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3. Follen M, Atkinson EN, Schottenfeld D, Malpica A, West L, Lippman S, Zou C, Hittelman WN, Lotan R, Hong WK: A randomized clinical trial of 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Nov;7(11):3356-65
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] A randomized clinical trial of 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.
  • PURPOSE: Previous trials of topical trans-retinoic acid treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2 and 3 led to a statistically significant regression of CIN 2, but not CIN 3.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In a blinded randomized trial, 4-HPR at 200 mg/day for 6 months (with a 3-day/month drug holiday) was compared with placebo in patients with biopsy-proven CIN-2/3 [high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSILs)].
  • At the 12-month end point, they underwent either loop excision if a histological lesion was present or a biopsy from the original area of the lesion if no lesion was present.
  • When the code was broken because of the poorer outcomes, we discovered that the 4-HPR treatment arm was performing more poorly than was the placebo at 6 and 12 months (25 versus 44% response rates at 6 months; 14 versus 50% at 12 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: 4-HPR at 200 mg/day with a 3-day/month drug holiday is not active compared with placebo in the treatment of HGSIL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Fenretinide / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cheilitis / chemically induced. Cross-Over Studies. Exanthema / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Medical Futility. Patient Compliance. Photosensitivity Disorders / chemically induced. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11705848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 187EJ7QEXL / Fenretinide
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4. Berkova Z, Kaufmann RH, Unger ER, Reeves WC, Adam E: The effect of time interval between referral and colposcopy on detection of human papillomavirus DNA and on outcome of biopsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2003 Apr;188(4):932-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Colposcopy and Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Beginner's Manual .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of time interval between referral and colposcopy on detection of human papillomavirus DNA and on outcome of biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the effect of the time interval between referral cytology and the outcome of colposcopically directed biopsy in relation to human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction in women referred after abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The study enrolled 453 women who were referred for colposcopic examination after two Pap smears were reported as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 553 women who were referred with a single smear reported as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).
  • RESULTS: The results in both patient groups were evaluated in time intervals of 60 days or more, 61 to 120 days, and more than 120 days between referral and colposcopy.
  • Women of all race/ethnic backgrounds referred with HSIL were seen within 60 days in a significantly larger proportion than women referred with ASCUS/LSIL.
  • Women referred with ASCUS/LSIL had an increasing frequency of negative HPV findings with the prolonged time intervals.
  • In women referred with a single smear of HSIL, there was a significantly decreasing trend over time in detection of low-risk and unidentified types of HPV and an increasing trend of HPV DNA negative results.
  • CONCLUSION: The frequency of high-risk HPV DNA was similar in patients referred with ASCUS/LSIL or HSIL.
  • In both referral groups, there was a time-dependent increase of negative biopsy results and a decreased frequency of low-risk HPV or of unidentified HPV types.
  • This suggests that the initial abnormality on the Pap smear associated with other than high-risk HPV types may regress over time.
  • The presence of high-risk HPV DNA does not predict the actual histologically verifiable tissue changes but indicates a lower probability of negative biopsy results in all time intervals between referral and biopsy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Papanicolaou Test. Time Factors. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 12712088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 200-92-0537
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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5. Kirmizis D, Papagianni A, Dogrammatzi F, Skoura L, Belechri AM, Alexopoulos E, Efstratiadis G, Memmos D: Effects of simvastatin on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial cell apoptosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis. J Atheroscler Thromb; 2010 Dec 26;17(12):1256-65
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  • METHODS: In 25 hyperlipidemic HD patients who received 10 mg of simvastatin for 6 months and another 25 controls, the extended lipid profile and serum hsIL-6, MCP-1, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin, plasma oxLDL, and serum sFas and sFasL levels were determined at baseline, 3 months and 6 months.
  • RESULT: Simvastatin treatment resulted in significant reductions in serum lipid levels at 3 months and beyond, compared to at baseline.
