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1. Ali A, Sayed H, Farrag A, El-Sayed M: Risk-based combined-modality therapy of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma: a retrospective study. Leuk Res; 2010 Nov;34(11):1447-52
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  • [Title] Risk-based combined-modality therapy of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma: a retrospective study.
  • We conducted a retrospective analysis to investigate the clinical outcome of combined-modality therapy using multiagent chemotherapy and involved-field radiotherapy in treatment of children with Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Fifty eight cases with newly diagnosed Hodgkin's lymphoma were analyzed.
  • High-risk disease (stage IIIB and IV), presence of B symptoms, lymphocyte depletion subtype, bulky disease and late response to chemotherapy were poor prognostic factors.
  • Stage-adapted combined-modality therapy resulted in satisfactory outcome in treatment of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20599270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5835
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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2. Alebouyeh M, Moussavi F, Haddad-Deylami H, Vossough P: Successful ambulatory treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Iranian children based on German-Austrian DAL-HD 85-90: single institutional results. Ann Oncol; 2005 Dec;16(12):1936-40
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  • [Title] Successful ambulatory treatment of Hodgkin's disease in Iranian children based on German-Austrian DAL-HD 85-90: single institutional results.
  • BACKGROUND: Hodgkin's disease (HD) accounts for 7.5% of childhood malignancies in Iran.
  • In order to minimize chemotherapy toxicity and avoid eventual hospitalization and psychological and financial burdens we have applied since 1988, for the first time in Iran, a treatment regimen based on subsequently revised DAL-HD 85-90 and later GPOH-HD 95 protocols.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the period 1988-2004, 40 children with HD received DAL/GPOH-HD-adapted treatment; 25 males (62.5%) and 15 females (37.5%) (male/female ratio 1.7; age 4-14 years, mean 8.8).
  • Clinical evaluation and staging was performed in all patients.
  • Staging was as follows: stage I; seven (17.5%); II, 11 (27.5%); III, 11 (27.5%); and IV, 11 (27.5%).
  • Histopathology: 22 patients had mixed cellularity (MC; 55%), 13 nodular sclerosis (32.5%), four lymphocyte predominance (LP; 10%) and one patient lymphocyte depletion (2.5%).
  • Stage IA and IIA patients (n = 15) received either OPA x2 (vincristine, prednisolone, doxorubicin) or OPPA x2 or OPEA x2 (vincristine, prednisolone, procarbazine and doxorubicin), the latter receiving etoposide instead of procarbazine, and applied to males.
  • Twenty nine patients (72.5%) received radiotherapy (20-25 Gy); four to the involved field (stage I), 25 to the upper mantel (stage II and also III with either residual or mediastinal mass) and three additionally to spleen and para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • Eleven patients received only chemotherapy.
  • Relapse occurred in eight patients (20%); seven stage IV (MC) and one stage IA (LP) with progression to IIIB.
  • Salvage chemotherapy consisted of MOPP/ABVD hybrid; six patients achieved a second sustained remission and three patients died: two due to relapse and progressive disease and the third one in CR, owing to thrombocytopenic hemorrhage and foudroyant pneumonia.
  • Aside from minor acute toxicities, three patients demonstrated azoospermia at the age of 18 years and one of these patients suffered non-Hodgkin lymphoma as a second malignancy.
  • Both received appropriate treatment and are over 10 years in CR.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The DAL/GPOH-HD-based treatment approach proved to achieve long-term sustained cure even in children with advanced HD disease.
  • The essentially outpatient diagnosis and treatment modus did not compromise the disease outcome, and was well tolerated and accepted by the patients and their parents.
  • The employed drugs are easily available and affordable.
  • This treatment approach is suitable for ambulatory use in developing countries.

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  • (PMID = 16157620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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3. Goerner M, Weber-Nordt R, Hoepfner S, Benner A, Luft T, Ho AD: Addition of a low fixed number of CD3+ cells to CD34-enriched allografts: effects on engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, and survival after related and unrelated peripheral stem cell transplantation. J Hematother Stem Cell Res; 2003 Jun;12(3):309-20
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  • [Title] Addition of a low fixed number of CD3+ cells to CD34-enriched allografts: effects on engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, and survival after related and unrelated peripheral stem cell transplantation.
  • Despite prophylaxis with immunosuppressive drugs, severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
  • T cell depletion of the graft has decreased incidence and severity of GVHD but has resulted in a higher incidence of graft failure and relapse.
  • To reduce the risk of severe GVHD, but at the same time to maintain the graft-versus-tumor effect, we administered a fixed low number of 1 x 10(5) donor T cells per kilogram of body weight to recipients of CD34(+) cell-enriched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs).
  • Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) were then given in incremental doses when mixed chimerism persisted or signs of relapse occurred.
  • One patient did not engraft and 3/20 evaluable patients developed acute (a) GVHD > or = grade II, with a corresponding estimated cumulative incidence of 15.6% (95% CI 0-30.5%).
