushima T, Yamane A, Doki N, Irisawa H, Saitoh T, Sakura T, Jimbo T, Handa H, Tsukamoto N, Karasawa M, Miyawaki S, Murakami H, Nojima Y: Prevalence and clinical characteristics of acute myeloid leukemia associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Int J Hematol; 2007 Aug;86(2):137-42
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  • DIC was diagnosed in 52 patients (32%); 28 patients at diagnosis and 24 soon after the initiation of induction chemotherapy.
  • Leukocyte counts, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly higher in the DIC+ group.
  • On multivariate logistic-regression analysis, variables that were independently associated with the development of DIC were high C-reactive protein, high leukocyte count, negative expressions of CD13 and HLA-DR, and cytogenetics with a normal karyotype or 11q23 abnormality.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Antigens, CD13 / analysis. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Cytogenetics. Female. HLA-DR Antigens / analysis. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17875527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13
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33. Spina D: Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors in the treatment of inflammatory lung disease. Drugs; 2003;63(23):2575-94
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  • [Title] Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors in the treatment of inflammatory lung disease.
  • Phosphodiesterases (PDE) belong to an important family of proteins that regulate the intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotide second messengers.
  • Targeting PDE with selective inhibitors may offer novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of various conditions, and in the context of respiratory disease these include asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • The rationale for such an approach stems, in part, from the clinical efficacy of theophylline, an orally active drug that is purportedly a nonselective PDE inhibitor.
  • In addition, intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels regulate the function of many of the cells thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD, and these cells also selectively express PDE4.
  • This has offered pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to selectively targeting these enzymes for the treatment of these diseases.
  • Finally, the success of targeting PDE5 in the treatment of erectile dysfunction provides clinical proof of concept for the targeting of PDE in disease.
  • Whether a 'Viagra' of the airways can be found for the treatment of asthma and COPD remains to be seen, but positive results from recent clinical studies examining the efficacy of selective PDE4 inhibitors such as cilomilast and roflumilast offer some optimism.
  • However, one of the major issues to be resolved is the tolerability profile associated with this drug class that is a consequence of PDE4 inhibition.
  • While cilomilast and roflumilast have low emetic potential they are not free from emesis and various strategies are being investigated in the hope of developing a PDE4 inhibitor without this adverse effect.
  • [MeSH-major] 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases / antagonists & inhibitors. Lung Diseases / drug therapy. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Asthma / drug therapy. Asthma / enzymology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4. Humans. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / drug therapy. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 14636078.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 3.1.4.17 / 3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases; EC 3.1.4.17 / Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4
  • [Number-of-references] 176
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34. Veltkamp SA, Pluim D, van Tellingen O, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Extensive metabolism and hepatic accumulation of gemcitabine after multiple oral and intravenous administration in mice. Drug Metab Dispos; 2008 Aug;36(8):1606-15
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  • In this study, mice were treated with oral or i.v. dFdC at a single dose (1qdx1d) or at multiple doses once daily for 7 days (1qdx7d) or seven times daily (7qdx1d).
  • Blood, liver, kidneys, and lungs were collected at several time points.
  • The nucleosides dFdC and dFdU as well as the nucleotides gemcitabine monophosphate (dFdC-MP), diphosphate, and triphosphate (dFdC-TP) and dFdU monophosphate, diphosphate (dFdU-DP), and triphosphate (dFdU-TP) were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and radioisotope detection.
  • We demonstrate that phosphorylated metabolites of both dFdC and dFdU are formed in mice, primarily consisting of dFdC-MP, dFdC-TP, and dFdU-TP.
  • The presence of dFdC-MP, dFdC-TP, and dFdU-TP in plasma and urine suggests efflux of these potentially toxic metabolites.

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  • (PMID = 18490432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-009X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Metab. Dispos.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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35. Lotfi K, Juliusson G, Albertioni F: Pharmacological basis for cladribine resistance. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Oct;44(10):1705-12
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  • [Title] Pharmacological basis for cladribine resistance.
  • Cladribine, unlike many other drugs, is toxic to both dividing and indolent lymphoid malignancies.
  • Cladribine is a prodrug and must be phosphorylated intracellularly to cladribine-monophosphate (MP) by the nuclear/cystosol enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) and the mitochondrial enzyme deoxyguanosine kinase.
  • The cytotoxicity mainly depends on the accumulation of cladribine-triphosphates (TP) after phosphorylation of cladribine-MP by nucleoside monophosphate kinase and nucleoside diphosphate kinase.
  • 5'-Nucleotidase (5'-NT) dephosphorylates cladribine-MP and the accumulation of cladribine-TP depends on the ratio of dCK and 5'-NT in the cells.
  • The mechanisms underlying cladribine resistance are multifactorial, e.g. decreased nucleoside transport, decreased activity or deficiency of dCK, altered intracellular pools of competing nucleotides, altered regulation of ribonucleotide reductase and increased drug inactivation by 5'-NT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenosine Triphosphate / analogs & derivatives. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cladribine / analogs & derivatives. Cladribine / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / physiology. Ribonucleotide Reductases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 5'-Nucleotidase / antagonists & inhibitors. 5'-Nucleotidase / metabolism. Biological Transport. Deoxycytidine Kinase / metabolism. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14692522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / cladribine triphosphate; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; EC 1.17.4.- / Ribonucleotide Reductases; EC 2.7.1.74 / Deoxycytidine Kinase; EC 3.1.3.5 / 5'-Nucleotidase
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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36. Ciccolini J, Cuq P, Evrard A, Giacometti S, Pelegrin A, Aubert C, Cano JP, Iliadis A: Combination of thymidine phosphorylase gene transfer and deoxyinosine treatment greatly enhances 5-fluorouracil antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Mol Cancer Ther; 2001 Dec;1(2):133-9
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  • [Title] Combination of thymidine phosphorylase gene transfer and deoxyinosine treatment greatly enhances 5-fluorouracil antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo.
  • Cancer, 80: 1726-1733, 1999) or associating FUra with 2'-deoxyinosine (d-Ino), a modulator providing the tumors with TP cofactor deoxyribose 1-phosphate (J.
  • Results showed a near 4000 times increase of cell sensitivity in vitro after double (genetic + biochemical) modulation.
  • This potentiation of tumor response was accompanied by a total change in the FUra anabolic pathway with a 5000% increase of cytosolic fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate, a stronger and longer inhibition of thymidylate synthase, and 300% augmentation of DNA damage.
  • Besides, whereas thymidine failed to inhibit FUra cytotoxicity in LS174T wild-type cells, the potentiation of the antitumor activity observed in the modulating regimen was partly reversed by thymidine, indicative of thymidylate synthase as the main drug target.
  • Results showed that whereas FUra alone was completely ineffective on wild-type tumor growth, the size of TP-transfected tumors in animals treated with the FUra/d-Ino combination was reduced by 80% (P < 0.05).
  • Our results suggest that FUra exhibits stronger antiproliferative activity when activated via TP through the DNA pathway and that high tumoral TP activity therefore leads to enhanced sensitivity to fluoropyrimidines.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Genetic Therapy. Inosine / analogs & derivatives. Inosine / therapeutic use. Thymidine Phosphorylase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Synergism. Gene Transfer Techniques. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Mice. Mice, Nude. Thymidylate Synthase / antagonists & inhibitors. Thymidylate Synthase / metabolism. Thymine Nucleotides / metabolism. Tritium. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TRITIUM, RADIOACTIVE .
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  • (PMID = 12467230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-7163
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thymine Nucleotides; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 5A614L51CT / Inosine; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; HN0RQ6SBWQ / deoxyinosine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. González-Espinosa D, Pérez-Romano L, Guzmán-Soriano B, Arias E, Bongiovanni CM, Gutiérrez AA: Effects of pH-neutral, super-oxidised solution on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Int Wound J; 2007 Sep;4(3):241-50
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  • However, the potential toxicity of SOSs on eukaryotic cells has not been documented in vitro.
  • For this purpose, hydrogen peroxide (HP) was used as a positive control of oxidative damage.
  • When these solutions were used at concentrations indicated for wound care (i.e. undiluted MCN or 880 mM HP), HP was significantly more toxic than MCN.
  • After 5 and 30 minutes of exposure, cell viability was 38% and 5%, respectively, in 880 mM HP-treated cells versus 75% and 70% in MCN-treated populations, respectively.
  • HP induced both apoptosis and necrosis, whereas MCN induced only necrosis.
  • Genotoxic and ageing studies were then conducted at sublethal HP concentrations as previously reported in the literature.
  • Cellular DNA and RNA were partially degraded only in HDFs exposed to 500 microM HP for 30 minutes but not in those exposed to undiluted MCN.
  • At this same concentration, HP induced the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine adducts in HDFs but this effect was neither observed in control- nor observed in MCN-treated cells.
  • HDFs were further exposed to 5 microM HP or 10% MCN for 1 month.
  • The expression of senescence-associated-beta-galactosidase was only significantly elevated in cells chronically exposed to 5 microM HP.
  • Altogether, these results show that MCN is significantly less cytotoxic than antiseptic HP concentrations (i.e.
  • [MeSH-major] Disinfectants / pharmacology. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Fibroblasts / pathology. Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology. Skin / cytology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Infective Agents, Local / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. DNA Adducts / drug effects. DNA Damage / drug effects. Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxyguanosine / metabolism. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Necrosis / chemically induced. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. RNA Stability / drug effects. beta-Galactosidase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17924880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-4801
  • [Journal-full-title] International wound journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Wound J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; 0 / DNA Adducts; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / superoxidized water; 88847-89-6 / 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 3.2.1.23 / beta-Galactosidase; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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38. Chen XX, Ou BY, Wu XY, Zhou XL, Tang HF, Qü YP, Shang SQ: [Long-term therapeutic effect of triple therapy consisted of omeperazole, clarithromycin and amoxycillin in children with Helicobacter pylori infection and approach to re-treatment after failure of the treatment]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2004 Jun;42(6):417-20
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  • [Title] [Long-term therapeutic effect of triple therapy consisted of omeperazole, clarithromycin and amoxycillin in children with Helicobacter pylori infection and approach to re-treatment after failure of the treatment].
  • OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection presents high prevalence in the world, but there are few pediatric assays evaluating antimicrobial treatment using a short regimen of triple therapy.
  • To evaluate the eradication rate and long term therapeutic effect of a triple therapy consisted of omeperazole, clarithromycin (CLA) and amoxycillin (AMO) on Hp infection, the authors explored the alternative therapeutic programs and their effects after first therapeutic failure.
  • METHODS: A total of 192 children with Hp infection were divided into two groups: 157 children were given the triple therapy for one week (CLA group); 35 children were given another triple therapy composed of omeperazole, metronidazole (MET) and AMO for two weeks (MET group).
  • All of the children were followed up for 1 - 36 months after the therapies ended.
  • Twenty-two children in whom Hp was eradicated with CLA triple therapy were followed up for 3 years.
  • The children of the two groups who had therapeutic failure were given re-treatment as follows.
  • CLA triple therapy was given for one week to the children who had failure after MET triple therapy; increased doses of CLA with longer treatment course was given to the children who had failure after CLA triple therapy.
  • A tetra therapy consisted of omeperazole, colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS), furazolidone (FUR) and AMO was given to the children in whom the re-treatment failed.
  • RESULTS: The Hp eradication and ulcer recovery rate of CLA group was 90.4% (142/157) and 96.9% (32/33), respectively; the Hp eradication rate of MET group was 77% (27/35).
  • The recurrence rate of 22 Hp eradicated children treated with CLA triple therapy was 4.5% (1/22) during the 3-year follow-up.
  • The eradication rate of the three re-treatment programs for 29 children was 75% (6/8), 77% (11/15) and 100% (6/6), respectively. CONCLUSION:.
  • (1) Omeperazole, CLA and AMO triple therapy for one week was the best to eradicate Hp infection with high eradication rate, few side effects, short period of treatment, good compliance and low recurrence rate. (2) Proper increase of CLA dose and longer therapeutic course may increase the eradication rate.
  • Omeperazole, CBA, FUR and AMO tetra therapeutic program may be used as an alternative treatment in patients who develop resistance to CLA triple therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Amoxicillin / therapeutic use. Clarithromycin / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Omeprazole / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Ulcer Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Helicobacter pylori / drug effects. Humans. Male. Metronidazole / administration & dosage. Metronidazole / therapeutic use. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


