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1. Taboada GF, Luque RM, Neto LV, Machado Ede O, Sbaffi BC, Domingues RC, Marcondes JB, Chimelli LM, Fontes R, Niemeyer P, de Carvalho DP, Kineman RD, Gadelha MR: Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtypes (1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and correlation to in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to treatment with octreotide LAR. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Mar;158(3):295-303
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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtypes (1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and correlation to in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to treatment with octreotide LAR.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the somatostatin receptor subtype (SSTR) expression profile correlates with hormonal and tumor volume responses to postsurgical octreotide long acting repeatable (OCT LAR) treatment.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to evaluate the absolute mRNA copy numbers for all five SSTR subtypes in 22 somatotropinomas.
  • Response to OCT LAR was studied by hormone levels (GH and IGF-I) and tumor volume (sella turcica magnetic resonance imaging).
  • A positive correlation was also found between SSTR2 mRNA levels and the percentage decrease in tumor volume after 6 months of OCT LAR (r=0.79, P=0.002, n=12).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA expression levels in somatotropinomas correlate positively with in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to OCT LAR.

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  • (PMID = 18299461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / NIDDK 30677
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor subtype-4; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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2. Yetkin DO, Boysan SN, Tiryakioglu O, Yalin AS, Kadioglu P: Forty month follow-up of persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients treated with depot long acting somatostatin analog octreotide. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):459-64
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  • The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of octreotide long acting release (S-LAR) preparation on GH and IGF-1 serum concentrations and pituitary tumor size in patients with persistent and difficultly controlled acromegaly even after adjuvant irradiation and/or dopamine agonists.
  • Initially, pituitary adenoma volume was median: 1.18 ml [IQR: 0.08-3.50] and it shrank to 0.21 ml [IQR: 0-2.1] at 40 months (p = 0.08).
  • S-LAR is an effective treatment regimen in reducing GH and IGF-1 concentrations and as well as in shrinking tumor volume in persistent and difficultly controlled acromegalic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Comorbidity. Delayed-Action Preparations / adverse effects. Delayed-Action Preparations / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Glucose Tolerance Test. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 17495423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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3. Park C, Yang I, Woo J, Kim S, Kim J, Kim Y, Sohn S, Kim E, Lee M, Park H, Jung J, Park S: Somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype 2 and 5 gene expression in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: the relationship with endogenous srif activity and response to octreotide. Endocr J; 2004 Apr;51(2):227-36
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  • [Title] Somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype 2 and 5 gene expression in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: the relationship with endogenous srif activity and response to octreotide.
  • To investigate the potential pathophysiologic role of human SRIF receptor gene expression in GH-secreting adenomas in acromegalic patients, we studied the relationship between the SRIF receptor gene expression, endogenous SRIF activity and exogenous response to octreotide in 16 acromagalic patients.
  • Pituitary tumor SRIF receptor subtype 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5) mRNA levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR.
  • These results suggest common transcriptional and/or post-transcriptonal regulatory mechanisms for these SRIF receptor subtypes within GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • The functional observations suggest that the degree (or level) of sst2 and sst5 expression is critical for the ultimate GH response of somatotropinomas to endogenous SRIF tone and exogenous SRIF analogue therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adult. Female. Gene Expression. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15118275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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4. Fusco A, Gunz G, Jaquet P, Dufour H, Germanetti AL, Culler MD, Barlier A, Saveanu A: Somatostatinergic ligands in dopamine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 May;158(5):595-603
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  • OBJECTIVE: Ten percent of patients with prolactinoma fail to respond with normalization of prolactin (PRL) and tumor shrinkage under dopamine agonist (DA) therapy.
  • The resistance to treatment is linked to a loss of dopamine receptor 2 (D2DR).
  • D2DR remains the primary target for effective treatment of prolactinomas.

