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Items 1 to 17 of about 17
1. Gilbert JA, Frederick LM, Ames MM: The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res; 2000 Nov;6(11):4365-72
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  • [Title] The aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa is selectively cytotoxic to human pulmonary carcinoid and small cell lung carcinoma cells.
  • The carcinoid tumor is an uncommon neuroendocrine neoplasm the hallmark of which is excessive serotonin production.
  • In studying kinetics of tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) in human carcinoid hepatic metastases and adjacent normal liver (J. A.
  • Pharmacol., 50: 845-850, 1995), we identified one significant difference: the Vmax of carcinoid AAAD was 50-fold higher than that in normal liver.
  • Here, we report Western and Northern analyses detecting large quantities of AAAD polypeptide and mRNA in human carcinoid primary as well as metastatic tumors compared with normal surrounding tissues.
  • To assess the feasibility of targeting these high AAAD levels for chemotherapy, AAAD inhibitors carbidopa (alpha-methyl-dopahydrazine), alpha-monofluoromethyldopa (MFMD), and 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD-1015) were incubated (72 h) with NCI-H727 human lung carcinoid cells.
  • For lung tumor lines (carcinoid, two SCLC, and one large cell lung carcinoma), AAAD activity was correlated with the potency of carbidopa-induced cytotoxicity.
  • However, carcinoid cell death was not solely attributable to complete inhibition of either AAAD activity or the serotonin synthetic pathway.
  • In further evaluating potential applications of these findings with carbidopa, we determined that sublethal doses of carbidopa produced additive cytotoxic effects in carcinoid cells in combination with etoposide and cytotoxic synergy in SCLC cells when coincubated with topotecan.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors. Carbidopa / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Humans. Ileum / enzymology. Liver / enzymology. Microscopy, Electron. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11106255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 58450
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; MNX7R8C5VO / Carbidopa
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2. Rekhi B, Saxena S, Chintamani: Gastric outlet obstruction and cutaneous metastasis in adenocarcinoid tumor of stomach - unusual presentations with cytologic and ultra structural findings. Indian J Cancer; 2005 Apr-Jun;42(2):99-101
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  • He underwent radical gastrectomy and was diagnosed with a gastric carcinoid tumor, on histopathology.
  • After 6 months, he developed hepatic along with nodular cutaneous lesions over the scalp.
  • Aspiration cytology (FNAC) from these metastatic lesions showed two distinct cell types with rosette formation.
  • Subsequently, he underwent 2 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Gastric Outlet Obstruction / etiology. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Neoplasm Metastasis. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16141510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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3. Khan MQ, Al Kahtani KM, Al-Ashgar H: Metastatic hepatic carcinoid associated with ectopic ACTH syndrome, resistant to octreotide and ketoconazole therapy. Ann Saudi Med; 2004 Sep-Oct;24(5):386-90
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  • [Title] Metastatic hepatic carcinoid associated with ectopic ACTH syndrome, resistant to octreotide and ketoconazole therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / complications. ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ketoconazole / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Saudi Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;24(6):490. Al Kahtani, Khalid Mohammed [corrected to Al Kahtani, Nora]
  • (PMID = 15573856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-4947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of Saudi medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Saudi Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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4. Hasuike Y, Takeda Y, Ueda S, Tujinaka T, Yoshida K: [A case report of primary hepatic carcinoid with lymph node metastasis--treatment of hepatic arterial infusion to post-reoperative liver and radiation to metastasis of para-aortic lymph nodes]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2002 Nov;29(12):2433-6
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  • [Title] [A case report of primary hepatic carcinoid with lymph node metastasis--treatment of hepatic arterial infusion to post-reoperative liver and radiation to metastasis of para-aortic lymph nodes].
  • We report a case of primary liver carcinoid.
  • She developed abdominal pain.
  • CT scans showed a low-density area in the lateral segment of the liver and lymph node swelling to the left of the abdominal aorta.
  • After lateral segmentectomy and examination of the gastrointestinal tract, we diagnosed primary liver carcinoid.
  • Unfortunately, the tumor recurred at multiple sites in the residual liver about 9 months after the first operation.
  • She underwent further liver resection and microwave coagulation therapy.
  • At that time, lymph node biopsy confirmed metastatic carcinoid.
  • We began hepatic arterial chemotherapy for the residual liver and radiation therapy for the para-aortic lymph nodes (total 45 Gy).