39. Maurya SK, Gollapalli DR, Kirubakaran S, Zhang M, Johnson CR, Benjamin NN, Hedstrom L, Cuny GD: Triazole inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase. J Med Chem; 2009 Aug 13;52(15):4623-30
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  • [Title] Triazole inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.
  • Cryptosporidium parvum is an important human pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent.
  • This protozoan parasite cannot salvage guanine or guanosine and therefore relies on inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) for biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides and hence for survival.
  • The 1,2,3-triazole CpIMPDH inhibitors provide new tools for elucidating the role of IMPDH in C. parvum and may serve as potential therapeutics for treating cryptosporidiosis.

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  • (PMID = 19624136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS067497; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01AI075466; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI075466; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI075466-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI075466-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiprotozoal Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Triazoles; EC 1.1.1.205 / IMP Dehydrogenase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS167141; NLM/ PMC2810100
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40. Olschewski H, Hoeper MM, Behr J, Ewert R, Meyer A, Borst MM, Winkler J, Pfeifer M, Wilkens H, Ghofrani HA, Nikkho S, Seeger W: Long-term therapy with inhaled iloprost in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Respir Med; 2010 May;104(5):731-40
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  • [Title] Long-term therapy with inhaled iloprost in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
  • Iloprost was inhaled 6-9 times daily with a night pause employing a jet nebulizer delivering an inhaled single dose of 4microg at the mouthpiece.
  • Thirty-six patients completed at least 630 days of therapy (25 IPAH, 11 PHother), 19 patients dropped out prematurely and 8 patients died (3 IPAH, 5 PHother).
  • There were no drug-induced toxicities and only mild to moderate side effects.
  • CONCLUSION: Inhaled iloprost is well tolerated as long-term therapy and no substantial dose increase is required.
  • Although uncontrolled, the data suggest a long-term clinical benefit from continued therapy with inhaled iloprost.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20153158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3064
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00414687
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vasodilator Agents; JED5K35YGL / Iloprost
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41. dos Santos Ferreira C, de Castro Pimenta AM, Demicheli C, Frézard F: Characterization of reactions of antimoniate and meglumine antimoniate with a guanine ribonucleoside at different pH. Biometals; 2006 Oct;19(5):573-81
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  • [Title] Characterization of reactions of antimoniate and meglumine antimoniate with a guanine ribonucleoside at different pH.
  • It has been shown previously that Sb(V) forms mono- and bis-adducts with adenine and guanine ribonucleosides, suggesting that ribonucleosides may be a target for pentavalent antimonial drugs in the treatment of leishmaniasis.
  • In the present work, the reactions of antimoniate (KSb(OH)(6)) and meglumine antimoniate (MA) with guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP) have been characterized at 37 degrees C in aqueous solution and two different pH (5 and 6.5), using ESI(-)-MS and (1)H NMR.
  • The (1)H NMR anomeric region was explored for determining the concentrations of mono- and bis-adducts.
  • When MA was used, instead of antimoniate, formation of 1:1 Sb-GMP complex occurred, but with a slower rate constant.
  • Thermodynamic and kinetic data are consistent with the formation of 1:1 Sb-ribonucleoside complexes in vertebrate hosts, following treatment with pentavalent antimonial drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimony / metabolism. Antiprotozoal Agents / metabolism. Guanosine Monophosphate / metabolism. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Meglumine / metabolism. Organometallic Compounds / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Leishmaniasis / drug therapy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization. Thermodynamics

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  • (PMID = 16937264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0844
  • [Journal-full-title] Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biometals
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiprotozoal Agents; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 6HG8UB2MUY / Meglumine; 75G4TW236W / meglumine antimoniate; 85-32-5 / Guanosine Monophosphate; 9IT35J3UV3 / Antimony
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42. Wang Y, Krämer S, Loof T, Martini S, Kron S, Kawachi H, Shimizu F, Neumayer HH, Peters H: Stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase slows progression in anti-thy1-induced chronic glomerulosclerosis. Kidney Int; 2005 Jul;68(1):47-61
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  • BACKGROUND: A critical role of soluble guanylate cyclase and nitric oxide-dependent cyclic 3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production for glomerular matrix expansion has recently been documented in a rat model of acute anti-thy1 glomerulonephritis.
  • In week 16, analysis included effects on systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, kidney function, glomerular and tubulointerstitial matrix protein accumulation, expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), macrophage infiltration, cell proliferation, basal and nitric oxide-stimulated cGMP production as well as tubulointerstitial mRNA expression of alpha 1 and beta 1 soluble guanylate cyclase.
  • RESULTS: The moderately elevated systolic blood pressure seen in the chronic glomerulosclerosis group was comparably decreased by both treatments.
  • Bay 41-2272 treatment enhanced glomerular and tubulointerstitial nitric oxide-cGMP signaling significantly.
  • In contrast, hydralazine therapy did not significantly affect renal nitric oxide-cGMP signaling, macrophage number, cell proliferation, matrix protein expression and accumulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / drug therapy. Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental / metabolism. Isoantibodies / pharmacology. Pyrazoles / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Body Weight. Chronic Disease. Disease Progression. Eating. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Fibrosis. Gene Expression. Guanylate Cyclase. Hydralazine / pharmacology. Kidney Glomerulus / enzymology. Kidney Glomerulus / pathology. Kidney Glomerulus / physiology. Male. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Proteinuria / drug therapy. Proteinuria / immunology. Proteinuria / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Signal Transduction / physiology. Vasodilator Agents / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15954895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0085-2538
  • [Journal-full-title] Kidney international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kidney Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3-(4-Amino-5-cyclopropylpyrimidine-2-yl)-1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1H-pyrazolo(3,4-b)pyridine; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Isoantibodies; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 0 / anti-Thy antibody; 26NAK24LS8 / Hydralazine; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 4.6.1.2 / Guanylate Cyclase; EC 4.6.1.2 / soluble guanylyl cyclase
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43. Beaufour M, Morin P, Ribet JP: Chiral separation of the four stereoisomers of a novel antianginal agent using a dual cyclodextrin system in capillary electrophoresis. J Sep Sci; 2005 Apr;28(6):529-33
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  • This paper presents a method exploiting the high efficiency of capillary electrophoresis and the complexing properties of cyclodextrins to achieve the separation of the four stereoisomers of this weakly basic compound (pKa = 7.4).
  • For this purpose, the combination of a neutral cyclodextrin, hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HP-gamma-CD), and an anionic cyclodextrin, carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CM-beta-CD), was added to the separation buffer running in an uncoated silica capillary.
  • After selection of the suitable cyclodextrin system, satisfactorily separation conditions were as follows: 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.4) containing 10 mM of HP-gamma-CD and 10 mM of CM-beta-CD, running voltage +30 kV.
  • The resulting run time and resolutions were respectively about 17 min and between 1.95 and 2.84.
  • [MeSH-minor] Angina Pectoris / drug therapy. Humans. Molecular Structure. Reproducibility of Results. Stereoisomerism

