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1. Bangaru ML, Woodliff J, Raff H, Kansra S: Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease. PLoS One; 2010;5(4):e9893
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  • [Title] Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary corticotroph tumors secrete excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resulting in Cushing's disease (CD).
  • Standard treatment includes surgery and, if not successful, radiotherapy, both of which have undesirable side effects and frequent recurrence of the tumor.
  • Pharmacotherapy using PPARgamma agonists, dopamine receptor agonists, retinoic acid or somatostatin analogs is still experimental.
  • Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, has potent growth inhibitory effects on cell proliferation.
  • Our laboratory recently demonstrated that curcumin inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in prolactin- and growth hormone-producing tumor cells.
  • Subsequently, Schaaf et.al. confirmed our findings and also showed the in vivo effectiveness of curcumin to suppress pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the mouse corticotroph tumor cells, AtT20 cells, we report that curcumin had a robust, irreversible inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and clonogenic property.
  • The curcumin-induced growth inhibition was accompanied by decreased NFkappaB activity.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability of curcumin to inhibit NFkappaB and induce apoptosis in pituitary corticotroph tumor cells leads us to propose developing it as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of CD.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Curcumin / pharmacology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Mice. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [ErratumIn] PLoS One. 2010;5(4). doi:10.1371/annotation/38a101d6-a1f2-4a74-ab63-bc5c61e5f62b
  • (PMID = 20405005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / NF-kappa B; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2854133
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2. Boulis NM, Noordmans AJ, Barkan A, Hassing J, Chandler WF: Somatotropinoma infarction during octreotide therapy leading to bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome. Pituitary; 2000 Nov;3(3):185-8
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  • [Title] Somatotropinoma infarction during octreotide therapy leading to bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome.
  • The cyclic somatostatin analog, octreotide, forms the mainstay of medical treatment for acromegaly.
  • In addition to lowering circulating growth hormone levels and shrinking tumor size, octreotide may provide symptomatic relief of headaches associated with growth hormone secreting tumors.
  • The majority of reported complications of octreotide therapy are gastrointestinal and metabolic.
  • The present case illustrates the development of acute bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome with loss of eye movement bilaterally during octreotide therapy.
  • Serial MRI examination suggest tumor infarction as the etiology.
  • The symptoms resolved over 2 months as the tumor shrunk in size and growth hormone was dramatically reduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus. Cerebral Infarction / chemically induced. Cranial Nerve Diseases / chemically induced. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / adverse effects. Ophthalmoplegia / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / drug effects. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Oculomotor Nerve / drug effects. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 11383484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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3. Theodoropoulou M, Tichomirowa MA, Sievers C, Yassouridis A, Arzberger T, Hougrand O, Deprez M, Daly AF, Petrossians P, Pagotto U, Beckers A, Stalla GK: Tumor ZAC1 expression is associated with the response to somatostatin analog therapy in patients with acromegaly. Int J Cancer; 2009 Nov 1;125(9):2122-6
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  • [Title] Tumor ZAC1 expression is associated with the response to somatostatin analog therapy in patients with acromegaly.
  • Somatostatin analogs (SSA) with their potent antisecretory and antiproliferative effects are the main medical treatment option for patients with neuroendocrine tumors, such as gastroenteropancreatic and acromegaly-associated growth hormone secreting pituitary tumors.
  • Although a good portion of acromegalic patients gets normalized after SSA treatment, strict hormonal control is not achieved in a sizeable proportion of these patients.
  • The reasons for this incomplete response to SSA treatment are unclear.
  • We have found that the tumor suppressor ZAC1 (LOT1/PLAGL1) is essential for the antiproliferative effect of SSA in pituitary tumor cells.
  • The aim of the present retrospective cohort study was to determine whether ZAC1 immunoreactivity in archival somatotrophinoma tissue derived from 45 patients with acromegaly routinely pretreated with SSA before surgery, was associated with response to SSA (normalization of GH, IGF-I and presence of tumor shrinkage).
  • A significant positive correlation was found between strong ZAC1 immunoreactivity and IGF-I normalization and presence of tumor shrinkage after SSA treatment, which was not affected by age at diagnosis, gender or duration of SSA treatment.
  • These in vivo data combined with the antiproliferative properties of ZAC1/Zac1 provide evidence of a mechanistic role for this transcription factor on SSA induced tumor shrinkage and hormone normalization.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Transcription Factors / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 UICC.
  • (PMID = 19637311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / PLAGL1 protein, human; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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4. Mannelli M, Cantini G, Poli G, Mangoni M, Nesi G, Canu L, Rapizzi E, Borgogni E, Ercolino T, Piccini V, Luconi M: Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2010;92 Suppl 1:23-7
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  • [Title] Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells.