  • During chemotherapy, no recurrence was seen.
  • At 11 months after reoperation, however, multiple liver metastases occurred with severe liver dysfunction and jaundice.
  • She died about 24 months after the first liver resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Electrocoagulation. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Hepatectomy. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Microwaves / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 12484093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Kulke MH: Clinical presentation and management of carcinoid tumors. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2007 Jun;21(3):433-55; vii-viii
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  • [Title] Clinical presentation and management of carcinoid tumors.
  • This same property presents a challenge in the treatment of patients who have metastatic disease, in whom standard cytotoxic chemotherapy has a limited benefit.
  • In such patients, the use of somatostatin analogs, interferon, and the treatment of hepatic metastases may provide effective palliation.
  • The highly vascular nature of carcinoid tumors has led to the investigation of antiangiogenic agents in this setting.
  • Preliminary reports of activity associated with agents targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway suggest that such strategies may play a role in the future treatment of patients who have this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms. Carcinoid Tumor. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 17548033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0889-8588
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 093401; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K30 HL04095
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 152
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6. Hogan BA, Thornton FJ, Brannigan M, Browne TJ, Pender S, O'Kelly P, Lyon SM, Lee MJ: Hepatic metastases from an unknown primary neoplasm (UPN): survival, prognostic indicators and value of extensive investigations. Clin Radiol; 2002 Dec;57(12):1073-7
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  • [Title] Hepatic metastases from an unknown primary neoplasm (UPN): survival, prognostic indicators and value of extensive investigations.
  • AIM: The objectives of this study were to identify prognostic features for patients with hepatic metastases and unknown primary neoplasms (UPN), determine the common primary tumours, assess the value of diagnostic tests in finding these tumours, and evaluate the impact of therapy and knowledge of the primary tumour on patient survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients with UPN and liver biopsy proven hepatic metastases over a 10-year period were reviewed (M:F, 58:30; age range 27-91 years, median 64.5 years).
  • Histopathology, diagnostic investigations and success at identifying the primary neoplasm were recorded.
  • In addition, in 70 patients with adenocarcinoma histology (M:F, 48:22; age range 27-91 years, median 65 years), treatment and survival data from the date of biopsy were recorded.
  • RESULTS: The histological spectrum included adenocarcinoma in 70, neuroendocrine in four, squamous cell carcinoma in four, small cell carcinoma in four, carcinoid in two, hepatoma in one and three others.
  • Extensive investigation identified a primary neoplasm in 16/88 patients (18%) including colorectal in six, gastric in two, lung in four, oesophageal in two, prostate in one and carcinoid in one.
  • Sixteen of 62 patients received active treatment with either surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or a combination protocol.
  • Patients <65 years were more likely to receive active treatment than those >65 years (P=0.006).
  • Age with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.01 (P=0.178), active treatment (HR=0.65;P=0.194), knowledge of the primary neoplasm (HR=0.60;P=0.213) and male gender (HR=0.88;P=0.642) had no significant effect on survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Although hepatic metastases are associated with poor prognosis, it is essential that a liver biopsy be performed to obtain a histological diagnosis.
  • Extensive investigation is not warranted in patients with adenocarcinoma liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 12475531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Knox CD, Anderson CD, Lamps LW, Adkins RB, Pinson CW: Long-term survival after resection for primary hepatic carcinoid tumor. Ann Surg Oncol; 2003 Dec;10(10):1171-5
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after resection for primary hepatic carcinoid tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hepatic carcinoid tumors (PHCTs) are extremely rare, and fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the English-language literature.
  • METHODS: Our patient presented with symptoms and underwent liver resection for PHCT and regional lymph node metastasis.
  • He underwent two more liver resections over the following 7 years for recurrent PHCT.
  • The survival impacts of age, gender, tumor foci, extrahepatic metastasis, unilobar versus bilobar disease, and type of preoperative treatment were determined by means of log-rank test.
  • The administration of preoperative chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or chemoembolization did not impact survival, nor did age, gender, presence of extrahepatic metastasis, number of tumors, or distribution of the tumor within the liver.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Resection is the treatment of choice for PHCT and has provided favorable outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Dec;10(10):1131-2 [14654465.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Dec;10(10):1133-5 [14654466.001]
  • (PMID = 14654473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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8. Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV: A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review). Int J Oncol; 2005 Feb;26(2):301-9
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  • [Title] A clinical overview of carcinoid tumors: perspectives for improvement in treatment using peptide analogs (review).