  • The probability of disease-free survival and overall survival at 2 years was 0.40 (95% CI 0.21-0.75) and 0.36 (95% CI 0.21-0.63).
  • We conclude that the combination of allografts with a T cell content of about 1 x 10(5)/kg and escalating doses of DLI is a viable transplant strategy in patients with myeloid leukemias, which results in stable engraftment and a reduction of mortality from aGVHD.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / blood. Antigens, CD3 / blood. Antigens, CD34 / blood. Graft vs Host Disease / epidemiology. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation, Homologous / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Separation / methods. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Graft Survival. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia / classification. Leukemia / mortality. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / mortality. Multiple Myeloma / therapy. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12857372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-8165
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hematotherapy & stem cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hematother. Stem Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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4. Tedder TF, Baras A, Xiu Y: Fcgamma receptor-dependent effector mechanisms regulate CD19 and CD20 antibody immunotherapies for B lymphocyte malignancies and autoimmunity. Springer Semin Immunopathol; 2006 Dec;28(4):351-64
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  • [Title] Fcgamma receptor-dependent effector mechanisms regulate CD19 and CD20 antibody immunotherapies for B lymphocyte malignancies and autoimmunity.
  • Immunotherapy using Rituximab, an unconjugated CD20 monoclonal antibody, has proven effective for treating non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and autoimmune disease.
  • CD19 antibody immunotherapy is also effective in mouse models of lymphoma and autoimmunity.
  • In both cases, mouse models have demonstrated that effector cell networks effectively deplete the vast majority of circulating and tissue B lymphocytes through Fcgamma receptor-dependent pathways.
  • In mice, B cell depletion is predominantly, if not exclusively, mediated by monocytes.
  • CD20 mAbs rapidly deplete circulating and tissue B cells in an antibody isotype-restricted manner with a hierarchy of antibody effectiveness: IgG2a/c > IgG1 > IgG2b >> IgG3.
  • Depending on antibody isotype, mouse B cell depletion is regulated by FcgammaRI-, FcgammaRII-, FcgammaRIII-, and FcgammaRIV-dependent pathways.
  • The potency of IgG2a/c mAbs for B cell depletion in vivo results from FcgammaRIV interactions, with likely contributions from high-affinity FcgammaRI.
  • IgG1 mAbs induce B cell depletion through preferential, if not exclusive, interactions with low-affinity FcgammaRIII, while IgG2b mAbs interact preferentially with intermediate-affinity FcgammaRIV.
  • By contrast, inhibitory FcgammaRIIB-deficiency significantly increases CD20 mAb-induced B cell depletion at low mAb doses by enhancing monocyte function.
  • These results provide a molecular basis for earlier observations that human FcgammaRII and FcgammaRIII polymorphisms correlate with the in vivo effectiveness of CD20 antibody therapy.
  • That the innate monocyte network depletes B cells through FcgammaR-dependent pathways during immunotherapy has important clinical implications for CD19, CD20, and other antibody-based therapies for the treatment of diverse B cell malignancies and autoimmune disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. B-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Humans. Immunotherapy. Lymphocyte Depletion. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17091246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-4325
  • [Journal-full-title] Springer seminars in immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Springer Semin. Immunopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD20
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5. Pangalis GA, Dimopoulou MN, Angelopoulou MK, Tsekouras C, Vassilakopoulos TP, Vaiopoulos G, Siakantaris MP: Campath-1H (anti-CD52) monoclonal antibody therapy in lymphoproliferative disorders. Med Oncol; 2001;18(2):99-107
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  • [Title] Campath-1H (anti-CD52) monoclonal antibody therapy in lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • Campath-1H has been used in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), and low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (LGNHL).
  • The responses (complete [CR] and partial [PR]) obtained in untreated B-CLL patients are of the order of 90%.
  • Because of the antibody's higher activity on circulating lymphocytes, it has been used for in vivo purging of residual disease in B-CLL, followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation.
  • In heavily pretreated advanced stage LGNHL, response is achieved only in 14% of cases with B-phenotype; a 50% response rate is noted in mycosis fungoides.
  • The main complications of Campath-1H treatment are caused by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 release, usually during the first intravenous infusion, and include fever, rigor, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension responsive to steroids.
  • Immunosupression resulting from normal B- and T-lymphocyte depletion is frequent, resulting in an increased risk for opportunistic infections.
  • More clinical trials in a larger number of patients are necessary to determine the exact role and indications of Campath-1H in lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, B-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Prolymphocytic / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Immunosuppression. Infection. Infusions, Intravenous. Interleukin-6 / adverse effects. Interleukin-6 / secretion. Phenotype. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / adverse effects. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / secretion

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  • (PMID = 11778765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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6. Dadparvar S, Hussain R, Esteves F, Yu JQ, Grewal RK, Arif S, Cruz R, Barbaria CJ, Woods K, Styler MJ: Thallium-201 imaging in evaluation of Hodgkin's disease. Cancer J; 2002 Nov-Dec;8(6):469-75
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  • [Title] Thallium-201 imaging in evaluation of Hodgkin's disease.