  • PPAR-γ is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors, whose thiazolidinedione ligands (TZD) have been recently demonstrated to also possess anticancer properties in addition to their well-known insulin-sensitizer and glucose/lipid regulation activity.
  • In this minireview, we summarize the current knowledge on PPAR-γ in normal and tumoral corticotropic pituitary and adrenal cells.
  • The receptor expression has been shown in ACTH-secreting cells in both normal and adenomal pituitary as well as in normal and tumor adrenal cortex.
  • Preclinical studies conducted both in vitro on tumor cells and in vivo on xenograft tumor models obtained by subcutaneous injection of cancer cells have evidenced the anticancer properties of TZD, in particular rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PIO).
  • In both pituitary and adrenocortical cancer, RGZ treatment results in inhibition of cell proliferation, through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and induction of cell apoptosis, leading to significant inhibition of tumor growth in the xenograft tumor models.
  • In addition, since RGZ can reduce ACTH and corticosterone secretion in mouse corticotropic pituitary tumors, both RGZ and PIO have been used in the treatment of Cushing's disease with variable but generally unsatisfactory results.
  • Discrepancies in the antitumor effects of TZD observed between successful preclinical and unsuccessful clinical studies may be particularly due to differences in treatment duration and doses used.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Corticotrophs / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20829614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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5. Hubina E, Nanzer AM, Hanson MR, Ciccarelli E, Losa M, Gaia D, Papotti M, Terreni MR, Khalaf S, Jordan S, Czirják S, Hanzély Z, Nagy GM, Góth MI, Grossman AB, Korbonits M: Somatostatin analogues stimulate p27 expression and inhibit the MAP kinase pathway in pituitary tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Aug;155(2):371-9
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  • [Title] Somatostatin analogues stimulate p27 expression and inhibit the MAP kinase pathway in pituitary tumours.
  • OBJECTIVES: Somatostatin (SST) analogues play an important role in the medical management of somatotroph pituitary adenomas and new agonists have the potential to be effective in a wider group of pituitary and other tumours.
  • METHODS: Human pituitary adenoma cells and rat pituitary cell line (GH3) were cultured and treated in vitro with octreotide and the broad-spectrum SST agonist SOM230 (pasireotide).
  • Histological samples from acromegalic patients treated with octreotide before surgery were immunostained for p27 and compared to samples from untreated patients matched for sex, age, tumour size, extension and invasiveness.
  • RESULTS: We detected upregulation of p27 protein levels with SST analogue treatment in vitro in human pituitary adenoma samples. pERK1/2 was inhibited by SST analogues in both the human samples and GH3 cells.
  • SST and its analogues inhibited the proliferation of GH3 cells. p27 immunostaining was stronger in samples from patients with longer preoperative octreotide treatment (more than 6 months) than in samples from patients with shorter treatment periods.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SST-mediated growth inhibition is associated with the downregulation of pERK and upregulation of p27.
  • More potent and broader-spectrum SST analogues are likely to play an increasing role in the treatment of tumours, where the MAP kinase pathway is overactivated.

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  • (PMID = 16868153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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6. Park C, Yang I, Woo J, Kim S, Kim J, Kim Y, Sohn S, Kim E, Lee M, Park H, Jung J, Park S: Somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype 2 and 5 gene expression in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: the relationship with endogenous srif activity and response to octreotide. Endocr J; 2004 Apr;51(2):227-36
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  • [Title] Somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype 2 and 5 gene expression in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: the relationship with endogenous srif activity and response to octreotide.
  • To investigate the potential pathophysiologic role of human SRIF receptor gene expression in GH-secreting adenomas in acromegalic patients, we studied the relationship between the SRIF receptor gene expression, endogenous SRIF activity and exogenous response to octreotide in 16 acromagalic patients.
  • Pituitary tumor SRIF receptor subtype 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5) mRNA levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR.
  • These results suggest common transcriptional and/or post-transcriptonal regulatory mechanisms for these SRIF receptor subtypes within GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • The functional observations suggest that the degree (or level) of sst2 and sst5 expression is critical for the ultimate GH response of somatotropinomas to endogenous SRIF tone and exogenous SRIF analogue therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adult. Female. Gene Expression. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15118275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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7. Nasr C, Mason A, Mayberg M, Staugaitis SM, Asa SL: Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):4776-80
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  • [Title] Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma.