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  • (PMID = 18426817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BIM 23926; 0 / Ergolines; 0 / Ligands; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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5. Picard C, Silvy M, Gerard C, Buffat C, Lavaque E, Figarella-Branger D, Dufour H, Gabert J, Beckers A, Brue T, Enjalbert A, Barlier A: Gs alpha overexpression and loss of Gs alpha imprinting in human somatotroph adenomas: association with tumor size and response to pharmacologic treatment. Int J Cancer; 2007 Sep 15;121(6):1245-52
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  • [Title] Gs alpha overexpression and loss of Gs alpha imprinting in human somatotroph adenomas: association with tumor size and response to pharmacologic treatment.
  • Gs alpha, the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, is coded from the GNAS gene, which is imprinted in a tissue-specific manner.
  • Gs alpha is paternally silenced in normal pituitary, but Gs alpha imprinting relaxation is found in some tumoral tissue.
  • The paternal and maternal transcripts were quantified using allele-specific real-time PCR and FokI polymorphism.
  • As is the case for the gsp oncogene, high Gs alpha expression in gsp- tumors was associated with smaller tumor size and better octreotide sensitivity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Genomic Imprinting. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Blotting, Western. DNA Methylation. Humans. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / genetics. Prolactinoma / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17514647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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6. Bronstein MD: Acromegaly: molecular expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes and treatment outcome. Front Horm Res; 2006;35:129-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acromegaly: molecular expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes and treatment outcome.
  • SSTR2 and SSTR5 are usually expressed in GH-secreting pituitary tumors, and both octreotide and lanreotide bind preferentially to SSTR2 and, to a lesser extent, to SSTR5.
  • SA inhibitory effects on GH secretion and tumor cell proliferation can occur together or be dissociated events, depending on the tumor expression of SSTR subtypes involved in each mechanism.
  • The development of specific somatostatin subtypes analogs, mainly for SSTR5, of a SSTR2-SSTR5 bispecific compound, and of a "universal" analog with high affinity to SSTR1, 2, 3, and 5 showed preliminary, albeit promising results for the treatment of resistant somatotropic adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Drug Design. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Therapy, Combination. Gene Expression. Growth Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16809928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-3073
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Horm Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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7. Pawlikowski M, Melen-Mucha G: Perspectives of new potential therapeutic applications of somatostatin analogs. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2003 Feb-Apr;24(1-2):21-7
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  • [Title] Perspectives of new potential therapeutic applications of somatostatin analogs.
  • At the present time only two long-acting somatostatin (SS) analogs, octreotide and lanreotide, are commonly used in the routine therapy.
  • The established indications for SS analogs treatment include acromegaly, neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, and some gastro-enterologic diseases (pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleedings, refractory diarrheas, pancreatic and intestinal fistulas).
  • The recent investigations allow to predict the enlargement of therapeutic applications of SS analogs.
  • It concerns pituitary tumors other than somatotropinoma, tumors of other endocrine glands like thyroid and adrenal gland, as well as some non-endocrine tumors.
  • The pre- or postoperative in vivo imaging of SS receptors by means of the receptor scintigraphy, as well as the post-operative identification of SS receptor subtypes in the excised tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry, should play an important role in the prediction of the effects of SS analog treatment.
  • Beside oncology, new therapeutic applications of SS analogs could be presumed among others in ophthalmology; it concerns the treatment of progressive Graves-Basedow ophtalmopathy, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and corneal diseases connected with corneal vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Receptors, Somatostatin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12743527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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8. Livadas S, Hadjidakis DJ, Argyropoulou MI, Stamatelatou M, Kelekis D, Raptis SA: Disappearance of a growth hormone secreting macro adenoma during long-term somatostatin analogue administration and recurrence following somatostatin withdrawal. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Jan-Mar;5(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Disappearance of a growth hormone secreting macro adenoma during long-term somatostatin analogue administration and recurrence following somatostatin withdrawal.
  • Acromegaly is caused by excessive growth hormone secretion, usually from a pituitary adenoma.
  • The use of somatostatin analogues as primary or adjunctive therapy has been widely applied in the management of acromegaly.