  • CONCLUSION: In conclusion, in hyperlipidemic HD patients, simvastatin treatment resulted in a significant reduction in markers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial cell apoptosis and peripheral blood monocyte stimulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Simvastatin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Biomarkers / blood. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Endothelial Cells / drug effects. Humans. Hypolipidemic Agents / pharmacology. Inflammation / drug therapy. Lipids / blood. Monocytes / drug effects. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 20885069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-3873
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Hypolipidemic Agents; 0 / Lipids; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; AGG2FN16EV / Simvastatin
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6. Kiatpongsan S, Niruthisard S, Mutirangura A, Trivijitsilp P, Vasuratna A, Chaithongwongwatthana S, Lertkhachonsuk R: Role of human papillomavirus DNA testing in management of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):262-5
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  • [Title] Role of human papillomavirus DNA testing in management of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.
  • To find the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the high-risk group human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing as a triage tool to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs, ie, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2 or worse) in women with a cytologic smear showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US).
  • All new cases with cytologic smears showing ASC-US that presented in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from January 2003 to November 2003, excluding known cases of HSILs and pregnancies, were enrolled.
  • Cervical cell samplings were done by cervical cytobrush technique and tested for high-risk group HPV with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test.
  • Of the 90 ASC-US cases enrolled, the pathologic results were normal in 30.0%, squamous metaplasia in 16.7%, CIN 1 in 37.8%, CIN 2 in 1.1%, CIN 3 in 11.1%, and microinvasive cervical carcinoma in 3.3%.
  • The prevalence of HSILs and the prevalence of high-risk HPV detection were 15.6% and 38.9%, respectively.
  • Using pathologic results from cervical biopsy as the gold standard, the HC2 has the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 85.7%, 69.7%, 34.3%, and 96.4%, respectively, to detect HSILs.
  • High-risk group HPV detection can be used as an additional triage test to detect HSILs in women having ASC-US with high sensitivity and negative predictive value.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thailand. Triage

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  • (PMID = 16445642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / DNA, Viral
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7. Solares AM, Santana A, Baladrón I, Valenzuela C, González CA, Díaz A, Castillo D, Ramos T, Gómez R, Alonso DF, Herrera L, Sigman H, Perea SE, Acevedo BE, López-Saura P: Safety and preliminary efficacy data of a novel casein kinase 2 (CK2) peptide inhibitor administered intralesionally at four dose levels in patients with cervical malignancies. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:146
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  • Similarly, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the precursor stage for cervical cancer, represents a growing health problem among younger women as the HSIL management regimes that have been developed are not fully effective.
  • Toxicity was monitored daily until fifteen days after the end of treatment, when patients underwent conization.
  • 75% of the patients experienced a significant lesion reduction at colposcopy and 19% exhibited full histological regression.
  • This is the first clinical trial where a drug has been used to target the CK2 phosphoaceptor domain providing an early proof-of-principle of a possible clinical benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Casein Kinase II / antagonists & inhibitors. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Drug Administration Routes. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Feb 2;92(3):205-16 [10655437.001]
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  • (PMID = 19439079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CIGB-300; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.11.1 / Casein Kinase II
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2689241
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8. Fox PA, Nathan M, Francis N, Singh N, Weir J, Dixon G, Barton SE, Bower M: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod. AIDS; 2010 Sep 24;24(15):2331-5
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  • [Title] A double-blind, randomized controlled trial of the use of imiquimod cream for the treatment of anal canal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-positive MSM on HAART, with long-term follow-up data including the use of open-label imiquimod.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether imiquimod was more effective than placebo for the treatment of high-grade anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-ACIN).
  • METHODS: Sixty-four HIV-positive patients were randomized to self-application of imiquimod cream or matched placebo into the anal canal three times a week for 4 months.
  • Response was assessed by cytology, high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy 2 months after therapy.
  • All patients who failed to resolve were offered treatment with open-label imiquimod for a further 4 months.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three patients completed the study, of which 28 patients were on active drug and 25 patients on placebo.
  • In the imiquimod group, four patients resolved and eight patients downgraded to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) with a median follow-up of 33 months.
  • Imiquimod was significantly associated with a positive outcome (P = 0.003).
  • Twenty-one patients entered a second open-label phase of treatment.
  • Five of these patients cleared their anal canal intraepithelial neoplasia (ACIN) and four patients downgraded to LSIL.
  • During this extended follow-up period, 61% have exhibited sustained absence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of imiquimod for the treatment of ACIN, and the benefit of prolonged or repeated treatments.