  • Hypothalamic gangliocytomas producing GHRH are also known to be associated with pituitary adenomas causing acromegaly.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe a case of acromegaly due to a pulmonary GHRH-secreting endocrine carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland and to look at the peculiar histological features of this case.
  • SUBJECT: The patient was a 44-yr-old woman who was diagnosed with a biopsy-proven metastatic pulmonary endocrine tumor during pregnancy.
  • After delivery, she underwent radiation and chemotherapy for pulmonary and skeletal metastases.
  • Her disease was clinically stable for 7 yr until she developed bitemporal hemianopia.
  • The patient underwent uneventful transsphenoidal resection of the sellar tumor.
  • Histological examination confirmed metastatic endocrine carcinoma to the pituitary, and immunohistochemistry localized GHRH to the tumor cells.
  • The adjacent pituitary exhibited somatotroph hyperplasia with abundant reactivity for GH and alpha-subunit.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a GHRH-producing endocrine tumor metastasizing to the pituitary and causing local hyperstimulation with somatotroph hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Somatotrophs / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16968791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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8. Freda PU, Reyes CM, Nuruzzaman AT, Sundeen RE, Khandji AG, Post KD: Cabergoline therapy of growth hormone & growth hormone/prolactin secreting pituitary tumors. Pituitary; 2004;7(1):21-30
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  • [Title] Cabergoline therapy of growth hormone & growth hormone/prolactin secreting pituitary tumors.
  • Dopamine agonists have been used as adjunctive therapy for acromegaly for many years, but relatively few studies have assessed the efficacy of a newer agonist, cabergoline.
  • Some data suggest that cabergoline may be more effective than bromocriptine, in particular for those patients whose tumors secrete both growth hormone and prolactin.
  • In order to assess this possibility further, we have evaluated the biochemical response to cabergoline therapy in patients with acromegaly at our center.
  • We describe first an unusual patient who presented with a pituitary macroadenoma secreting both GH and prolactin.
  • At presentation he had elevated levels of growth hormone 6.0 microg/L, IGF-I, 722 ng/ml, and prolactin, 6000 ng/ml.
  • Cabergoline therapy alone was highly effective in this patient and normalized his levels of all three hormones and his gonadal function as well as produced significant shrinkage of his pituitary tumor.
  • Mean baseline GH was 1.3 +/- .23 ng/ml and fell to a nadir of 0.85 +/- .18 ng/ml on cabergoline therapy (p = 0.03).
  • Mean baseline IGF-I was 520 +/- 45.2 ng/ml and fell to a mean nadir during cabergoline therapy of 368 +/- 29.8 ng/ml (p = 0.0013).
  • At the completion of the cabergoline therapy study period, however, mean IGF-I was 453 +/- 46 ng/ml, not significantly lower than the baseline value (p = 0.11).
  • No changes in tumor sizes occurred on cabergoline therapy.
  • Eight of 14 patients achieved a normal IGF-I at some point during the 24 weeks study period, but the efficacy of cabergoline waned with time as only 3 of 14 (21%) of patients had a persistently normal IGF-I with up to 18 months of cabergoline therapy.
  • Six patients had modest hyperprolactinemia at diagnosis (26-142 ng/ml) and 5 patients had positive immunohistochemical staining of their tumor for prolactin, but in neither of these small groups was cabergoline therapy more effective at normalizing IGF-I than in those patients with apparently pure GH secreting tumors.
  • Three of 14 patients (21%) had side effects that limited therapy.
  • A trial of cabergoline as adjunctive therapy may be considered in select patients with mild disease and small tumor residuals, but the expectation for biochemical control in these patients needs to be kept low, even for tumors that co-secrete GH and prolactin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / pathology. Adult. Biomarkers / blood. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Prolactin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 15638294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK02561
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ergolines; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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9. Kurosaki M, Saegert W, Abe T, Lüdecke DK: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: special reference to the octreotide treatment. Neurol Res; 2008 Jun;30(5):518-22
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: special reference to the octreotide treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the localization of VEGF in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and to evaluate the characteristic differences of VEGF expression in relation to the clinical effect of preoperative treatment with octreotide.
  • METHODS: Fifty-six cases of GH-secreting adenomas, which were divided into three groups and three normal pituitary glands, were studied using immunohistochemistry for expression of VEGF.
  • VEGF staining was strongly seen in the cytoplasm in normal pituitary glands.
  • Weak staining with VEGF appeared in all ten cases in which the tumor had shrunk.
  • Age, gender, tumor size, tumor invasiveness and adenoma type did not influence VEGF expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Technology, Radiologic / methods

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  • (PMID = 18953743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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10. Gołkowski F, Buziak-Bereza M, Huszno B: [Evaluation of the efficacy of long-acting somatostatin analog as adjunctive therapy in patients with active acromegaly]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(3):117-22
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of the efficacy of long-acting somatostatin analog as adjunctive therapy in patients with active acromegaly].
