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1. Lee DH, Park JH, Lee JJ, Chung IJ, Chung DJ, Chung MY, Lee TH: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid and adrenal glands. Korean J Intern Med; 2000 Jan;15(1):76-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid and adrenal glands.
  • We report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL) with simultaneous involvement of both thyroid and bilateral adrenal glands.
  • The final diagnosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma was confirmed by biopsies of thyroid gland, enlarged cervical lymph node, and adrenal gland.
  • The significant endocrine dysfunction of the thyroid, adrenal or other endocrine glands was absent in our case.
  • The patient responded dramatically to three cycles of chemotherapy with no complication or endocrine dysfunction and continues to be followed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10714096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] KOREA (SOUTH)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 16
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4531737
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2. Wang SA, Rahemtullah A, Faquin WC, Roepke J, Harris NL, Hasserjian RP: Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid: a clinicopathologic study of five cases and review of the literature. Mod Pathol; 2005 Dec;18(12):1577-84
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  • [Title] Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid: a clinicopathologic study of five cases and review of the literature.
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma rarely involves the thyroid gland.
  • We report the clinical and pathologic features of five cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma that presented as thyroid lesions.
  • One patient had a remote history of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Imaging studies showed a 'cold' nodule (three cases) or a diffusely enlarged thyroid gland, resembling goiter or fibrosclerosing thyroiditis (two cases).
  • Thyroid fine-needle aspiration was performed before thyroidectomy in all cases; three of these cases contained some atypical cells, raising the possibility of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Histologically, all cases were classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, nodular sclerosis subtype.
  • The four patients with primary thyroid lymphoma had Stage IIE disease.
  • All patients were treated with surgical excision and chemotherapy, with or without radiation therapy, and were alive after 2 months to 7 years of follow-up.
  • A review of the English literature between 1962 and 2005 revealed 16 cases of thyroid Hodgkin's lymphoma, with a female preponderance and generally favorable outcome similar to the cases in our series.
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid is rare and can mimic a primary thyroid epithelial tumor or thyroiditis clinically.
  • Histologic diagnosis may be difficult due to marked fibrosis.
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chronic Disease. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypothyroidism. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Sclerosis / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Thyroiditis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16258502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Roldán-Valadez E, Ortega-López N, Cervera-Ceballos E, Valdivieso-Cárdenas G, Vega-González I, Granados-García M: Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and bilateral kidney infiltration. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2008 Jan-Feb;27(1):34-9
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  • [Title] Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and bilateral kidney infiltration.
  • Nevertheless, a rapid growth of the thyroid over 3-6 months caused dysphagia and shortness of breath.
  • Ultrasound and a thyroid gammagram showed an image consistent with multinodular goiter with a hyperfunctioning nodule in the right lobe.
  • Due to the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a rapid increase in size of the thyroid gland, diagnoses of thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer were considered.
  • Fine needle aspiration was insufficient for diagnosis, and the product of thyroidectomy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was performed in our institution for staging, revealing nodal and extranodal metastasis.
  • Chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dexamethasone (COP modified) led to a dramatic response of the tumor and a complete resolution of compressive symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Hashimoto Disease / radionuclide imaging. Kidney / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals. Remission Induction. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18208780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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4. Goldani LZ, Klock C, Diehl A, Monteiro AC, Maia AL: Histoplasmosis of the thyroid. J Clin Microbiol; 2000 Oct;38(10):3890-1
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  • [Title] Histoplasmosis of the thyroid.
  • Fungal infection of the thyroid is rare.
  • Infection of the thyroid with Histoplasma capsulatum is rarely reported as part of disseminated disease, even in geographic areas where histoplasmosis is endemic.
  • We report a 52-year-old woman with a previous Hashimoto's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which a diffuse enlarged thyroid gland with a large nodule was the only apparent locus of histoplasmosis.
  • Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid was an important diagnostic tool in establishing the diagnosis of histoplasmosis of the thyroid.