  • This form of therapy is likely to be especially valuable for patients with widespread multifocal ACIN who are otherwise difficult to treat, and should be considered as an adjunct to ablative therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV-1 / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Double-Blind Method. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Male


9. Trimble C, Lin CT, Hung CF, Pai S, Juang J, He L, Gillison M, Pardoll D, Wu L, Wu TC: Comparison of the CD8+ T cell responses and antitumor effects generated by DNA vaccine administered through gene gun, biojector, and syringe. Vaccine; 2003 Sep 8;21(25-26):4036-42
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  • We have previously linked Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 in the context of a DNA vaccine.
  • The success of our strategy has led to two phases I/II clinical trial proposals in patients with HPV-16 associated high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) of the cervix and in patients with advanced HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibody Specificity. Biolistics. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Female. Flow Cytometry. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / immunology. Injections, Intramuscular. Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Papilloma / drug therapy. Papilloma / pathology. Papilloma / prevention & control. Papillomaviridae / immunology. Plasmids / genetics. Vaccines, DNA / administration & dosage. Vaccines, DNA / immunology

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  • (PMID = 12922140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vaccine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vaccine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Vaccines, DNA; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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10. Oprica M, Van Dam AM, Lundkvist J, Iverfeldt K, Winblad B, Bartfai T, Schultzberg M: Effects of chronic overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in a model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia in mouse. Acta Neuropathol; 2004 Jul;108(1):69-80

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  • The effects of chronic overexpression of human soluble IL-1ra (hsIL-1ra) were studied in a mouse model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia.
  • A transgenic mouse strain (Tg hsIL-1ra+/-) has been developed using the promoter for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to limit the overexpression to the CNS.
  • Analysis of the neurological scores, infarct volume and edema formation revealed no differences between Tg hsIL-1ra+/- and wild-type (WT) mice.
  • The cerebral ischemia resulted in pronounced astrocyte proliferation and microglial activation, as well as induction of inflammatory markers in both Tg hsIL-1ra+/- and WT mice, with no major differences between the two genotypes.
  • Interestingly, hsIL-1ra expression in astrocytes was reduced in infarcted areas as compared to non-ischemic regions and sham-operated controls.
  • In conclusion, transgenic overexpression of hsIL1-ra was not neuroprotective in this cerebral ischemia model, possibly due to insufficient levels for protection against the extensive lesion, or an up-regulation of compensatory inflammatory signals due to the lifetime blockade of IL-1 receptors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain Edema / etiology. Brain Edema / genetics. Brain Edema / metabolism. Brain Edema / pathology. Brain Infarction / etiology. Brain Infarction / genetics. Brain Infarction / metabolism. Brain Infarction / pathology. Caspase 1 / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Fluorescent Antibody Technique / methods. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / complications. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / drug therapy. Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / genetics. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein. Interleukin-1 / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Transgenic. Neurologic Examination. Regional Blood Flow / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15138779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6322
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neuropathologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / IL1RN protein, human; 0 / Il1rn protein, mouse; 0 / Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Sialoglycoproteins; EC 3.4.22.36 / Caspase 1
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11. Ayas S, Karateke A, Aköz I, Kir G, Yenidede I: Primary serous carcinoma of the fallopian tube with synchronous cervical epidermoid carcinoma in situ: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):501-2
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  • In this report we present a rare case of primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube with synchronous cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
  • A 39-year-old women was admitted to our hospital for routine gynecological examination and underwent surgery because of the finding of HSIL on a routine papanicolaou smear.
  • The histological diagnosis on cervical biopsy and conization material were of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III (CIN III).
  • Postoperatively the patient received six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel) and is still under routine control.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


12. Dursun P, Gultekin M, Bozdag G, Usubutun A, Uner A, Celik NY, Yuce K, Ayhan A: Primary cervical lymphoma: report of two cases and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Sep;98(3):484-9
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  • In this article, two cases of cervical lymphoma are presented with a review of the available literature.
  • Pap smear was reported as HSIL at another institution.
  • Radiological evaluation revealed a cervical mass with a 3 cm diameter.
  • We performed abdominal hysterectomy plus bilateral salphingo-oopherectomy and the patient was treated with adjuvant 6 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy.
  • Routine cytological smear revealed HSIL.
  • Due to discordance between cytology and histology, LEEP was performed under colposcopic examination, which revealed follicular lymphoma grade III.
