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1. Cantore M, Mambrini A, Fiorentini G, Rabbi C, Zamagni D, Caudana R, Pennucci C, Sanguinetti F, Lombardi M, Nicoli N: Phase II study of hepatic intraarterial epirubicin and cisplatin, with systemic 5-fluorouracil in patients with unresectable biliary tract tumors. Cancer; 2005 Apr 1;103(7):1402-7
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  • [Title] Phase II study of hepatic intraarterial epirubicin and cisplatin, with systemic 5-fluorouracil in patients with unresectable biliary tract tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with unresectable biliary tract carcinomas have a very poor prognosis.
  • To improve the efficacy and tolerance of the ECF regimen (epirubicin at a dose of 50 mg/m2, cisplatin at a dose of 60 mg/m2, and 5-fluorouracil [5-FU] at a dose of 200 mg/m2 per day by continuous infusion), the authors designed a novel approach that combined locoregional and systemic chemotherapy with the same agents at the same dosages.
  • METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients with advanced or metastatic biliary tumors were treated with epirubicin at a dose of 50 mg/m2 and cisplatin at a dose of 60 mg/m2 administered as a bolus in the hepatic artery on Day 1, combined with systemic continuous infusion of 5-FU at a dose of 200 mg/m2 per day, from Day 1 to Day 14, every 3 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Tumor sites were the intrahepatic bile ducts in 25 patients and the gallbladder in 5 patients.
  • The treatment was well tolerated with minimal hematologic toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This novel combined locoregional and systemic chemotherapeutic regimen was found to be active and safe for patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Survival Rate. Venous Thrombosis / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15726542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FPEPIR regimen
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2. Alberts SR, Al-Khatib H, Mahoney MR, Burgart L, Cera PJ, Flynn PJ, Finch TR, Levitt R, Windschitl HE, Knost JA, Tschetter LK: Gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in advanced biliary tract and gallbladder carcinoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase II trial. Cancer; 2005 Jan 1;103(1):111-8
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  • [Title] Gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in advanced biliary tract and gallbladder carcinoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase II trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine has broad activity in a variety of solid tumors including biliary tract carcinomas.
  • The authors evaluated 6-month survival, response, and toxicity associated with a combination of gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and leucovorin (LV) in patients with unresectable or metastatic biliary tract or gallbladder adenocarcinoma (ACA).
  • Patients with biliary tract ACA included 24 with hepatic disease (19 patients had intrahepatic disease and 5 patients had extrahepatic disease) and 4 with disease in the ampulla of Vater.
  • All patients were evaluable and received a median of 4 courses of treatment (range, 1-21 courses).
  • No treatment-related deaths occurred.
  • The median time to disease progression was 4.6 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.4-6.6%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This combination regimen was manageable in patients with advanced biliary tract and gallbladder ACA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15558814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35101; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35195; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35415; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35448; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37417; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-52352; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-60276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63826; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63848; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63849
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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3. Shichiri M, Fukai N, Kono Y, Tanaka Y: Rifampicin as an oral angiogenesis inhibitor targeting hepatic cancers. Cancer Res; 2009 Jun 1;69(11):4760-8
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  • [Title] Rifampicin as an oral angiogenesis inhibitor targeting hepatic cancers.
  • Angiogenesis is an important therapeutic target in cancer, and to fully exploit its therapeutic potential, combination chemotherapeutic/antiangiogenic regimens should be optimized and delivered earlier to more patients.
  • Rifampicin, a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from the rifamycins, is one of the most commonly used pharmaceutical compounds worldwide in the treatment of tuberculosis.
  • Clinically, low-dose p.o. administration of rifampicin to six high-risk patients with hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis resulted in a single occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma during the follow-up period of 97.3 +/- 29.1 (mean +/- SD) months.
  • Thus, the potent antiangiogenic properties of oral rifampicin therapy were effective in suppressing cancer progression.
  • It provides a promising new addition to antiangiogenic strategies for designing human cancer therapies.
  • Considering the clinical pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, which enters the enterohepatic circulation and undergoes subsequent hepatic accumulation, it may be especially beneficial as an antitumor agent targeting hepatobiliary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rifampin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatitis C / complications. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / etiology. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mice, Nude. Middle Aged. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 19458074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
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4. Donelli G, Guaglianone E, Di Rosa R, Fiocca F, Basoli A: Plastic biliary stent occlusion: factors involved and possible preventive approaches. Clin Med Res; 2007 Mar;5(1):53-60
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  • [Title] Plastic biliary stent occlusion: factors involved and possible preventive approaches.
  • Endoscopic biliary stenting is today the most common palliative treatment for patients suffering from obstructive jaundice associated with malignant hepatobiliary tumors or benign strictures.
  • However, recurrent jaundice, with or without cholangitis, is a major complication of a biliary endoprosthesis insertion.
  • Thus, stent removal and replacement with a new one frequently occurs as a consequence of device blockage caused by microbial biofilm growth and biliary sludge accumulation in the lumen.
  • Factors and mechanisms involved in plastic stent clogging arising from epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, as well as the possible strategies to prevent biliary stent failure, will be reviewed and discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract / pathology. Jaundice, Obstructive / etiology. Plastics. Stents
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Diseases. Bile Ducts / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / complications. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / therapy. Biofilms. Endoscopy / adverse effects. Equipment Contamination. Equipment Design. Equipment Failure. Humans. Prosthesis Implantation / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17456835.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-4182
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine & research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Plastics
  • [Number-of-references] 83
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1855334
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5. Hara Y, Kawasaki T, Yabata E, Gen T, Jibiki M, Kudoh A, Noguchi N, Kataoka T, Teramoto K, Iwai T: [A case of unresectable gallbladder cancer responding to combination therapy with hyperthermia and local chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Jan;27(1):117-20
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  • [Title] [A case of unresectable gallbladder cancer responding to combination therapy with hyperthermia and local chemotherapy].
  • A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for the control of gallbladder cancer.
  • A peritoneal metastasis, diagnosed as unresectable cancer, was detected during surgery in a previous hospital, and a biliary stent was introduced and gastrojejunostomy was performed.