  • The patient was initially treated with itraconazole (400 mg/day) for the fungal infection and six cycles of chemotherapy for the lymphoma.
  • At a 6-month follow-up examination, the patient was doing well on suppressive therapy of itraconazole (200 mg/day), with no symptoms and with regression of the thyroid nodule and cervical adenopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Histoplasmosis / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Itraconazole / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Macrophages / microbiology. Macrophages / pathology. Middle Aged. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Apr;30(4):688-95 [10770731.001]
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  • (PMID = 11015430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-1137
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 304NUG5GF4 / Itraconazole
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC87503
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5. Sarinah B, Hisham AN: Primary lymphoma of the thyroid: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Asian J Surg; 2010 Jan;33(1):20-4
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  • [Title] Primary lymphoma of the thyroid: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary thyroid lymphoma is uncommon and accounts for less than 2-5% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • The aim of the present study was to review our experience and management of primary thyroid lymphoma and to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic considerations.
  • METHODS: Eleven women and six men with primary thyroid lymphoma were diagnosed and managed in our department between October 1998 and March 2006.
  • The clinical course and pathological spectrum of this disorder affecting the thyroid gland were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Twelve patients had a prior history of thyroid disease.
  • Five patients were hypothyroid at the time of diagnosis.
  • Six patients had an initial diagnosis of lymphocytic thyroiditis.
  • FNAC results were highly suggestive of thyroid lymphoma in only five patients.
  • A further incisional biopsy was performed in five patients, and a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was confirmed in four patients and inconclusive in one.
  • A final diagnosis of thyroid lymphoma was confirmed in all these patients.
  • Fifteen patients received combination chemotherapy with or without irradiation.
  • All tumours dramatically decreased in size soon after initiation of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma should be considered when dealing with rapidly growing goitres.
  • The role of FNAC in diagnosing thyroid lymphoma is limited but it is still useful in the initial work-up.
  • Nevertheless, surgical intervention is often required to establish the diagnosis and relieve critical airway compression.
  • A combination of chemotherapy and irradiation is the mainstay of management.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Asian Surgical Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20497878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0219-3108
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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6. van Beek RD, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, van den Bos C, van der Pal HJ, Krenning EP, de Rijke YB, Pieters R, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SM: Bone mineral density, growth, and thyroid function in long-term survivors of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with chemotherapy only. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):1904-9
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  • [Title] Bone mineral density, growth, and thyroid function in long-term survivors of pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with chemotherapy only.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term side effects of treatment for childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma with chemotherapy only on growth, bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and thyroid function.
  • PROCEDURE: A total of 88 patients (56 male, 32 female; 17.6-42.6 yr), treated for childhood Hodgkin's lymphoma from 1974-1998 with combination chemotherapy adriamycin (doxorubicin), bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine or epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine with or without mechlorethamine, oncovin (vincristine), procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) with the intention to avoid radiotherapy, participated in this study.
  • All patients, except one, treated with chemotherapy only had normal thyroid function.
  • However, five patients who received additional radiation to the thyroid either had abnormal levels of TSH or free T4, or used thyroid hormones.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lean body mass was normal in all patients; thyroid function was normal in all but one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bone Density. Child Development / physiology. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / physiopathology. Survivors. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Algorithms. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / pharmacology. Body Composition / drug effects. Body Composition / physiology. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Mechlorethamine / administration & dosage. Mechlorethamine / pharmacology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / pharmacology. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / pharmacology. Retrospective Studies. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / pharmacology. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / pharmacology. Young Adult


7. Shimizu J, Ishida Y, Takehara A, Kinoshita T, Tatsuzawa Y, Kawaura Y, Matsumoto I, Imai M: Salvage surgery for primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland with histopathological complete response to radio-chemotherapy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2003;33(1):45-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salvage surgery for primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland with histopathological complete response to radio-chemotherapy: report of a case.