  • This patient was treated with 6 cycles CHOP chemotherapy without any surgery.


13. Buxant F, Bucella D, Anaf V, Simon P, Noël JC: Glucocorticoid receptor expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(3):259-62
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.

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  • [Title] Glucocorticoid receptor expression in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • OBJECTIVES: Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used in cancer treatment to cause programmed cell death in transformed cells of the hematopoietic system and to lessen side-effects as nausea, vomiting, edema formation and allergies to specific chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Moreover, recently GCs were described as inhibitors of some chemotherapy or radiation-induced apoptosis.
  • METHODS: To clarify the issue, we tested by immunohistochemistry the expression status of GR in normal cervix epithelium (n = 30), in low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL) (n = 30), in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL) (n = 30) and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma (ISCC) (n = 30).
  • All the patients with these lesions have a corresponding liquid-based cytology and were proved to be HPV-positive by using hybrid capture 2 methodology with probes against high-risk oncogenic HPvs. The evaluation of GR expression was performed by using the H-score system and an H-score > 50 was considered positive.
  • RESULT: GR expression was observed in normal epithelium, LSIL, HSIL and ISCC.
  • CONCLUSION: Because GCs could play a positive role in the progression of cancer, our demonstration of GR persistence in cervix cancer cells raises concern about the widespread combined use of GCs with antineoplastic drugs or agents in the clinical management of cervix cancer in women.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19697616.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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14. Caprara L, Monari F, De Bianchi PS, Amadori A, Bondi A: [ASCUS in screening]. Pathologica; 2001 Dec;93(6):645-50
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  • The significance and use of the cytological diagnosis "atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance" (ASCUS) remain a major problem in cervical cancer screening.
  • The prevalence of diagnoses of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LG-SIL) decreased progressively with age while that of high-grade SIL was slightly higher between 30 and 39 years.
  • The observed peak reflects the prevalence of (1) cytological changes closely associated with perimenopausal age and at least compatible with the ASCUS diagnosis, and (2) cytological abnormalities induced by hormone replacement therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / ultrastructure. Estrogens / pharmacology. False Positive Reactions. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Italy. Menopause. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Stem Cells / ultrastructure. Progesterone / pharmacology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


15. Zanoschi Ch, Anton C, Anton E, Costăchescu G, Teleman S, Costăchescu G, Ciupilan I, Cărăuleanu M, Cărăuleanu A, Leica V, Pânzaru C, Grigore M, Merticaru I, Huianu O, Huianu L, Chifan M: [Cervugid ovules in cervico-vaginal infections and cervix uteri precancerous conditions treatment]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2004 Jul-Sep;108(3):628-34
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  • [Title] [Cervugid ovules in cervico-vaginal infections and cervix uteri precancerous conditions treatment].
  • This medicine was authorized by the National Drug Agency (ANM, Bucureşti) in 2001.
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Healing of the subjective symptoms in 98%, healing of the leukorrhea--as a main objective symptom--in 95%; The Bethesda system cytotest was one of the inflammatory type in the most of the cases and there wew found in 85 cases: 6 ASCUS, 41 LSIL, and 37 HSIL.
  • Cervugid may be considered as an important agent in the treatment of the precancerous affections af the cervix uteri on the following reasons: zhe cure of the infections caused by chlamydia, involved in the etiology of cervical neoplasms, the cure of the HPV infection under episome form, classified in the Bethesda system within the ASCUS, AGUS or LSIL classes.
  • When the cytotest was in the HSIL class, a conization in the LLETZ method was performed.
  • In addition, it is active on chlamydia and mycoplasms, always sensitive to chloramphenicol therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Chloramphenicol / therapeutic use. Hydrocortisone / analogs & derivatives. Metronidazole / therapeutic use. Nystatin / therapeutic use. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / drug therapy. Uterine Cervicitis / drug therapy. Vaginitis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravaginal. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 15832988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Antiprotozoal Agents; 0 / Cervugid; 0 / Drug Combinations; 1400-61-9 / Nystatin; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 3X7931PO74 / hydrocortisone acetate; 66974FR9Q1 / Chloramphenicol; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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16. Goldstone SE, Palefsky JM, Winnett MT, Neefe JR: Activity of HspE7, a novel immunotherapy, in patients with anogenital warts. Dis Colon Rectum; 2002 Apr;45(4):502-7
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  • PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus causes anogenital squamous intraepithelial lesions, warts, and cancer.