  • In our hospital she was treated weekly with local chemotherapy (PFL; cisplatin 2.5-5 mg/body ia, fluorouracil 300 mg/body ia, and calcium folinate 30 mg/body ia, via the common hepatic arterial port) at the time of hyperthermia.
  • Hyperthermia was performed with a Thermox 500 (HEH-500 C) at the power of 500 watts for 45-60 minutes.
  • To enhance the hyperthermia effect, mitomycin C 2-4 mg/body ia via the common hepatic arterial port and 500 ml of 7.5% glucose infusion were given.
  • As a result of the combination therapy, the volume of the whole tumor was reduced to 60.9% on computed tomography, and diagnosed as PR.
  • The patient continued to receive the therapy for 1 year, and is now well.
  • Therefore, we conclude that combination therapy with hyperthermia and local chemotherapy seems beneficial in managing unresectable advanced gallbladder cancer, especially for the elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Hyperthermia, Induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 10660743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; PFL protocol
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6. Takeda Y, Hasuike Y, Kashiwazaki M, Tsujinaka T: [Adjuvant arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with biliary cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Oct;31(11):1835-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adjuvant arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with biliary cancer].
  • Although surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for biliary cancer, patients frequently develop liver metastasis, local recurrence, and peritoneal metastasis after complete resection.
  • Liver metastasis is a common mode of progression for biliary cancer, and the prognosis is extremely poor when it occurs.
  • Between January 2000 and December 2003, 18 out of 37 patients received adjuvant arterial infusion chemotherapy after curative resection of biliary cancer.
  • Nine of these 18 patients had bile duct cancer, seven had gallbladder cancer, and two had cancer of the papilla of Vater.
  • A catheter was placed using Seldinger's technique, with the tip being advanced into the common hepatic artery via the femoral artery.
  • Two cycles of this chemotherapy were delivered through an angiography catheter without using a reservoir port.
  • This treatment caused no severe systemic or abdominal complications.
  • The 1-year survival rate was 76.2% in the adjuvant chemotherapy group versus 52.7% in the non-adjuvant chemotherapy group, while the 3-year survival rates were 47.6% and 39.5%, respectively (Wilcoxon test, p=0.048).
  • Median overall survival was superior in the adjuvant chemotherapy group and the difference was significant.
  • High-dose arterial infusion of 5-FU seems to be a safe, tolerable, and effective regimen for preventing the postoperative recurrence of biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ampulla of Vater. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial / methods. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15553731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Matsuda T, Shikata S, Minato H, Aikawa I: [Two cases of advanced biliary tract cancer successfully treated with gemcitabine combination chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Oct;35(10):1779-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Two cases of advanced biliary tract cancer successfully treated with gemcitabine combination chemotherapy].
  • Case 1: A man in his sixties underwent extended right lobectomy of the liver for hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma (stage III, fCur B)in July2002.
  • CT scans revealed cancerous pleuritis in March 2005, and he was treated with the chemotherapy of GEM alone as first-line, combined chemotherapy of S-1 and GEM as second-line, and CDDP and GEM as third-line treatment.
  • These therapies have been effective for about 20 months.
  • Case 2: A woman in her sixties was diagnosed with advanced gallbladder cancer(stage IVb)in September 2005.
  • She was given combined chemotherapy of S-1+GEM as first-line, and CDDP+GEM as second-line treatment.
  • The main tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were shrunk, allowing us to perform extended hepatectomy.
  • Histopathologic examinations of the resected specimen of the liver involved by the tumor showed the increased infiltration of inflammatorycells and fibrosis.
  • Although there has been no established standard regimen, the combined chemotherapy based on GEM will be a provisional standard regimen for patients with advanced biliarytract cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18931588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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8. Morimoto H, Ajiki T, Takase S, Fujita T, Matsumoto T, Mita Y, Matsumoto I, Fujino Y, Suzuki Y, Kuroda Y, Ku Y: Resection of gallbladder cancer with hepatic metastasis after chemotherapy with gemcitabine. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(6):655-8
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  • [Title] Resection of gallbladder cancer with hepatic metastasis after chemotherapy with gemcitabine.
  • A 69-year-old man diagnosed as having gallbladder cancer with liver invasion and metastasis to Couinaud's hepatic segment 8 (S8) was referred to our hospital.
  • Because of the presence of liver metastasis, gemcitabine administration was chosen.
  • Although gemcitabine was effective for the liver metastasis, his serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level had gradually increased after 12 cycles of gemcitabine administration.
  • There was no distant metastasis other than the liver metastasis (manageable with gemcitabine) on detailed radiological examination.
  • Pathological examination demonstrated viable cancer cells with necrosis and fibrosis in the gallbladder, and fibrosis without viable cancer cells in the induration in liver S8.
  • Gemcitabine was re-administered as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In selected patients, gemcitabine treatment may be effective against gallbladder cancer with metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18987939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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9. Chung KY, Kemeny N: Regional and systemic chemotherapy for primary hepatobiliary cancers and for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2005 Oct;15(4):284-98
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  • [Title] Regional and systemic chemotherapy for primary hepatobiliary cancers and for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver.
  • Hepatic arterial infusional (HAI) chemotherapy is based on the premise that primary and metastatic tumors derive their blood supply from the hepatic artery, whereas normal liver derives its blood supply from the portal vein.
  • This approach has been extensively studied in liver-only colorectal metastasis patients, with 10 published prospective randomized clinical trials comparing fluoropyrimidine-based HAI therapy with systemic chemotherapy.
  • Most of these studies showed a statistically significant superior response rate and improved disease-free survival with HAI chemotherapy compared with systemic fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy alone.
  • In contrast, hepatobiliary tumors remain difficult to treat with overall poor response and survival with systemic chemotherapy.
  • Few clinical trials have attempted to address the role of HAI-based therapy for these regional tumors, although encouraging response rates up to 60% have been reported.
  • Therefore, the regional approach for hepatobiliary tumors deserves further investigation as well as randomized trials for adequate comparison to new systemic chemotherapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Digestive System Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Hepatic Artery / chemistry. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic


10. Ishii N, Suzuki S, Fujitani S, Tsukamoto M, Arai M, Iizuka Y, Fukuda K, Horiki N, Fujita Y: [A case of recurrent gall bladder cancer responding to chemotherapy with gemcitabine after endoscopic metallic biliary stent implantation]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Aug;35(8):1403-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of recurrent gall bladder cancer responding to chemotherapy with gemcitabine after endoscopic metallic biliary stent implantation].