  • An open biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid (NHLT), of a diffuse large cell type.
  • The patient was referred to our department for radio-chemotherapy for stage I E NHLT.
  • She was given radiotherapy in the form of 40 Gy radiation directed at her neck and superior mediastinum, with one course of chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP).
  • After radio-chemotherapy, the tumor was obviously smaller.
  • Because the patient refused further chemotherapy, she underwent salvage surgery, after being sufficiently advised, and with her informed consent.
  • Histological examination of the removed thyroid tissue showed that the radio-chemotherapy had produced a complete response.
  • Thus, we believe that an open biopsy should be performed early to confirm the diagnosis of lymphoma histologically and to determine the degree of malignancy.
  • We also stress the fact that NHLT is presently most effectively treated by radiotherapy combined with several courses of CHOP chemotherapy.
  • The role of surgery in the treatment of NHLT is diminishing.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12560906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
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8. Haciyanli M, Erkan N, Yorukoglu K, Sagol O, Harmancioğlu O: Primary non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland complicating Hashimoto's thyroiditis: case report. Thyroid; 2000 Aug;10(8):717-20
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  • [Title] Primary non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland complicating Hashimoto's thyroiditis: case report.
  • This case report presents an extremely rare case of primary non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland complicating Hashimoto's thyroiditis and discusses the clinical history, findings, treatment, and prognosis.
  • Although the place of surgery in the treatment of thyroid lymphoma is controversial, in this case, surgery followed by three rounds of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, and radiation therapy to neck and mediastinum were a very effective treatment for the disease so that no relapse has been detected during 3-year follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, T-Cell / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications

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  • (PMID = 11014319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. Fujiu K, Sakuma H, Shio Y, Suzuki H, Mori M: [A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for cancer of unknown origin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(11):1907-9

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  • [Title] [A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for cancer of unknown origin].
  • We present a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for a cancer of unknown origin.
  • Computed tomography(CT)scans showed a swelling of the superior mediastinal lymph node and a tumor of the right lobe of thyroid gland.
  • Pathological findings of the lymph node showed adenosquamous cell carcinoma, but no malignant lesion was found in the thyroid gland.
  • Six courses of chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and docetaxel were carried out.
  • Seven months later, CT and positron emission tomography revealed swelling of the mediastinal lymph nodes and a tumor in the left abdominal tumor.
  • An open biopsy of the abdominal tumor demonstrated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mature B cell type, follicular lymphoma, grade 1.
  • Radiotherapy was done for the malignant lymphoma, and radiochemotherapy for the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiography. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19011340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Wirtzfeld DA, Winston JS, Hicks WL Jr, Loree TR: Clinical presentation and treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol; 2001 May;8(4):338-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical presentation and treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the thyroid is a rare malignancy.
  • The traditional approach to curative treatment of localized (stages I and II) NHL of the thyroid gland is surgical resection.
  • The recent success of multimodality chemoradiotherapy suggests that surgery should be reserved for providing a tissue diagnosis or relief from acute airway obstruction.
  • It is questionable whether this has made an impact on treatment approaches.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted for all cases of localized NHL of the thyroid gland treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute between January 1970 and January 1999.
  • All patients were treated with either a total thyroidectomy (eight patients) or a thyroid lobectomy (two patients).
  • Nine (90%) were initially treated outside of Roswell Park Cancer Institute and referred secondarily for consideration of further therapy.
  • Adjuvant therapy consisting of cyclophosphamide-based chemoradiotherapy was administered to nine patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A review of the literature suggests that fine needle aspiration (FNA) with flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry can be used to accurately diagnose NHL of the thyroid gland.
  • Open biopsy should be reserved for cases where this technique is not available or where the diagnosis can not be confirmed by FNA alone.
