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1. Gilleard O, Goodman A, Cooper M, Davies M, Dunn J: The significance of the Van Nuys prognostic index in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The significance of the Van Nuys prognostic index in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Debate regarding the benefit of radiotherapy after local excision of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) continues.
  • The Van Nuys Prognostic Index (VNPI) is thought to be a useful aid in deciding which patients are at increased risk of local recurrence and who may benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy (RT).
  • Recently published interim data from the Sloane project has showed that the VNPI score did significantly affect the chances of getting planned radiotherapy in the UK, suggesting that British clinicians may already be using this scoring system to assist in decision making.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all patients (n = 215) who underwent breast conserving surgery for DCIS at a single institution between 1997-2006.
  • No patients included in the study received additional radiotherapy or hormonal treatment.
  • Ninety five tumours were high grade (44%) and 84 tumours exhibited comedo necrosis (39%).
  • The VNPI score and the presence of comedo necrosis were the only statistically significant prognostic indicators (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: This follow-up study of 215 patients with DCIS treated with local excision and observation alone is one of the largest series in which rates of recurrence are unaffected by radiation therapy, hormone manipulation or chemotherapy.
  • It has afforded us the opportunity to assess the prognostic impact of patient and tumour characteristics free of any potentially confounding treatment related influences.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 18564426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2459183
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2. Sauter ER, Ehya H, Mammen A, Klein G: Nipple aspirate cytology and pathologic parameters predict residual cancer and nodal involvement after excisional breast biopsy. Br J Cancer; 2001 Dec 14;85(12):1952-7
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  • [Title] Nipple aspirate cytology and pathologic parameters predict residual cancer and nodal involvement after excisional breast biopsy.
  • We previously demonstrated that abnormal nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) cytology predicted residual breast cancer (RC) and tumour size after excisional biopsy (EB), although normal NAF cytology did not exclude RC.
  • LN metastases provide prognostic information allowing medical and radiation oncologists to determine the need for adjuvant therapy.
  • We hypothesized that pathologic factors known after EB, combined with NAF cytology, would predict with a high degree of accuracy the presence of RC and LN spread.
  • NAF cytology and pathologic parameters: tumour distance from biopsy margins, multifocal and multicentric disease, sub-type of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive cancer (IC), grade of DCIS or IC, tumour and specimen size, tumour and biopsy cavity location, presence or absence of extensive DCIS, and biopsy scar distance from the nipple were evaluated bivariately and then by logistic regression (LR) for their association with RC and involved LN (> or = 1 (+) LN, useful to determine chemotherapy need, and > or = 4 (+) LN, useful to determine radiation need to the chest and axilla).
  • We propose an algorithm which, if confirmed in a larger study, may allow clinicians to be more selective in their recommendations of re-excision breast biopsy or mastectomy.

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  • (PMID = 11747339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 87391
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364009
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3. Gupta S, Joshi K, Wig JD, Arora SK: High frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in advanced breast tumors associated with aggressiveness of the tumor. Indian J Cancer; 2009 Oct-Dec;46(4):303-10
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  • [Title] High frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in advanced breast tumors associated with aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: The product of Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1), a nuclear transcription factor, regulates the expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) systems, both of which are implicated in breast tumorigenesis and are known to facilitate angiogenesis.
  • In the present study, WT1 allelic integrity was examined by Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) studies in infiltrating breast carcinoma (n=60), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=10) and benign breast disease (n=5) patients, to determine its possible association with tumor progression.
  • TGF-beta1, IGF-II, IGF-1R and angiogenesis (VEGF and Intratumoral micro-vessel density) in breast carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Six of 22 (27.2%) genetically heterozygous of infiltrating breast carcinoma and 1 of 4 DCIS cases showed loss of one allele at WT1 locus.
  • Histologically, the tumors with LOH at WT1 were Intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and were of grade II and III.
  • There was no correlation in the appearance of LOH at WT1 locus with age, tumor stage, menopausal status, chemotherapy status and lymph node metastasis.
  • The expression of factor IGF-II and its receptor, IGF-1R was significantly higher in carcinoma having LOH at WT1 locus.