  • Treatment of squamous intraepithelial lesions to prevent cancer often requires extensive surgery.
  • Improvement in pathologic diagnosis of patients with persistent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions was studied in an open-label trial (HspE7 500 microg monthly x3).
  • The reduction in size in most patients greatly diminished the procedure necessary for complete ablation.
  • This activity crosses multiple human papillomavirus types.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Diseases / therapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Bacterial Proteins. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chaperonins / pharmacology. Chaperonins / therapeutic use. Condylomata Acuminata / therapy. Immunotherapy. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / pharmacology. Oncogene Proteins, Viral / therapeutic use. Papillomaviridae / drug effects. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12006932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Chaperonin 60; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / heat-shock protein 65, Mycobacterium; 0 / oncogene protein E7, Human papillomavirus type 16; EC 3.6.1.- / Chaperonins
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17. Moodley JR, Constant D, Hoffman M, Salimo A, Allan B, Rybicki E, Hitzeroth I, Williamson AL: Human papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix in women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cross-sectional study. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:275
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix in women initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV viral load and HPV genotypes in HIV positive women initiating anti-retroviral (ARV) therapy.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at an anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment clinic in Cape Town, SA in 2007.
  • HPV types were determined using the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping test.
  • Among women with abnormal smears the most prevalent HR-HPV types were HPV types 16, 58 and 51, all with a prevalence of 28.5%.
  • On univariate analysis HR-HPV, multiple HPV types and HPV viral load were significantly associated with the presence of low and high-grade SILs (LSIL/HSIL).
  • The multivariate logistic regression showed that HPV viral load was associated with an increased odds of LSIL/HSIL, odds ratio of 10.7 (95% CI 2.0 - 57.7) for those that were HC2 positive and had a viral load of <or= 181.1 RLU (the median HPV viral load), and 33.8 (95% CI 6.4 - 178.9) for those that were HC2 positive with a HPV viral load > 181.1 RLU.
  • CONCLUSION: Women initiating ARVs have a high prevalence of abnormal Pap smears and HR-HPV.
  • Our results underscore the need for locally relevant, rigorous screening protocols for the increasing numbers of women accessing ARV therapy so that the benefits of ARVs are not partially offset by an excess risk in cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Cervix Uteri / pathology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. South Africa / epidemiology. Young Adult


18. Schwock J, Dhani N, Cao MP, Zheng J, Clarkson R, Radulovich N, Navab R, Horn LC, Hedley DW: Targeting focal adhesion kinase with dominant-negative FRNK or Hsp90 inhibitor 17-DMAG suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of SiHa cervical xenografts. Cancer Res; 2009 Jun 1;69(11):4750-9
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  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase and key modulator of integrin signaling, is widely expressed in different tissues and cell types.
  • Recent evidence indicates a central function of FAK in neoplasia where the kinase contributes to cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and anoikis, invasiveness, and metastasis.
  • FAK is expressed in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and metastatic cervical carcinomas but not in nonneoplastic cervical mucosa.
  • Short-term 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin treatment prolongs survival in a SiHa lung metastasis model and chronic administration suppresses tumor growth as well as metastatic spread in orthotopic xenografts.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzoquinones / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Lactams, Macrocyclic / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Progression. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Female. Gene Targeting. Genes, Dominant / physiology. Humans. Mice. Mice, SCID. Neoplasm Metastasis. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 19458065.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Lactams, Macrocyclic; 001L2FE0M3 / 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin; EC 2.7.1.- / FAK-related nonkinase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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19. Nahas SC, Nahas CS, Silva Filho EV, Levi JE, Atui FC, Marques CF: Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report. Sao Paulo Med J; 2007 Sep 6;125(5):292-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal squamous cell carcinoma with high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in an HIV-positive patient using highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.
  • CONTEXT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic condition, and this has led to increased incidence of anal dysplasia among HIV-positive patients.
  • Routine anal evaluation including the anal canal and perianal area is recommended for this population, especially for patients infected by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types.
  • CASE REPORT: A 54-year-old homosexual HIV-positive man presented with a six-year history of recurrent perianal and anal warts.