  • Computed tomography showed the biliary duct was obstructed by recurrent gall bladder cancer at the hepatic hilum.
  • After endoscopic metallic biliary stent implantation, gemcitabine(700 mg/m(2) day)was administered once a week for two weeks followed by a week of no treatment.
  • After three courses of the chemotherapy, computed tomography showed that the tumor at the hepatic hilum was no longer visible and that the serum CA19-9 level was reduced to normal.
  • Grade 2 appetite loss and grade 3 neutropenia were observed as adverse reactions to the treatment.
  • Gemcitabine therapy after endoscopic intervention was safe and effective in this case of recurrent gall bladder cancer with obstructive jaundice.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Metals. Stents
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Endoscopes. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18701859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Metals; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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11. Wiedmann M, Schoppmeyer K, Witzigmann H, Hauss J, Mössner J, Caca K: [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder]. Z Gastroenterol; 2005 Mar;43(3):305-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie von Gallengangs- und Gallenblasenkarzinomen.
  • Carcinoma of the biliary tree are rare tumours of the gastrointestinal tract with a rising incidence during the last years.
  • Biliary neoplasms are classified into intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumour, middle and distal extrahepatic tumours), gallbladder cancer, and ampullary carcinoma.
  • Transformation of normal into malignant bile duct tissue requires a chain of consecutive gene mutations, similar to the adenoma-dysplasia-carcinoma-sequence in colon cancer.
  • Abdominal ultrasound, combined non-invasive magnetic resonance cholangiography/tomography (MRC/MRT), and facultatively endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for unclear diagnosis, represent the gold standard for primary diagnosis.
  • In contrast, there has been no clinical benefit for adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies.
  • For palliation, bile duct stenting and photodynamic therapy are established methods.
  • Radio- and chemotherapy should be reserved for clinical studies.
  • New therapeutic approaches include brachytherapy, the use of modern chemotherapeutics, COX-2- and tyrosine kinase-receptor-inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Gallbladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Ampulla of Vater. Bile Ducts / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy. Brachytherapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Gallbladder / pathology. Hepatectomy. Hepatic Duct, Common. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / diagnosis. Klatskin Tumor / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Stents. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Z Gastroenterol. 2005 May;43(5):473-5 [15871071.001]
  • (PMID = 15765304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 153
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12. Miyazaki M: [The treatments of hepatic metastasis from pancreato-biliary cancer]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2003 Oct;104(10):717-20
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  • [Title] [The treatments of hepatic metastasis from pancreato-biliary cancer].
  • Hepatic metastases of pancreatobiliary cancer have a dismal patient prognosis of approximately 1 year after diagnosis.
  • There have been a few reports in the literature on aggressive treatment of these patients with the intention of cure.
  • For hepatic metastases from biliary cancer, hepatic resection has been performed in a small number of patients, resulting in a median survival time of less than 12 months.
  • In our series of 7 patients, median survival time was 9 months.
  • For hepatic metastases of gallbladder carcinoma, long-term (> 3-year) survivors have been reported.
  • In our series of 16 patients, median survival time was 8 months, but one patient is still alive after more than 5 years.
  • For simultaneous hepatic metastases of pancreas cancer.
  • The median survival times in their series were 11 and 6 months after hepatic resection and pancreaticoduodenectomy, respectively.
  • These results cannot justify aggressive resection for patients with hepatic metastases of pancreatic cancer.
  • In most series previously reported, the treatment for hepatic metastases from pancreatobiliary malignancies was systemic and regional chemotherapy, especially hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • However, there is no evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of cancer chemotherapy on prognosis.
  • Therefore new therapeutic modalities should be developed to improve the outcome of the treatment of hepatic metastases of pancreatobiliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14579758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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13. Dawes LG: Gallbladder cancer. Cancer Treat Res; 2001;109:145-55
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  • [Title] Gallbladder cancer.
  • Gallbladder cancer often presents with advanced disease.
  • Prognostic factors that influence the success of aggressive surgical therapy include depth of invasion, extent of hepatic infiltration, histologic grade, presence of venous, lymphatic or perineural invasion, and lymph node metastasis.
  • Tumors with tumor limited to the subserosal layer, hepatic infiltration that is only 5 mm or less, papillary or well differentiated adenocarcinomas, tumors with no venous, lymphatic or perineural invasion and lymph node metastasis limited to the hepatoduodenal ligament have the best prognosis with surgery (15, 16, 36).
  • Extended cholecystectomy with lymph node dissection has improved the results of treating T2 gallbladder cancers.
  • When surgical resection is not possible, endoscopic stenting of the biliary tree for palliation of obstructive jaundice is effective.
  • Earlier detection or more effective chemotherapy will be needed to significantly improve the prognosis of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy / methods. Gallbladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 11775433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment and research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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14. Fuks D, Regimbeau JM: [Role of exploratory laparoscopy in hepato-biliary malignancies]. J Chir (Paris); 2008 Jan-Feb;145(1):16-9
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  • [Title] [Role of exploratory laparoscopy in hepato-biliary malignancies].
  • [Transliterated title] Place de la coelioscopie exploratrice en cancérologie hépatobiliaire.
  • In patients with hepatic or biliary malignancy which is presumed by pre-operative studies to be resectable, exploratory laparoscopy permits the avoidance of laparotomy in 20-50% of cases.
  • This approach diminishes operative time, hospital stay, delay in starting chemotherapy, and cost.
  • 1) cancer of the gallbladder;.
  • 2) hilar cholangiocarcinoma Stage T2-T3; and: 3) hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer or hepatocellular cancer with poor prognostic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cost-Benefit Analysis. Evidence-Based Medicine. Hospitalization / economics. Humans. Laparotomy / economics. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18438277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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15. Endo I, Masunari H, Sugita M, Morioka D, Tanaka K, Togo S, Sekido H, Yoshida T, Shimada H: [Indications for combined resection and reconstruction of the hepatic artery in biliary tract carcinoma]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2001 Nov;102(11):820-5

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  • [Title] [Indications for combined resection and reconstruction of the hepatic artery in biliary tract carcinoma].