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  • (PMID = 15881082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9306
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiovascular Agents; 0 / beta-Cyclodextrins; 0 / carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin; 0 / gamma-Cyclodextrins; 0 / hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin
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44. Ndisang JF, Jadhav A: Heme arginate therapy enhanced adiponectin and atrial natriuretic peptide, but abated endothelin-1 with attenuation of kidney histopathological lesions in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension. J Pharmacol Exp Ther; 2010 Jul;334(1):87-98
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  • [Title] Heme arginate therapy enhanced adiponectin and atrial natriuretic peptide, but abated endothelin-1 with attenuation of kidney histopathological lesions in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension.
  • Correspondingly, HO activity, adiponectin, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), ANP, cGMP, antioxidants such as bilirubin, ferritin, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, and total antioxidant capacity were increased, whereas ET-1, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), fibronectin, and 8-isoprostane were abated.
  • Because 8-isoprostane stimulates ET-1 to potentiate oxidative stress and fibrosis, up-regulating HO-1 enhanced tissue antioxidant status alongside cellular targets such as adiponectin, AMPK, ANP, and cGMP to suppress ET-1, TGF-beta, and fibronectin with a corresponding decline of renal lesions, proteinuria/albuminuria, and thus improved renal function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adiponectin / metabolism. Arginine / therapeutic use. Atrial Natriuretic Factor / metabolism. Endothelin-1 / metabolism. Heme / therapeutic use. Hypertension / drug therapy. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney Diseases / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Desoxycorticosterone / analogs & derivatives. Disease Models, Animal. Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) / metabolism. Male. Mineralocorticoids. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 20392817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0103
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adiponectin; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Mineralocorticoids; 0 / atrial natriuretic peptide, rat; 40GP35YQ49 / Desoxycorticosterone; 42VZT0U6YR / Heme; 85637-73-6 / Atrial Natriuretic Factor; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing); R1B526117P / heme arginate
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45. Yokochi A, Itoh H, Maruyama J, Zhang E, Jiang B, Mitani Y, Hamada C, Maruyama K: Colforsin-induced vasodilation in chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats. J Anesth; 2010 Jun;24(3):432-40
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  • PURPOSE: Colforsin, a water-soluble forskolin derivative, directly activates adenylate cyclase and thereby increases the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level in vascular smooth muscle cells.
  • The results suggest that colforsin could be effective in the treatment of PH.
  • [MeSH-major] Colforsin / analogs & derivatives. Hypertension, Pulmonary / drug therapy. Vasodilator Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology. Animals. Chronic Disease. Dinoprost / pharmacology. Drug Synergism. Fluorescent Dyes. Fura-2. Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular / drug therapy. Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular / physiopathology. Hypoxia / drug therapy. In Vitro Techniques. Isometric Contraction / drug effects. Male. Muscle Contraction / drug effects. Potassium Chloride / pharmacology. Pulmonary Artery / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Vasodilation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20300779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8359
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of anesthesia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Anesth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 660YQ98I10 / Potassium Chloride; B7IN85G1HY / Dinoprost; TSN3DL106G / Fura-2
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46. Genestra M, Echevarria A, Cysne-Finkelstein L, Leon LL: Protein kinase A of Leishmania amazonensis as a potential target for methoxy-amidine. Arzneimittelforschung; 2001 Nov;51(11):920-3
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  • [Title] Protein kinase A of Leishmania amazonensis as a potential target for methoxy-amidine.
  • Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is one of the most important signaling molecules for cell growth and differentiation in several systems including protozoal parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species.
  • As previously demonstrated Leishmania amazonensis metacyclogenesis is associated with an increase of a protein kinase A activity, and therefore further studies on the activity of this phosphorylating enzyme as a target for chemotherapy were performed.
  • Among several amidine derivatives tested by the authors against trypanosomatids (T. cruzi, T. evansi and L. amazonensis) the most effective compounds was defined as that with a methoxy group as substituent.
  • In this work the inhibitory effect of this derivative on the phosphorylating activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) of promastigotes (containing high amounts of metacyclic forms) and axenic amastigotes of L. amazonensis is demonstrated.
  • Soluble fractions (SF) and enriched membrane fractions (MF) were submitted to anion exchange chromatography in a DEAE-cellulose column and the collected fractions used to evaluate the phosphorylating activity associated with cAMP, in the presence/absence of methoxy-amidine and pentamidine (CAS 100-33-4), the latter being used as reference drug.
  • [MeSH-major] Amidines / pharmacology. Antiprotozoal Agents / pharmacology. Benzamidines / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Leishmania mexicana / drug effects. Leishmania mexicana / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenylyl Cyclases / metabolism. Animals. Chromatography, Ion Exchange. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. In Vitro Techniques. Indicators and Reagents. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Subcellular Fractions / drug effects. Subcellular Fractions / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 11765595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-4172
  • [Journal-full-title] Arzneimittel-Forschung
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arzneimittelforschung
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amidines; 0 / Antiprotozoal Agents; 0 / Benzamidines; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / N,N'-diphenyl-4-methoxybenzamidine; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 4.6.1.1 / Adenylyl Cyclases
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47. Maring JG, Groen HJ, Wachters FM, Uges DR, de Vries EG: Genetic factors influencing pyrimidine-antagonist chemotherapy. Pharmacogenomics J; 2005;5(4):226-43
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  • [Title] Genetic factors influencing pyrimidine-antagonist chemotherapy.
  • Pyrimidine antagonists, for example, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cytarabine (ara-C) and gemcitabine (dFdC), are widely used in chemotherapy regimes for colorectal, breast, head and neck, non-small-cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukaemias.
  • Interindividual variation in the activity of metabolising enzymes can affect the extent of prodrug activation and, as a result, act on the efficacy of chemotherapy treatment.
  • In this review, proteins relevant for the efficacy and toxicity of pyrimidine antagonists will be summarised.
  • In addition, the role of germline polymorphisms, tumour-specific somatic mutations and protein expression levels in the metabolic pathways and clinical pharmacology of these drugs are described.
  • Germline polymorphisms of uridine monophosphate kinase (UMPK), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), thymidylate synthase (TS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and gene expression levels of OPRT, UMPK, TS, DPD, uridine phosphorylase, uridine kinase, thymidine phosphorylase, thymidine kinase, deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotide hydrolase are discussed in relation to 5-FU efficacy.
  • Cytidine deaminase (CDD) and 5'-nucleotidase (5NT) gene polymorphisms and CDD, 5NT, deoxycytidine kinase and MRP5 gene expression levels and their potential relation to dFdC and ara-C cytotoxicity are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pharmacogenetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Pyrimidines / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 16041392.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-269X
  • [Journal-full-title] The pharmacogenomics journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacogenomics J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines
  • [Number-of-references] 196
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48. Derom E, Van De Velde V, Marissens S, Engelstätter R, Vincken W, Pauwels R: Effects of inhaled ciclesonide and fluticasone propionate on cortisol secretion and airway responsiveness to adenosine 5'monophosphate in asthmatic patients. Pulm Pharmacol Ther; 2005;18(5):328-36
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  • [Title] Effects of inhaled ciclesonide and fluticasone propionate on cortisol secretion and airway responsiveness to adenosine 5'monophosphate in asthmatic patients.
  • Treatments were placebo, ciclesonide 320 microg (ex-actuator dose) once daily (o.d.
  • The primary variable was area under the plasma cortisol concentration-time curve over 24 h (plasma cortisol AUC(0-24), relative to placebo) derived from samples taken every 2 h, on the 9th day of treatment.
  • Secondary variables were 24-h urinary cortisol excretion and PC20 for adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) (relative to placebo and expressed in doubling concentrations).
  • PC20 more than doubled with each active treatment, but no statistically significant dose-response effect could be established.
  • It was concluded that moderate to high doses of fluticasone propionate suppressed cortisol secretion, that ciclesonide did not suppress cortisol secretion, and that all active treatments decreased hyperresponsiveness to AMP.
  • [MeSH-major] Androstadienes / therapeutic use. Asthma / drug therapy. Bronchial Hyperreactivity / chemically induced. Bronchodilator Agents / therapeutic use. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Lung / drug effects. Pregnenediones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Monophosphate. Administration, Inhalation. Adolescent. Adult. Area Under Curve. Cross-Over Studies. Double-Blind Method. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluticasone. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Spirometry. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15939311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1094-5539
  • [Journal-full-title] Pulmonary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pulm Pharmacol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Bronchodilator Agents; 0 / Pregnenediones; 415SHH325A / Adenosine Monophosphate; CUT2W21N7U / Fluticasone; S59502J185 / ciclesonide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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49. Chawla B, Madhubala R: Drug targets in Leishmania. J Parasit Dis; 2010 Apr;34(1):1-13
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  • [Title] Drug targets in Leishmania.
  • The control strategy relies solely on chemotherapy of the infected people.
  • However, the present repertoire of drugs is limited and increasing resistance towards them has posed a major concern.
  • The first step in drug discovery is to identify a suitable drug target.
  • The genome sequences of Leishmania major and Leishmania infantum has revealed immense amount of information and has given the opportunity to identify novel drug targets that are unique to these parasites.
  • Utilization of this information in order to come up with a candidate drug molecule requires combining all the technology and using a multi-disciplinary approach, right from characterizing the target protein to high throughput screening of compounds.
  • In this review, we discuss some of the metabolic pathways that are essential and could be used as potential drug targets in Leishmania.

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  • (PMID = 21526026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-0703
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of parasitic diseases : official organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Parasit Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3081701
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Drug targets / Leishmania / Leishmaniasis / Metabolic pathways
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50. Stevens B, McKeever P, Booth M, Greenberg M, Daub S, Gafni A, Gammon J, Yamada J, Beamer M: Home chemotherapy for children with cancer: perspectives from health care professionals. Health Soc Care Community; 2004 Mar;12(2):142-9
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  • [Title] Home chemotherapy for children with cancer: perspectives from health care professionals.
  • The goal of this study was to determine the perspectives of healthcare professionals (HPs) from community and hospital settings involved in a paediatric home chemotherapy programme.
  • (1) perceived family benefits, (2) human resources and service delivery considerations and (3) impact on the role of the HP.
  • All HPs reported that home chemotherapy helped reduce both disruption to family life and psychological stress.
  • Both groups emphasised the need for consistency in care and for specific chemotherapy training.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Data Collection. Female. Humans. Job Satisfaction. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / nursing. Ontario. Prospective Studies. Qualitative Research. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Surveys and Questionnaires. Workload. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19777723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0410
  • [Journal-full-title] Health & social care in the community
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Soc Care Community
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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51. Scheingraber S, Messner S, Matt S, Abel K, Goger S, Kötner K, Schilling MK, Menger MD: Metalloporphyrins, used for HO-1 inhibition, themselves affect hepatic microcirculation, liver function, and hepatocellular integrity. Microcirculation; 2009 May;16(4):355-63
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  • However, possible side effects of the MP administration itself have to be further investigated.
  • The administration of MPs led to a 40%-50% decrease in the levels of conjugated bilirubin therapy, indicating that they actually inhibit HO-1 activity.
  • As SnMP displayed the smallest number of side effects, this MP can be recommended for the studies of the HO-1 action on the liver microcirculation.
  • [MeSH-major] Heme Oxygenase-1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Liver / drug effects. Liver Circulation / drug effects. Metalloporphyrins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Circulation / drug effects. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Microcirculation / drug effects. Microscopy, Video. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Research Design