  • He presented some condylomatous spreading lesions occupying part of the anal canal and the perianal skin, and also a well-demarcated slightly painful perianal plaque of dimensions 1.0 x 1.0 cm.
  • Both anal canal Pap smears and biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • Biopsies of the border of the perianal plaque also revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
  • HPV DNA testing of the anus detected the presence of HPV-16 type.
  • The patient underwent local full-thickness excision of the lesion.
  • Histological analysis on the excised tissue revealed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with one focus of microinvasive squamous cell cancer measuring 1 mm.
  • The patient showed pathological evidence of recurrent anal and perianal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions at the sixth-month follow-up and required further ablation of those lesions.
  • However no invasive squamous cell carcinoma recurrence has been detected so far.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology


20. Fadare O, Parkash V, Carcangiu ML, Hui P: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: clinicopathological features with an emphasis on uterine cervical involvement. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):75-82
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  • All five tumors were invasive, nodular lesions consisting of epithelioid intermediate trophoblastic cells that were mononuclear with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, along with zones of hyaline material and necrotic debris.
  • In three cases of cervical involvement, the neoplastic cells focally replaced endocervical surface and glandular epithelium, simulating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • All patients received total hysterectomy and various regimes of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In summary, with its unusual ability to simulate an invasive squamous cell carcinoma and other epithelioid neoplasms, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor frequently poses a diagnostic challenge, especially when involving the uterine cervix.
  • High index of suspicion and an awareness of elevation of serum chorionic gonadotropin are crucial in reaching a correct diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 16258513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen
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21. Fox P: Anal cancer screening in men who have sex with men. Curr Opin HIV AIDS; 2009 Jan;4(1):64-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To determine whether current evidence and expert opinion support the routine use of anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy in men who have sex with men.
  • Two recent cohort studies have provided data that suggest that the precursor lesion (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) might not be more prevalent in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy than in historical pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy cohorts or in HIV-negative men who have sex with men.
  • If substantiated by further studies, this would make it easier to focus intervention with high-resolution anoscopy on a smaller group of patients.
  • This would be helpful because high-resolution anoscopy remains a resource that is both costly and difficult to access in most countries.
  • The sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology is poor and adjuncts to cytology such as p16(ink4a) staining and human papillomavirus viral loads might be utilized to further reduce the number of patients requiring high-resolution anoscopy.
  • Despite the burden of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in HIV negative men who have sex with men, anal cancer remains uncommon in this group.
  • SUMMARY: Although routine anal cytology is not advisable for men who have sex with men at present, be they HIV positive or negative, clinicians should be regularly performing digital rectal examination in those at high risk of anal cancer, both to facilitate early detection of anal cancer and in the interests of health promotion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Clinical Trials as Topic. Early Detection of Cancer. Epidemiologic Studies. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / etiology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Proctoscopy. Sensitivity and Specificity. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 19343830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-6318
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in HIV and AIDS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin HIV AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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23. Piketty C, Darragh TM, Heard I, Da Costa M, Bruneval P, Kazatchkine MD, Palefsky JM: High prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive men despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sex Transm Dis; 2004 Feb;31(2):96-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive men despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the natural history of HPV infection and anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) is poorly documented.
  • GOAL The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of anal HPV infection and SIL inpatients under HAART.
  • Anal cytology was abnormal in 32 of 45 (71%) patients, including high-grade SIL in 10 patients (22%), low-grade SIL in 19 patients (42%), and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in 3 patients (7%).
  • The prevalence of anal SIL and HPV infection were similar in patients exhibiting a significant increase in CD4+ cell count after HAART initiation compared with those who did not.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate a high prevalence of anal SIL, including high-grade SIL, and anal HPV infection in HIV-infected MSM despite immune restoration under HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Anus Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Tumor Virus Infections / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 14743072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] Sexually transmitted diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sex Transm Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5 M01/101-RR-00079
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral
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24. Formelli F: Correspondence re: M. Follen et al., a randomized clinical trial of 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix. Clin Cancer Res; 2002 May;8(5):1310-2; author reply 1313
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  • [Title] Correspondence re: M. Follen et al., a randomized clinical trial of 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Fenretinide / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12006553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 187EJ7QEXL / Fenretinide
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