  • PURPOSE: The role of Ga 67 in the evaluation of Hodgkin's disease has been widely established.
  • This prospective study was performed to evaluate the role of Tl 201 imaging in Hodgkin's disease at the time of initial presentation and in the assessment of response to therapy, relapse, and remission.
  • METHODS: Fifty-one consecutive patients (23 female, 28 male) with known Hodgkin's disease underwent 111 Tl 201 and Ga 67 studies.
  • The histopathologies included nodular sclerosis (in 31 cases), mixed cellularity (in 12), lymphocytic predominant (in five), lymphocytic depletion (in one), and unknown (in two).
  • Comparison with Ga 67 imaging, anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and clinical correlation were performed.
  • Tl 201 imaging was similar in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy among the nodular sclerosis and the mixed-cellularity Hodgkin's disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Tl 201 imaging offers more specificity with a higher positive predictive value in the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease.
  • The Ga 67 study is more sensitive than Tl 201 in the detection of disease.
  • Therefore, we recommend Tl 201 imaging in the initial evaluation and assessment of patients' response to radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / radionuclide imaging. Thallium Radioisotopes

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  • (PMID = 12500856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes
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7. Hainsworth JD: Safety of rituximab in the treatment of B cell malignancies: implications for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther; 2003;5 Suppl 4:S12-6
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  • [Title] Safety of rituximab in the treatment of B cell malignancies: implications for rheumatoid arthritis.
  • The chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab has been used extensively in the treatment of B cell malignancies, and more recently it has emerged as a potential treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), via selective B lymphocyte depletion.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 15180892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-6362
  • [Journal-full-title] Arthritis research & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arthritis Res. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 30
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2833440
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8. Xicoy B, Ribera JM, Miralles P, Berenguer J, Rubio R, Mahillo B, Valencia ME, Abella E, López-Guillermo A, Sureda A, Morgades M, Navarro JT, Esteban H, GESIDA Group, GELCAB Group: Results of treatment with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine and highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced stage, human immunodeficiency virus-related Hodgkin's lymphoma. Haematologica; 2007 Feb;92(2):191-8
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  • [Title] Results of treatment with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine and highly active antiretroviral therapy in advanced stage, human immunodeficiency virus-related Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) is considered the standard chemotherapy regimen for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), information on the results of this therapy in human immunodeficiency (HIV)-related HL is scarce.
  • We analyzed the results of the ABVD regimen and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in patients with advanced stage, HIV-related HL.
  • Response to chemotherapy, overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were recorded.
  • RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 37 years (range, 24-61) and 29 (47%) had a previously known diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  • The median CD4 lymphocyte count at diagnosis was 129/muL (range 5-1,209).
  • The histologic subtype of HL was nodular sclerosis in 17 patients (27%), mixed cellularity in 25 (41%), lymphocyte depletion in 10 (16%) and non-specified in the remaining 10 (16%).
  • Twenty-one (34%) patients were in stage III and 41 (66%) in stage IV.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced stage, HIV-related HL, treatment with ABVD together with HAART is feasible and effective.
  • This supports the concept that patients with HIV-related HL should be treated in the same way as immunocompetent patients if HAART, adequate supportive therapy and anti-infectious prophylaxis are given concomitantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17296568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol
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9. Carson KR, Focosi D, Major EO, Petrini M, Richey EA, West DP, Bennett CL: Monoclonal antibody-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in patients treated with rituximab, natalizumab, and efalizumab: a Review from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) Project. Lancet Oncol; 2009 Aug;10(8):816-24
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  • [Title] Monoclonal antibody-associated progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in patients treated with rituximab, natalizumab, and efalizumab: a Review from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) Project.
  • CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphopenia, resulting from HIV infection, chemotherapy, or immunosuppressive therapy, are the primary risk factors.
  • The immune modulatory monoclonal antibodies rituximab, natalizumab, and efalizumab have received regulatory approval in the USA and Europe for treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (Europe only); multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease; and psoriasis, respectively.
  • Efalizumab and natalizumab administration is associated with CD4+ T lymphopenia and altered trafficking of T lymphocytes into the CNS, and rituximab leads to prolonged B-lymphocyte depletion.
  • Unexpected cases of PML developing in people who receive these drugs have been reported, with many of the affected individuals dying from this disease.
  • Herein, we review clinical findings, pathology, epidemiology, basic science, and risk-management issues associated with PML infection developing after treatment with these monoclonal antibodies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. B-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Humans. Natalizumab. Rituximab. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19647202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA125077-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Natalizumab; 0 / efalizumab; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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10. De Paoli P, Vaccher E, Tedeschi R, Caffau C, Zanussi S, Bortolin MT, Crepaldi C, Spina M, Tirelli U: Lymphocyte subsets and viral load in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and chemotherapy. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 2001 May;50(3):157-62
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  • [Title] Lymphocyte subsets and viral load in patients with HIV-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and chemotherapy.