  • More than 10 years have passed since hepatic artery resection was first performed for the treatment of biliary tract cancer.
  • The safety of this procedure has been established with the introduction of the microsurgery technique.
  • However, the benefits of and indications for this treatment have not yet been clarified.
  • Twenty-three patients underwent vascular resection (portal vein in 7, portal vein + hepatic artery in 9, hepatic artery in 7) among 114 resected patients with biliary tract cancer in our institution.
  • The right hepatic artery was reconstructed by end-to-end anastomosis in most cases.
  • Cumulative 5-year survival rates of vascular resection patients with hilar bile duct cancer, lower bile duct cancer, gallbladder cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma were 14.8%, 25%, 0%, and 0%, respectively.
  • The longest survival period among patients with hilar bile duct cancer and lower bile duct cancer was 85 months and 65 months, respectively, whereas it was 15 months in gallbladder cancer and 20 months in cholangiocarcinoma patients.
  • The longest surviving cholangiocarcinoma patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy should be administered to gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma patients, because vascular resection alone does not result in prolongation of life in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatic Artery / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiocarcinoma / mortality. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11729649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Nestler G, Halloul Z, Evert M, Dombrowski F, Lippert H, Meyer F: Myogenous sarcoma of the gallbladder with a hemangiopericytomatous pattern. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2007;14(2):197-9
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  • [Title] Myogenous sarcoma of the gallbladder with a hemangiopericytomatous pattern.
  • Primary sarcoma of the gallbladder is a very rare neoplasm, and there are few instances of its diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • We describe a 66-year-old male patient with a sarcoma of the gallbladder.
  • He initially underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, converted to an open procedure.
  • Histology showed a primary sarcoma of the gallbladder (NOS).
  • A relaparotomy, with resection of the cystic stump, anatomical hepatic resection of the fifth segment, including the bed of gallbladder, and lymphadenectomy was performed a few days later.
  • Histological investigation revealed a malignant mesenchymal tumor lesion, which was classified as a myogenous sarcoma with a hemangiopericytomatous pattern.
  • After an 11-month, uneventful, postoperative course, local tumor recurrence was diagnosed.
  • Palliative chemotherapy was scheduled, but the patient died of advanced tumor recurrence 10 days after this diagnosis.
  • Despite a poor overall prognosis, extensive surgical resection is favored for myogeneous sarcoma of the gallbladder; this procedure is based on precise clarification of the histopathological diagnosis, and can be followed by attempts with radiation of chemotherapy if early diagnosis-finding has failed.
  • This approach allowed, in our patient with this rare neoplasm, a remarkable tumor-free survival of almost 1 year.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17384914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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17. Fiebiger WC, Scheithauer W, Traub T, Kurtaran A, Gedlicka C, Kornek GV, Virgolini I, Raderer M: Absence of therapeutic efficacy of the somatostatin analogue lanreotide in advanced primary hepatic cholangiocellular cancer and adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder despite in vivo somatostatin-receptor expression. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2002 Feb;37(2):222-5
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  • [Title] Absence of therapeutic efficacy of the somatostatin analogue lanreotide in advanced primary hepatic cholangiocellular cancer and adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder despite in vivo somatostatin-receptor expression.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the biliary system is a rare tumour entity, and patients with advanced disease face a dismal prognosis.
  • Because of the absence of standard chemotherapy for advanced biliary carcinoma and reports of expression of receptors for somatostatin (SST), we performed a phase II study to evaluate the clinical potential of the long-acting SST analogue lanreotide (LAN) for treatment of this disease.
  • METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with histologically verified primary hepatic cholangiocellular cancer or primary adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder were enrolled in the study.
  • Before initiation of therapy, SST-receptor scintigraphy using 111In-DOTA-LAN was carried out in eight patients to check for in vivo expression of SST receptors.
  • Restaging by means of computed tomography was performed every 8 weeks, and response was assessed according to World Health Organisation standard criteria.
  • Side effects were generally mild, only two patients complained of mild nausea and one patient had meteorism attributed to therapy.
  • Therapeutic results, however, were disappointing, with only one patient demonstrating complete remission (CR), which lasted for 18 months before diagnosis of recurrence.
  • Four patients had stable disease (SD) lasting between 3.5 and 9+ months accompanied by weight gain and improvement in performance status in 2 cases, while the remaining 15 patients progressed during therapy.
  • The median time to progression was 2.5 months (range 1-18), and the median survival was 4.5 months (range 1.5-18+ months).
  • No clear-cut correlation between scan result and therapeutic outcome could be demonstrated, as not only the patient with CR and two with SD, but also five patients with progressive disease had a positive scan result.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data show that adenocarcinomas of the gallbladder and hepatic cholangiocellular carcinomas express SST receptors in vivo as judged by 111In-DOTA-LAN scintigraphy.
  • Despite this fact, LAN did not display therapeutic activity in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Heterocyclic Compounds. Humans. Male. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 11843061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Heterocyclic Compounds; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / indium 111-DOTA-lanreotide; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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18. Nakeeb A, Tran KQ, Black MJ, Erickson BA, Ritch PS, Quebbeman EJ, Wilson SD, Demeure MJ, Rilling WS, Dua KS, Pitt HA: Improved survival in resected biliary malignancies. Surgery; 2002 Oct;132(4):555-63; discission 563-4
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  • [Title] Improved survival in resected biliary malignancies.
  • BACKGROUND: For many years the prognosis for patients with biliary malignancies has been poor.
  • However, recent advances in radiology and laparoscopy have improved staging, and active biliary stent management may improve outcome in these patients.
  • In the past the goal with surgery was to excise all gross tumor.
  • Now, the surgical goal is to achieve negative microscopic margins even if a major hepatic resection is required.
  • Similarly, chemotherapy or radiation was frequently given in isolation, but chemoradiation has become the standard.
  • METHODS: From 1990 through 2001, 140 patients with biliary malignancies were treated at the Medical College of Wisconsin.
  • One hundred eleven malignancies were cholangiocarcinomas (intrahepatic, 22%; perihilar, 65%; and distal, 13%), and 29 were gallbladder (GB) cancers.