  • A positive correlation was observed between the TGF-beta1, VEGF expression and IMD scores in infiltrating carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicates that the high frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in high-graded breast tumors is associated with aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Genes, Wilms Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / biosynthesis. Loss of Heterozygosity. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / biosynthesis. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19749460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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4. Garwood ER, Kumar AS, Baehner FL, Moore DH, Au A, Hylton N, Flowers CI, Garber J, Lesnikoski BA, Hwang ES, Olopade O, Port ER, Campbell M, Esserman LJ: Fluvastatin reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis in women with high grade breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jan;119(1):137-44
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  • [Title] Fluvastatin reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis in women with high grade breast cancer.
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the biologic impact of short-term lipophilic statin exposure on in situ and invasive breast cancer through paired tissue, blood and imaging-based biomarkers.
  • A perioperative window trial of fluvastatin was conducted in women with a diagnosis of DCIS or stage 1 breast cancer.
  • Patients were randomized to high dose (80 mg/day) or low dose (20 mg/day) fluvastatin for 3-6 weeks before surgery.
  • Tissue (diagnostic core biopsy/final surgical specimen), blood, and magnetic resonance images were obtained before/after treatment.
  • Planned subgroup analyses compared disease grade, statin dose, and estrogen receptor status.
  • Proliferation of high grade tumors decreased by a median of 7.2% (P = 0.008), which was statistically greater than the 0.3% decrease for low grade tumors.
  • More high grade tumors had an increase in apoptosis (60 vs. 13%; P = 0.015).
  • Fluvastatin showed measurable biologic changes by reducing tumor proliferation and increasing apoptotic activity in high-grade, stage 0/1 breast cancer.
  • Effects were only evident in high grade tumors.
  • These results support further evaluation of statins as chemoprevention for ER-negative high grade breast cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. C-Reactive Protein / biosynthesis. Caspase 3 / biosynthesis. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19728082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA125183; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA125183-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116182
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 4L066368AS / fluvastatin; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS594101; NLM/ PMC4087110
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5. Zunzunegui RG, Chung MA, Oruwari J, Golding D, Marchant DJ, Cady B: Casting-type calcifications with invasion and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ: a more aggressive disease? Arch Surg; 2003 May;138(5):537-40
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  • [Title] Casting-type calcifications with invasion and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ: a more aggressive disease?
  • HYPOTHESIS: Women with breast cancer who have casting-type microcalcifications associated with multifocal invasion and extensive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) form a subset of patients with a poor prognosis.
  • DESIGN: Women with casting-type microcalcifications, multifocal invasion, and extensive DCIS were identified from our tumor board registry.
  • Mammographic features, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival rates were evaluated.
  • SETTING: University medical teaching hospital and breast cancer specialty clinic.
  • RESULTS: Of the 984 patients with breast cancer treated at our center, 15 patients were identified who had extensive casting-type calcifications and DCIS.
  • Twelve of these patients also had multifocal invasive breast cancer.
  • All had casting-type microcalcifications occupying more than 1 breast quadrant.
  • All but 1 patient had extensive grade 3 DCIS.
  • Positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 33% of patients, and 75% received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Of the 3 patients who had DCIS without invasion, 1 experienced a recurrence with infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In women with small multifocal breast cancers with extensive casting calcifications and DCIS, the incidence of positive lymph nodes was 33%, with a tendency for poor tumor markers.
  • These women appear to be at substantial risk for systemic disease; lymph node sampling and adjuvant systemic therapy are recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiography. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12742959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Pendas S, Dauway E, Giuliano R, Ku N, Cox CE, Reintgen DS: Sentinel node biopsy in ductal carcinoma in situ patients. Ann Surg Oncol; 2000 Jan-Feb;7(1):15-20
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  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy in ductal carcinoma in situ patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is an effective and accurate method of evaluating the regional lymph nodes in breast cancer patients.
  • METHODS: At Moffitt Cancer Center, 87 patients with newly diagnosed pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were evaluated by using CK IHC staining of the SLN.
  • Patients with any focus of microinvasive disease, detected on diagnostic breast biopsy by routine H&E, were excluded from this study.
  • DCIS patients, with biopsy-proven in situ tumor by routine H&E stains, underwent intraoperative lymphatic mapping, using a combination of vital blue dye and technetium-labeled sulfur colloid.
  • RESULTS: CK IHC staining was performed on 177 SLNs in 87 DCIS breast cancer patients.
  • Five of the 87 DCIS patients (6%) had positive SLNs.
  • Therefore, routine H&E staining missed microinvasive disease in three of five DCIS patients with positive SLNs.