  • Carcinoid tumors were first described more than a century ago, but the treatment of patients with advanced disease remains a challenge to physicians.
  • The etiology of carcinoid tumors, the biologic determinants of the growth of these malignancies, as well as the high frequency of multiple carcinoid and/or non-carcinoid tumors in patients with this disease also remain to be elucidated.
  • A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors in the USA showed that distant metastases were demonstrated at the time of diagnosis in 12.9% of patients with this neoplasia.
  • The prognosis of patients with early stage disease is good and surgical resection is the standard form of treatment.
  • However, patients with metastatic dissemination have poor outcomes since chemotherapy is generally ineffective.
  • Surgical resection of isolated hepatic metastases, surgical hepatic artery ligation or embolization produce responses in selected patients.
  • Radiation therapy may ease the pain of bone metastases.
  • The administration of long acting analogs of somatostatin can control the symptoms of diarrhea and flushing in patients with the malignant carcinoid syndrome.
  • However, a complete regression of metastatic carcinoid tumors following the administration of somatostatin analog octreotide has been reported so far in only 3 cases.
  • Other modalities of treatment, including liver transplantation and the administration of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have likewise been applied in patients with advanced disease.
  • It is expected that advances in proteomics research will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of diseases and aid in designing new drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / mortality. Peptides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gamma Cameras. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Proteomics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15645113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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9. Varker KA, Campbell J, Shah MH: Phase II study of thalidomide in patients with metastatic carcinoid and islet cell tumors. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(4):661-8
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  • [Title] Phase II study of thalidomide in patients with metastatic carcinoid and islet cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Carcinoid and islet cell tumors are known to be highly vascular.
  • There is no effective systemic therapy currently available for metastatic disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with measurable, histologically proven metastatic carcinoid neuroendocrine carcinomas (well-differentiated, n = 13; moderately-differentiated, n = 5) were enrolled on this study.
  • All but one patient had hepatic metastases, and 12 patients (67%) had carcinoid syndrome.
  • Eight patients (44%) had received previous hepatic artery chemoembolization and 11 (61%) had undergone surgical resection.
  • Planned treatment duration was 24 weeks unless unacceptable toxicity or disease progression was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thalidomide was fairly well tolerated in patients with metastatic carcinoid/islet cell tumors, but failed to reveal any objective responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Islet Cell / drug therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pancreatic Hormones / blood. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17589846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Pancreatic Hormones; 106477-83-2 / pancreastatin; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
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10. Fiorentini G, Rossi S, Bonechi F, Vaira M, De Simone M, Dentico P, Bernardeschi P, Cantore M, Guadagni S: Intra-arterial hepatic chemoembolization in liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: a phase II study. J Chemother; 2004 Jun;16(3):293-7
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  • [Title] Intra-arterial hepatic chemoembolization in liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors: a phase II study.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors, particularly those of gastrointestinal tract origin, have a predisposition for metastasizing to the liver, causing parenchymal substitution and paraneoplastic syndrome.
  • Lipiodol embolization combined with anticancer drugs is a recent tool in regional therapy.
  • It has been proven that chemoembolization reduces tumor bulk and hormone levels, and that it palliates the symptoms of many patients with liver-dominant neuroendocrine metastases.
  • Beginning in December 1988, ten patients with unresectable and chemotherapy-refractory liver metastatic neuroendocrine tumors were treated with chemoembolization based on a mixture of lipiodol, mitomycin, cisplatin, epirubicin, followed by gelfoam powder and contrast media.
  • One patient had liver abscess and persistent fever for 2 weeks.
  • They showed more than a 75% decrease in urinary secretion after treatment.
  • In a patient with transplanted liver we noticed a partial response lasting 7 months.
  • We conclude that chemoembolization will improve the clinical condition of a significant percentage of patients with liver metastases, that future therapy of carcinoid tumors will be based on specific tumor biology and that treatment will be customized for each individual patient combining the use of cytoreductive procedures including radiofrequency ablation, laser treatment and chemoembolization.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Liver / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15330328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-009X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chemother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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11. Desai KK, Khan MS, Toumpanakis C, Caplin ME: Management of gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs). Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol; 2009 Dec;55(4):425-43
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  • The ability of carcinoid tumors to cause clinical symptoms by secretion of hormones or biogenic amines is best recognised in the form of the carcinoid syndrome.