  • Eighty-six of the 140 patients (61%) underwent exploration (intrahepatic, 58%; perihilar, 57%; distal, 67%, and GB, 72%).
  • Forty-four of these 86 patients (51%) underwent resection (intrahepatic, 64%; perihilar, 41%; distal, 70%; and GB, 52%).
  • Patients resected between 1998 and 2001 (n = 25) had a median survival longer than 44 months with a 3-year actuarial survival of 70% as compared to patients resected between 1990 and 1997 (n = 19), who had a median survival of 13 months and a 3-year actuarial survival of 21% (P <.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that (1) approximately one third of patients with biliary malignancies have resectable disease and (2) surgery in carefully selected patients with adjuvant chemoradiation has improved survival in resected patients.
  • We suspect that a combination of improved staging, active biliary stenting, safe but extensive surgery to obtain negative margins, and newer techniques for chemoradiation have resulted in improved outcomes for patients with biliary malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12407338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Goldberg SR, Neifeld JP: Incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer: role of cryotherapy. J Surg Oncol; 2004 Aug 1;87(2):91-4
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  • [Title] Incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer: role of cryotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Carcinoma of the gallbladder is the most common malignancy of the biliary tree.
  • There is no standard surgical approach to the treatment of gallbladder cancer.
  • Extended cholecystectomy with partial or complete hepatic lobectomy has resulted in high morbidity and poor long-term survival.
  • This report describes cryotherapy of the gallbladder fossa as an alternative to liver resection in the treatment of gallbladder cancer.
  • METHODS: A group of patients underwent cryotherapy to the gallbladder fossa for local control of gallbladder cancer.
  • Portal lymph node dissection was performed at the same time and patients with positive lymph nodes received post-operative chemotherapy and radiation; negative node patients were observed.
  • Gallbladder cancer had been incidentally found in all patients.
  • Complications included biliary stricture, pleural effusion, congestive heart failure exacerbation, and pulmonary embolus.
  • Mean disease-free survival for patients with T2 tumors was 11.7 months.
  • Mean disease-free survival for patients with T3 tumors was 16.3 months.
  • No local recurrences have been detected in the gallbladder fossa.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests cryotherapy to the gallbladder fossa done concomitantly with portal lymph node dissection may represent a safe and effective alternative to hepatic resection in the treatment of gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Cryotherapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15282703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Angelini C, Mussi C, Crippa S, Sartori P, Isimbaldi G, Bonardi C, Uggeri F: Gallbladder carcinoid: a case report. Chir Ital; 2003 Jul-Aug;55(4):571-3
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoid: a case report.
  • Carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumours that rarely originate in the biliary tract.
  • We report a case of gallbladder carcinoid associated with cholelithiasis extending to hepatic segments IV and V.
  • Cholecystectomy, locoregional lymphadenectomy and 4th and 5th hepatic segment resection were performed.
  • The patient underwent chemotherapy and was also treated with somatostatin analogues.
  • We stress the rarity and aggressive behaviour of gallbladder carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor. Gallbladder Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 12938605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4773
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia italiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chir Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Matsukuma A, Araki K, Kawaguchi H, Kusumoto H, Haraguchi M: [A case of recurrent gallbladder cancer responding to low-dose 5-FU and CDDP therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2002 Aug;29(8):1465-8
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent gallbladder cancer responding to low-dose 5-FU and CDDP therapy].
  • We treated a patient with a postoperative local recurrence of gallbladder cancer who showed a long-term response to low-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) therapy.
  • A 60-year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced gallbladder cancer, for which she underwent an extended cholecystectomy, bile duct resection and a partial resection of the duodenum in March 2000.
  • Eight months later, she presented with cholangitis and obstructive jaundice due to a local recurrence of the gallbladder cancer and her serum CA19-9 level had increased to 1,991.6 U/ml.
  • The biliary obstruction was treated by PTCD and a subsequent self-expanding metallic stent.
  • In addition, she was also placed on combined chemotherapy with low-dose 5-FU and CDDP.
  • Her serum CA19-9 level thereafter gradually decreased, so that after eight months it was within the normal range, and the recurrent tumor at the hepatic hilus was also observed to have decreased in size on the CT scan.
  • As of this writing she has undergone eight courses of low-dose 5-FU and CDDP therapy over about a year and has been able to maintain a good quality of life without any severe adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12214479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CF regimen
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22. Fujita T, Ajiki T, Ku Y: [A case of recurrent gallbladder cancer with a remarkable tumor response to S-1]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Aug;37(8):1599-601
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent gallbladder cancer with a remarkable tumor response to S-1].
  • We herein report a case of recurrent gallbladder cancer with a remarkable tumor response to S-1 after a failure of gemcitabine (GEM) treatment.
  • A 70-year-old man underwent cholecystectomy and abdominal drainage because of acute cholecystitis and biliary peritonitis.
  • Postoperative pathological diagnosis revealed gallbladder cancer with subserous layer invasion.
  • After eight months, abdominal CT showed a local tumor recurrence at the hepatic hylum, for which 4 courses of GEM were administered.
  • The therapy was considered ineffective because of the increase in tumor size, and a new lesion in the segment 6 of liver.
  • After two courses of S-1, the local recurrent tumor showed a marked decrease in size and liver metastases almost disappeared.
  • The response duration was approximately 8 months, and median survival time from the start of GEM treatment was 17. 5 months.
  • S-1, as a second-line chemotherapeutic drug, produced remarkable local tumor control and most likely survival time with good quality of life in this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Combinations. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20716896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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23. Soma I, Hasuike Y, Hayashi N, Fukuchi N, Izawa H, Yoshida T, Ebisui C, Sakita I, Fujimoto T, Koshino T, Izumiyama K: [A case report--Efficacy of combination therapy to unresectable advanced gall bladder carcinoma--palliative operation, hepatic arterial infusion therapy, and radiation therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Oct;31(11):1903-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

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  • [Title] [A case report--Efficacy of combination therapy to unresectable advanced gall bladder carcinoma--palliative operation, hepatic arterial infusion therapy, and radiation therapy].