  • In addition, DCIS patients with occult micrometastatic disease to the SLN underwent a complete axillary lymph node dissection, and the SLNs were the only nodes found to have metastatic disease.
  • Of interest, four of the five node-positive patients had comedo carcinoma associated with the DCIS lesion, and one patient had a large 9.5-cm low grade cribriform and micropapillary type of DCIS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that lymphatic mapping in breast cancer patients with DCIS lesions is a technically feasible and a highly accurate method of staging patients with undetected micrometastatic disease to the regional lymphatic basin.
  • This procedure can be performed with minimal morbidity, because only one or two SLNs, which are at highest risk for containing metastatic disease, are removed.
  • Because most patients with DCIS lesions detected by routine H&E stains do not have regional lymph node metastases, these patients can safely avoid the complications associated with a complete axillary lymph node dissection and systemic chemotherapy.
  • However, DCIS patients with occult micrometastases of the regional lymphatic basin can be staged with higher accuracy and treated in a more selective fashion.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2001 Sep;8(8):617-9 [11569773.001]
  • (PMID = 10674443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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7. Miura H, Taira O, Hiraguri S, Maeda J, Kato H: Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the breast with undifferentiated features: report of a case. Surg Today; 2002;32(10):891-5
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  • [Title] Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the breast with undifferentiated features: report of a case.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of cancer, the origin of which is still uncertain.
  • We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the breast with a recurrent tumor that showed undifferentiated features.
  • The patient was a 55-year-old woman who originally presented with a left breast mass in the upper outer quadrant.
  • Echography showed a 46 x 29 x 23-mm mass with cavity formation, and aspiration cytology confirmed a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Pathologically, the tumor was composed of squamous cell carcinoma and noninvasive ductal carcinoma.
  • Despite intensive therapy including chemotherapy (CEF: cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil) and irradiation (50 Gy), the patient died from pulmonary and skin metastases 20 months after her initial operation.
  • The squamous cell carcinoma of the breast in this patient grew rapidly and her prognosis was poor.
  • Immunohistochemical findings indicated the possibility that the squamous cell carcinoma developed from noninvasive ductal carcinoma of the comedo type, and that the undifferentiated cells from the site of recurrence developed from dedifferentiation of the squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12376787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Gandhi A, Holland PA, Knox WF, Potten CS, Bundred NJ: Effects of a pure antiestrogen on apoptosis and proliferation within human breast ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer Res; 2000 Aug 1;60(15):4284-8
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  • [Title] Effects of a pure antiestrogen on apoptosis and proliferation within human breast ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • Adjuvant antiestrogen (AE) therapy has been proposed for all women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).
  • However, many cases of DCIS are of the high-grade, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtype that are unlikely to respond to AE treatment.
  • Hormonal agents work by increasing apoptosis and/or decreasing cell proliferation; therefore, we studied the effect of a pure AE on levels of apoptosis and proliferation in human DCIS xenografts using an in vivo model.
  • Women (n = 23) with mammographic microcalcification suggestive of DCIS were identified at the time of surgery (day 0), a sample of representative tissue was obtained, divided into multiple 2x2x1-mm xenografts, and implanted s.c. into female BALB/c nu/nu mice (eight xenografts/mouse).
  • Fourteen days after implantation, four xenografts were retrieved and mice were randomly divided into one of three treatment groups: (a) insertion of a slow release 2-mg 17beta-estradiol pellet;.
  • After 2 weeks of treatment, the remaining four xenografts were retrieved from each mouse.
  • Retrieved xenografts containing DCIS were assessed for morphological evidence of apoptotic cell death [apoptotic index (AI)] and cell proliferation (by immunohistochemical detection of the Ki67 proliferation antigen LI).
  • Both AI and LI were higher in the day 0 specimens of 16 ER- DCIS lesions compared with 7 ER+ DCIS lesions (mean values, 1.47% versus 0.32% and 20.6% versus 3.1%; both P<0.0001).
  • AI and LI values within ER- DCIS did not differ between xenografts exposed to 17beta-estradiol or AE treatment compared with the controls or pretreatment values (mean AI and LI in estradiol-treated, antiestrogen-treated, and control groups 1.04% versus 0.98% versus 1.29% and 17.2% versus 20.5% versus 17.7% respectively).
  • In contrast, treatment of mice bearing ER+ DCIS xenografts with 17beta-estradiol raised both the AI (1.03% versus 0.40%, P = 0.03) and LI (11.0% versus 5.1%, P = 0.007) compared with controls.