  • A small percentage of NETs are associated with co-existing synchronous non-carcinoid neoplasm.
  • The therapeutic options which are reviewed, including the use of somatostatin analogues, the role of surgery, the use of chemotherapy, biotherapy using interferon, peptide receptor targeted therapy.
  • In addition, the challenging interventional management of liver metastases is discussed, including the role of hepatic-artery embolization, radiofrequency ablation and the place of orthotoptic liver transplantation in selected patients.
  • Authors have focused on the newest therapeutic modalities, e.g., radionuclide peptide receptor targeted therapy with Yttrium-90 and Lutetium-177, the newest somatostatin analogues such as pasireotide and angiogenic inhibitors.
  • In conclusion, with the increasing number of investigative procedures and therapeutic options available to diagnose and treat carcinoid tumors, it is vital to have a multidisciplinary approach.
  • Furthermore, additional scientific research and controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of the many treatment options, which for these rare tumors can only be achieved by collaboration.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Biochemistry. Embolization, Therapeutic. Gastrinoma / therapy. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Insulinoma / therapy. Liver Transplantation. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Patient Selection. Receptors, Peptide / physiology. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Vipoma / therapy. von Hippel-Lindau Disease / complications

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  • (PMID = 19942827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-421X
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
  • [Number-of-references] 160
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12. Frezza EE, Wachtel MS, Barragan B, Chiriva-Internati M, Cobos E: The role of radiofrequency ablation in multiple liver metastases to debulk the tumor: a pilot study before alternative therapies. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A; 2007 Jun;17(3):282-4
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  • [Title] The role of radiofrequency ablation in multiple liver metastases to debulk the tumor: a pilot study before alternative therapies.
  • INTRODUCTION: In this study, our aim was to proceed with the first study of our patients by evaluating different metastatic tumor to the liver to check whether, after debulking the tumor with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), the chemotherapy, could increase the survival in these patients as a pilot study before applying alternative therapies in the future.
  • The tumors considered were carcinoid (3), gastrinoma (3), a new endocrine of unknown origin (2), colorectal (2), and breast (1).
  • All other patients are still alive, although 2 experienced hepatic recurrences.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The 11 patients in this series showed that RFA combined with chemotherapy is a viable therapeutic choice for patients with cancer that has metastasized to the liver.
  • New therapies are still needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Catheter Ablation. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Cause of Death. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrinoma / secondary. Humans. Laparoscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Myocardial Infarction / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Pilot Projects. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17570770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-6429
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Panzuto F, Nasoni S, Delle Fave G: [Medical treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumours]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):145-8

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  • [Title] [Medical treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Terapia medica dei tumori neuroendocrini digestivi.
  • Surgery is the only therapy able to cure patients with digestive neuroendocrine tumor.
  • In these cases, medical treatment plays a critical role, because of its ability to control symptoms in functioning tumors and to inhibit tumor growth.
  • Different therapeutic approaches, such as chemotherapy, hepatic artery chemoembolization and targeted radio-nuclide therapy can be used alone or combined to the biologic treatment with somatostatin analogues and interferon.
  • However, an accurate staging by imaging procedures plus a histological, immunohistochemical and biomolecular examination must be performed before planning an optimal medical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Digestive System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / radiotherapy. Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Embolization, Therapeutic. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Proteins / drug effects. Neoplasm Staging. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatostatin / drug effects. Retrospective Studies. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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14. Modlin IM, Latich I, Kidd M, Zikusoka M, Eick G: Therapeutic options for gastrointestinal carcinoids. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 May;4(5):526-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapeutic options for gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • Although wide surgical resection is the optimal curative therapy for carcinoid tumors, in most patients the presence of metastatic disease at diagnosis usually renders excision a palliative procedure.
  • In the stomach (types I and II) and rectum endoscopic excision may be adequate provided the lesion(s) are local.
  • Long-term therapy is focused on symptom alleviation and improvement of quality of life using somatostatin analogues, particularly in a subcutaneous depot formulation.
  • Conventional chemotherapy and external radiotherapy either alone or in a variety of permutations are of minimal efficacy and should be balanced against the decrease in quality of life often engendered by such agents.