  • The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab is a novel antitumor agent used in association with chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of high-grade/intermediate non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) in HIV-negative populations.
  • This therapeutic combination is currently also being explored in HIV-positive patients with NHL (HIV-NHL).
  • The objective of our study was to determine CD4 and CD8T cell counts, HIV plasma viremia and proviral load in patients with CD20-positive HIV-NHL treated with Rituximab plus CT and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • We studied eight patients with HIV-NHL treated by anti-CD20 and CT before, after three, and after six cycles of therapy; CD4, CD8 and CD19 lymphocyte subsets were measured by monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry.
  • CD4T cell counts remained stable after three cycles of therapy, while a significant reduction of this subset was present at the end of therapy.
  • HIV plasma viremia was significantly reduced after the third cycle, but returned to pretreatment levels at the end of therapy; we also observed individual fluctuations of proviral load during therapy, this marker being increased in two out of three patients at the end of therapy.
  • These observations suggest that Rituximab plus CT accelerated the rate of CD4 depletion and of HIV replication in the peripheral blood of HIV-NHL patients and that HAART may be able to delay these effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD20 / immunology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Seropositivity / immunology. Lymphocyte Subsets / metabolism. Lymphocyte Subsets / virology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / immunology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD19 / biosynthesis. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. Female. Flow Cytometry. HIV / metabolism. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rituximab. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11419183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-7004
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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11. Novitzky N, Thomas V: Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with T cell-depleted grafts for lymphoproliferative malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2007 Jan;13(1):107-15
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  • [Title] Allogeneic stem cell transplantation with T cell-depleted grafts for lymphoproliferative malignancies.
  • In non-Hodgkin lymphoma allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) can be curative, but with standard dose conditioning patients may have substantial morbidity and mortality from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); for aggressive malignancies, reduced intensity conditioning may result in higher recurrence.
  • Patients with advanced follicular lymphoma (n = 12), transformed B cell malignancy (n = 11), and non-CD30+T cell lymphomas (n = 17) responsive to chemotherapy who had an HLA-identical sibling were offered T cell depleted (CAMPATH-1 G or H antibodies) SCT.
  • Conditioning was with ablative doses of chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • Before SCT, patients with follicular lymphoma had a median of 3 treatment courses, and those with transformed B cell and those diagnosed with T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma had 2 (range, 1-3).
  • All patients showed engraftment but 7 patients (17.5%) developed GVHD.
  • In total 12 subjects expired of transplant-related causes (n = 6) or from disease recurrence.
  • At a median of 1051 days, 70% survived and 68% are without disease.
  • By reducing the incidence and severity of GVHD, patients can tolerate myeloablative doses of chemotherapy satisfactorily.
  • This has resulted in low treatment-related mortality and adequate protection from disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Lymphocyte Depletion / methods. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Neoplasm / pharmacology. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Disease-Free Survival. Graft vs Host Disease. Humans. Middle Aged. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Siblings. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 17222759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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12. Ansell SM, Armitage JO: Management of Hodgkin lymphoma. Mayo Clin Proc; 2006 Mar;81(3):419-26
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  • [Title] Management of Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Approximately 7350 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are diagnosed annually in the United States.
  • The disease is composed of 2 distinct entities: the more commonly diagnosed classical HL and the rare nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL.
  • Classical HL includes the subgroups nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte rich.
  • Selection of the appropriate therapy Is based on accurately assessing the stage of disease.
  • Patients with early-stage disease are treated with combined modality strategies using abbreviated courses of combination chemotherapy followed by Involved-field radiation therapy, whereas those with advanced-stage disease receive a longer course of chemotherapy without radiation therapy.
  • Although many patients respond well to initial therapies and have durable long-term remissions, a subset of patients has resistant disease and experiences relapse even after subsequent high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation.
  • New therapies are clearly needed for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / diagnosis. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16529147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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13. Chen AI, McMillan A, Negrin RS, Horning SJ, Laport GG: Long-term results of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for peripheral T cell lymphoma: the Stanford experience. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2008 Jul;14(7):741-7
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  • [Title] Long-term results of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for peripheral T cell lymphoma: the Stanford experience.
  • The peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCL) carry a worse prognosis compared to B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • There is no uniform standard therapy for PTCL, and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) is often offered as consolidation in first remission or at relapse because of the poor outcomes with conventional therapy.
  • Fifty-three cases were identified consisting of systemic anaplastic large cell (n = 18), PTCL unspecified (n = 17), angioimmunoblastic (n = 9), nasal type extranodal NK/T (n = 7), hepatosplenic (n = 2), and adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (n = 1).