  • Transsphenoidal surgery is the first-line therapy for patients with acromegaly, but can achieve biochemical control with normalization of somatomedin C in 40-80% of cases.
  • All patients with continued growth hormone hypersecretion after neurosurgery require adjunctive therapy to prevent morbidity and premature mortality.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of long-acting somatostatin analog--octreotide LAR (OCT-LAR) as adjunctive therapy for patients with persistent disease.
  • All patients were diagnosed as having growth hormone secreting pituitary tumor and underwent transsphenoidal surgery (TSS).
  • Radiotherapy (RT) was used as adjunctive therapy in 7 of investigated persons.
  • In all subjects elevated level of somatomedin C was found, 9 have increased level of growth hormone (hGH) as well.
  • After 6 months therapy with OCT-LAR we noticed drop in somatomedin C and hGH levels in all patients.
  • We found no significant correlation between decrease in somatomedin C and its level prior to the treatment (p=0.8), but high positive correlation between decrease in hGh level and its initial value (R=0.75, p=0.002).
  • The therapeutic outcome defined as decrease in somatomedin C level was not significantly different between patients with or without adjunctive radiotherapy in the past (p=0.08) and between patients with intensive or weak isotope collection in the pituitary in 99mTc-octreotide scintiscan (p=0.2).
  • Initial values of somatomedin C as well as age and isotopic imaging findings are not valuable predictor factors for therapeutic outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16967698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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11. Rozhivanov RV, Kurbatov DG: [Sexual function rehabilitation of men with pituitary tumors]. Urologiia; 2010 Jul-Aug;(4):48, 50-3
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  • [Title] [Sexual function rehabilitation of men with pituitary tumors].
  • A prospective trial of the methods of sexual rehabilitation of 31 men with pituitary tumors has shown that therapy with testosterone and chorionic gonadotropin effectively corrects hypogonadism and sexual disorders.
  • Both methods of treatment had no negative effect on the size of the prostatic gland and PSA level except 2 patients with somatotropinoma on testosterone.
  • In the course of chorionic gonadotropin treatment pituitary tumor increased in size in 3 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use. Erectile Dysfunction / drug therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Testosterone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Humans. Libido / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20973135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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12. Muller AF, Van Der Lely AJ: Pharmacological therapy for acromegaly: a critical review. Drugs; 2004;64(16):1817-38
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  • [Title] Pharmacological therapy for acromegaly: a critical review.
  • The treatment of acromegaly has changed considerably over the last few decades.
  • In the late 1970s, the introduction of the dopamine receptor agonists made it possible to reduce growth hormone (GH) secretion by somatotropinomas for the first time.
  • Currently these compounds should be considered in patients with a mixed GH-prolactin secreting pituitary adenoma and/or those in whom pre-treatment insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are below 750 microg/L.
  • These compounds are capable of achieving biochemical control of GH and IGF-I in 50-60% of patients and tumour shrinkage in some 30%.
  • In particular, candidates for treatment with these compounds are those patients who have undergone an unsuccessful transsphenoidal operation or who await the therapeutic effect of external pituitary irradiation.
  • In selected patients primary medical therapy with somatostatin analogues is certainly a feasible option.
  • To date, pegvisomant is the only available member of a new class of drugs that was especially designed to block the GHR.
  • Pegvisomant is the most effective treatment for normalising IGF-I concentrations and appears to have a good safety profile.
  • However, liver function tests should be regularly monitored and tumour size should be closely followed.
  • Finally, we propose a treatment algorithm for acromegaly.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Animals. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / pharmacology. Somatostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15301564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 197
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13. Ren SG, Kim S, Taylor J, Dong J, Moreau JP, Culler MD, Melmed S: Suppression of rat and human growth hormone and prolactin secretion by a novel somatostatin/dopaminergic chimeric ligand. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Nov;88(11):5414-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Suppression of rat and human growth hormone and prolactin secretion by a novel somatostatin/dopaminergic chimeric ligand.
  • The selective SSTR2 agonist, BIM-23023 (50% effective dose, 0.42), and the DAR2 agonist, BIM-53097 (50% effective dose, 22.1), dose- dependently inhibited GH secretion in cultured primary rat and human fetal as well as in human pituitary tumor cells derived from GH-secreting adenomas.
  • The combination of individual SSTR2 and DAR2 agonists was additive for suppressing GH secretion in both rat and human pituitary cells.