  • Further review suggests that the most efficacious therapy is systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiation for local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11352307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. van Santen HM, Vulsma T, Dijkgraaf MG, Blumer RM, Heinen R, Jaspers MW, Geenen MM, Offringa MO, de Vijlder JJ, van den Bos C: No damaging effect of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy on the thyroid axis in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Aug;88(8):3657-63
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  • [Title] No damaging effect of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy on the thyroid axis in young adult survivors of childhood cancer.
  • Late effects of treatment for childhood cancer on the thyroid axis are ascribed predominantly to radiotherapy.
  • Whether chemotherapy has an additional detrimental effect is still unclear.
  • The thyroid axis in 205 childhood cancer survivors was evaluated in relation to former use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (cranial, cranio-spinal, cervical, mediastinal, or thoracic).
  • The mean follow-up time was 17.5 yr.
  • Damage to the thyroid axis was found in 55 patients (26.8%).
  • After multivariate analysis, high risk radiation field, irradiation dose, and the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma/Hodgkin's disease were found to be significant risk factors for developing thyroid disease.
  • Treatment with chemotherapy did not have an additional negative effect on the thyroid axis.
  • For the development of central (pituitary or hypothalamic) thyroid dysfunction, patients with a brain tumor were at increased risk.
  • Chemotherapy for childhood cancer does not contribute to the damage on the thyroid axis inflicted by radiotherapy during young adulthood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Infant. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Risk Factors. Survivors. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / etiology. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Hormones / blood


12. Soliman KB, Abbas MM, Seksaka MA, Wafa S, Balah AS: Aggressive primary thyroid non Hodgkin's lymphoma with pregnancy. Saudi Med J; 2007 Apr;28(4):634-6
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  • [Title] Aggressive primary thyroid non Hodgkin's lymphoma with pregnancy.
  • She was diagnosed as an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the thyroid gland.
  • She was treated by 6 cycles of chemotherapy, with dramatic response after receiving the first cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use


13. Colović M, Matić S, Kryeziu E, Tomin D, Colović N, Atkinson HD: Outcomes of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a series of nine consecutive cases. Med Oncol; 2007;24(2):203-8
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  • [Title] Outcomes of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a series of nine consecutive cases.
  • Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the thyroid gland is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.5 per 100,000 population.
  • Stages IE and IIE thyroid NHL have been traditionally treated by surgical resection; however, modern treatment consists of chemotherapy and local radiotherapy, and surgery is often reserved for tissue diagnosis and relief of airway compression.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the management and outcomes of nine consecutive patients with thyroid NHL, eight females and one male (median age 63 yr, range 34-71 yr) treated between 1994 and 1999.
  • Pathohistology and immunohistochemistry identified two patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), three follicular center cell lymphoma (FCC), two patients large B-cell lymphoma (BLCL), one a marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), and one patient a peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).
  • One (MALT) patient underwent surgery alone; three patients surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (two FCC, one PTCL); three patients surgery and chemotherapy (one MALT, one FCC, one LBCL); and two chemotherapy alone (one LBCL, one MZL).
  • The PTCL patient, a 34-yr-old man, died from disseminated disease at 13 mo despite secondary chemotherapy, and one LBCL patient with extensively invasive local disease died from stroke 17 mo after diagnosis.
  • With appropriate therapy primary thyroid NHL has a favorable course; however, prognosis depends on the histology, local spread, and the stage of the disease at presentation, as well as the patient's performance status.
  • Surgery in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is still warranted for intermediate and high-grade thyroid NHLs, with over 77% of patients achieving long-term remission.
  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma carries a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17848745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Belcadhi M, el Omri H, Gnaba K, Mani R, Abdelkefi M, Bouzouita K, Ennabli S, Bouzouita H: [Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid. A case report and review of the literature]. Tunis Med; 2003 Feb;81(2):130-3
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  • [Title] [Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid. A case report and review of the literature].
  • The authors report an observation of a non-Hodgkinien primitive lymphoma of the thyroid, developed on Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • The non-Hodgkinien high-grade lymphoma infiltrated the perithyroidal tissues.