  • Fifteen patients were transplanted in first complete or partial response (CR1/PR1), 32 in second or beyond CR or PR (CR2/PR2+), and 11 with primary refractory disease (REF).
  • With a median follow-up was 5 years (range: 1.0-11.5), the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 25% and 48%, respectively.
  • Disease status at AHCT had a significant impact on PFS and OS.
  • The pretransplant factors that impacted survival were disease status and the number of prior regimens.
  • Histology, age, sex, stage, B symptoms, bone marrow involvement, and duration of first response did not significantly affect PFS or OS.
  • Based on these results, AHCT as consolidation therapy in first complete or partial response may offer a durable survival benefit.
  • However, AHCT with conventional salvage chemotherapy has minimal durable benefit in patients with relapsed or refractory PTCL, and thus novel strategies and/or allogeneic HCT should be more aggressively explored in lieu of AHCT for relapsed/ refractory PTCL.


14. Voso MT, Pantel G, Weis M, Schmidt P, Martin S, Moos M, Ho AD, Haas R, Hohaus S: In vivo depletion of B cells using a combination of high-dose cytosine arabinoside/mitoxantrone and rituximab for autografting in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Br J Haematol; 2000 Jun;109(4):729-35
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  • [Title] In vivo depletion of B cells using a combination of high-dose cytosine arabinoside/mitoxantrone and rituximab for autografting in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • We performed a pilot study including rituximab (Mabthera; IDEC-C2B8, Hoffmann-La Roche) with a sequential high-dose therapy protocol in 15 patients with follicular and three patients with mantle cell lymphoma and studied the potential of the chemoimmunotherapy to induce depletion of malignant B cells in vivo.
  • Our treatment protocol included induction with three cycles of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) chemotherapy, followed by peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization using high-dose cytosine arabinoside (2 g/m2 every 12 h, days 1 and 2) and mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2, days 2 and 3) (HAM), preceeded by rituximab (375 mg/m2).
  • The number of t(14;18)-positive cells in blood and bone marrow progressively decreased with treatment, as assessed by the quantitative real-time PCR assay in four patients.
  • In 17 of 18 patients, a median of 15.1 x 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight (BW) could be harvested by a single procedure for enrichment by an immunomagnetic method.
  • The high-dose therapy (n = 12 patients), including total body irradiation (14.4 Gy) and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg BW), was also preceeded by rituximab.
  • In conclusion, the addition of the CD20 antibody to chemotherapy ensured tumour depletion in vivo and allowed the collection of PBSCs devoid of tumour cells and with conserved engraftment capability.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. B-Lymphocytes. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization / methods. Lymphocyte Depletion / methods. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Leukapheresis. Lymphoma, Follicular / surgery. Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Pilot Projects. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Rituximab. Transplantation, Autologous. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Whole-Body Irradiation

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  • (PMID = 10929022.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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15. Hamaguchi Y: [Molecular mechanisms of B lymphocyte depletion by CD20 immunotherapy]. Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi; 2009 Feb;32(1):29-34
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  • [Title] [Molecular mechanisms of B lymphocyte depletion by CD20 immunotherapy].
  • Anti-CD20 antibody immunotherapy effectively treats non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and autoimmune disease.
  • However, the cellular and molecular pathways for B cell depletion remain undefined and the in vivo effect of immunotherapy on tissue B cells and their subsets is generally unknown.
  • To identify the mechanisms for B cell depletion in vivo, a new mouse model for anti-CD20 immunotherapy was developed using a panel of twelve mouse anti-mouse CD20 monoclonal antibodies.
  • Anti-CD20 antibodies rapidly depleted the vast majority of circulating and tissue B cells in an isotype-restricted manner that was completely dependent on effector cell Fc receptor expression.
  • B cell depletion utilized FcgammaRI-, FcgammaRIII- and FcgammaRIV-dependent pathways, while B cells were not eliminated in FcR common gamma chain-deficient mice.
  • Monocytes were the dominant effector cells for B cell depletion, with no demonstrable role for T or NK cells.
  • Although most anti-CD20 antibodies activated complement in vitro, B cell depletion was completely effective in mice with genetic deficiencies in C3 complement components.
  • The considerable factors that determine the effectiveness of anti-CD20 immunotherapy are following: the expression level of CD20 on B cell surface; the dosage of anti-CD20 mAb; the association of Fcgamma receptor with the isotype of the antibies; B cell subpopulations within different tissues.
  • These findings have important clinical implications for anti-CD20 and other antibody-based therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Lymphocyte Depletion
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity / immunology. Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy. Immunotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Mice. Receptors, IgG / immunology. Rituximab

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  • (PMID = 19252375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7413
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai kaishi = Japanese journal of clinical immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Receptors, IgG; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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16. Thompson LD, Fisher SI, Chu WS, Nelson A, Abbondanzo SL: HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 45 cases. Am J Clin Pathol; 2004 May;121(5):727-38
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  • [Title] HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 45 cases.