  • AE therapy of ER+ DCIS xenografts did not affect proliferation but resulted in higher apoptosis than in controls (0.9% versus 0.4% respectively, P = 0.04).
  • AE therapy should be reserved for patients with estrogen receptor positive DCIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. Female. Humans. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Transplantation. Receptors, Estrogen / physiology. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 10945643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 22X328QOC4 / fulvestrant; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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9. Weight SC, Windle R, Stotter AT: Optimizing surveillance mammography following breast conservation surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2002 Feb;28(1):11-3
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  • [Title] Optimizing surveillance mammography following breast conservation surgery.
  • AIMS: Prompt detection and treatment of local recurrence (LR) following breast conservation surgery (BCT) may improve subsequent survival.
  • Following early reports demonstrating increased LR in the first years after surgery, a practice of surveillance mammography starting 1 year from diagnosis has become established.
  • Increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy with adriamycin-containing regimens has resulted in radiotherapy being postponed, so that the first mammogram coincides with the acute radiotherapy reaction, resulting in patient discomfort and poor quality films.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 1151 consecutive patients treated with BCT for in situ, stage I or II disease over a 10-year period.
  • All patients had clear resection margins and, where indicated, underwent axillary surgery and adjuvant treatment.
  • This consisted of radiotherapy (40 Gy with a 5 Gy boost), chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen.
  • This included all cases of high-grade DCIS (>30 mm in size) and all but one tumour with a Nottingham Prognostic index (NPI) of >6.0 which recurred locally.
  • CONCLUSION: Even including those patients generally accepted to be at high risk of LR, the cumulative risk of LR was only 0.3% at 12 months from surgery.
  • We now therefore schedule routine biennial mammography from time of surgery except for those with high risk of early local recurrence such as extensive, high-grade in situ disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiography. Mammography. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Harcourt Publishers Limited.
  • (PMID = 11869006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Allweis TM, Badriyyah M, Bar Ad V, Cohen T, Freund HR: Current controversies in sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer. Breast; 2003 Jun;12(3):163-71
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  • [Title] Current controversies in sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer.
  • Despite the widespread use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNBx) in the surgical management of breast cancer patients, several areas remain controversial.
  • Blue dye and radioactive tracer combined to provide a higher identification rate than either used alone.SLNBx in DCIS.
  • In patients with a high risk of microinvasion, such as large tumors, a mass or high-grade DCIS-SLNBx is justified.SLNBx following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Although there is evidence that SLNBx after neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be accurate, these data should be applied cautiously.
  • Since the significance of such metastases is unclear, decisions regarding treatment of these patients should be individualized.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 14659322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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11. Groves AM, Warren RM, Godward S, Rajan PS: Characterization of pure high-grade DCIS on magnetic resonance imaging using the evolving breast MR lexicon terminology: can it be differentiated from pure invasive disease? Magn Reson Imaging; 2005 Jul;23(6):733-8
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  • [Title] Characterization of pure high-grade DCIS on magnetic resonance imaging using the evolving breast MR lexicon terminology: can it be differentiated from pure invasive disease?
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now a recognized method of imaging the breast.
  • Unfortunately, there is lack of standardization in the MRI terminology used to characterize the appearance of breast lesions.
  • We retrospectively identified cases of pure high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using the recently introduced breast MRI lexicon and characterized the lesions in order to try and identify features that might distinguish high-grade DCIS from invasive disease.
  • Five-year review of our institution's database revealed 637 patients underwent gadolinium-enhanced breast MRI examination.
  • Twenty patients had histologically proven pure high-grade DCIS.
  • After excluding patients with previous chemotherapy or inadequate MRI examination, 13 patients were analyzed and compared to the 13 most recent cases of pure invasive breast carcinoma.
  • High-grade DCIS cases were significantly more likely to show focal branching pattern (P=.03) and to have an irregular contour (P=.03), compared with invasive disease.
  • Although of marginal statistical significance, DCIS lesions are more likely to have a lower morphological score than invasive carcinoma (P=.06), whilst the latter is more likely to show ring enhancement (P=.07).
  • Use of breast MRI for staging at our institution shows that pure DCIS and pure invasive cancers are both rare entities.