  • The extension' assessment was negative and the lymphoma was classified stage IE.
  • The treatment was supplemented by 6 cures of standard chemotherapy CEOP.
  • Based on this observation and on a literature' review, we will discuss the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of this thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12708180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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15. Miltényi Z, Keresztes K, Lakos G, Váróczy L, Miltényi L, Illés A: Is the treatment of Hodgkin's disease detrimental to the parathyroid gland? Acta Haematol; 2004;112(3):148-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is the treatment of Hodgkin's disease detrimental to the parathyroid gland?
  • The thyroid gland is often injured by supradiaphragmatic irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • The aim of the present study was to examine whether the parathyroid gland gets injured by the treatment for Hodgkin's disease.
  • Calcium, phosphorus and parathormone levels of 143 patients with primary treatment for Hodgkin's disease and in complete remission for 2 years were measured as well as the presence of antiparathyroid antibody in patients having antithyroid antibody.
  • Out of the 143 patients studied, 104 received neck irradiation (with or without chemotherapy); among them laboratory alterations were observed in 7 cases.
  • 39 patients received only chemotherapy; 3 of them had alterations.
  • In contrast to the injury of the thyroid gland, no damage to the parathyroid glands associated with the treatment for Hodgkin's disease was noted.
  • It has been concluded that the use of high-dose external radiotherapy does not mean a higher risk as regards the parathyroid gland but further follow-up studies of the patients may result in the revelation of the development of parathyroid lesions.

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  • (PMID = 15345897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5792
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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16. Kishi Y, Negishi M, Kami M, Hamaki T, Miyakoshi S, Ueyama J, Morinaga S, Mutou Y: Fatal airway obstruction caused by invasive aspergillosis of the thyroid gland. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Mar;43(3):669-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fatal airway obstruction caused by invasive aspergillosis of the thyroid gland.
  • We experienced a patient who developed thyrotoxicosis and fatal airway obstruction caused by invasive aspergillosis of the thyroid.
  • A 26-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • During myelosuppression following the chemotherapy, he developed cervical swelling and hyperthyroidism.
  • We suspected lymphoma infiltration to the thyroid, and irradiated it with a total of 26 Gy.
  • Extensive necrosis with diffuse infiltration of Aspergillus hyphae was observed in the thyroid gland.
  • Necrotic tissues of the thyroid protruded into the tracheal lumen, causing airway obstruction.
  • This case demonstrated that invasive aspergillosis of the thyroid can lead to medical emergency.
  • [MeSH-major] Airway Obstruction / microbiology. Aspergillosis / complications. Thyroid Diseases / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 12002779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Krawczuk-Rybak M, Kuźmicz M, Gościk E, Luczynski W, Muszyńska-Rosłan K, Oleński J, Wysocka J, Kaliszewski J: [Investigations of thyroid function in children and adolescents after treatment of Hodgkin's disease]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2001 Jan-Mar;5(1):43-50
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  • [Title] [Investigations of thyroid function in children and adolescents after treatment of Hodgkin's disease].
  • Radiotherapy focused on the neck, upper mediastinum or cranium can raise the risk of thyroid dysfunction.
  • The influence of radio- and chemotherapy on thyroid morphology and function after treatment of Hodgkin's disease in 31 children and acute lymphoblastic leucaemia in 36 children was evaluated.
  • Thyroid function tests were also normal, except for one case with elevated TSH values (22.76 microIU/ml) and decreased FT4 values (0.65 ng/ml).
  • Three patients (9.7%) with Hodgkin s disease and three (8.5%) with ALL (only one had cranial radiotherapy) had an abnormal image of thyroid in ultrasonography (hypoechogenicity, heterogenous ultrasound scan, solid nodule).