  • We retrospectively analyzed 45 cases of HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma (HIV-HL).
  • HIV-HL generally is a disease of young white men (mean age, 40.1 years) who acquired HIV infection by homosexual or bisexual behavior (68%), intravenous drug use (24%), and/or blood transfusion (8%).
  • The mean interval between the diagnosis of HIV and HIV-HL was 5.2 years.
  • Morphologic classification of nodal biopsy specimens (2001 World Health Organization criteria) included 15 mixed cellularity Hodgkin lymphomas (MCHLs), 14 nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphomas (NSHLs), 9 lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin lymphomas (LDHLs), and 7 classic Hodgkin lymphomas, type not further categorized.
  • The Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells expressed positive immunoreactivity with fascin (30/30 [100%]), CD30 (35/37 [95%]), CD15 (32/36 [89%]), bcl-X(L) (25/31 [81%]), bcl-2 (15/29 [52%]), CD20 (4/34 [12%]), bcl-6 (3/28 [11%]), and Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (32/33 [97%]) and were nonreactive for CD138/syndecan-1.
  • At diagnosis, most patients (n = 27) had high-stage disease (IV(E)) associated with an aggressive course (16% 5-year survival).
  • LDHL behaved more aggressively than MCHL and NSHL (15% vs 40%, 5-year survival, respectively), as did disease with a sarcomatoid pattern (11% 5-year survival).
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy proved efficacious in a minority of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology


17. Ponzoni M, Fumagalli L, Rossi G, Freschi M, Re A, Viganò MG, Guidoboni M, Dolcetti R, McKenna RW, Facchetti F: Isolated bone marrow manifestation of HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma. Mod Pathol; 2002 Dec;15(12):1273-8
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  • [Title] Isolated bone marrow manifestation of HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin lymphoma frequently involves the bone marrow and is usually recognized at staging after Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis on a lymph node or other tissue biopsies, but occasionally the marrow involvement is the only apparent manifestation of disease.
  • In the latter setting, diagnosis can be problematic.
  • From a total of 42 patients with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin lymphoma, 22 subjects had positive marrow involvement at diagnosis; 16 of them had additional substantial histological and/or clinical extramedullary Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • In the remaining 6 patients the bone marrow was the only site of disease at diagnosis.
  • Spared marrow tissue consistently showed fibrosis.
  • All patients were males with a median age of 35 years (range, 31-58 years).
  • All presented with fever, blood cytopenias, and severe CD4+ lymphocyte depletion (median, 70 cells/mm(3)).
  • After diagnosis, all staging procedures were negative, and all patients were treated with chemotherapy.
  • Longer survival was achieved in the patients who completed chemotherapy regimens; three subjects, however, died shortly before the full completion of chemotherapy, two of them from Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Isolated bone marrow HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma may be an underestimated condition in HIV-infected patients; in those individuals with unexplained fever and blood cytopenias, bone marrow biopsy should be performed with the aim of assessing for Hodgkin lymphoma, even in the absence of nodal and visceral lymphomatous involvement.
  • A rapid diagnosis of isolated bone marrow HIV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma could expedite therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. HIV Infections / complications. Hodgkin Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12481007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Antigens, CD30; 0 / RNA, Viral
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18. Büyükpamukçu M, Varan A, Akyüz C, Atahan L, Ozyar E, Kale G, Köksal Y, Kutluk T: The treatment of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma: improved survival in a developing country. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(1):44-51
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  • [Title] The treatment of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma: improved survival in a developing country.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and outcome of children with Hodgkin lymphoma in a developing country over a period of 34 years.
  • METHODS: This paper retrospectively evaluates the treatment and prognosis of 614 children with Hodgkin lymphoma disease between 1971 and 2005.
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy, and also received radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: There were 452 males and 162 females with a median age of 8 years (2 to 21); 183 patients had B symptoms.
  • There were 165, 185, 145, and 119 patients in stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively.
  • Histopathologic subtypes were mixed cellularity (344 patients), nodular sclerosis (90), lymphocytic predominance (62), lymphocytic depletion (46), unclassified types (69), and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (3).
  • Overall (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 83 and 60%, though OS rates varied according to chemotherapy protocol; age; presence of B symptoms, leukocytosis, anemia, and extranodal involvement; and stage at diagnosis.
  • Over the years, the median age of patients increased, as did the frequency of the nodular sclerosing type of disease.
  • The increase in the median age and in the frequency of the nodular-sclerosing type are thought to be related to the development status of Turkey.