  • We are aware of only three reported cases of complete shrinkage of a pituitary adenoma after long-term analogue administration.
  • We report a patient in whom long term (62 months) lanreotide-L.A.R administration resulted in complete disappearance of a growth hormone secreting pituitary macroadenoma, followed by recurrence of the adenoma six months post therapy discontinuation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16728386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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9. Boulis NM, Noordmans AJ, Barkan A, Hassing J, Chandler WF: Somatotropinoma infarction during octreotide therapy leading to bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome. Pituitary; 2000 Nov;3(3):185-8
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  • [Title] Somatotropinoma infarction during octreotide therapy leading to bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome.
  • The cyclic somatostatin analog, octreotide, forms the mainstay of medical treatment for acromegaly.
  • In addition to lowering circulating growth hormone levels and shrinking tumor size, octreotide may provide symptomatic relief of headaches associated with growth hormone secreting tumors.
  • The majority of reported complications of octreotide therapy are gastrointestinal and metabolic.
  • The present case illustrates the development of acute bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome with loss of eye movement bilaterally during octreotide therapy.
  • Serial MRI examination suggest tumor infarction as the etiology.
  • The symptoms resolved over 2 months as the tumor shrunk in size and growth hormone was dramatically reduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus. Cerebral Infarction / chemically induced. Cranial Nerve Diseases / chemically induced. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / adverse effects. Ophthalmoplegia / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / drug effects. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Oculomotor Nerve / drug effects. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 11383484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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10. Lania A, Mantovani G, Spada A: Genetic abnormalities of somatostatin receptors in pituitary tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 May 14;286(1-2):180-6
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  • [Title] Genetic abnormalities of somatostatin receptors in pituitary tumors.
  • Normal human pituitary and pituitary adenomas have been shown to express almost all SST subtypes, with the exception of SST4.
  • Consistent with the observation that octreotide and other somatostatin analogs bind to SST2 and SST5 with high affinity, these genes have been screened for quantitative/qualitative abnormalities in tumors removed from patients with poor responsiveness to somatostatin analogs treatment.
  • Data obtained in GH-secreting adenomas suggested that resistance to octreotide was frequently associated with low expression of SST2 mRNA, although other authors failed to confirm this finding.
  • Similarly, loss of heterozygosis at SST5 gene locus in pituitary adenomas has been described in individual tumors.
  • In recent years, molecular studies investigated the possible association of gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to diseases and/or resistance to drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / genetics. Acromegaly / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mutation. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17913341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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11. Heaney AP: PPAR-gamma in Cushing's disease. Pituitary; 2004;7(4):265-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The majority of pituitary tumors that cause Cushing's disease are small (<1 cm diameter), and most disease morbidity is due to the effects of elevated, non-suppressible, ACTH levels that these tumors secrete.
  • Tumor-derived ACTH leads to adrenal-derived steroid hypersecretion and results in many disabling and sometimes life-threatening symptoms including abnormal fat deposition, skin thinning, psychological disturbances, hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis and muscle weakness.
  • In experienced specialized centers, 70% of corticotroph microadenomas can be successfully resected by transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.
  • However, surgical "cure" rates for larger ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors are achieved in only 30% of cases, and recent reports highlight a significant recurrence rate after longer term follow-up even in smaller tumors.
  • Post-surgical persistence of ACTH hypersecretion may require pituitary-directed radiation, but this treatment may take some time to be effective, and like extensive surgical pituitary tumor resection, ultimately leads to partial- or total hypopituitarism in approximately 80% of cases.
  • Although hypercortisolism may be completely resolved by adrenalectomy, this procedure does not suppress, and may act as a stimulus to pituitary tumor growth, and is associated with other co-morbidity.
  • Although some currently available drug-based treatments for Cushing's disease effectively control hypercortisolism, their drawback has been that they do not impact on pituitary tumor growth.
