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3. Veltkamp SA, Jansen RS, Callies S, Pluim D, Visseren-Grul CM, Rosing H, Kloeker-Rhoades S, Andre VA, Beijnen JH, Slapak CA, Schellens JH: Oral administration of gemcitabine in patients with refractory tumors: a clinical and pharmacologic study. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Jun 1;14(11):3477-86
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  • [Title] Oral administration of gemcitabine in patients with refractory tumors: a clinical and pharmacologic study.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer refractory to standard therapy were eligible.
  • Mainly moderate gastrointestinal toxicities occurred except for one patient who died after experiencing grade 4 hepatic failure during cycle two.
  • One patient with a leiomyosarcoma had stable disease during 2 years and 7 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacokinetics. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18519780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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4. Vogl TJ, Zangos S, Eichler K, Selby JB, Bauer RW: Palliative hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy (HIC) using a novel combination of gemcitabine and mitomycin C: results in hepatic metastases. Eur Radiol; 2008 Mar;18(3):468-76
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  • [Title] Palliative hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy (HIC) using a novel combination of gemcitabine and mitomycin C: results in hepatic metastases.
  • To evaluate repeated hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy (HIC) as a palliative treatment option for unresectable cholangiocarcinoma and liver metastases of various origins that were progressive under systemic chemotherapy.
  • Treated tumor entities were colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (n = 12), breast cancer (BC) (n = 12), cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) (n = 10), pancreatic (n = 4), ovarian (n = 3), gastric, cervical, papillary (each n = 2), prostate, esophageal carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma (each n = 1), cancer of unknown primacy (CUP) (n = 5).
  • All patients tolerated the treatment well without any major side effects or complications.
  • HIC with gemcitabine/mitomycin is a safe, minimally invasive, palliative treatment for hepatic metastases that are progressive under systemic chemotherapy.
  • The treatment yields respectable tumor control rates in CRC and BC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Injections, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17938935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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5. Gallup DG, Blessing JA, Andersen W, Morgan MA, Gynecologic Oncology Group Study: Evaluation of paclitaxel in previously treated leiomyosarcoma of the uterus: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Apr;89(1):48-51
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  • [Title] Evaluation of paclitaxel in previously treated leiomyosarcoma of the uterus: a gynecologic oncology group study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous paclitaxel in patients with recurrent or advanced leiomyosarcoma of the uterus.
  • METHODS: To be eligible, patients with recurrent or persistent leiomyosarcoma of the uterus were to have measurable disease not previously treated with paclitaxel and adequate hematologic (WBC >or=3000/microl, platelet count >or=100000/microl), renal (serum creatinine <or=2.0 mg%), and hepatic (bilirubin <or= 1.5 x institutional normal) functions.
  • Fifteen had prior irradiation and 39 had prior chemotherapy.
  • No grade 4 thrombocytopenia was reported and no deaths were attributable to therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although toxicity was minimal, this regimen demonstrated modest activity in patients with previously treated advanced or recurrent leiomyosarcoma of the uterus.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12694653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37517
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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6. Rogiers X, Brunken C: Surgical management of hepatic metastatic disease. Saudi Med J; 2000 Jun;21(6):519-22
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  • [Title] Surgical management of hepatic metastatic disease.
  • In Europe, liver metastases are the most common malignomas of the liver.
  • Radical surgical resection, if possible, is the treatment of choice.
  • Radical resection of metastases from wilms-tumor, carcinoids, carcinoma of the breast, hypernephroma, adrenal tumors, malignant melanoma, leiomyosarcoma and gastric cancer may improve long time survival, however knowledge is too small for giving general directions.
  • Local destructive therapies are only beneficial when a total necrosis of the tumor is reached.
  • Indications for this treatment are quite rare.
  • Both, systemic and local chemotherapy offers only palliation with little influence on long time survival.
  • Adjuvant and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is applicated under study conditions with encouraging results.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Europe / epidemiology. Humans. Patient Selection. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11508246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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7. Poggio JL, Nagorney DM, Nascimento AG, Rowland C, Kay P, Young RM, Donohue JH: Surgical treatment of adult primary hepatic sarcoma. Br J Surg; 2000 Nov;87(11):1500-5
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment of adult primary hepatic sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary sarcomas of the liver are extremely rare in adults.
  • Optimal therapeutic approaches remain unclear.
  • METHODS: Twenty consecutive adult patients who had surgical treatment for primary hepatic sarcomas were reviewed.