  • The ABVD protocol yielded the best survival rates and should be used for treatment of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Hodgkin Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Turkey / epidemiology. Young Adult


19. Balwierz W, Klekawka T, Moryl-Bujakowska A, Matysiak M, Sopyło B, Wachowiak J, Kaczmarek-Kanold M, Sońta-Jakimczyk D, Janik-Moszant A, Chybicka A, Chaber R, Kowalczyk JR, Mitura-Lesiuk M, Balcerska A, Stachowicz-Stencel T, Wysocki M, Kołtan A, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Muszyńska-Rosłan K, Młynarski W, Stolarska M, Sobol G, Wieczorek M, Karolczyk G, Urbanek-Dadela A: [Can children with Hodgkin's disease be treated with chemotherapy only?]. Przegl Lek; 2010;67(6):375-81
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  • [Title] [Can children with Hodgkin's disease be treated with chemotherapy only?].
  • [Transliterated title] Czy dzieci z choroba Hodgkina moga być leczone wyłacznie chemioterapia?
  • Currently over 90% of children and adolescents with Hodgkin's disease (HD) can be cured thanks to use of multidrug chemotherapy (CT) combined with involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT).
  • However, the intensive treatment may increase the risk of late complications which may impair the patients' quality of life.
  • In order to decrease the incidence of late complications the protocol with limited use of IF-RT was introduced in centers of Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (PPLLSG).
  • This study presents the treatment results of patients treated with CT only in comparison with the therapy results of children treated with CT and IF-RT.
  • In 45 patients with IA-IIA stages presenting favorable risk factors (small mediastinal tumor, peripheral nodular mass of a maximum diameter < 6 cm, involvement of less than three nodular regions, ESR < 50 mm after 1 h, histologic type other than lymphocyte depletion and very good treatment response assessed after 3 CT cycles) IF-RT was omitted.
  • Our results show that the use of CT only in precisely selected group of patients with HD do not impair the treatment results and may decrease the risk of late life threatening complications.
  • Treatment response assessment with the use of PET may in future increase the number of patients treated without RT and limit the need of the use of invasive diagnostic methods in patients with residual mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21344765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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20. Martinelli G, Laszlo D, Bertolini F, Pastano R, Mancuso P, Calleri A, Vanazzi A, Santoro P, Cavalli F, Zucca E: Chlorambucil in combination with induction and maintenance rituximab is feasible and active in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Br J Haematol; 2003 Oct;123(2):271-7
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  • [Title] Chlorambucil in combination with induction and maintenance rituximab is feasible and active in indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • We investigated the toxicity and efficacy of the chimaeric anti-CD20 antibody rituximab in combination with standard-dose chlorambucil in newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory indolent B-cell lymphoma patients.
  • A total of 29 patients (15 newly diagnosed and 14 relapsed/refractory) with low-grade or follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were included in this phase II study.
  • Therapy consisted of chlorambucil 6 mg/m2/d for 6 consecutive weeks in combination with a standard 4-weekly rituximab administration schedule in the induction phase.
  • Patients responding to the induction therapy received four additional cycles with chlorambucil (6 mg/m2/d for 2 weeks/month) plus rituximab (once a month).
  • Twenty-six patients (89%) completed the treatment; only one patient discontinued treatment because of haematological toxicity.
  • At the end of the study, the dose of chlorambucil had to be reduced in seven patients (27%) and six patients (23%) required a delay in further treatment, as a result of toxicity during consolidation therapy.
  • Only one patient was withdrawn from the study because of progressive disease; the 27 patients evaluable for response at the end of consolidation achieved a clinical response (63% complete response and 26% partial response).
  • A significant CD4+ and CD56+ depletion was observed after induction and during consolidation therapy; two herpes zoster virus infections and one perianal abscess represented major infectious morbidities registered during the study.
  • Its definitive role in the treatment of low-grade NHL should be further evaluated in randomized trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. Chlorambucil / administration & dosage. Chlorambucil / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Lymphocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Rituximab. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14531908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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21. Itoh K, Kinoshita T, Watanabe T, Yoshimura K, Okamoto R, Chou T, Ogura M, Hirano M, Asaoku H, Kurosawa M, Maeda Y, Omachi K, Moriuchi Y, Kasai M, Ohnishi K, Takayama N, Morishima Y, Tobinai K, Kaba H, Yamamoto S, Fukuda H, Kikuchi M, Yoshino T, Matsuno Y, Hotta T, Shimoyama M: Prognostic analysis and a new risk model for Hodgkin lymphoma in Japan. Int J Hematol; 2010 Apr;91(3):446-55
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  • [Title] Prognostic analysis and a new risk model for Hodgkin lymphoma in Japan.
  • The Japan Clinical Oncology Group conducted two multicenter phase II trials in 200 patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in the 1990s.