  • A patient of advanced gall bladder carcinoma with liver metastases and direct invasions to the duodenum and liver underwent a palliative operation, 3 hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) therapies, and radiation therapy at the obstructive common biliary duct. (Palliative operation was a partial resection of duodenum and transverse colon, HAI therapy with 5-FU (1 g/day) was given as a continuous infusion for 6 days, radiation therapy was given 2 Gy/day for 20 times) After the combination therapy, the main tumor of gall bladder and hepatic metastases were decreased and tumor markers were normalized. (CEA 15.1 ng/ml, CA19-9 93 U/ml to CEA 4.4 ng/ml, CA19-9 29 U/ml) Then, an expandable metallic stent (EMS) could be inserted to the stenotic common biliary duct after radiation therapy.
  • Although para-aotic lymph nodes were existent, systemic chemotherapy (UFT 300 mg/day p.o., MMC 2 mg/week div) has been performed as an outpatient with a good quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Combinations. Duodenal Neoplasms / pathology. Duodenal Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Stents. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Uracil / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15553754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / UFT(R) drug; 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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24. Kasuya K, Shimazu M, Suzuki M, Kuroiwa Y, Usuda J, Itoi T, Tsuchida A, Aoki T: Novel photodynamic therapy against biliary tract carcinoma using mono-L: -aspartyl chlorine e6: basic evaluation for its feasibility and efficacy. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci; 2010 May;17(3):313-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel photodynamic therapy against biliary tract carcinoma using mono-L: -aspartyl chlorine e6: basic evaluation for its feasibility and efficacy.
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, a second-generation photosensory agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT), mono-L: -aspartyl chlorine e6 (NPe6), which degrades rapidly in vivo, has been developed.
  • We evaluated its feasibility and efficacy for treatment in biliary tract carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A transmittance of semiconductor laser light (664 nm), sensitivity of a human biliary tract carcinoma cell line, and disorder to normal tissue including Glissonian constructs and adjacent hepatocytes were investigated.
  • The NOZ cell-tumor volume was reduced significantly 14 days after irradiation in the PDT group (PDT 69.9 +/- 44.6 mm(3) vs control 296.3 +/- 239.9 mm(3) P < 0.05).
  • No severe hepatic disorder including Glisson components was observed by the histological findings.
  • CONCLUSION: NPe6 PDT was effective in carcinomas even in the presence of bile, and causes no serious complication for the liver and Glisson structure.
  • Therefore, NPe6 PDT will be a useful candidate as a new therapy for biliary tract carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Feasibility Studies. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hepatocytes / drug effects. Humans. Lethal Dose 50

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  • (PMID = 20464561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; P4ROX5ELT2 / Talaporfin
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25. Morganti AG, Trodella L, Valentini V, Macchia G, Alfieri S, Smaniotto D, Luzi S, Costamagna G, Doglietto GB, Cellini N: Concomitant gemcitabine (Gemzar) and extended nodes irradiation in the treatment of pancreatic and biliary carcinoma: a phase I study. Onkologie; 2003 Aug;26(4):325-9
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  • [Title] Concomitant gemcitabine (Gemzar) and extended nodes irradiation in the treatment of pancreatic and biliary carcinoma: a phase I study.
  • Several studies on pancreatic or biliary carcinoma evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of gemcitabine when combined with irradiation of the macroscopic tumor.
  • However, most of these neoplasms metastasize to the regional lymph nodes.
  • Aim of this report is to determine the MTD of weekly gemcitabine when combined with extended field irradiation (tumor plus nodal irradiation).
  • External beam radiation (ERT) was delivered to the tumor (or tumor bed) and regional lymph nodes by using a three-field technique.
  • There were no treatment-related deaths.
  • At the 5th dose level (300 mg/m(2)), 3 patients experienced DLT: 1 had grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity (painful erosion of gastric mucosa), 1 had uncomplicated grade 3 leukopenia and 1 grade 3 change in liver biochemistry tests.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on this study, the recommended dose for weekly short infusional gemcitabine combined with radiation therapy to the tumor and lymph nodes is 250 mg/m(2).
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hepatic Duct, Common. Klatskin Tumor / radiotherapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Lymphatic Irradiation. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 12972696.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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26. Balkman C: Hepatobiliary neoplasia in dogs and cats. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract; 2009 May;39(3):617-25
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  • [Title] Hepatobiliary neoplasia in dogs and cats.
  • Hepatobiliary tumors are uncommon in dogs and cats.
  • Liver enzyme concentrations are commonly elevated.
  • Early detection for massive-type lesions may allow for surgical resection and prolonged survival especially for hepatocellular carcinomas.
  • Chemotherapy, in general, is not effective for primary liver tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / veterinary. Cat Diseases. Dog Diseases. Liver Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19524795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1306
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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27. De Vree JM, Ottenhoff R, Bosma PJ, Smith AJ, Aten J, Oude Elferink RP: Correction of liver disease by hepatocyte transplantation in a mouse model of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. Gastroenterology; 2000 Dec;119(6):1720-30
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  • [Title] Correction of liver disease by hepatocyte transplantation in a mouse model of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 3 have a mutation in the MDR3 gene, encoding the hepatocanalicular phospholipid translocator.
  • In general, liver failure develops within the first decade of life in these patients.
  • We aimed to test the efficacy of hepatocyte transplantation and liver repopulation in this disease model.
  • METHODS: Transgenic MDR3-expressing hepatocytes as well as normal mdr2(+/+) hepatocytes were transplanted in mdr2(-/-) mice, and liver repopulation was assessed by immunohistochemistry and measurement of biliary lipid secretion.
  • RESULTS: Transplanted hepatocytes partially repopulated the liver, restored phospholipid secretion, and diminished liver pathology.
  • After 1 year, however, these animals developed multiple hepatic tumors, and biliary phospholipid secretion decreased.
  • In transplanted animals receiving a control diet, repopulation was slower but eventually remained stable at 21%, while liver pathology was completely abrogated and tumor formation was prevented.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that moderate liver pathology is a safe condition for the induction of effective hepatocyte repopulation and that this therapy is potentially applicable to patients with PFIC type 3.
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family B / genetics. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics. Animals. Cholates / administration & dosage. Cholates / pharmacology. Diet. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / prevention & control. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout / genetics. Mice, Transgenic / genetics. Phospholipids / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11113093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5085
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family B; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Cholates; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / multidrug resistance protein 3
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28. Bismuth H, Majno PE: Hepatobiliary surgery. J Hepatol; 2000;32(1 Suppl):208-24

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  • [Title] Hepatobiliary surgery.