  • Recent studies have identified the potential utility of peroxisome-proliferator activating receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) novel ligands in in vitro, and in vivo Cushing's disease models, and have paved the way for early clinical studies to develop novel therapeutic approaches in Cushing's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Humans. Ligands. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16416039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; AA68LXK93C / 2,4-thiazolidinedione
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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12. Becker G, Kocher M, Kortmann RD, Paulsen F, Jeremic B, Müller RP, Bamberg M: Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma. Strahlenther Onkol; 2002 Apr;178(4):173-86
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy in the multimodal treatment approach of pituitary adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumors are relatively uncommon, comprising 10-12% of all intracranial tumors.
  • The treatment consisting of surgery, radiotherapy and drug therapy or a combination of these modalities is aimed at the control of tumor cell proliferation and--in endocrine active tumors--the reduction of hormone secretion.
  • However, the slow proliferation characteristics of pituitary tumors necessitate long-term studies for the evaluation of the treatment results.
  • In the last decade there has been continuous improvement in surgical procedures, radiotherapy techniques and drug generation.
  • In this paper, literature will be reviewed to assess the role of modern radiotherapy and radiosurgery in the management of pituitary adenomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging for the definition of the target volume and a real three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning with field conformation and the possibility for non-coplanar irradiation has to be recommended.
  • Most groups irradiate these benign tumors with single doses of 1.8-2.0 Gy up to a total dose of 45 Gy or 50.4 Gy in extensive parasellar adenomas.
  • Adenomas are mostly small, well circumscribed lesions, and have, therefore, attracted the use of stereotactically guided high-precision irradiation techniques which allow extreme focussing and provide steep dose gradients with selective treatment of the target and optimal protection of the surrounding brain tissue.
  • RESULTS: Radiation therapy controls tumor growth in 80-98% of patients with non-secreting adenomas and 67-89% for endocrine active tumors.
  • Reviewing the recent literature including endocrine active and non-secreting adenomas, irradiated postoperatively or in case of recurrence the 5-, 10- and 15-year local control rates amount 92%, 89% and 79%.
  • In cases of microprolactinoma primary therapy consists of dopamine agonists.
  • Irradiation should be preferred in patients with macroprolactinomas, when drug therapy and/or surgery failed or for patients medically unsuitable for surgery.
  • After radiotherapy in acromegaly patients somatomedin-C and growth hormone concentrations decrease to normal levels in 70-90%, with a decrease rate of 10-30% per year.
  • Hypopituitarism is the most common side effect of pituitary irradiation with an incidence of 13-56%.
  • Other side effects are rare too, and do also depend on the damage produced by tumor itself or preceding surgery.
  • They include deterioration of vision in 1.7% of all cases, vascular changes in 6.3%, neuropsychological disorders such as dementia in 0.7% and secondary malignancies in 0.8%, if single doses of 2.0 Gy and total doses of 50 Gy are not exceeded.
  • CONCLUSION: Conventional radiation therapy of pituitary adenoma is highly effective.
  • It is recommended after subtotal resection of primary tumors such as macroadenomas, after gross total resection from endocrine active adenomas with postsurgical hormone secretion and for recurrent tumors.
  • Radiosurgery seems to be a possible treatment alternative in experienced centers, and only in patients with adenomas smaller than 25-30 mm with a minimum distance of 2-3 mm to the chiasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Prolactinoma / radiotherapy. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / etiology. Adult. Brain Diseases / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Postoperative Care. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Stroke / etiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12040754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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13. Donangelo I, Rodacki M, Peixoto MC, Vaisman M, Caldas NR, Gadelha MR: Dependency and analgesia related to treatment with subcutaneous octreotide in patients with growth hormone-secreting tumors. Endocr Pract; 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):107-11
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  • [Title] Dependency and analgesia related to treatment with subcutaneous octreotide in patients with growth hormone-secreting tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe three patients diagnosed with somatotropinomas in whom the analgesic effect of octreotide was observed, along with dependency to the drug.
  • METHODS: These patients had pituitary macroadenomas treated with transphenoidal surgery and pituitary radiotherapy, and received high daily doses (>900 microg/day) of subcutaneous octreotide because of persistent high levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I).