  • The results of our investigations indicate that abnormalities found in the ultrasound scan in children and adolescents with Hodgkin's disease in whom treatment has been terminated, can be a first prodrome of thyroid pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Child. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Thyroid Function Tests. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11276503.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; PVDA protocol
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18. DiBiase SJ, Grigsby PW, Guo C, Lin HS, Wasserman TH: Outcome analysis for stage IE and IIE thyroid lymphoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2004 Apr;27(2):178-84
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  • [Title] Outcome analysis for stage IE and IIE thyroid lymphoma.
  • Previous reports have revealed modest results in the management of thyroid lymphoma with radiotherapy alone.
  • This retrospective report evaluates the outcome of patients treated for thyroid lymphoma with radiotherapy alone and with combined modality therapy (chemotherapy and radiotherapy) at a single institution.
  • Twenty-seven patients with stages IE and IIE non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland were treated between 1960 and 1998 at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, of which 14 patients were stage IE and 13 patients were stage IIE.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 67 years, and there were 21 females and 6 males evaluated.
  • The median follow-up time was 38 months (range: 3-279 months).
  • All patients had histologically proven non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, of which 22 patients (81%) were intermediate grade.
  • Treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 19 patients and a combined modality therapy in 8 patients.
  • The median radiation dose to the thyroid bed was 44 Gy, and most patients received a doxorubicin-containing regimen administered prior to radiotherapy.
  • Patient, tumor, and treatment-related characteristics were evaluated using Cox regression analysis.
  • Primary thyroid gland lymphomas have a favorable outcome with appropriate therapy, but prognosis depends on both clinical stage and age at presentation.
  • Because of the risk of both local-regional and distant failure, combined modality approaches that use chemotherapy with radiotherapy are warranted for intermediate- and high grade thyroid lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15057158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
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19. Mazur-Roszak M, Litwiniuk M, Łacka K: [Lymphoma of the thyroid in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis and Sjögren's syndrome--case report]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2008 Aug;25(146):155-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Lymphoma of the thyroid in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis and Sjögren's syndrome--case report].
  • We present the case of a 74 year old patient suffering from primary Non Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid and Sjogren's syndrome.
  • A massively enlarging goitre, causing breathlessness in a female patient previously treated for autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid (Hashimoto's disease) and Sjogren's syndrome, indicated the need for a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) of the thyroid gland.
  • Non Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid was diagnosed and chemotherapy was begun.
  • After 10 months of cytostatic treatment clinical tests and imaging indicated complete local regression.
  • However, two months after cessation of chemotherapy the patient suffered a relapse of the disease owing to infiltration of the central nervous system.
  • The main purpose for presenting this case was to describe the problem of primary lymphoma of the thyroid in cases of autoimmune disease.
  • In cases of Hashimoto's autoimmune disease of the thyroid, monitoring of the anti-thyroid antibodies is indicated, at least annually, as an increase in the concentration of these antibodies over a period of at least seven years would suggest further development of autoimmune disease.
  • If such conditions are accompanied by tumours of the thyroid, surgery should be considered.
  • It is worth keeping in mind that the thyroid can be a site for extra-lymphatic lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 18942337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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20. Hervás Benito I, Vera Espallardo F, Saura Quiles A, González Cabezas P, Bello Arques P, Rivas Sánchez A, Alonso Monfort J, Pérez Velasco R, Mateo Navarro A: [Thyroid scintigraphy and body scanning with 67 Ga in a case of primary thyroid lymphoma]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2001 Oct;20(6):462-5
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  • [Title] [Thyroid scintigraphy and body scanning with 67 Ga in a case of primary thyroid lymphoma].
  • The fine needle aspiration-puncture (FNAP) lead to a diagnosis of thyroiditis.
  • The pathological diagnosis was diffuse large cell primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL).
  • The PTL is a rare entity that accounts for less than 1% of all the Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • The thyroid scintigraphy showed the existence of a cold nodule in the left thyroid lobule and the 67Ga scan revealed a large abnormal lesion in the mediastinum that extended to the right latero-cervical region.