  • Other than one patient with primary hepatic angiosarcoma who had a history of thorium dioxide colloid (Thorotrast) exposure 23 years before diagnosis, no predisposing causes were apparent.
  • Nineteen patients had hepatic resection and one patient had an orthotopic liver transplant.
  • No patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy but radiotherapy was delivered intraoperatively in one patient.
  • RESULTS: Leiomyosarcoma was the most common histological type of sarcoma diagnosed (five of 20 patients), followed by malignant solitary fibrous tumour (four) and epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (three).
  • Thirteen patients developed a recurrence.
  • Distant metastases (ten patients) and intrahepatic recurrence (six) were the predominant sites of initial treatment failure.
  • Six patients received salvage chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical resection is the only effective therapy for primary hepatic sarcomas at present.
  • Better adjuvant therapy is necessary, especially for high-grade malignancies, owing to the high failure rate with operation alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Preoperative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11091236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Bonnet S, Eggenspieler P, Vedrine L, Camparo P, Baranger B: [Leiomyosarcoma of the middle segment of the inferior vena cava: tactical problems raised by renal and caval revascularisation]. J Mal Vasc; 2006 May;31(2):79-84
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  • [Title] [Leiomyosarcoma of the middle segment of the inferior vena cava: tactical problems raised by renal and caval revascularisation].
  • [Transliterated title] Léiomyosarcome du segment moyen de la veine cave inférieure: problèmes tactiques soulevés par la revascularisation cave et rénale.
  • INTRODUCTION: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava is mesenchymal tumor accounting for 95% of primary tumors of the vena cava.
  • Characteristic features include late invasion of adjacent structures and metastases, and delayed diagnosis.
  • OBSERVATION: We report a case of inferior vena cava (IVC) leiomyosarcoma (LMS) found in a 53 year-old man who complained of abdominal pain.
  • Morphologic exams found a very large polycyclic mass in the inferior vena cava involving the middle segment of the vena cava extending from the renal veins to the hepatic veins.
  • Pathological examination documented a grade II leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava and the patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy (anthracycline).
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney / blood supply. Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vena Cava, Inferior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16733439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0398-0499
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal des maladies vasculaires
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mal Vasc
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. Edmonson JH, Blessing JA, Cosin JA, Miller DS, Cohn DE, Rotmensch J: Phase II study of mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Jun;85(3):507-10
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  • [Title] Phase II study of mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
  • OBJECTIVE: Because of preliminary observations favoring the use of mitomycin, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MAP) chemotherapy in leiomyosarcomas, the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) decided to conduct a phase II clinical trial of this combination regimen in patients with advanced disease.
  • METHODS: Patients with histologically confirmed uterine leiomyosarcoma who had not previously received cytotoxic drugs were considered for participation in this clinical trial.
  • Eligible patients had measurable disease, GOG performance status 0-2, and adequate bone marrow, renal, and hepatic function according to standard criteria.
  • RESULTS: Forty-one patients were registered, of whom 4 were determined ineligible (wrong cell type, 2; wrong site of origin, 1; inadequate pathology material, 1).
  • Despite its low therapeutic index, this novel, possibly interactive, combination may serve as a forerunner to regimens that more efficiently exploit the enhancement of sarcoma cell kill under hypoxic conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12051882.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; MAP protocol
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10. Giuliante F, Sarno G, Ardito F, Pierconti F: Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma in a young man after Hodgkin's disease: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic challenge. Tumori; 2009 May-Jun;95(3):374-7
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  • [Title] Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma in a young man after Hodgkin's disease: diagnostic pitfalls and therapeutic challenge.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the liver is a rare tumor whose development patterns are unsatisfactorily known.
  • PATIENT CASE: A 26-year-old male patient with a previous history of radiochemotherapy treatment for Hodgkin's lymphoma was referred to our unit with a histological and radiological diagnosis of primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma.
  • Six months before referral, in a workup for hypertension, a CT scan of the abdomen had shown a 2.5-cm lesion in liver segment VII, which was interpreted as an angioma.
  • Shortly before referral the lesion had grown to 7.8 cm, associated with two smaller lesions in segments VIII and III, and a diagnosis of hepatic leiomyosarcoma was made at biopsy.
  • This was followed by rapid progression of the disease, in spite of transient stabilization under gemcitabine treatment.
  • Octreotide was also administered after the detection of elevated chromogranin A in serum.