  • RESULTS: Headache occurred prior to drug administration in all three cases, with relief soon after.
  • We also observed tolerance to octreotide's analgesic and anti-secretory actions (one patient), craving for the drug (two patients), withdrawal syndrome (one patient), and drug abuse (one patient).
  • CONCLUSION: Dependency syndrome may occur when high doses of octreotide are used, sometimes leading to drug abuse.
  • Tolerance to the growth hormone anti-secretory effect of the drug may encourage physicians to increase doses to levels at which drug dependency has been observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Substance-Related Disorders
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Tolerance. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15256326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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14. Sathyapalan T, Lowry M, Turnbull LW, Rowland-Hill C, Atkin SL: Mechanism of action of octreotide in acromegalic tumours in vivo using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Pituitary; 2007;10(3):233-6
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  • CONTEXT: Octreotide causes significant tumour shrinkage in patients with acromegaly but the exact mechanism of action is unclear in vivo.
  • DESIGN: Five patients with acromegaly were treated with octreotide as primary medical therapy.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Amplitude of contrast intake, exchange rate and maximum enhancement index of tumour tissue was compared before and after treatment.
  • RESULTS: Amplitude of contrast intake (9.87 +/- 3.52 vs. 4.97 +/- 1.96 P < or = 0.05) and exchange rate (6.27 +/- 1.57 vs. 1.63 +/- 0.76 P value < or = 0.01) were significantly higher at baseline in adenoma compared to normal pituitary tissue but was comparable to normal pituitary tissue after treatment.
  • There was a significant decrease in amplitude of contrast intake and exchange rate which relates to functional vascularity of adenoma at 24 weeks compared to baseline (P-values 0.026 and 0.002 respectively) but there were no significant changes in the normal pituitary tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: DCE-MRI in acromegalic tumours treated with octreotide showed a significant reduction in functional vascularity after octreotide therapy compared to baseline in pituitary adenomas.
  • This supports the antiangiogenic action of somatostatin analogue therapy in vitro, but it remains unclear if this mechanism is important clinically in analogue pre-treatment reducing the effect of radiotherapy on these pituitary tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Regional Blood Flow / drug effects. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17541750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Contrast Media; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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15. Fernando MA, Heaney AP: Alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists: novel therapy for pituitary adenomas. Mol Endocrinol; 2005 Dec;19(12):3085-96
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  • [Title] Alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists: novel therapy for pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary tumors are common and cause considerable morbidity due to local invasion and altered hormone secretion.
  • We examined the effects of dox on murine and human pituitary tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. dox treatment inhibited proliferation of murine pituitary tumor cells, induced G(0)-G(1) cell cycle arrest, and reduced phosphorylated retinoblastoma levels.
  • In addition, increased annexin-fluorescein isothiocyanate immunoreactivity and cleaved caspase-3 levels, in keeping with dox-mediated apoptosis, were observed in the human and murine pituitary tumor cells, and dox administration to mice, harboring corticotroph tumors, decreased tumor growth and reduced plasma ACTH levels. dox-mediated antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions were not confined to alpha-adrenergic receptor-expressing pituitary tumor cells and were unaffected by cotreatment with the alpha-adrenergic receptor blocker, phenoxybenzamine. dox treatment led to reduced phosphorylated inhibitory kappaB (IkappaB)-alpha expression, and nuclear factor-kappaB transcription and decreased basal and TNFalpha-induced proopiomelanocortin transcriptional activation.