  • The transformation of liver and biliary tract surgery into a full speciality began with the application of functional anatomy to segmental surgery in the 1950's, reinforced by ultrasound and new imaging techniques.
  • The spectrum of gall-stone disease encountered by the hepatobiliary surgeon has changed with the laparoscopic approach to cholecystectomy.
  • Bile duct cancers, including hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder cancers have a dismal reputation, but evidence is accumulating for better survivals from aggressive approaches performed by specialist hepatobiliary surgeons.
  • Hepatic surgery has increased in safety and effectiveness, largely due to the segmental approach, but also to experience with techniques for vascular control and exclusion used in liver transplantation.
  • Techniques such as portal vein embolisation, which induces hypertrophy of the future remnant liver, percutaneous local tumour destruction using cryotherapy or radiofrequency tumour coagulation and more effective chemotherapy are beginning to increase the number of patients who can undergo curative resection.
  • In liver transplantation, segmental surgery has been applied to graft reduction and to split liver grafts, and is opening new perspectives for living donor transplantation.
  • Today the limitation to survival in primary and metastatic liver cancer lies not in the surgical technique but in the difficulty of dealing with microscopic and extrahepatic disease.
  • Progress in these fields will enable the hepatobiliary surgeon to further extend the possibilities for proposing curative resections.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Ducts / surgery. Liver / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures. Cholelithiasis / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Liver Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 10728806.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Number-of-references] 169
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29. Barbaro B, Caputo F, Tebala C, Di Stasi C, Vellone M, Giuliante F, Nuzzo G, Bonomo L: Preoperative right portal vein embolisation: indications and results. Radiol Med; 2009 Jun;114(4):553-70
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  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of right portal vein embolisation (PVE) in inducing contralateral liver hypertrophy before extended hepatectomy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six consecutive patients, 14 with liver metastases (ten from colorectal cancer; four from carcinoid tumours) and 12 with biliary cancers (ten Klatskin tumours; one gallbladder tumour; one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma) with insufficient predicted future remnant liver (FRL) underwent right PVE to induce hypertrophy of the contralateral hemiliver prior to surgical resection.
  • Total liver volume, tumour volume and FRL volume were calculated on a 3D workstation.
  • The ratio of the FRL to the total functional liver volume was <30% in all patients.
  • RESULTS: The FRL volume increased by 5%-25% (15% on average) after right PVE in patients with liver metastases and by 9%-19% (14% on average) in patients with biliary cancers.
  • In all patients, the ratio of FRL to functional liver volume was >or=30% after right PVE.
  • No postoperative deaths due to severe liver failure occurred in the 20 patients who underwent extended hepatectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Right PVE extends the indications for hepatectomy in patients with liver metastases and those with biliary cancers who have an insufficient potential hepatic functional reserve.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic. Hepatectomy / methods. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Portal Vein. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / drug therapy. Klatskin Tumor / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19367466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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30. Muneoka K, Shirai Y, Sasaki M, Wakai T, Sakata J, Kanda J, Wakabayashi H, Hatakeyama K: [Effect of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy on serum levels of 5-fluorouracil during S-1 treatment for pancreaticobiliary malignancy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Aug;37(8):1503-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

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  • [Title] [Effect of pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy on serum levels of 5-fluorouracil during S-1 treatment for pancreaticobiliary malignancy].
  • AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical procedures on the serum levels of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients undergoing S-1 treatment for pancreaticobiliary malignancy.
  • METHODOLOGY: From January 2003 through December 2008, 27 chemotherapy-naive patients who underwent a surgical procedure for pancreaticobiliary malignancy received S-1 chemotherapy for unresectable or recurrent disease.
  • The primary site of disease was: the extra hepatic bile duct (n=10); gallbladder (n=8); pancreas (n=6); or ampulla of Vater (n=3).
  • The surgical procedure was: pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) (n=6); combined major hepatic and bile duct resection (n=6); bilioenteric anastomosis (n=4); or exploratory laparotomy (n=11).
  • S-1 (80-120 mg/day) was administered orally twice daily for 28 days, followed by 14 days without therapy.
  • Although grade 3 watery eye developed in one patient, neither grade 4 toxicities nor treatment-related deaths were observed.
  • The overall response rate was 19%, the median overall survival time was 9 months, and the 1-year cumulative survival rate was 11%.
  • The maximum levels of 5-FU in the sera of individual patients differed significantly according to the surgical procedure (Kruskal-Wallis test; p=0.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The type of operative procedure appears to influence the serum levels of 5-FU in S-1-treated surgical patients with pancreaticobiliary malignancy.
  • Given the possibility of elevated levels of 5-FU in the sera of patients who are treated with S-1 after PPPD, adverse events must be monitored carefully in this cohort.
  • [MeSH-major] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / surgery. Fluorouracil / blood. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20716875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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31. Ben-Josef E, Normolle D, Ensminger WD, Walker S, Tatro D, Ten Haken RK, Knol J, Dawson LA, Pan C, Lawrence TS: Phase II trial of high-dose conformal radiation therapy with concurrent hepatic artery floxuridine for unresectable intrahepatic malignancies. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 1;23(34):8739-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of high-dose conformal radiation therapy with concurrent hepatic artery floxuridine for unresectable intrahepatic malignancies.
  • PURPOSE: A phase II trial was conducted to determine if high-dose radiation with concurrent hepatic arterial floxuridine would improve survival in patients with unresectable intrahepatic malignancies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional conformal high-dose radiation therapy was delivered concurrently with hepatic arterial floxuridine in 128 patients.
  • The radiation dose was based on a normal-tissue complication probability model and subjected the patient to an estimated maximum risk of radiation-induced liver disease of 10% to 15%.
  • RESULTS: The median radiation dose delivered was 60.75 Gy (1.5-Gy fractions bid).
  • At a median follow-up time of 16 months (26 months in patients who were alive) the median survival was 15.8 months (95% CI, 12.6 to 18.3 months), significantly longer than in the historical control.
  • Primary hepatobiliary tumors had a significantly greater tendency to remain confined to the liver than did colorectal cancer metastases.