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  • (PMID = 19301178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-8719
  • [Journal-full-title] Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microcirculation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metalloporphyrins; EC 1.14.99.3 / Heme Oxygenase-1
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52. Govorkova EA, Ilyushina NA, Boltz DA, Douglas A, Yilmaz N, Webster RG: Efficacy of oseltamivir therapy in ferrets inoculated with different clades of H5N1 influenza virus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2007 Apr;51(4):1414-24
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  • [Title] Efficacy of oseltamivir therapy in ferrets inoculated with different clades of H5N1 influenza virus.
  • Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses have infected an increasing number of humans in Asia, with high mortality rates and the emergence of multiple distinguishable clades.
  • It is not known whether antiviral drugs that are effective against contemporary human influenza viruses will be effective against systemically replicating viruses, such as these pathogens.
  • Therefore, we evaluated the use of the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir for early postexposure prophylaxis and for treatment in ferrets exposed to representatives of two clades of H5N1 virus with markedly different pathogenicities in ferrets.
  • Ferrets were protected from lethal infection with the A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) virus by oseltamivir (5 mg/kg of body weight/day) given 4 h after virus inoculation, but higher daily doses (25 mg/kg) were required for treatment when it was initiated 24 h after virus inoculation.
  • For the treatment of ferrets inoculated with the less pathogenic A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1) virus, 10 mg/kg/day of oseltamivir was sufficient to reduce the lethargy of the animals, significantly inhibit inflammation in the upper respiratory tract, and block virus spread to the internal organs.
  • Direct sequencing of the NA or HA1 gene segments in viruses isolated from ferret after treatment showed no amino acid substitutions known to cause drug resistance in conserved residues.
  • Thus, early oseltamivir treatment is crucial for protection against highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses and the higher dose may be needed for the treatment of more virulent viruses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / drug effects. Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control. Oseltamivir / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17296744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R21 AI057570; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21756; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01AI95357; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U117512708; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-57570; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI-95357
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 20O93L6F9H / Oseltamivir
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1855473
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53. Nygaard U, Schmiegelow K: Dose reduction of coadministered 6-mercaptopurine decreases myelotoxicity following high-dose methotrexate in childhood leukemia. Leukemia; 2003 Jul;17(7):1344-8
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  • [Title] Dose reduction of coadministered 6-mercaptopurine decreases myelotoxicity following high-dose methotrexate in childhood leukemia.
  • High-dose methotrexate (HDM) given concurrently with oral 6-mercaptopurine (6 MP) may be followed by myelotoxicity, which may necessitate treatment interruption and thus interfere with the efficacy of the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Through inhibition of purine de novo synthesis and enhancement of the bioavailability, HDM may increase the incorporation into DNA of 6-thioguanine nucleotides, the cytotoxic metabolites of 6 MP.A total of 26 children diagnosed 3/1996-4/2001 with ALL received five courses of HDM (5 g/m(2)/24 h with leucovorin rescue) at 8 weeks intervals during their first year of maintenance therapy with oral methotrexate (20 mg/m(2)/week) and 6MP (75 mg/m(2)/day).
  • With 6MP dose reductions, the median duration of treatment interruption following HDM was reduced from 8 to 0 days (P < 0.001).
  • The reduction of 6MP dosage during HDM can significantly reduce the risk of severe myelotoxicity and prevent treatment interruptions.
  • [MeSH-major] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bone Marrow Cells / drug effects. Leukemia / drug therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Platelets / drug effects. Cell Count. Child. Cohort Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Neutrophils / drug effects


54. Halder N, Kelso JK, Milne GJ: Analysis of the effectiveness of interventions used during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. BMC Public Health; 2010;10:168
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  • BACKGROUND: Following the emergence of the A/H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic, public health interventions were activated to lessen its potential impact.
  • Computer modelling and simulation can be used to determine the potential effectiveness of the social distancing and antiviral drug therapy interventions that were used at the early stages of the pandemic, providing guidance to public health policy makers as to intervention strategies in future pandemics involving a highly pathogenic influenza strain.
  • METHODS: An individual-based model of a real community with a population of approximately 30,000 was used to determine the impact of alternative interventions strategies, including those used in the initial stages of the 2009 pandemic.
  • Antiviral drug treatment of 50% of symptomatic cases reduced the attack rate by 6.5%, from an unmitigated rate of 32.5% to 26%.
  • Treatment of diagnosed individuals combined with additional household prophylaxis reduced the final attack rate to 19%.
  • We determined the size of antiviral stockpile required; the ratio of the required number of antiviral courses to population was 13% for the treatment-only strategy, 25% for treatment and household prophylaxis and 40% for treatment, household and extended prophylaxis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the aggressive use of antiviral drugs together with extended school closure may substantially slow the rate of influenza epidemic development.
  • These strategies are more rigorous than those actually used during the early stages of the relatively mild 2009 pandemic, and are appropriate for future pandemics that have high morbidity and mortality rates.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Contact Tracing. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Mexico / epidemiology. Public Policy. Residence Characteristics. Schools. Workplace

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  • (PMID = 20346187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2458
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2853510
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55. Karpina NL, Lepekha LN, Zhillin IuN, Erokhin VV: [Up-to-date technologies in preoperative preparation and postoperative period in patients with progressive destructive pulmonary tuberculosis]. Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk; 2008;(9):25-8
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  • The impact of complex pathogenetic treatment involving the latest advances of science and technology in the correction of pulmonary surfactant system (PSS) disorders, extracorporeal therapy and immunomodulation on the enhancement of efficiency of surgical treatment in patients with progressive destructive tuberculosis of the lung.
  • The results of examinations and treatment were studied in 199 patients with progressive and complicated pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • According to the used treatment, the patients were divided into 2 groups: a study group (n = 102) and a control one (n = 97).
  • In the pre- and postoperative periods, the study group patients received complex pathogenetic therapy by the developed algorithm: for pharmacological activation of PSS, nebulizer aerosol therapy with lasolvan (ambroxol) was first used in various modifications by the developed algorithms.
  • The efficiency of preoperative preparation in the study group patients in accordance with the applied methods of pathogenetic therapy indicated that the best results were achieved in the context of stabilization of a specific process, compensation of complications and comorbidity in the patients who underwent modified drug-induced PSS activation with small-volume plasmapheresis and leukinferon (LI) in 93.3% and drug-induced PSS activation with small-volume medical plasmapheresis (MI) in 81.4%.
  • Overall, comprehensive preoperative preparation involving correction of homeostatic disorders by the developed algorithm proved to be 30.9% more effective (81.4%) than the conventional preoperative preparation in the controls (50.5%).
  • Analysis of the results of surgical treatment depending on the methods of pathogenetic therapy used in the pre- and postoperative period showed that the efficiency of surgical treatment was observed in 25 (80%) patients receiving nebulizer aerosol therapy and MP, in 20 (86.9%) who had nebulizer aerosol therapy + MP and in only 8 (65%) treated with nebulizer aerosol therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Postoperative Care. Preoperative Care. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / pathology. Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19062568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Problemy tuberkuleza i bolezneĭ legkikh
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunologic Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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56. Tanabe K, Tokumoto T, Ishida H, Ishikawa N, Miyamoto N, Kondo T, Shimmura H, Setoguchi K, Toma H: Excellent outcome of ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation under pretransplantation immunosuppression with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid. Transplant Proc; 2004 Sep;36(7):2175-7
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  • Since 2001, using a 7-day period of pretransplantation immunosuppression with tacrolimus (FK) plus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) plus methylprednisolone (MP), we have observed a marked reduction in acute humoral/vascular rejection without any serious complications.
  • In 2000, 13 patients were treated with FK plus MMF plus MP without 7-day pretransplantation immunosuppression (group 1).
  • Since January 2001, we have administered FK (0.1 mg/kg/d) plus MMF (1-2 g/d) plus MP (125 mg/d) concomitantly with plasmapheresis starting from 7 days before transplantation in 32 patients (group 2).
  • Splenectomy was performed at the time of kidney transplantation in all patients.
  • RESULTS: Patient survival rate was 100% in both treatment groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Pretransplantation immunosuppression for 7 days using FK, MMF, and MP in ABO-incompatible LKT provides an excellent outcome without severe infectious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] ABO Blood-Group System. Blood Group Incompatibility. Graft Survival / immunology. Kidney Transplantation / immunology. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Living Donors. Male. Parents. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Siblings. Spouses

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  • (PMID = 15518791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABO Blood-Group System; 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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57. Tanabe H, Hara H, Ohtubo C, Miyokawa N, Sano H: [Disappearance of gastric adenocarcinoma in hyperplastic polyp after eradication of Heliobacter pylori. Report of a case]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 May;102(5):559-63
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  • [Title] [Disappearance of gastric adenocarcinoma in hyperplastic polyp after eradication of Heliobacter pylori. Report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / microbiology. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Polyps / microbiology. Stomach Neoplasms / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Clarithromycin / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Omeprazole / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15920952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; H1250JIK0A / Clarithromycin; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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58. Ishizawa K: [The standard treatments for patients with hematological malignancies in Japan]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 May;34(5):709-12
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  • [Title] [The standard treatments for patients with hematological malignancies in Japan].
  • Recently, the standard treatments for hematological malignancies have shown dramatic improvement.
  • For chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib has become the treatment of choice in initial treatment, and its long-term effectiveness and safety have been confirmed.
  • For acute myelogenous leukemia, cytarabine with anthracycline agent is believed to be the standard treatment in first remission induction therapy.
  • To improve the efficacy of the first remission induction chemotherapy, the addition of gemutuzumab ozogamicin has been investigated intensively all over the world.
  • For follicular lymphoma patients, rituximab with conventional chemotherapies are considered the standard treatments, but the question of which conventional chemotherapy is better is unsolved.
  • MP therapy had long been the standard treatment for elderly patients with multiple myeloma, but MP therapy plus thalidomide with MP therapy has been found to be superior.
  • In patients who are candidates for autologous stem-cell transplantation, VAD therapy or high-dose dexamethasone therapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation is considered the treatment of choice.
  • Considering the overall situation with regard to the standard treatments of hematological malignancies in Japan, there is little difference in practice from western countries.
  • However, the framework of conducting clinical trials to investigate standard treatment in Japan is unsatisfactory.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Rituximab. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17496442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; AP protocol 2; CHOP protocol
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59. Le TA, Sohn AH, Nguyen PT, Vo TC, Vo VN, Tran Nguyen TH, Ewald B, Dibley M: Microbiology of surgical site infections and associated antimicrobial use among Vietnamese orthopedic and neurosurgical patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol; 2006 Aug;27(8):855-62
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  • RESULTS: Of 702 surgical patients, 80 (11.4%) developed an SSI.
  • All but 1 of the 702 patients received antimicrobial therapy after surgery, and the median duration of antimicrobial therapy was 11 days.
  • Two or more agents were given to 634 (90%) of the patients, and most combination drug regimens (86%) included an aminoglycoside.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the incidence of SSI is high in our study population, that the main pathogens causing SSI are gram-negative bacteria and are often resistant to commonly used antimicrobials, that the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials after surgery is widespread, and that implementation of interventions aimed at promoting appropriate and evidence-based use of antimicrobials are needed in Vietnam.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Bacterial Infections / epidemiology. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Orthopedic Procedures / adverse effects. Surgical Wound Infection / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cross Infection / drug therapy. Cross Infection / epidemiology. Cross Infection / microbiology. Drug Resistance, Bacterial. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgery. Vietnam