  • Seven unfavorable prognostic factors for OS on univariate analysis were male, B symptoms, clinical stage of III or IV, elevated serum LDH, elevated alkaline phosphatase, elevated beta2-microglobulin, and pathological subtype (mixed cellularity and lymphocyte depletion).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Models, Statistical
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / mortality. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / mortality. Lymphoma, T-Cell / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / statistics & numerical data. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20198461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Mandigers CM, Verdonck LF, Meijerink JP, Dekker AW, Schattenberg AV, Raemaekers JM: Graft-versus-lymphoma effect of donor lymphocyte infusion in indolent lymphomas relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2003 Dec;32(12):1159-63
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  • [Title] Graft-versus-lymphoma effect of donor lymphocyte infusion in indolent lymphomas relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
  • Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) are used to treat relapsed haematological diseases after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT).
  • We treated seven patients with DLI for indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma relapsed after SCT.
  • In available blood and bone marrow samples, lymphoma cells were analysed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of t(14;18)-positive cells in follicular lymphoma, and by immunophenotyping in small lymphocytic lymphoma.
  • Evaluable responses to pre-DLI therapy were stable disease in one and partial remission (PR) in two patients.
  • Six patients responded to DLI (complete remission (CR) in four and PR in two).
  • After DLI, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 3/6 patients, classified as grade 2, whereas only limited chronic GVHD was seen (n=5).
  • In the remaining patient, not responding to DLI, progressive disease was seen later on; chemotherapy followed by another DLI resulted in CR.
  • In three cases, clinical responses to DLI could be substantiated by molecular or immunophenotypic analysis of lymphoma cells.
  • We conclude that DLI is effective for treatment of indolent lymphoma relapsing after SCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft vs Tumor Effect. Lymphocyte Transfusion. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Lymphocyte Depletion. Male. Mechlorethamine / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Rituximab. Tissue Donors. Transplantation, Homologous / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14647270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 50D9XSG0VR / Mechlorethamine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ProMACE-MOPP protocol; VAP-cyclo protocol
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23. Chaiwatanatorn K, Lee N, Grigg A, Filshie R, Firkin F: Delayed-onset neutropenia associated with rituximab therapy. Br J Haematol; 2003 Jun;121(6):913-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Delayed-onset neutropenia associated with rituximab therapy.
  • The characteristics of severe neutropenia with a delayed onset following administration of rituximab have been evaluated in 53 consecutively treated patients.
  • All but one patient received rituximab for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Eight episodes of grade 4 neutropenia were detected between 1 and 5 months after rituximab, when administered alone on five occasions, and on three occasions in combination with chemotherapy, where neutrophil counts had recovered prior to the development of neutropenia.
  • Development of neutropenia did not correlate with either the presence of detectable disease or the administration of further treatment.
  • Neutropenia was associated with selective depletion of neutrophil precursors in all but one episode, where it was associated with generalized bone marrow hypoplasia.
  • All episodes developed after a period of either normal or mildly depressed neutrophil counts following treatment with rituximab, and persisted for between several days and several months, before undergoing spontaneous recovery in four instances, and after administration of filgrastim in the remainder.
  • Episodes of neutropenia were associated with disordered immune status manifested by lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinaemia, raising the possibility that either disturbance of the balance of lymphocyte subsets or an immune dyscrasia induced by rituximab resulted in the development of this type of neutropenia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Neutropenia / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Rituximab. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12786803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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24. Daniel D, Yang B, Lawrence DA, Totpal K, Balter I, Lee WP, Gogineni A, Cole MJ, Yee SF, Ross S, Ashkenazi A: Cooperation of the proapoptotic receptor agonist rhApo2L/TRAIL with the CD20 antibody rituximab against non-Hodgkin lymphoma xenografts. Blood; 2007 Dec 1;110(12):4037-46
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  • [Title] Cooperation of the proapoptotic receptor agonist rhApo2L/TRAIL with the CD20 antibody rituximab against non-Hodgkin lymphoma xenografts.
  • Recombinant human rhApo2L/TRAIL selectively stimulates apoptosis in various cancer cells through its receptors DR4 and DR5, and is currently in clinical trials.
  • Preclinical studies have established antitumor activity of rhApo2L/TRAIL in models of epithelial cancers; however, efficacy in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) models is not well studied.
  • Rituximab, a CD20 antibody used to treat certain types of NHL, augmented rhApo2L/TRAIL-induced caspase activation in Ramos RA1 and DoHH2 but not BJAB or SC-1 cells, through modulation of intrinsic rather than extrinsic apoptosis signaling.
  • Depletion of natural killer (NK) cells or serum complement substantially reduced combined efficacy against Ramos RA1 tumors, suggesting involvement of antibody-dependent cell- and complement-mediated cytotoxicity.
  • Moreover, rhApo2L/TRAIL helped circumvent acquired rituximab resistance of a Ramos variant.
  • These findings provide a strong rationale for clinical investigation of rhApo2L/TRAIL in combination with rituximab as a novel strategy for NHL therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antibody Formation / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Complement System Proteins / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / metabolism. Lymphocyte Depletion. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mice, SCID. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / metabolism. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / metabolism. Rituximab. Transplantation, Heterologous. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 17724141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFRSF10A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 9007-36-7 / Complement System Proteins
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