  • The patient died 25 months after liver resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The challenges and peculiarities of this case are related to the rarity of the tumor, its accidental discovery without immediate suspicion of its nature, its very aggressive behavior that was only partly controlled by chemotherapy, and the unusual expression of a neuroendocrine phenotypic feature with high serum chromogranin A levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease. Leiomyosarcoma. Liver Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Second Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


11. Almogy G, Lieberman S, Gips M, Pappo O, Edden Y, Jurim O, Simon Slasky B, Uzieli B, Eid A: Clinical outcomes of surgical resections for primary liver sarcoma in adults: results from a single centre. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2004 May;30(4):421-7
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  • [Title] Clinical outcomes of surgical resections for primary liver sarcoma in adults: results from a single centre.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hepatic sarcoma is a rare tumour with a poor prognosis.
  • METHODS: From 1997 to 2002 eight patients had liver resection for primary sarcoma of the liver at our institution.
  • The clinical characteristics, imaging findings, surgical procedures, adjuvant therapy and outcome were retrospectively reviewed.
  • There were two patients each with angiosarcoma (AS), leiomyosarcoma (LMS), and undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma (UES), one patient with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) and one patient with malignant peripheral nerve sheath sarcoma (PNSS).
  • Preoperative diagnosis of a primary liver sarcoma was made in 7/8 cases, either by fine needle aspiration (n = 5) or angiography (n = 2).
  • Two patients developed complications and there was one death.
  • Systemic chemotherapy led to tumour regression in both patients with UES which enabled a second hepatic resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with primary liver sarcoma present with right upper quadrant pain, fever and a liver mass.
  • Differentiating the rare primary liver sarcoma from the much more common hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may aid in planning therapy.
  • Liver resection combined with adjuvant chemotherapy are the mainstays of treatment for UES in the adult.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hepatectomy / methods. Humans. Length of Stay. Liver Function Tests. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15063896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Casper ES: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Aug;1(3):267-73
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  • Many of these tumors have no muscle differentiation, and designations such as leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma are inappropriate for many of these neoplasms.
  • Both benign and malignant types are recognized.
  • Complete en bloc surgical resection, when possible, is the cornerstone of therapy.
  • Metastasis tends to occur to the liver and within the peritoneal cavity, especially in patients whose tumors have ruptured spontaneously or been violated by the surgeon.
  • For patients with unresectable disease, the results with systemic chemotherapy have been dismal.
  • Treatment with doxorubicin/ifosfamide combinations is of dubious value.
  • Hepatic arterial embolization, with and without intra-arterial chemotherapy, results in regression of liver metastases in selected patients.
  • The impact of such treatment on outcome, however, is poorly studied.
  • Aggressive surgical resection of peritoneal metastases with intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been advocated, but requires formal study in large trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Radiotherapy. Stromal Cells / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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13. Smith HO, Blessing JA, Vaccarello L: Trimetrexate in the treatment of recurrent or advanced leiomyosarcoma of the uterus: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Jan;84(1):140-4
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  • [Title] Trimetrexate in the treatment of recurrent or advanced leiomyosarcoma of the uterus: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the objective response of trimetrexate in patients with advanced or recurrent leiomyosarcoma of the uterus.
  • METHODS: Eligibility was restricted to patients with measurable disease who had received no more than one prior chemotherapy regimen, who had adequate bone marrow, renal, and hepatic function, and who had recovered from previous therapy.
  • Prior therapy included radiation (7 patients) and/or chemotherapy (10 patients).
  • Toxicities were mild to moderate with no treatment-related deaths.
  • CONCLUSION: Although toxicity is acceptable, trimetrexate at this dose and schedule is ineffective therapy for patients with recurrent leiomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Trimetrexate / therapeutic use. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11748990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; UPN4ITI8T4 / Trimetrexate
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14. Ruhland B, Dittmer C, Thill M, Diedrich K, Fischer D: Metastasized hemangiopericytoma of the breast: a rare case. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Sep;280(3):491-4
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  • Liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, as well as hemangiopericytoma, are part of the soft tissue sarcoma group.
  • We present the case of a woman, who received primary diagnosis of a malignant hemangiopericytoma of the left breast.
  • She underwent a mastectomy with an axillary lymph node sampling (stage pT3 pN0 cM0), as adjuvant therapy was not mandatory.
  • Eight months after diagnosis, the patient presented with lumbar back pain, gluteal pain and right accentuated adynamia in both legs because of a disseminated osseous metastasis.
  • Diagnostic investigation presented a cerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, hepatic and pleural metastatic disease.