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  • (PMID = 16874647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-823X
  • [Journal-full-title] Infection control and hospital epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents
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60. Cagnoli L, Italian Society of Nephrology: [Instructions and implementations for percutaneous renal biopsy. Guidelines for the therapy of glomerular nephropaties]. G Ital Nefrol; 2003 Sep-Oct;20 Suppl 24:S3-47
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  • [Title] [Instructions and implementations for percutaneous renal biopsy. Guidelines for the therapy of glomerular nephropaties].
  • [Transliterated title] Linee Guida sulle indicazioni ed esecuzione della biopsia renale percutanea e sulla terapia delle nefropatie glomerulari.
  • Each author was asked to review the literature for his assigned histological type, with emphasis on therapy and limited to adult studies.
  • The age limit was not considered for minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, because of the high prevalence of these glomerulopathies in children.
  • The particular treatment recommendations for each type of glomerular disease were graded by each author according to the amount of evidence provided in these reviewed studies.
  • Each subsequent article focuses on and describes the highest level of evidence supporting the recommendation for therapy in IgA nephropathy (Ig-GN), minimal change nephropathy (MCN) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN), lupus nephritis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, HCV-associated cryoglobulinaemia and renal involvement in paraproteinemic disorders.
  • The article on IgA nephropathy emphasises the importance of carefully evaluating both clinical and histologic findings before settling on the treatment.
  • For both of these diseases, in fact, the initial treatment approach in children should be prednisone or prednisolone for four to six weeks.
  • The therapeutic response in adults is slower than in children, but adults experience fewer relapses and a more prolonged remission.
  • There is also a discussion on treatment of relapse, frequent relapsing disease and true steroid-resistant disease as well as the role of new immunosuppressive agents.
  • However, the treatment of this form is as yet a matter of discussion.
  • Based on extensive critical review of the literature, the following recommendations are put forward: (a) no treatment in the absence of nephrotic syndrome;.
  • (b) patients with heavy proteinuria should receive a 6-month treatment with i.v. methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy for three consecutive days followed by oral MP (0.4 mg/kg/day) (months 1, 3, 5) and chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide (months 2, 4, 6);.
  • (d) cyclosporine is a second-choice treatment.
  • The treatment of lupus nephritis depends on the histologic class.
  • No specific treatment is usually necessary for class I and IIA.
  • Steroids and azathioprine are the treatment of choice for patients with class III and IV, but cyclosporine can be an effective alternative therapy.
  • The treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis depends mainly on clinical presentation, oral prednisone + oral or i.v. cyclophosphamide are generally effective.
  • In the most severe cases, the association of MP pulse therapy with cyclophosphamide is probably more effective.
  • Azathioprine should replace cyclophosphamide during the maintenance therapy.
  • In HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia the treatment also depends on the severity of renal involvement.
  • The treatment for chronic HCV infection involves alpha interferon alone or preferably in combination with ribavirin.
  • Aggressive therapy, including i.v.
  • MP, plasmapheresis and cyclophosphamide is primarily reserved for patients with acute severe disease, as manifested by progressive renal failure, distal necroses requiring amputation, or advanced neuropathy.
  • The approach to therapy varies with the cause of the renal dysfunction.
  • Patients with amyloidosis or light-chain deposition disease are generally treated with chemotherapy, but the most effective therapy for myeloma kidney is prevention by minimising the risk factors that promote light chain filtration and subsequent obstruction by cast formation within the tubules.
  • Chemotherapy or stem cell or bone marrow transplantation to decrease filtered light chain load, prevent volume depletion and maintain high fluid intake to reduce light chain concentration within the tubular lumen are indicated in almost all the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Glomerular Mesangium. Kidney / pathology. Kidney Diseases / pathology. Kidney Diseases / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Glomerulonephritis / drug therapy. Glomerulonephritis / metabolism. Humans. Immunoglobulin A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 14666502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-5590
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di nefrologia : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Nefrol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin A
  • [Number-of-references] 534
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61. Li YG, Wu JF, Li X: China makes an impressive breakthrough in avian influenza virus research - Discovering the "heart" of avian infl uenza virus. Drug Discov Ther; 2009 Feb;3(1):1
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  • Despite years of efforts, the exact pathogenesis of H5N1 transmission to humans is still not completely clear, nor is potential human-tohuman transmission as could lead to an epidemic or even worldwide pandemic (Enserink M. Science.
  • Unfortunately, current antiviral treatment and therapeutic measures cannot effectively overcome this virulent virus that causes highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).
  • These researchers are also working to identify potential molecular targets related to H5N1 for anti-influenza drug intervention.
  • They hope to provide clues to potential avian influenza therapy targets and a new platform for new drug discovery (http://202.123.110.5/jrzg/2009-02/06/content_1222973.htm, available as of February 6, 2009).
  • According to Liu et al., influenza viruses are enveloped, negatively stranded RNA viruses with a segmented genome (consisting of 8 RNA segments) that can encode 11 kinds of viral proteins.
  • Among these proteins, the complex of influenza polymerase, consisting of PB1, PB2, and PA subunits, is regarded to be what gives life to influenza viruses because of its essential catalytic role in viral RNA replication and mRNA transcription in the nucleus of infected cells.
  • The group resolved the crystal structure of the carboxyl-terminus of PA in complex with the aminoterminus of PB1 peptides for the first time.
  • Further efforts by the group served to indicate the fine three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal of PA protein.
  • In addition, PA's characteristics of being highly conserved and having little mutations make it an attractive target for anti-influenza therapeutics.

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  • (PMID = 22495459.001).
  • [ISSN] 1881-7831
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug discoveries & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Discov Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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62. Dal Pozzo F, Galligioni V, Vaccari F, Gallina L, Battilani M, Scagliarini A: Antiviral efficacy of EICAR against canine distemper virus (CDV) in vitro. Res Vet Sci; 2010 Apr;88(2):339-44
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  • In dogs, the disease is characterized by high lethality rates and no specific antiviral therapy is available.
  • A reversal of their antiviral activity was observed after addition of guanosine, suggesting their involvement in the inhibition of the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (IMPDH).
  • RBV and EICAR had a time- and concentration-dependent anti-CDV activity, mainly displayed during the first 10h post-infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Distemper Virus, Canine / drug effects. Ribonucleosides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cercopithecus aethiops. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Ribavirin / pharmacology. Vero Cells