  • Hepatic metastases may be amenable to surgery, radiofrequency ablation, or embolization either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents or isotopically loaded microspheres.
  • Rarely hepatic transplantation may be of benefit although controversy exists as to its actual use.
  • The keystone of current therapy remains the long-acting somatostatin analogues that alleviate symptomatology and substantially improve quality of life with minimal adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Chemoembolization, Therapeutic / methods. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Laparotomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Biological Products / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Interferons / therapeutic use. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Survival Rate. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16630755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-097050
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Products; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 233
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15. Gualdi GF, Casciani E, Polettini E: [Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors]. Clin Ter; 2001 Mar-Apr;152(2):107-21
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  • Functional tumors show early, because the neoplasm release the hormone produced when they are still small.
  • The localization and the evaluation of the extensive of these tumors has come fundamentally important both in correct presurgical detection and also in the diagnosis of metastases which excluded surgery.
  • Also, as the survival of 20% of the patients with metastases is only five years, the use of non-invasive imaging techniques is very important for the evaluation of results of the various therapies (chemotherapy, interferon, somatostatin).
  • Where SRS is negative and surgery is possible, Spiral CT or better still MRI is the best tool to check the results of chemotherapy in patients with hepatic metastases (already detected by SRS), because it is easier to compare the changes in size and morphology of metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiography. Apudoma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / diagnosis. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / radiography

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  • (PMID = 11441522.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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16. Amersi FF, McElrath-Garza A, Ahmad A, Zogakis T, Allegra DP, Krasne R, Bilchik AJ: Long-term survival after radiofrequency ablation of complex unresectable liver tumors. Arch Surg; 2006 Jun;141(6):581-7; discussion 587-8
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  • [Title] Long-term survival after radiofrequency ablation of complex unresectable liver tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between November 1, 1997, and January 31, 2005, we performed 219 RFA procedures to ablate 521 hepatic tumors in 181 patients.
  • The most common tumors included colorectal cancer (40.9%), hepatocellular carcinoma (14.9%), carcinoid tumor (13.8%), melanoma (9.4%), and breast cancer (5.0%).
  • The average number of RFA-treated lesions per procedure was 2.38 lesions; the mean lesion size was 3.56 cm (lesion size range, 0.8-9.0 cm).
  • At a mean follow-up of 33.2 months (follow-up range, 12-91 months), overall survival was 48.3 months for carcinoid tumors, 25.2 months for hepatocellular carcinoma, 18.5 months for melanoma, 29.7 months for colorectal cancer, and 30.1 months for breast cancer.
  • Seventy-eight patients (43%) developed recurrences.
  • CONCLUSION: A significant number of patients whose hepatic malignancies are unresectable or refractory to chemotherapy may be considered for RFA as part of a multimodality therapeutic regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation. Liver Neoplasms / mortality. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 16785359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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17. Sutcliffe R, Maguire D, Ramage J, Rela M, Heaton N: Management of neuroendocrine liver metastases. Am J Surg; 2004 Jan;187(1):39-46
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  • [Title] Management of neuroendocrine liver metastases.
  • BACKGROUND: The optimum management of neuroendocrine liver metastases, particularly the role of liver transplantation is ill-defined.
  • This, as well as the failure to standardize treatment, has probably contributed to the reported variations in outcome.
  • DATA SOURCES: To formulate a putative management protocol and to reevaluate the role of liver transplantation in patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases, a review of the published literature (Medline search) was conducted.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Isolated hepatic metastases should be resected when suitable.
  • Chemoembolization of liver metastases should precede resection of bulky disease and be used to palliate those with unresectable disease.
  • Radiofrequency ablation is suitable for smaller metastatic lesions (<3 cm diameter) in the liver.
  • Systemic treatment with somatostatin analogues or radioactive metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is appropriate to reduce symptoms and slow disease progression, but prospective data is required to define their exact roles as adjuvant and therapeutic agents.
  • Although current systemic chemotherapy, applied in isolation, may have a role in patients in whom other therapies have failed, its efficacy remains unproven.
  • Restriction of liver transplantation to the treatment of patients with carcinoid metastases with biologically favorable features, limited tumor bulk and without systemic disease may make transplantation a curative rather than a palliative treatment option in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14706584.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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