  • Despite the relatively limited numbers, we identified features that would help to differentiate high-grade DCIS from invasive carcinoma on MRI.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / classification. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / standards. Terminology as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Observer Variation. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Reference Standards. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 16198828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-725X
  • [Journal-full-title] Magnetic resonance imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magn Reson Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Ismael G, Coradazzi AL, Beato CA, Milhomem P, Oliveira J, Manzoni C, Segalla G: Adjuvant systemic therapy in elderly patients with breast cancer: A Brazilian single center experience. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e20711

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  • [Title] Adjuvant systemic therapy in elderly patients with breast cancer: A Brazilian single center experience.
  • : e20711 Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in women in Brazil and in the western world.
  • Despite the high incidence of breast cancer in elderly women, there is no solid information regarding the real impact of the adjuvant systemic therapy in this population, considering the underrepresentation of patients with 65 years of age or older in cancer-treatment trials.
  • Moreover, elderly patients may face some difficulties to receive adequate adjuvant systemic treatment in the routine clinical practice.
  • METHODS: Two hundred fifty eight patients with 65 years of age or older at the time of diagnosis of operable breast cancer and treated in our Institution from February 2000 to December 2005 were retrospectively studied.
  • Clinical and pathological data were recorded as well as the type of adjuvant systemic therapy: hormonal therapy (HT), chemotherapy (CT) or both.
  • RESULTS: Ninety five (37.5%) patients were stage I, 150 (58.1%) were stage II and 6 (2.3%) were stage III, while 5 (1.9%) patients were diagnosed with DCIS.
  • Ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (81%) and grade II were reported in the majority of patients (47.3%).
  • However, a higher rate of high risk patients were observed in the group treated with both HT and CT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the age, a considerable part of this elderly breast cancer patient's population has received adjuvant systemic treatment.

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  • (PMID = 27961971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Blakely L, Somer B, Keaton M, Hermann R, Schnell F, Cobb P, Johns A, Walker M, Schwartzberg L: Neoadjuvant dose-dense sequential biweekly epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and trastuzumab for HER2+ operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):595

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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant dose-dense sequential biweekly epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel and trastuzumab for HER2+ operable breast cancer.
  • : 595 Background: Neoadjuvant (Neo) chemotherapy (CT) with trastuzumab (H) improves pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for HER2+ breast cancer.
  • Dose-dense regimens improve outcome in the adjuvant setting but have not been fully evaluated as preoperative therapy.
  • METHODS: Patients (pts) with biopsy proven, clinical stage IIA-IIIC, noninflammatory breast cancer were eligible.
  • EF was measured prior to CT, after EC, after TH and at 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery.
  • Additional adjuvant H to complete 1 year of therapy by conventional schedule was recommended after surgery.
  • The primary endpoint was pCR for invasive cancer in breast and lymph nodes.
  • RESULTS: 30 pts were enrolled at 5 centers: median age was 50.1 (range, 31-72); ethnicity African-American 14, Caucasian 14, other 2; clinical stage IIA, 14, IIB, 4, IIIA, 7, IIIB/C, 5; ER+ 18, PR+ 14; grade 3, 21 and grade 2, 8.
  • Twenty eight pts were evaluable for pathologic response- 2 withdrew before completing treatment, 1 for toxicity.
  • Dose delivery on schedule was >95% for all drugs.
  • Pathologic response: pCR 16 (57%) including 4 with residual DCIS only; 9 pPR, and 2 stable.
  • Mean EF was 63.1 (range, 51-81) before treatment, 62.4 (49-75) after EC and 58.3 (35-74) after TH.
  • Two pts had EF <50% during Neo, one with clinical CHF and 1 additional pt developed CHF during adjuvant single agent H.
  • Adverse events were generally mild with 14 grade 3 AEs including 3 episodes of dyspnea and no grade 3 skin toxicity or any grade 4 toxicity noted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sequential Neo dose-dense Q 14 day EC followed by Q 14 day TH yields a high pCR rate in HER2+ breast cancer with acceptable toxicity profile and no new safety signals noted.

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  • (PMID = 27960705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Bundred NJ, Barnes NL: Potential use of COX-2-aromatase inhibitor combinations in breast cancer. Br J Cancer; 2005 Aug;93 Suppl 1:S10-5
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  • [Title] Potential use of COX-2-aromatase inhibitor combinations in breast cancer.
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in several epithelial tumours, including breast cancer.