  • These results demonstrate that the selective alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist dox inhibits pituitary tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo by mechanisms that are in part independent of its alpha-adrenergic receptor-blocking actions and involve down-regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling. dox is proposed as a possible novel medical therapy for pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Doxazosin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Animals. Apoptosis. Caspase 3. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. I-kappa B Proteins / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Nude. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Neoplasm Transplantation. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / genetics. Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 / genetics. Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16020484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / I-kappa B Proteins; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 139874-52-5 / NF-kappaB inhibitor alpha; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Casp3 protein, mouse; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; NW1291F1W8 / Doxazosin
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16. Waśko R, Bolko P, Kostrzewski J, Horst-Sikorska W, Liebert W, Sowiński J: [Estimation of efficacy of the octreotide LAR administration in the patients with somatotropinoma]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2001 Aug;106(2):693-8
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  • [Title] [Estimation of efficacy of the octreotide LAR administration in the patients with somatotropinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Ocena skuteczności stosowania oktreotydu LAR u pacjentów z guzami przysadki typu somatotropinoma.
  • Acromegaly is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone by a hypophyseal adenoma type of somatotropinoma.
  • Treatment of adenomas, which secrete GH, involves pharmacotherapy followed by surgery.
  • Modern pharmacotherapy leaning is based on somatostatin analogues (factor restrictive secretion GH): octreotide, octreotide LAR and lanreotide.
  • The aim of our study was estimation of efficiency of octreotide LAR in the patients with somatotropinoma prepared to neurosurgery intervention.
  • The presence of pituitary adenoma in all patients was confirmed by MRI.
  • The concentration of GH before octreotide LAR therapy in all patients increased remarkable and ranged from 15.6 to 78.6 ng/ml, mean: 31.20 +/- 16.84 (norm: 0-10 ng/ml), also, in all cases the serum IGF-I level was increased and ranged from 451 to 1107.6 ng/ml, mean: 801.75 +/- 207.82 (norm: 100-400 ng/ml).
  • Long acting somatostatin analogues--octreotide LAR is particular efficient in lowering of growth hormone and IGF-I in patients with somatotropinoma and shows efficiency in normalization of increased prolactin concentration.
  • Because of extreme effectiveness of octreotide LAR, it should be used the routine treatment at the patients suffering from active acromegaly and preparing to neurosurgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage. Prolactin / blood. Somatostatin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Hormones / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11926144.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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17. Jallad RS, Musolino NR, Kodaira S, Cescato VA, Bronstein MD: Does partial surgical tumour removal influence the response to octreotide-LAR in acromegalic patients previously resistant to the somatostatin analogue? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Aug;67(2):310-5
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  • [Title] Does partial surgical tumour removal influence the response to octreotide-LAR in acromegalic patients previously resistant to the somatostatin analogue?
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the intrapatient response to the same dose of slow-release octreotide (OCT-LAR) before and after noncurative surgery in acromegalic patients who did not attain disease control after primary treatment with OCT-LAR.
  • PATIENTS: Eleven acromegalic patients (eight men, aged 42.45 +/- 11.15 years, 10 macroadenomas) received OCT-LAR (20 mg, n = 1; 30 mg, n = 10) every 28 days as the primary treatment (1stOCT-LAR) for 11.3 +/- 4.2 months, without IGF-I normalization.
  • MEASUREMENTS: GH and IGF-I serum concentrations were obtained under basal conditions as well as during treatment.
  • Pituitary tumour volume was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sella.
  • Tumour shrinkage was observed in eight of 10 patients with macroadenomas (median 63.7%, range 24.5-75.5%).
  • MRI confirmed surgical tumour removal (median 64%, range 4.9-96.6%) in eight of the 10 patients.
  • The degree of surgical tumour reduction did not correlate with IGF-I normalization (P = 0.794).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using strict criteria (same patient, same drug, same dose) our results strongly suggest that the surgical reduction of tumour mass can improve the outcome of OCT-LAR treatment in acromegalic patients resistant to primary therapy with SA.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Delayed-Action Preparations. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17555503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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18. Rozhivanov RV, Kurbatov DG: [Sexual function rehabilitation of men with pituitary tumors]. Urologiia; 2010 Jul-Aug;(4):48, 50-3
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  • [Title] [Sexual function rehabilitation of men with pituitary tumors].