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19781726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2661
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Ribonucleosides; 118908-07-9 / 5-ethynyl-1-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide; 49717AWG6K / Ribavirin
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63. Murakami E, Bao H, Ramesh M, McBrayer TR, Whitaker T, Micolochick Steuer HM, Schinazi RF, Stuyver LJ, Obikhod A, Otto MJ, Furman PA: Mechanism of activation of beta-D-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-c-methylcytidine and inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS5B RNA polymerase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2007 Feb;51(2):503-9
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  • PSI-6130 was shown to be a substrate for purified dCK, with a Km of 81 microM and a kcat of 0.007 s-1, but was not a substrate for UCK-1.
  • PSI-6130 monophosphate (PSI-6130-MP) was efficiently phosphorylated to the diphosphate and subsequently to the triphosphate by recombinant human UMP-CMP kinase and nucleoside diphosphate kinase, respectively.
  • The inhibition of wild-type and mutated (S282T) HCV NS5B RNA polymerases was studied.
  • The steady-state inhibition constant (Ki) for PSI-6130 triphosphate (PSI-6130-TP) with the wild-type enzyme was 4.3 microM.
  • NS5B with the S282T mutation, which is known to confer resistance to 2'-C-methyladenosine, was inhibited by PSI-6130-TP as efficiently as the wild type.
  • Incorporation of PSI-6130-MP into RNA catalyzed by purified NS5B RNA polymerase resulted in chain termination.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Hepacivirus / metabolism. Viral Nonstructural Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / metabolism. Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Catalysis. Hepatitis C / drug therapy. Hepatitis C / virology. Humans. Mutation. Phosphorylation. RNA Replicase / antagonists & inhibitors. RNA, Viral / drug effects. RNA, Viral / metabolism. Structure-Activity Relationship. Virus Replication / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17101674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methylcytidine; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / NS-5 protein, hepatitis C virus; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Nonstructural Proteins; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; EC 2.7.7.48 / RNA Replicase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797721
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64. Bagdy G, Riba P, Kecskeméti V, Chase D, Juhász G: Headache-type adverse effects of NO donors: vasodilation and beyond. Br J Pharmacol; 2010 May;160(1):20-35
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  • [Title] Headache-type adverse effects of NO donors: vasodilation and beyond.
  • Although nitrate therapy, used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, is frequently associated with side-effects, mainly headaches, the summaries of product characteristics of nitrate-containing medicines do not report detailed description of headaches and even do not highlight the possibility of nitrate-induced migraine.
  • Two different types of nitrate-induced headaches have been described: (i) immediate headaches that develop within the first hour of the application, are mild or medium severity without characteristic symptoms for migraine, and ease spontaneously; and (ii) delayed, moderate or severe migraine-type headaches (occurring mainly in subjects with personal or family history of migraine), that develop 3-6 h after the intake of nitrates, with debilitating, long-lasting symptoms including nausea, vomiting, photo- and/or phono-phobia.
  • These two types of headaches are remarkably different, not only in their timing and symptoms, but also in the persons who are at risk.
  • Recent studies provide evidence that the two headache types are caused by different mechanisms: immediate headaches are connected to vasodilation caused by nitric oxide (NO) release, while migraines are triggered by other actions such as the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide or glutamate, or changes in ion channel function mediated by cyclic guanosine monophosphate or S-nitrosylation.
  • Migraines usually need anti-attack medication, such as triptans, but these drugs are contraindicated in most medical conditions that are treated using nitrates.
  • In conclusion, these data recommend the correction of summaries of nitrate product characteristics, and also suggest a need to develop new types of anti-migraine drugs, effective in migraine attacks, that could be used in patients with risk for angina pectoris.
  • [MeSH-major] Headache Disorders / chemically induced. Migraine Disorders / chemically induced. Nitric Oxide Donors / adverse effects. Vasodilation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Drug Tolerance. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Ion Channels / metabolism. Prostaglandins / metabolism. Risk Factors. Serotonin / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20331608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5381
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ion Channels; 0 / Nitric Oxide Donors; 0 / Prostaglandins; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin; 83652-28-2 / Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Number-of-references] 192
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2860203
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65. Myers C, Koki A, Pamukcu R, Wechter W, Padley RJ: Proapoptotic anti-inflammatory drugs. Urology; 2001 Apr;57(4 Suppl 1):73-6
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  • [Title] Proapoptotic anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • The very fact that apoptosis and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be linked in the same title should tell you that something unusual is happening.
  • The image of NSAIDs among physicians is certainly discordant with that associated with cancer treatment, which usually involves administration of drugs with serious or even life-threatening toxicity.
  • In contrast, the drugs discussed in this review, including selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, lipoxygenase inhibitors, and novel NSAID derivatives (eg, sulindac sulfone and R-flurbiprofen), offer the promise of oral, nontoxic agents able to control the progression of established prostate cancer and possibly to prevent the development of prostate cancer de novo.
  • NSAIDs were initially developed to suppress inflammation and pain by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E2 and its metabolites.
  • Although cyclooxygenase-mediated production of prostaglandins appears to play an important role in the biology of prostate cancer, the NSAIDs and derivatives with promising activity against prostate cancer manifest several mechanisms of action that can include direct inhibition of eicosanoid formation, indirect inhibition of eicosanoid formation by inhibiting expression of enzymes involved in eicosanoid synthesis, or by interfering with the function of cyclic guanosine monophosphate.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Isoenzymes / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Celecoxib. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors. Flurbiprofen / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Membrane Proteins. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases. Pyrazoles. Rats. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use. Sulindac / analogs & derivatives. Sulindac / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11295599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; 5GRO578KLP / Flurbiprofen; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib; K619IIG2R9 / sulindac sulfone
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66. Tran A, Longo F, Saint-Paul MC, Doglio A, Benzaken S, Rampal P: [Long-term lamivudine therapy for interferon-alpha- and/or adenine arabinoside monophosphate-resistant chronic hepatitis B infection. Results of a pilot study]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2000 Dec;24(12):1234-5
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  • [Title] [Long-term lamivudine therapy for interferon-alpha- and/or adenine arabinoside monophosphate-resistant chronic hepatitis B infection. Results of a pilot study].
  • [Transliterated title] Lamivudine au long cours chez des malades atteints d'hépatite chronique B non-répondeurs à un traitement par interféron alpha et/ou adénine arabinoside monophosphate. Résultats d'une étude pilote.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Vidarabine Phosphate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance, Microbial. Female. Humans. Long-Term Care. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11173740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Controlled Clinical Trial; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 106XV160TZ / Vidarabine Phosphate; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine
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67. Buxton TB, Walsh DS, Harvey SB, McPherson JC 3rd, Hartmann JF, Plowman KM: Bisphosphonate-ciprofloxacin bound to Skelite is a prototype for enhancing experimental local antibiotic delivery to injured bone. Br J Surg; 2004 Sep;91(9):1192-6
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  • ENC-41-HP (E41), which comprises ciprofloxacin linked to a 'bone seeking' bisphosphonate, loaded on to carrier Skelite calcium phosphate granules (E41-Skelite) has favourable in vitro characteristics for application to wounded bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage. Ciprofloxacin / administration & dosage. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Osteomyelitis / drug therapy. Surgical Wound Infection / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium Phosphates. Drug Carriers. Drug Combinations. Rats. Staphylococcal Infections / drug therapy. Staphylococcus aureus. Tibial Fractures

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15449273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Calcium Phosphates; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Drug Combinations; 5E8K9I0O4U / Ciprofloxacin; 97Z1WI3NDX / calcium phosphate
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68. Cole CH: Special problems in aerosol delivery: neonatal and pediatric considerations. Respir Care; 2000 Jun;45(6):646-51
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  • Attention to the choice of delivery system and to details of proper MDI technique (shaking, priming, immediate actuation, and avoiding multiple actuations prior to inhalation), choice of the aerosol spacer and patient interface (type of face mask, endotracheal tube, mouthpiece), spacer cleaning, and consideration of the medicine to be aerosolized (solution or suspension, viscosity) permit adjustment of the aerosol regimen to optimize delivery.
  • All the patient-related, system-related, and operator-dependent considerations combined can greatly impact aerosol delivery efficacy and improve therapeutic response.
  • Aerosol therapy to all patients, especially infants and young children, would be well served if we had a clear understanding of the efficiency and functional differences among the various drugs and devices.
  • These are substantive issues with daily therapeutic impact that have received increasingly outspoken concern over the past decade by aerosol scientists and clinicians.
  • These issues must be given due attention by drug and device manufacturers as well as by regulatory agencies.
  • The medication, the device, and the conditions under which they are tested must be considered together and studied as thoroughly as the medications themselves with respect to total output and particle size distribution.
  • As noted by Bisgaard, medication dose recommendations are useless unless the device and technique used are specified.
  • Medication dose recommendation could be facilitated by setting equivalent standards for generic and brand-name medications and devices.
  • Safety profile, therapeutic efficacy, and efficiency of aerosolized medications delivered to infants and children need to be rigorously studied.
  • This is particularly true for medications with potentially great benefit but possible adverse effects, such as inhaled glucocorticoid therapy in extremely premature infants.
  • Common sense, ethics, and due respect for the same high standard of approval requirements of adults and older children should motivate further research in understanding and improving aerosol delivery in infants and young children.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Equipment Design. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Particle Size. Respiration Disorders / drug therapy. Respiratory Mechanics

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  • (PMID = 10894457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-1324
  • [Journal-full-title] Respiratory care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respir Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aerosols
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69. Plöchl W, Rajek A: The use of the novel calcium sensitizer levosimendan in critically ill patients. Anaesth Intensive Care; 2004 Aug;32(4):471-5
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  • One dose of levosimendan (12.5 mg) was administered at a rate of 0.1-0.2 microg kg(-1).min(-1), either alone or in addition to pre-existing inotropic therapy.
  • Pre-existing inotropic therapy present in ten patients remained unchanged or was reduced.
  • Due to its cyclic adenosine monophosphate independent positive inotropic effects, levosimendan may be of value as adjunctive therapy to other inotropic drugs in critically ill patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cardiac Output / drug effects. Cardiac Output, High / drug therapy. Heart Rate / drug effects. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Stroke Volume / drug effects. Vascular Resistance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15675206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0310-057X
  • [Journal-full-title] Anaesthesia and intensive care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anaesth Intensive Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cardiotonic Agents; 0 / Hydrazones; 0 / Pyridazines; 0 / Vasodilator Agents; 349552KRHK / simendan
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70. Uchiyama K, Nakamura M, Kubota T, Yamane T, Fujise K, Tajiri H: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase genes in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease in whom adverse drug reactions were induced by azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine treatment. J Gastroenterol; 2009;44(3):197-203
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  • [Title] Thiopurine S-methyltransferase and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase genes in Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease in whom adverse drug reactions were induced by azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine treatment.
  • Adverse reactions develop at a high frequency in Japanese patients at half the dose required for European and American patients; however, the association with TPMT and ITPA gene polymorphisms in Japanese has not been fully investigated.
  • METHODS: Gene mutations of TPMT and ITPA, the major AZA/6-MP -metabolizing enzymes, were investigated retrospectively in 16 Japanese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in whom AZA/6MP treatment induced adverse reactions.
  • RESULTS: The TPMT gene was found to have a wild-type sequence in all patients, but in the ITPA gene a mutation, 94C>A, was detected at a rate of 50% (8/16), with 83.3% (5/6) occurring in patients with acute bone marrow suppression and 75% (3/4) in those with agranulocytosis.
  • Adverse reactions developed earlier in patients with the 94C>A mutation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the ITPA gene mutation is closely related to the adverse reactions of AZA/6-MP in Japanese patients, and screening for the mutant allele is useful for predicting the most serious adverse reactions, agranulocytosis and acute bone marrow suppression.
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Azathioprine / adverse effects. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Colitis, Ulcerative / genetics. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Crohn Disease / genetics. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Polymorphism, Genetic. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19214663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.67 / thiopurine methyltransferase; EC 3.6.1.- / Pyrophosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / inosine triphosphatase; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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71. Zarate CA Jr, Singh J, Manji HK: Cellular plasticity cascades: targets for the development of novel therapeutics for bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry; 2006 Jun 1;59(11):1006-20
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  • [Title] Cellular plasticity cascades: targets for the development of novel therapeutics for bipolar disorder.
  • For a number of patients with bipolar disorder, current pharmacotherapy is generally insufficient.
  • Despite adequate treatment, patients continue to have recurrent mood episodes, residual symptoms, functional impairment, psychosocial disability, and significant medical and psychiatric comorbidity.
  • Drug development for bipolar disorder may occur through one of two approaches: the first is by understanding the therapeutically relevant biochemical targets of currently effective medications.
  • This suggests that effective treatments will need to provide both trophic and neurochemical support, which serves to enhance and maintain normal synaptic connectivity, thereby allowing the chemical signal to reinstate the optimal functioning of critical circuits necessary for normal affective functioning.
  • For many refractory patients, drugs mimicking "traditional" strategies, which directly or indirectly alter monoaminergic levels, may be of limited benefit.
  • Newer "plasticity enhancing" strategies that may have utility in the treatment of mood disorders include inhibitors of glutamate release, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid potentiators, cyclic adenosine monophosphate phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimanic Agents / therapeutic use. Bipolar Disorder / drug therapy. Lithium / therapeutic use. Neuronal Plasticity / drug effects. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / drug effects. Histone Deacetylases / drug effects. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16487491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3223
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimanic Agents; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; 9FN79X2M3F / Lithium; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Number-of-references] 151
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72. AbuRahma AF, Robinson PA, Hannay RS, Hudson J, Cutlip L: Prospective controlled study of carotid endarterectomy with hemashield patch: is it thrombogenic? Vasc Surg; 2001 May-Jun;35(3):167-74
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  • Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patches have been shown to have comparable results to autogenous vein patching; however, PTFE has the disadvantage of prolonged hemostasis time.
  • Therefore, many surgeons are using collagen-impregnated Dacron patches (Hemashield[HP]).
  • We believe this is the first prospective controlled study of the use of HP in carotid endarterectomy.
  • This study included 144 consecutive patients who had 151 CEAs with HP.
  • The overall incidence of ipsilateral stroke was 5% (4% perioperative), with a combined TIA and stroke rate of 12%.
  • The authors concluded that CEA with HP had a higher incidence of recurrent stenosis (21%), and a higher perioperative stroke rate (4%) after a mean follow-up of 12 months than previously reported using PTFE or saphenous vein patching (2% and 9% recurrent stenosis rates, respectively, and 1% and 0% perioperative stroke rates, respectively after a mean follow-up of 30 months).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anticoagulants / therapeutic use. Carotid Artery Thrombosis / complications. Carotid Artery Thrombosis / drug therapy. Carotid Artery Thrombosis / surgery. Carotid Artery, Internal / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Incidence. Ischemic Attack, Transient / drug therapy. Ischemic Attack, Transient / etiology. Ischemic Attack, Transient / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / mortality. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Stroke / drug therapy. Stroke / etiology. Stroke / surgery. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex

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  • (PMID = 11452342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-2835
  • [Journal-full-title] Vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; A74586SNO7 / clopidogrel; OM90ZUW7M1 / Ticlopidine
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73. Dharnidharka VR, Fennell RS 3rd, Richard GA: Extracorporeal removal of toxic valproic acid levels in children. Pediatr Nephrol; 2002 May;17(5):312-5
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  • Toxic ingestion of valproic acid is difficult to treat as no antidote exists and hemodialysis has been considered ineffective for clearance due to high protein binding of this drug.
  • Recent reports suggest that protein binding of valproic acid is saturated at toxic levels, thereby allowing for removal of free drug by extracorporeal circuits.
  • In an 18-year-old girl with initial valproic acid levels of 663 microg/ml (therapeutic 46-88 microg/ml), the elimination constant (k(el)) increased five- to eightfold from 0.04/h pre dialysis and 0.06/h post dialysis to 0.31/h during high-flux hemodiafiltration.
  • In the same time periods, drug half-life reduced from 15.96 h pre dialysis and 21 h post dialysis to 2.23 h during hemodiafiltration.
  • Similarly, the drug half-life was 2.9 h during dialysis and 12.9 h after dialysis.
  • Both conventional hemodialysis and high-flux hemodiafiltration are effective treatment modalities that should be offered to all pediatric patients with valproic acid ingestion and neurological compromise.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Half-Life. Humans. Infant. Osmolar Concentration. Poisoning / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12042885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0931-041X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
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74. Durand-Gasselin L, Da Silva D, Benech H, Pruvost A, Grassi J: Evidence and possible consequences of the phosphorylation of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human red blood cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2007 Jun;51(6):2105-11
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  • In this study, we investigated for the first time the phosphorylation of NRTI in human RBC.
  • The presence of intracellular zidovudine (AZT) monophosphate, AZT triphosphate, lamivudine (3TC) triphosphate, and tenofovir (TFV) diphosphate, as well as endogenous dATP, dGTP, and dTTP, in RBC collected from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients was examined.
  • Conversely, no trace of AZT phosphate metabolites was found, and only faint dTTP signals were visible.
  • A comparison of intracellular TFV diphosphate and 3TC triphosphate levels in RBC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) further highlighted the specificity of NRTI metabolism in each cell type.
  • These findings raise the issue of RBC involvement in drug-drug interaction, drug pharmacokinetics, and drug-induced toxicity.
  • Thus, we recommend removing RBC during PBMC preparation by using an ammonium chloride solution to enhance both the accuracy and the precision of intracellular drug monitoring.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenine / administration & dosage. Adenine / analogs & derivatives. Adenine / pharmacokinetics. Adenine / therapeutic use. Drug Interactions. Drug Therapy, Combination. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / virology. Humans. Lamivudine / administration & dosage. Lamivudine / pharmacokinetics. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Organophosphonates / administration & dosage. Organophosphonates / pharmacokinetics. Organophosphonates / therapeutic use. Phosphorylation. Tenofovir. Treatment Outcome. Zidovudine / administration & dosage. Zidovudine / pharmacokinetics. Zidovudine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17438052.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Nucleosides; 0 / Organophosphonates; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; 99YXE507IL / Tenofovir; JAC85A2161 / Adenine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1891370
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75. Park S, Hong SM, Ahn IL, Kim DS, Kim SH: Estrogen replacement reverses olanzapine-induced weight gain and hepatic insulin resistance in ovariectomized diabetic rats. Neuropsychobiology; 2010;61(3):148-61
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  • Sham rats were also divided into 3 subgroups and given drugs in the same manner as the OVX rats were.
  • All rats were fed high-fat diets.
  • Increased body weight in OZP-treated sham and OVX rats was due to the increment in food intake, which was associated with potentiating the phosphorylation of hypothalamic adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase.
  • These negative and harmful effects noted among OZP-treated OVX rats were reversed by estrogen replacement treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: OZP treatment should be avoided when treating diabetic and schizophrenic women, especially those in their postmenopausal period.
  • [MeSH-major] Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects. Benzodiazepines / adverse effects. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology. Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Insulin Resistance. Weight Gain / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adipose Tissue / drug effects. Animals. Eating / drug effects. Estradiol / therapeutic use. Female. Glucose / metabolism. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Ovariectomy. Pancreatectomy. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Risperidone / adverse effects. Risperidone / pharmacology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20173353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0224
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antipsychotic Agents; 12794-10-4 / Benzodiazepines; 132539-06-1 / olanzapine; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; L6UH7ZF8HC / Risperidone
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76. Zheng XL, Xu L: [Efficacy of second-line treatment based on moxifloxacin triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Jan 12;90(2):83-6
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  • [Title] [Efficacy of second-line treatment based on moxifloxacin triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of moxifloxacin-based triple therapy as an alternative second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection.
  • METHODS: A total of 109 patients, in whom the initial standard PPI triple therapy had failed to eradicate Hp infection, were included.
  • Patients were randomized to one of the following 7-day treatment regimens:.
  • (1) rabeprazole 10 mg twice a day, moxifloxacin 400 mg/day and amoxicillin 1000 mg twice a day; and (2) rabeprazole 10 mg twice a day, bismuth salts 150 mg three times a day; clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day, metronidazole 400 mg twice a day.
  • RESULTS: The eradication rates were 75.5% (40/53) and 83.3% (40/48) with moxifloxacin-based triple therapy, and 62.5% (35/56) and 71.4% (35/49) with bismuth-based quadruple therapy by intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses (both P > 0.05) respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The 7-day moxifloxacin-based triple therapy has a high eradication rate with fewer side-effects.
  • This regimen can be a safe and effective option as second-line treatment for H. pylori infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Aza Compounds / administration & dosage. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Quinolines / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fluoroquinolones. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Failure. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20356487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Aza Compounds; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Quinolines; U188XYD42P / moxifloxacin
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77. Lakser OJ, Dowell ML, Hoyte FL, Chen B, Lavoie TL, Ferreira C, Pinto LH, Dulin NO, Kogut P, Churchill J, Mitchell RW, Solway J: Steroids augment relengthening of contracted airway smooth muscle: potential additional mechanism of benefit in asthma. Eur Respir J; 2008 Nov;32(5):1224-30
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  • [Title] Steroids augment relengthening of contracted airway smooth muscle: potential additional mechanism of benefit in asthma.
  • Force fluctuations imposed on contracted airway smooth muscle (ASM) in vitro result in its relengthening, a phenomenon called force fluctuation-induced relengthening (FFIR).
  • While this bronchoprotective effect appears to be impaired in asthma, corticosteroid treatment can restore the ability of deep breaths to reverse artificially induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects.
  • It has previously been demonstrated that FFIR is physiologically regulated through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway.
  • This possibility was tested in the present study by measuring relengthening in contracted canine tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) strips.
  • The results indicate that dexamethasone treatment significantly augmented FFIR of contracted canine TSM.
  • Canine tracheal ASM cells treated with dexamethasone demonstrated increased MAPK phosphatase-1 expression and decreased p38 MAPK activity, as reflected in reduced phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK downstream target, heat shock protein 27.
  • These results suggest that corticosteroids may exert part of their therapeutic effect through direct action on airway smooth muscle, by decreasing p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and thus increasing force fluctuation-induced relengthening.