  • After two chemotherapy courses, the 67Ga scan was normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallium Radioisotopes. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnostic Errors. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Thyroidectomy. Thyroiditis / diagnosis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11578581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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21. Várady E, Deák B, Molnár ZS, Rosta A, Schneider T, Esik O, Eckhardt S: Second malignancies after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Nov-Dec;42(6):1275-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Second malignancies after treatment for Hodgkin's disease.
  • The occurrence of treatment-related second malignancy following Hodgkin's disease (HD) has now been recognized as a major problem.
  • The purpose of this study was to review our experience with second malignancies in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease, comparing the results with the international literature data.
  • Second neoplasm developed in 32 cases (4.8%).
  • Seven secondary hematological malignancies were observed: four acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and one chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • Among patients with second hematological malignancies, the mean age at diagnosis of HD was 44 years and the mean interval until the development of second malignancy was 6.1 years.
  • Five patients received chemo- and radiotherapy and in two cases chemotherapy was used.
  • Twenty-five patients have had solid tumors, affecting lung (5), breast (3), colon (3), stomach (2), urinary bladder (2), head-and-neck (1), thyroid gland (1), esophagus (1), liver (1), pancreas (1), furthermore, three sarcomas and two malignant melanomas were observed.
  • Their mean age at the diagnosis of HD was 46 years and the mean period of latency was 8.3 years.
  • Chemotherapy was applied to nine patients, 16 patients received both chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • Since alkylating agents increase the risk of leukemia and irradiation contributes mainly to other malignancies, future treatment protocols should attempt to reduce the most serious consequence of therapy without compromising the survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11911408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Belal AA, Allam A, Kandil A, El Husseiny G, Khafaga Y, Al Rajhi N, Ahmed G, Gray A, Ajarim D, Schultz H, Ezzat A: Primary thyroid lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors and treatment outcome for localized intermediate and high grade lymphoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2001 Jun;24(3):299-305
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors and treatment outcome for localized intermediate and high grade lymphoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting in the thyroid gland is uncommon.
  • A review of the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH & RC) experience was performed to assess treatment outcome and prognostic factors in this rare extranodal presentation of localized lymphoma.
  • Eight patients who had stage III or IV disease, low grade, or did not complete their prescribed treatment were excluded from the study.
  • There were 38 female and 14 male patients with a median age of 59.5 years at the time of diagnosis (range: 10-87 years).
  • Thirty-five of the 52 patients underwent diagnostic partial or total thyroidectomy at other institutions based on a preoperative assumption of thyroid carcinoma.
  • All 52 patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of intermediate (94%) or high (6%) grade.
  • Detailed staging was carried out in all patients; 16 patients (31%) had disease confined to the thyroid gland (stage IE), whereas 36 (69%) had associated disease in cervical lymph nodes and/or the mediastinum (stage IIE) disease.
  • A total of 18 patients (35%) were treated with a single-modality treatment--radiotherapy alone in 2, chemotherapy alone in 13, and surgery alone in the remaining 3 patients.
  • There were no significant differences in outcome between those treated with single-modality and those with combined-modality therapy.
  • Age, sex, stage, histology, lactic acid dehydrogenase level, tumor bulk, and the treatment modality were not found to correlate with RFS or OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11404505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Sigurdson AJ, Ronckers CM, Mertens AC, Stovall M, Smith SA, Liu Y, Berkow RL, Hammond S, Neglia JP, Meadows AT, Sklar CA, Robison LL, Inskip PD: Primary thyroid cancer after a first tumour in childhood (the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study): a nested case-control study. Lancet; 2005 Jun 11-17;365(9476):2014-23
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  • [Title] Primary thyroid cancer after a first tumour in childhood (the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study): a nested case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Survivors of malignant disease in childhood who have had radiotherapy to the head, neck, or upper thorax have an increased risk of subsequent primary thyroid cancer, but the magnitude of risk over the therapeutic dose range has not been well established.