  • A prospective trial of the methods of sexual rehabilitation of 31 men with pituitary tumors has shown that therapy with testosterone and chorionic gonadotropin effectively corrects hypogonadism and sexual disorders.
  • Both methods of treatment had no negative effect on the size of the prostatic gland and PSA level except 2 patients with somatotropinoma on testosterone.
  • In the course of chorionic gonadotropin treatment pituitary tumor increased in size in 3 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use. Erectile Dysfunction / drug therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Testosterone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Humans. Libido / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


19. Waśko R, Bolko P, Owecki M, Jaskuła M, Sowiński J: The efficacy of octreotide LAR (long acting release) treatment in patients with somatotropinoma, and mixed pituitary tumours. Pharm World Sci; 2004 Dec;26(6):324-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The efficacy of octreotide LAR (long acting release) treatment in patients with somatotropinoma, and mixed pituitary tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of acromegaly is not always equal and therefore we wanted to evaluate the efficacy of therapy with octreotide long acting release (LAR) in patients with monohormonal tumours (somatotropinomas) in comparison to individuals with mixed pituitary tumours secreting alpha-subunit.
  • METHOD: The 35 acromegalic patients (18 males and 17 females), aged 41.8 +/- 8.8 years, were divided into 2 groups according to the secreted hormones: 1 with mixed pituitary tumours with elevated growth hormone and alpha-subunit concentrations, the other with isolated growth hormone hypersecretion and normal alpha-subunit levels.
  • RESULTS: The decrease of GH and IGF-I levels after octreotide LAR treatment were observed in both groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After octreotide LAR treatment, the decrease of GH level and of mean IGF-I values was greater in patients with mixed pituitary tumours and high alpha-subunit concentrations than in patients with isolated GH hypersecretion and normal alpha-subunit levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adult. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15683101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-1231
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacy world & science : PWS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm World Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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20. Jaquet P, Gunz G, Saveanu A, Dufour H, Taylor J, Dong J, Kim S, Moreau JP, Enjalbert A, Culler MD: Efficacy of chimeric molecules directed towards multiple somatostatin and dopamine receptors on inhibition of GH and prolactin secretion from GH-secreting pituitary adenomas classified as partially responsive to somatostatin analog therapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jul;153(1):135-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of chimeric molecules directed towards multiple somatostatin and dopamine receptors on inhibition of GH and prolactin secretion from GH-secreting pituitary adenomas classified as partially responsive to somatostatin analog therapy.
  • The effect of drugs was tested in cell cultures at various concentrations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Novel dopamine-somatostatin chimeric molecules with differing, enhanced activity at sstr2, sstr5 and DAD2, consistently produced significatly greater suppression of GH and PRL than either octreotide or single-receptor-interacting ligands in tumors from patients classified as only partially responsive to octreotide therapy.
  • The other mechanisms by which such molecules produce an enhanced inhibition of GH remain to be elucidated.

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  • (PMID = 15994755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / BIM 23A760; 0 / BIM-23244; 0 / BIM-23A761; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VTD58H1Z2X / Dopamine
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21. Heaney AP, Fernando M, Melmed S: PPAR-gamma receptor ligands: novel therapy for pituitary adenomas. J Clin Invest; 2003 May;111(9):1381-8
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  • [Title] PPAR-gamma receptor ligands: novel therapy for pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary tumors cause considerable morbidity due to local invasion, hypopituitarism, or hormone hypersecretion.
  • In many cases, no suitable drug therapies are available, and surgical excision is currently the only effective treatment.
  • We show here abundant expression of nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma in all of 39 human pituitary tumors.
  • PPAR-gamma activating thiazolidinediones (TZDs) rosiglitazone and troglitazone induced G(0)-G(1) cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human, rat somatolactotroph, and murine gonadotroph pituitary tumor cells, and suppressed in vitro hormone secretion.