  • Two months after initiation of chemotherapy the patient died.
  • Diagnostic criteria and treatment principles in the metastatic situation are presented in addition to the literature to give a review about this rare malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Hemangiopericytoma / secondary. Hemangiopericytoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19169699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Brichard B, Smets F, Sokal E, Clapuyt P, Vermylen C, Cornu G, Rahier J, Otte JB: Unusual evolution of an Epstein-Barr virus-associated leiomyosarcoma occurring after liver transplantation. Pediatr Transplant; 2001 Oct;5(5):365-9
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  • [Title] Unusual evolution of an Epstein-Barr virus-associated leiomyosarcoma occurring after liver transplantation.
  • We report the case of a child who developed, 2 yr after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) for biliary atresia, a multi-focal hepatic tumor with lymphonodular metastases, identified as an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated leiomyosarcoma.
  • Chemotherapy was given without tumor response.
  • At the present time, 12 yr after the discovery of the first hepatic lesions, the patient is alive and completely symptom-free, the abdominal masses are stable, and liver function tests are completely normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / immunology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Leiomyosarcoma / virology. Liver Neoplasms / virology. Liver Transplantation / immunology. Postoperative Complications / immunology


16. Turken O, Basekim C, Haholu A, Karagoz B, Bilgi O, Ozgun A, Kucukardali Y, Narin Y, Yazgan Y, Kandemir EG: Hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a patient with primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Med Oncol; 2009;26(3):309-13
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  • [Title] Hyperammonemic encephalopathy in a patient with primary hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed multiple hepatic nodular lesions in the liver.
  • The patient received sandostatin treatment.
  • After the treatment with L-ornithine-L-aspartate, a remarkable improvement in the level of patient's sensorium occurred as well as a reduction in serum ammonia level within a few days.
  • There are case reports of hyperammonemia with some malignancies such as multiple myeloma, plasma cell leukemia, and leiomyosarcoma, or in some patients who have received chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / blood. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / blood. Hyperammonemia / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 19031017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Villalona-Calero MA, Eckhardt SG, Weiss G, Hidalgo M, Beijnen JH, van Kesteren C, Rosing H, Campbell E, Kraynak M, Lopez-Lazaro L, Guzman C, Von Hoff DD, Jimeno J, Rowinsky EK: A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of ecteinascidin-743 on a daily x 5 schedule in patients with solid malignancies. Clin Cancer Res; 2002 Jan;8(1):75-85
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  • Elevations in hepatic transaminases were common at ET-743 dose levels > or =216 microg/m(2)/day, resolved rapidly, and were never dose limiting nor cumulative.
  • Antitumor activity was noted in three patients with leiomyosarcoma and primary peritoneal and ovarian carcinomas.
  • The pharmacokinetics of ET-743 were dose independent, and drug accumulation over the 5 days of treatment was modest, with the ratio of the area under the plasma-versus-time curve on day 5 to that on day 1 averaging 2.05.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alanine Transaminase / metabolism. Area Under Curve. Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liver / drug effects. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Tetrahydroisoquinolines. Time Factors. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 11801542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR01346
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Dioxoles; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Tetrahydroisoquinolines; 114899-77-3 / trabectedin; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases; EC 2.6.1.2 / Alanine Transaminase
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18. Al-Rikabi A, Hussain AA, Buchler M, Al-Muzrakchi A, Jyothi CR: Primary leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: report of a case diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathologic examination. Acta Cytol; 2007 May-Jun;51(3):477-9
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  • [Title] Primary leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: report of a case diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by histopathologic examination.
  • BACKGROUND: Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm and can originate within major abdominal veins, including the inferior venacava (IVC).
  • CASE: A 45-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal pain and a mass lesion in the liver and within the lumen of the IVC.
  • A diagnosis of primary leiomyosarcoma of the IVC was made by using imaging techniques,fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathologic examination of the resected specimen.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients presenting with vague upper abdominal pain and radiologic features of a hepatic mass extending to major veins, the rare possibility of primary leiomyosarcoma of the IVC shoald he considered and investigated by both fine needle aspiration cytology and intraoperative histology.
  • Early surgical intervention and/or postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17536560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Khabir A, Boudawara T, Ayadi L, Kharrat M, Kharrat M, Beyrouti I, Jlidi R: [Epithelioid bilateral ovarian leiomyosarcoma: a study]. Ann Pathol; 2003 Feb;23(1):47-9
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  • [Title] [Epithelioid bilateral ovarian leiomyosarcoma: a study].