  • Cyclooxygenase-2-positive tumours tend to be larger, higher grade, node-positive and HER-2/neu-positive.
  • High COX-2 expression is associated with poor prognosis.
  • Studies of COX-2 inhibitors in breast cancer are underway both alone and in combination with other agents.
  • Preliminary results from combination therapy with celecoxib and exemestane in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer showed that the combination increased the time to recurrence.
  • Up to 80% of ductal carcinomas in situ (DCISs) express COX-2, therefore COX-2 inhibition may be of particular use in this situation.
  • As aromatase inhibitors appear particularly effective in patients with HER-2/neu-positive tumours, the combination of aromatase inhibitors and COX-2 inhibitors may be particularly useful in both DCIS and invasive cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Female. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16100520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 61
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361689
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15. Takei H, Kurosumi M, Yoshida T, Ninomiya J, Hagiwara Y, Kamimura M, Hayashi Y, Tozuka K, Suemasu K, Inoue K, Tabei T: Current trends of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer--a surgeon's perspective. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(4):362-70
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  • [Title] Current trends of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer--a surgeon's perspective.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is standard care for patients with early-stage breast cancer, and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is considered unnecessary when sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are tumor-free.
  • However, trials concerning the efficacy of ALND in positive SLNB patients in preventing local regional recurrence and improving overall survival compared with no ALND, and also, concerning the effectiveness of ALND compared with axillary radiation therapy (RT), have not yielded clear results.
  • So far SLNB is not acceptable for patients with positive nodes in the axilla at initial diagnosis even if their axillary metastases are down-staged to negative by neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Although basically SLNB does not need to be performed for patients with pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), it is recommended for patients with an initial diagnosis of DCIS which is large, palpable, high grade, or found in younger patients.
  • Because these types of DCIS have higher incidences of accompanying invasive lesions.
  • SLNB may be acceptable for patients with T3 or T4b tumors, even though SLN identification is lower yet SLN involvement is higher compared with T1 or T2 tumors, and systemic adjuvant therapy is more important for patients with T3 or T4b tumors.
  • SLNB is a bridge to further axillary treatment such as ALND or axillary RT, and which strategy, including no further treatment, is best considered individually based on recurrence risk, treatment responsiveness and use or non-use of systemic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17986801.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-4233
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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16. Jhingran A, Kim JS, Buchholz TA, Katz A, Strom EA, Hunt KK, Sneige N, McNeese MD: Age as a predictor of outcome for women with DCIS treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation: The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Nov 1;54(3):804-9
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  • [Title] Age as a predictor of outcome for women with DCIS treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation: The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the long-term outcome of breast conservation therapy in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in a single institution and to analyze the prognostic importance, if any, of young patient age.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The hospital records of 150 patients with DCIS treated with surgical excision and radiotherapy at our institution between 1980 and 1997 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Local recurrence correlated with nuclear grade (p = 0.002) but was not associated with patient age at diagnosis (<40 years vs. >or=40 years, p = 0.39).
  • In all cases of local recurrence, patients underwent surgery with or without chemotherapy, and disease control was achieved.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate high rates of long-term overall survival, disease-specific survival, and local control in patients with DCIS of the breast treated conservatively with segmental mastectomy and radiotherapy.
  • Continued studies in young patients treated with breast conservative therapy for DCIS are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12377332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA6294
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hird RB, Chang A, Cimmino V, Diehl K, Sabel M, Kleer C, Helvie M, Schott A, Young J, Hayes D, Newman L: Impact of estrogen receptor expression and other clinicopathologic features on tamoxifen use in ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer; 2006 May 15;106(10):2113-8
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  • [Title] Impact of estrogen receptor expression and other clinicopathologic features on tamoxifen use in ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent data have demonstrated that benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is limited to estrogen receptor (ER)-positive lesions.
  • The objective of the current study was to correlate clinicopathologic features of DCIS with ER expression and the impact of this information on tamoxifen counseling.
  • METHODS: Women with DCIS who were treated from 2001 to 2004 were evaluated.
  • The mean DCIS size was 0.98 cm.
  • All Grade 1 and 2 DCIS lesions were ER-positive, compared with 54% of high-grade lesions (P<.001); no other clinicopathologic feature significantly predicted ER status.
  • In the pre-ER staining period, surgical treatment and grade were associated with offering tamoxifen (75% of patients who underwent breast conservation vs. 40% of patients who underwent mastectomy; P = .03; 78% of patients with Grade 1 or 2 lesions vs. 45% of patients with Grade 3 lesions; P = .04).