  • In vivo development and growth of murine somatolactotroph and gonadotroph tumors, generated by subcutaneous injection of prolactin-secreting (PRL-secreting) and growth hormone-secreting (GH-secreting) GH3 cells, luteinizing hormone-secreting (LH-secreting) LbetaT2 cells, and alpha-T3 cells, was markedly suppressed in rosiglitazone-treated mice, and serum GH, PRL, and LH levels were attenuated in all treated animals (P < 0.009).
  • These results demonstrate that PPAR-gamma is an important molecular target in pituitary adenoma cells and PPAR-gamma ligands inhibit tumor cell growth and GH, PRL, and LH secretion in vitro and in vivo.
  • TZDs are proposed as novel oral medications for managing pituitary tumors.

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  • (PMID = 12727930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9738
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-75979
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Thiazoles; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 0 / Transcription Factors; 2295-31-0 / 2,4-thiazolidinedione
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC154441
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22. Bangaru ML, Woodliff J, Raff H, Kansra S: Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease. PLoS One; 2010;5(4):e9893
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  • [Title] Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary corticotroph tumors secrete excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resulting in Cushing's disease (CD).
  • Standard treatment includes surgery and, if not successful, radiotherapy, both of which have undesirable side effects and frequent recurrence of the tumor.
  • Pharmacotherapy using PPARgamma agonists, dopamine receptor agonists, retinoic acid or somatostatin analogs is still experimental.
  • Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, has potent growth inhibitory effects on cell proliferation.
  • Our laboratory recently demonstrated that curcumin inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in prolactin- and growth hormone-producing tumor cells.
  • Subsequently, Schaaf et.al. confirmed our findings and also showed the in vivo effectiveness of curcumin to suppress pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the mouse corticotroph tumor cells, AtT20 cells, we report that curcumin had a robust, irreversible inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and clonogenic property.
  • The curcumin-induced growth inhibition was accompanied by decreased NFkappaB activity.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability of curcumin to inhibit NFkappaB and induce apoptosis in pituitary corticotroph tumor cells leads us to propose developing it as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of CD.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Curcumin / pharmacology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Mice. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [ErratumIn] PLoS One. 2010;5(4). doi:10.1371/annotation/38a101d6-a1f2-4a74-ab63-bc5c61e5f62b
  • (PMID = 20405005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / NF-kappa B; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2854133
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23. Matrone C, Pivonello R, Colao A, Cappabianca P, Cavallo LM, Del Basso De Caro ML, Taylor JE, Culler MD, Lombardi G, Di Renzo GF, Annunziato L: Expression and function of somatostatin receptor subtype 1 in human growth hormone secreting pituitary tumors deriving from patients partially responsive or resistant to long-term treatment with somatostatin analogs. Neuroendocrinology; 2004 Mar;79(3):142-8
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  • [Title] Expression and function of somatostatin receptor subtype 1 in human growth hormone secreting pituitary tumors deriving from patients partially responsive or resistant to long-term treatment with somatostatin analogs.
  • The role of somatostatin (SS) receptor subtype 1 (SSTR(1)) in mediating the inhibitory effect of SS on growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary tumors has been recently demonstrated.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the selective SSTR(1) agonist BIM-23745 on in vitro GH secretion in GH-secreting pituitary tumor cells, deriving from patients resistant or partially responsive to octreotide long-acting release (octreotide-LAR) or lanreotide therapy in vivo and expressing SSTR(1) mRNA.
  • Our data demonstrate that (1) SSTR(1) receptor was present in 56.25% (9/16) of the GH-secreting adenomas examined;.
  • (2) in all GH-secreting pituitary tumors that expressed SSTR(1), BIM-23745 significantly inhibited GH secretion in vitro, and (3) when SSTR(1) subtype was present in tumors from patients resistant to octreotide-LAR or lanreotide therapy, BIM-23745 was able to inhibit the in vitro GH secretion.
  • In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that SS analogs selective for the SSTR(1) may represent a further useful approach for the treatment of acromegaly in patients resistant or partially responsive to octreotide-LAR or lanreotide treatment in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / metabolism. Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / pharmacology. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 15103227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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