  • [Transliterated title] Léiomyosarcome ovarien bilatéral de type épithélioïde: une observation.
  • Primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare and generally affects post menopausal women.
  • Its histogenesis is not clear its prognosis seems to be improved by radical surgery and adjuvant therapy.
  • A diagnosis of bilateral ovarian epithelioid leiomyosarcoma was made on pathological examination with immunohistochemistry.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was given.
  • After 3 months of follow up, abdominal sonography revealed a peritoneal recurrent tumor with hepatic metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Menopause. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12743499.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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20. Melichar B, Voboril Z, Nozicka J, Cerman J Jr, Melicharová K, Mergancová J, Filip S, Krajina A, Voboril R, Jandík P: Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in sarcoma liver metastases: a report of 6 cases. Tumori; 2005 Jan-Feb;91(1):19-23
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  • [Title] Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in sarcoma liver metastases: a report of 6 cases.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Liver metastases in patients with sarcoma are rare and associated with a poor prognosis.
  • The experience with liver-directed therapies, eg hepatic arterial infusion, in these patients is limited.
  • METHODS: Six patients with sarcoma metastatic to the liver (4 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors and 2 patients with leiomyosarcoma) were treated by hepatic arterial infusion in our center over a 12-year period.
  • RESULTS: None of the 5 assessable patients responded to the therapy, and liver metastases progressed in all patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic arterial infusion has little efficacy in the treatment of sarcoma metastatic to the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Hepatic Artery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15850000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Serralta AS, Sanjuan FR, Moya AH, Orbis FC, López-Andújar R, Pareja EI, Vila JC, Rayón M, Juan MB, Mir JP: Combined liver transplantation plus imatinib for unresectable metastases of gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2004 Nov;16(11):1237-9
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  • [Title] Combined liver transplantation plus imatinib for unresectable metastases of gastrointestinal stromal tumours.
  • Therapeutic options for treating unresectable hepatic metastases of leiomyosarcomas were scarce until a few years ago.
  • The introduction of imatinib (an antineoplasic drug that specifically acts on the pathogenesis of these tumours) has shown promising results in patients with advanced GISTs.
  • We present three patients with the initial diagnosis of unresectable hepatic metastases of leiomyosarcomas.
  • They received liver transplants.
  • Histological re-evaluation identified a stromal origin of the tumours, and the patients were treated with imatinib therapy (400 mg/day).
  • Recurrence occurred in all patients after a mean of 38.3 months, but imatinib treatment achieved control of the tumours.
  • The current survival times with the combination of transplantation and imatinib are 92, 48 and 46 months for the three patients.
  • This series is small and inconclusive, but imatinib treatment showed promising results.
  • The treatment options for patients with unresectable metastases of GISTs must be defined, as in these three patients liver transplantation achieved a disease-free status but all had tumour recurrences before starting the imatinib treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leiomyosarcoma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Transplantation / methods. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Benzamides. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15489588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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22. Takahashi T, Sakamoto J, Kosaka S: [Metastatic lung tumor from uterine leiomyosarcoma; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2008 Jul;61(7):595-8
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  • [Title] [Metastatic lung tumor from uterine leiomyosarcoma; report of a case].
  • We herein present a case of metastatic pulmonary tumor derived from endometrial leiomyosarcoma She had undergone hysterectomy for leiomyosarcoma.
  • About 10 years after the hysterectomy, metastatic hepatic tumors and peritoneal dissemination were pointed out.
  • Following chemotherapy of cisplatin, ifomide and pirarubicine, right hepatectomy was performed.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was performed with the same regimen as previously performed.
  • Careful follow up after the surgery for the uterine leiomyosarcoma is recommended because metastatic leiomyosarcoma possibly appears even after a long interval, and its progress can be so intensive that adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary if it can not be treated surgically alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18616110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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23. Liang X, Xiao-Min S, Jiang-Ping X, Jie-Yu Y, Xiao-Jun Z, Zhi-Ren F, Guo-Shan D, Rui-Dong L: Liver transplantation for primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma: a case report and review of the literatures. Med Oncol; 2010 Dec;27(4):1269-72
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  • [Title] Liver transplantation for primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma: a case report and review of the literatures.
  • Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma (PHL), a malignant mesenchymal tumor of myogenic origin, is exceedingly rare.
  • Patients may be afflicted with a wide spectrum of nonspecific symptoms, and most of the laboratory data are unhelpful to diagnosis.