  • Overall toxicity was acceptable, with 27 patients (21%) and 11 patients (9%) developing grade 3 and 4 toxicity, respectively, and one treatment-related death.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that, compared with historical controls, high-dose focal liver irradiation with hepatic artery floxuridine prolongs survival in patients with unresectable chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer and primary hepatobiliary tumors.
  • This provides a rationale for intensification of local therapy for unresectable hepatobiliary cancers and integration of this regimen with newer systemic therapy for patients with colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Floxuridine / therapeutic use. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bile Duct Neoplasms / secondary. Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16314634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85684; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR00042
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 039LU44I5M / Floxuridine
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32. Menias CO, Surabhi VR, Prasad SR, Wang HL, Narra VR, Chintapalli KN: Mimics of cholangiocarcinoma: spectrum of disease. Radiographics; 2008 Jul-Aug;28(4):1115-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant hepatobiliary neoplasm, accounting for approximately 15% of liver cancers.
  • A wide spectrum of neoplastic and nonneoplastic conditions of the biliary tract may masquerade as cholangiocarcinoma, adding to the complexity of management in patients suspected to have cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Mimics of cholangiocarcinoma constitute a heterogeneous group of entities that includes primary sclerosing cholangitis, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cholangiopathy, autoimmune pancreatitis, inflammatory pseudotumor, Mirizzi syndrome, xanthogranulomatous cholangitis, sarcoidosis, chemotherapy-induced sclerosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, metastases, melanoma, lymphoma, leukemia, and carcinoid tumors.
  • In most cases, a definitive diagnosis can be established only with histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / radiography. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18635632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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33. Ferrari VD, Amoroso V, Valcamonico F, Fusi A, Simoncini E, Vasalli L, Rangoni G, Mambrini A, Marpicati P, Montini E, Marini G: Epirubicin, cisplatin, and raltitrexed in patients with advanced gastric and hepatobiliary carcinoma: a phase II study. Am J Clin Oncol; 2004 Oct;27(5):445-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epirubicin, cisplatin, and raltitrexed in patients with advanced gastric and hepatobiliary carcinoma: a phase II study.
  • The combination of epirubicin, cisplatin, and protracted venous-infusion 5-fluorouracil is the standard treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma in many European countries, and it is also an active regimen in hepatobiliary tumors.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical activity and toxicity of the combination of epirubicin, cisplatin, and raltitrexed in patients with advanced gastric and hepatobiliary tumors.
  • Twenty consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma, 7 with biliary-tract carcinoma, and 5 patients with hepatocarcinoma were treated with epirubicin (60 mg/m2), cisplatin (60 mg/m2) on day 1, and raltitrexed (1 mg/m2) on days 1 and 8, every 3 weeks.
  • Eight patients had locally advanced disease and 24 had metastatic tumors.
  • Seven of the 18 evaluable patients (39%) with gastric carcinoma and 2 of the 5 patients with hepatocarcinoma have a partial response; 1 minimal response and 4 stabilization of disease were documented in the 7 patients with biliary-tract carcinoma.
  • The median time to progression of the entire group was 6.8 months, and the median survival was 9.0 months.
  • The combination of epirubicin, cisplatin, and raltitrexed, using this schedule, is tolerable and has clinical activity in gastric and hepatobiliary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15596907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Thiophenes; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; FCB9EGG971 / raltitrexed; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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34. Kwon AH, Matsui Y, Ha-Kawa SK, Kamiyama Y: Functional hepatic volume measured by technetium-99m-galactosyl-human serum albumin liver scintigraphy: comparison between hepatocyte volume and liver volume by computed tomography. Am J Gastroenterol; 2001 Feb;96(2):541-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional hepatic volume measured by technetium-99m-galactosyl-human serum albumin liver scintigraphy: comparison between hepatocyte volume and liver volume by computed tomography.
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the usefulness of measuring the functional hepatic volume by single-photon emission CT with 99m-technetium galactosyl-human serum albumin scintigraphy (GSA-LV).
  • We then compared this value to the total hepatocyte volume and the hepatic volume determined from CT (CT-LV) in the patients with hepatobiliary tumors.
  • METHODS: Forty-seven patients were divided into two groups, the SM group (subsegmentectomy and monosegmentectomy) and the DT group (disegmentectomy and trisegmentectomy).
  • Recovery of the GSA-LV in the DT group was delayed, and about 90% of the volumetric and functional regeneration was observed within 6 months after the hepatectomy.
  • In contrast, the CT-LV of DT group patients with normal liver remnants returned to approximately 90% of their initial volume within 1 month after the hepatectomy, whereas patients with injured livers regenerated gradually and regained approximately 80% of their preoperative value by 6 months after the hepatectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the measurement of functional hepatic volume using the GSA-LV is useful in fully evaluating hepatic function based on hepatocyte volume.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver / radiography. Liver / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radiography. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Case-Control Studies. Cholangiocarcinoma / radiography. Cholangiocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Female. Hepatectomy. Hepatitis, Chronic / radiography. Hepatitis, Chronic / radionuclide imaging. Hepatocytes / physiology. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / radiography. Liver Cirrhosis / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Regeneration. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin. Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11232703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin; 0 / technetium Tc 99m DTPA-galactosyl-human serum albumin; VW78417PU1 / Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate
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35. Shichiri M, Tanaka Y: Inhibition of cancer progression by rifampicin: involvement of antiangiogenic and anti-tumor effects. Cell Cycle; 2010 Jan 1;9(1):64-68
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  • [Title] Inhibition of cancer progression by rifampicin: involvement of antiangiogenic and anti-tumor effects.
  • Very recently, we reported that an antituberculous agent, rifampicin, exerts potent inhibitory effects on hepatic tumors when administered orally at low doses.
  • However, rifampicin at the expected hepatobiliary concentrations after low oral doses showed more complete antiproliferative effects on endothelial cells, which make rifampicin favorable as an adjunct anticancer regimen.
  • Since rifampicin undergoes hepatic accumulation resulting from the enterohepatic circulation, it may be especially beneficial for targeting hepatobiliary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Rifampin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Liver Cirrhosis / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20016271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; VJT6J7R4TR / Rifampin
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