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  • (PMID = 18768574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] The European respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Respir. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD043387-03; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 043387; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P01 AI056352-05; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI056352-05; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL079398; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL079368; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL 79368; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD043387; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P01 AI056352; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL079398-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 56352; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD043387-03; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL079398-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS73687; NLM/ PMC2582388
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78. Sun A, Lin S, Wei Y: [A randomized case-control study on the influence of percutaneous estradiol and progestin in cyclic combined regimen on endometrium and vaginal bleeding pattern in Chinese early postmenopausal women]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2001 Nov 10;81(21):1291-4
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  • The microprogesterone (MP) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA) were served as progestin.
  • (1) percutaneous estradiol gel (gel) containing 1.5 mg of 17 beta-estradiol (E2)/d plus micronized progesterone (MP) 100 mg/d in group 1 (G1, E2 1.5 + MP);.
  • (3) gel, 0.75 mg E2/d plus MP, 100 mg/d in group 3 (G3, E2 0.75 + MP); and (4) gel, 0.75 mg E2/d plus MPA, 2 mg/d in group 4 (G4, E2 0.75 + MPA).
  • The thickness of endometrium before treatment in four groups were 0.25 cm, 0.27 cm, 0.22 cm, 0.28 cm and after treatment 0.37 cm, 0.30 cm, 0.326 7 cm and 0.3 cm respectively.
  • During the treatment, the vaginal irregular bleeding rate was highest in G2 and lowest in G3.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Combinations. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Estradiol / administration & dosage. Progesterone / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Medroxyprogesterone / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. Prospective Studies. Uterine Hemorrhage / drug therapy. Vagina / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16200718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; HSU1C9YRES / Medroxyprogesterone
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79. Ochsenkühn T, Göke B, Sackmann M: Combining infliximab with 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine for fistula therapy in Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol; 2002 Aug;97(8):2022-5
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  • [Title] Combining infliximab with 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine for fistula therapy in Crohn's disease.
  • Conventional medical and surgical therapy often fails.
  • The anti-TNF-alpha antibody infliximab offers a novel therapeutic option.
  • However, after discontinuation of therapy, most fistulas recurred.
  • Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) are effective drugs in Crohn's disease and lead to closure of fistulas in 30-40% of cases.
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of infliximab with 6-mercaptopurine/azathioprine as therapy for fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease.
  • METHODS: A total of 16 patients (mean age 37 yr) with Crohn's fistulas resistant to conventional measures were treated with a combination of three or four infusions of infliximab and long term 6-MP/azathioprine.
  • Therapy success was defined as complete closure of fistulas for a minimum observation period of 6 months after fistula closure.
  • The median time to complete closure of fistulas was 14 days (range 2-36 days).
  • In four patients, therapy success was not achieved.
  • CONCLUSION: Our pilot study reveals that concomitant and long term 6-MP/azathioprine therapy could prolong the effect of an initial infliximab therapy on fistula closure in patients with Crohn's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Crohn Disease / complications. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Intestinal Fistula / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Infliximab. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12190171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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80. Wodak A: The current status of heroin prescription treatment for heroin dependence. Expert Opin Drug Saf; 2005 Sep;4(5):815-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The current status of heroin prescription treatment for heroin dependence.
  • Heroin prescription (HP) to treat severe heroin dependence has been available to few patients in the UK for several decades with limited, but generally favourable, evaluation.
  • The standard pharmacological treatments for heroin dependence, methadone and buprenorphine, attract and retain many more drug users than other pharmacological or nonpharmacological treatments and are strongly supported by evidence of efficacy, effectiveness, safety and cost effectiveness.
  • On present evidence, HP is feasible and safe with limited, but increasing, evidence of efficacy and effectiveness.
  • Although HP is more expensive than methadone, there is some evidence of cost effectiveness.
  • HP is, at present, only considered a therapeutic option for a small minority of treatment refractory, severely heroin-dependent persons in developed countries with comprehensive treatment systems.
  • [MeSH-major] Heroin / adverse effects. Heroin / therapeutic use. Heroin Dependence / drug therapy. Narcotics / adverse effects. Narcotics / therapeutic use. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16111445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-764X
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Narcotics; 70D95007SX / Heroin
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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81. Oh S, Kim SJ, Hwang JH, Lee HY, Ryu MJ, Park J, Kim SJ, Jo YS, Kim YK, Lee CH, Kweon KR, Shong M, Park SB: Antidiabetic and antiobesity effects of Ampkinone (6f), a novel small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase. J Med Chem; 2010 Oct 28;53(20):7405-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antidiabetic and antiobesity effects of Ampkinone (6f), a novel small molecule activator of AMP-activated protein kinase.
  • Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as an attractive target molecule for the treatment of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.
  • Ampkinone-mediated activation of AMPK required the activity of LKB1 and resulted in increased glucose uptake in muscle cells.
  • Our results demonstrate that ampkinone, a small molecule with a privileged benzopyran substructure, has a potential as a new class of therapeutic agent for antidiabetic and antiobesity treatment via the indirect stimulation of AMPK.
  • [MeSH-major] AMP-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Anti-Obesity Agents / chemical synthesis. Benzopyrans / chemical synthesis. Enzyme Activators / chemical synthesis. Hypoglycemic Agents / chemical synthesis. Phthalimides / chemical synthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase / metabolism. Adipose Tissue / drug effects. Adipose Tissue / metabolism. Adipose Tissue / pathology. Animals. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Body Weight / drug effects. Cell Line. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy. Dogs. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Insulin / blood. Liver / enzymology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Muscle, Skeletal / enzymology. Organ Size. Phosphorylation. Rats. Small Molecule Libraries. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 20873794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Obesity Agents; 0 / Benzopyrans; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Enzyme Activators; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 0 / Insulin; 0 / Phthalimides; 0 / Small Molecule Libraries; 0 / ampkinone; EC 2.7.11.1 / AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 6.4.1.2 / Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase
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82. Li Z, Huang L: Sustained delivery and expression of plasmid DNA based on biodegradable polyester, poly(D,L-lactide-co-4-hydroxy-L-proline). J Control Release; 2004 Aug 27;98(3):437-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The copolymer was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide (DLLA) with N-cbz-4-hydroxy-L-proline (HP) in the presence of stannous octoate (Sn(Oct)(2)).
  • [MeSH-major] DNA / administration & dosage. DNA / biosynthesis. Genetic Therapy / methods. Plasmids / genetics. Polyesters
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Survival / drug effects. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Carriers. Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate. Fluorescent Dyes. Gene Expression. Gene Transfer Techniques. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Microspheres. Particle Size

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  • (PMID = 15312999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-3659
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Control Release
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR45925; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA74918; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK44935
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Polyesters; 0 / poly(D,L-lactide-co-4-hydroxy-L-proline); 9007-49-2 / DNA; I223NX31W9 / Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate
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83. Chew NY, Reddel HK, Bosnic-Anticevich SZ, Chan HK: Effect of mouthpiece washing on aerosol performance of CFC-free Ventolin. J Asthma; 2004 Oct;41(7):721-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of mouthpiece washing on aerosol performance of CFC-free Ventolin.
  • The prescribing information for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-free salbutamol metered-dose inhalers carries a strongly-worded instruction to wash the mouthpiece weekly, but patients rarely carry this out.
  • This study investigated the effect of washing/not washing the mouthpiece on CFC-free Ventolin aerosol performance.
  • Twelve CFC-free Ventolin inhalers were actuated two puffs four times/day, and assessed by unit dose sampler and cascade impactor on Days 1, 7, 8, 14, 15, 21, and 22 ("throughlife," i.e., over the entire content of the inhaler).
  • The mouthpieces of six inhalers were washed after the last actuation on Days 7, 14, and 21.
  • This study shows a progressive through-life reduction in fine particle mass from CFC-free Ventolin inhalers, which is prevented by weekly mouthpiece washing.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Aerosols / therapeutic use. Analysis of Variance. Asthma / drug therapy. Biological Availability. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 15584631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-0903
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of asthma : official journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Asthma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aerosols; 0 / Anti-Asthmatic Agents; QF8SVZ843E / Albuterol
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84. Voorhees PM, Orlowski RZ: Emerging role of novel combinations for induction therapy in multiple myeloma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2006 Jul;7(1):33-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerging role of novel combinations for induction therapy in multiple myeloma.
  • Although multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease, there has been a concerted effort toward understanding its molecular pathogenesis, which has paved the way for the development of highly effective, novel therapeutic agents such as the immunomodulatory agents thalidomide and lenalidomide, and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib.
  • A better understanding of the molecular basis of chemotherapy resistance and the molecular sequelae of conventional cytotoxic and novel agents on MM cells and the bone marrow microenvironment has afforded the opportunity to study novel, rationally designed combination therapies in the clinic.
  • Recently presented results of 2 phase III clinical trials comparing melphalan/prednisone (MP) with MP and thalidomide (MP-Thal) in older patients with newly diagnosed MM have demonstrated superior progression-free survival and overall survival rates with MP-Thal, thus providing the first evidence that the improved response rates to these novel combination regimens will translate into better patient outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Boronic Acids / administration & dosage. Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy. Pyrazines / administration & dosage. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow / metabolism. Bortezomib. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16879768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9190
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K12 RR17667; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102278
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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85. Malfatti F, Giannini E, Emanuela T, Polegato S, Podestà E, Fumagalli A, Cotelessa T, Chiarbonello B, Bellotti M, Botta F, Milazzo S, Testa R: Effects of the association of lansoprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole for helicobacter Pylori eradication therapy, measured by the 13C Aminopyrine breath test. Med Sci Monit; 2005 Feb;11(2):PI14-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of the association of lansoprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole for helicobacter Pylori eradication therapy, measured by the 13C Aminopyrine breath test.
  • BACKGROUND: Lansoprazole (LAN) is a proton pump inhibitor drug (PPI) metabolized by the P-450 liver cytochrome (CYP-450) system.
  • LAN is used in association with antimicrobial agents in Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy.
  • Since pharmacological interactions may occur during PPI administration, we attempted to evaluate possible interference with liver CYP-450 activity during HP eradication therapy.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: Fourteen HP positive patients received LAN (30 mg b.i.d.
  • Prior to therapy, and at day 8, each patient underwent 13C-ABT.
  • Results are expressed as cumulative percentage of the administered dose of 13C recovered over time (% 13C dose cum), and as a percentage of the administered dose of 13C recovered per hour (% l3C dose/h).
  • RESULTS: At day 8, mean ABT was no different from baseline values, both considering % 13C dose cum and% 13C dose/h at each sampling time (e.g.,% 13C dose cum120 which is the most expressive value of the parameters taken into consideration, baseline vs day 8: 10.88 +/- 3.81 vs 10.13 +/- 3.57).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show that LAN administration and the concomitant use of antimicrobial drugs during HP eradication therapy do not seem to be associated with significant modifications in liver CYP-450 activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminopyrine / metabolism. Clarithromycin / therapeutic use. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter Infections / microbiology. Metronidazole / therapeutic use. Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives. Omeprazole / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Breath Tests. Carbon Isotopes. Female. Helicobacter pylori / drug effects. Helicobacter pylori / physiology. Humans. Lansoprazole. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Characteristics