  • Approximately 66% of patients who were offered tamoxifen agreed to treatment (approximately 33% of the total DCIS study sample).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Seventy-five percent of DCIS lesions were ER-positive.
  • ER staining significantly influenced the likelihood that clinicians would offer tamoxifen to patients with DCIS, but it had no impact on whether patients accepted treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Compliance. Probability. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16596655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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18. Kleer CG, Griffith KA, Sabel MS, Gallagher G, van Golen KL, Wu ZF, Merajver SD: RhoC-GTPase is a novel tissue biomarker associated with biologically aggressive carcinomas of the breast. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Sep;93(2):101-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] RhoC-GTPase is a novel tissue biomarker associated with biologically aggressive carcinomas of the breast.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a need for reliable predictors of breast cancer aggressiveness that will further refine the staging classification and help guide the implementation of novel therapies.
  • We have identified RhoC as being nearly always overexpressed in the most aggressive form of breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC); in subsequent work we identified RhoC to be a promising marker of aggressive behavior in breast cancers less than 1 cm in diameter.
  • We hypothesized that RhoC expression would identify aggressive, non-IBC tumors breast cancer patients at any stage with worse outcomes defined as recurrence and/or metastasis.
  • METHODS: We constructed four high-density tissue microarrays (TMAs) using 801 tissue cores from 280 patients.
  • These tissues represent a wide range of normal breast and breast disease, including intraductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive carcinomas, and distant metastases.
  • The TMAs were immunostained using a polyclonal anti-RhoC antibody developed in our laboratory.
  • RESULTS: RhoC expression increases with breast cancer progression.
  • All samples of normal breast epithelium had negative to weak staining, whereas staining intensity increased in hyperplasia, DCIS, invasive carcinoma, and metastases (Kruskal-Wallis p < 0.001).
  • In patients with invasive carcinoma, high RhoC expression was associated with features of aggressive behavior including high histologic grade, positive lymph nodes, and negative hormonal receptor status.
  • High RhoC expression was a predictor of overall survival in patients with breast cancer (log rank test, p = 0.002) and was associated with 100% increase in the risk of death as compared to patients with low RhoC expression.
  • Importantly, high RhoC was an independent predictor of poor response to doxorubicin-based chemotherapy with a hazard ratio of 3.1 and a 95% CI of 1.2-7.7 (p = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: RhoC expression increases with breast cancer progression and RhoC protein level in tumor tissue is strongly associated with biologically aggressive invasive carcinomas of the breast.
  • RhoC expression, if validated, may identify patients who are less likely benefit from doxorubicin therapy and suggests RhoC overexpression as a new target for intervention.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Survival Rate. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16187229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P50-CADE97258; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 P30 CA46592; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA 090876; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA10746; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA77612
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RHOC protein, human; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins
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19. Wasserberg N, Morgenstern S, Schachter J, Fenig E, Lelcuk S, Gutman H: Risk factors for lymph node metastases in breast ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasive component. Arch Surg; 2002 Nov;137(11):1249-52
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  • [Title] Risk factors for lymph node metastases in breast ductal carcinoma in situ with minimal invasive component.
  • HYPOTHESIS: Clinical and pathological variables may be predictors of axillary dissemination in T1mic and T1a breast carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS: All patients diagnosed as having ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with microinvasion between January 1, 1988, and December 30, 1998.
  • Modified radical mastectomy was performed in 29 patients (18 with T1mic and 11 with T1a) and breast-preserving surgery in 28 (19 with T1mic and 9 with T1a).
  • Axillary involvement was detected in 3 patients in each group.
  • Forty-seven patients received adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy alone, or with hormones or chemotherapy).
  • One patient was unavailable for follow-up, another died of disseminated disease, and a third developed contralateral primary carcinoma.
  • Comedo DCIS (P<.03) and the number of DCIS-involved ducts (P<.002) in the T1mic group, and nuclear grade 3 (P<.001) in both groups, were independent significant predictors of axillary metastases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The significant rate of axillary metastases in T1a and T1mic breast tumors makes axillary staging a must.
  • High nuclear grade, comedo DCIS, and high number of DCIS-involved ducts may predict axillary metastasis and should be considered when axillary dissection is done selectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12413311.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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