  • We aimed to quantify the long-term risk of thyroid cancer after radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: In a nested case-control study, 69 cases with pathologically confirmed thyroid cancer and 265 matched controls without thyroid cancer were identified from 14,054 5-year survivors of cancer during childhood from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.
  • FINDINGS: Risk of thyroid cancer increased with radiation doses up to 20-29 Gy (odds ratio 9.8 [95% CI 3.2-34.8]).
  • At doses greater than 30 Gy, a fall in the dose-response relation was seen.
  • Furthermore, the fall in risk remained when those diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma were excluded.
  • Chemotherapy for the first cancer was not associated with thyroid-cancer risk, and it did not modify the effect of radiotherapy.
  • 29 (42%) cases had a first diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma compared with 49 (19%) controls.
  • 11 (42%) of those who had Hodgkin's lymphoma had subsequent thyroid cancers smaller than 1 cm compared with six (17%) of those who had other types of childhood cancer (p=0.07).
  • INTERPRETATION: The reduction in radiation dose-response for risk of thyroid cancer after childhood exposure to thyroid doses higher than 30 Gy is consistent with a cell-killing effect.
  • Standard long-term follow-up of patients who have had Hodgkin's lymphoma for detection of thyroid cancer should also be undertaken for survivors of any cancer during childhood who received radiotherapy to the thorax or head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology


24. Gow KW, Lensing S, Hill DA, Krasin MJ, McCarville MB, Rai SN, Zacher M, Spunt SL, Strickland DK, Hudson MM: Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2003 Nov;38(11):1574-80
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  • [Title] Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Thyroid carcinomas can occur as a primary malignancy (PTM) or secondary after another malignancy (STM).
  • The authors sought to compare the clinical characteristics, course, and outcomes of patients with primary or secondary thyroid malignancies.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of 8 children with PTM and 17 children with STM referred to St Jude Children's Research Hospital between February 1962 and February 2002 for evaluation and treatment of malignant thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The 8 children who had primary thyroid carcinoma had it diagnosed at a median age of 12.5 years (range, 7.3 to 16.3 years).
  • All 8 patients remain alive a median of 22.6 years after diagnosis (range, 0.7 to 30.5 years); 1 continues to receive radioactive iodine (I 131) ablation for persistent disease.
  • Seventeen patients had thyroid carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), Hodgkin's disease (n = 5), central nervous system tumor (n = 2), Wilms' tumor (n = 1), retinoblastoma (n = 1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1), or neuroblastoma (n = 1).
  • Patients with secondary thyroid carcinoma presented at a median age of 21.5 years (range, 15.3 to 42.6 years), a median of 16.2 years (range, 0.9 to 29.2 years) after diagnosis of the primary cancer.
  • Twelve of the 17 patients (70.6%) had received radiation to the thyroid gland during therapy for the primary cancer.
  • At the time of this report, all 17 patients are alive and in continue to be free of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and responds well to current therapy.
  • Given the limited period of follow-up of our cohort of secondary malignant thyroid tumors that arise after childhood cancer, these lesions appear to have similar presentations and outcomes when compared with primary carcinomas and can therefore be managed in the same manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Tennessee / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14614703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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25. Vargas PA, Bernardi FD, Alves VA, Gianotti MA, Almeida OP, Saldiva PH, Mauad T: Uncommon histopathological findings in fatal measles infection: pancreatitis, sialoadenitis and thyroiditis. Histopathology; 2000 Aug;37(2):141-6
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  • Two of the patients were children receiving chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one was an adult with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the fourth was an apparently healthy woman.
  • Measles antigen was detected in lung tissue using a monoclonal anti-measles antibody.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child, Preschool. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatitis / etiology. Pancreatitis / pathology. Sialadenitis / etiology. Sialadenitis / pathology. Submandibular Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroiditis / etiology. Thyroiditis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10931237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
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