  • Here, we report a 44-year-old woman with anorexia and right upper quadrant pain who was diagnosed as having malignant hepatic tumor within the Milan criteria and treated by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), the pathologic diagnosis of PHL was made by postoperative immunohistochemical study.
  • She underwent six courses of intravenous chemotherapy and enjoyed a 14-month tumor recurrence-free survival until the lymph node metastasis was detected, then we switched the tacrolimus to sirolimus and the patient survived for 20 months additionally.
  • The diagnostic and therapeutic features of PHL are also discussed by reviewing the literatures.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leiomyosarcoma / therapy. Liver Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19997990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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25. Dew J, Hansen K, Hammon J, McCoy T, Levine EA, Shen P: Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: surgical management and clinical results. Am Surg; 2005 Jun;71(6):497-501
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: surgical management and clinical results.
  • Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare lesion with less than 300 cases reported.
  • From August 1984 to June 2004, eight patients with leiomyosarcoma of the IVC were treated at our institution.
  • Tumor location was between the renal and iliac veins (low) (n = 4, 50%), between the hepatic and renal veins (middle) (n = 3, 38%), and above the hepatic veins with right atrial extension (high) (n = 1, 12%).
  • One patient is currently receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Four patients received chemotherapy after recurrence, and one received palliative radiation therapy as well.
  • The type of IVC reconstruction had no effect on survival (P = 0.22).
  • Recurrence was discovered in four patients (50%) at a median time of 14 months.
  • Resection of leiomyosarcoma of the IVC should be attempted whenever feasible.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods

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  • (PMID = 16044929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Marcheix B, Dambrin C, Muscari F, Joseph-Hein K, Guimbaud R, Otal P: [Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava]. J Chir (Paris); 2003 Jun;140(3):140-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava].
  • Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava is a rare tumor of mesenchymal origin most commonly found in women.
  • Imagery with ultrasound, CT, or MRI may strongly suggest the diagnosis, but it can only be confirmed by histologic examination of tissue obtained pre or intra-operatively.
  • Radical surgical resection is the only treatment which offers any hope for prolonged survival.
  • Progress in the techniques of hepatectomy and liver transplantation have allowed the experienced surgeon to undertake the removal of retrohepatic lesions once considered unresectable.
  • High-lying lesions adjacent to the hepatic veins or with thrombus extending into the proximal vena cava may require extracorporeal circulation with or without profound hypothermic circulatory arrest.
  • The efficacy of chemotherapy, whether pre-operative for inaccessible tumors or post-operative for incompletely resected or recurrent tumor, is poorly defined and very limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma. Vascular Neoplasms. Vena Cava, Inferior
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12910211.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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27. Lang H, Nussbaum KT, Kaudel P, Frühauf N, Flemming P, Raab R: Hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma: A single-center experience with 34 liver resections during a 15-year period. Ann Surg; 2000 Apr;231(4):500-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma: A single-center experience with 34 liver resections during a 15-year period.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a large single-center experience with hepatic resection for metastatic leiomyosarcoma.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Liver resection is the treatment of choice for hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma.
  • In contrast, the role of liver resection for hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma has not been defined.
  • METHODS: The records of 26 patients who between 1982 and 1996 underwent a total of 34 liver resections for hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma were reviewed.
  • There were 23 first, 9 second, and 2 third liver resections.
  • RESULTS: In the 23 first liver resections, there were 15 R0, 3 R1, and 5 R2 resections.
  • In 10 patients with extrahepatic tumor at the time of the first liver resection, 6 R0 and 4 R2 resections were achieved.
  • After repeat liver resection, the median survival was 31 months (range 5-51 months); after R0 resection, median survival was 31 months and after R1/2 resection it was 28 months.
  • There was no 5-year survivor in the overall group after repeat liver resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite frequent tumor recurrence, the long-term outcome after liver resection for hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma is superior to that after chemotherapy and chemoembolization.
  • Although survival after tumor debulking also seems to be more favorable than after nonoperative therapy, these data indicate that only an R0 resection offers the chance of long-term survival.
  • The presence of extrahepatic tumor should not be considered a contraindication to liver resection if complete removal of all tumorous masses appears possible.
  • In selected cases of intrahepatic tumor recurrence, even repeated liver resection might be worthwhile.
  • In view of the poor results of chemoembolization and chemotherapy in hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma, liver resection should be attempted whenever possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatectomy. Leiomyosarcoma / secondary. Leiomyosarcoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery






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