  • BIM-23A387 (50% effective dose, 0.16 for SSTR2 and 24.5 for DAR2), displayed similar efficacy in suppressing GH secretion from rat pituitary cells as the combination of the two individual agonists.
  • In contrast, the chimeric molecule was more potent than individual selective analogs in suppressing GH secretion by human fetal pituitary and GH-secreting adenoma cells (P < 0.05).
  • These results indicate that mechanisms by which the chimeric molecule suppresses pituitary GH secretion may not be mediated by individual SSTR2 or DAR2 signaling, respectively.
  • The SRIF/DA chimeric molecule, BIM-23A387, represents a novel tool for effective drug treatment of acromegaly and for prolactinomas otherwise resistant to dopaminergic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / pharmacology. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Ligands. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / cytology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Neoplasms. Prolactinoma. Rats. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / agonists. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / secretion

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  • (PMID = 14602782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIM 23023; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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14. Waśko R, Bolko P, Kostrzewski J, Horst-Sikorska W, Liebert W, Sowiński J: [Estimation of efficacy of the octreotide LAR administration in the patients with somatotropinoma]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2001 Aug;106(2):693-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Estimation of efficacy of the octreotide LAR administration in the patients with somatotropinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Ocena skuteczności stosowania oktreotydu LAR u pacjentów z guzami przysadki typu somatotropinoma.
  • Acromegaly is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone by a hypophyseal adenoma type of somatotropinoma.
  • Treatment of adenomas, which secrete GH, involves pharmacotherapy followed by surgery.
  • Modern pharmacotherapy leaning is based on somatostatin analogues (factor restrictive secretion GH): octreotide, octreotide LAR and lanreotide.
  • The aim of our study was estimation of efficiency of octreotide LAR in the patients with somatotropinoma prepared to neurosurgery intervention.
  • The presence of pituitary adenoma in all patients was confirmed by MRI.
  • The concentration of GH before octreotide LAR therapy in all patients increased remarkable and ranged from 15.6 to 78.6 ng/ml, mean: 31.20 +/- 16.84 (norm: 0-10 ng/ml), also, in all cases the serum IGF-I level was increased and ranged from 451 to 1107.6 ng/ml, mean: 801.75 +/- 207.82 (norm: 100-400 ng/ml).
  • Long acting somatostatin analogues--octreotide LAR is particular efficient in lowering of growth hormone and IGF-I in patients with somatotropinoma and shows efficiency in normalization of increased prolactin concentration.
  • Because of extreme effectiveness of octreotide LAR, it should be used the routine treatment at the patients suffering from active acromegaly and preparing to neurosurgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage. Prolactin / blood. Somatostatin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Hormones / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11926144.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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15. Casarini AP, Jallad RS, Pinto EM, Soares IC, Nonogaki S, Giannella-Neto D, Musolino NR, Alves VA, Bronstein MD: Acromegaly: correlation between expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes and response to octreotide-lar treatment. Pituitary; 2009;12(4):297-303
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Acromegaly.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acromegaly: correlation between expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes and response to octreotide-lar treatment.
  • This study analyzes SSTR's expression in somatotrophinomas, comparing to SA response, hormonal levels, and tumor volume.
  • We analyzed 39 somatotrophinomas; 49% were treated with SA.
  • SSTR3 was more expressed in patients with tumor reduction.
  • There was a positive correlation between the percentage of tumor reduction and SSTR1, SSTR2 and SSTR3 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / metabolism. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 19330452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor subtype-4; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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16. Saveanu A, Jaquet P: Somatostatin-dopamine ligands in the treatment of pituitary adenomas. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2009 Jun;10(2):83-90
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Somatostatin-dopamine ligands in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • Somatostatin receptors (sst1-5) and dopamine receptor 2 (D2DR) are well expressed and co-localized in several human pituitary adenomas, suggesting possible functional interactions in the control of hormonal hypersecretion and tumor cell growth.
  • The present review describes the expression and functionality of these receptors in the different classes of human pituitary adenomas.
  • The sst2 agonists, octreotide and lanreotide, control GH hypersecretion and tumor growth in about 65% of somatotropinomas.
  • Such drugs are much less effective in the control of the others pituitary adenomas also expressing ssts and D2DR receptors.
  • Such ligands bearing distinct ssts and DRD2 pharmacophores may synergistically produce an increased control of secretion and/or of proliferation in the different types of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / agonists. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.
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  • (PMID = 18651224.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2606
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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17. Pawlikowski M, Melen-Mucha G: Perspectives of new potential therapeutic applications of somatostatin analogs. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2003 Feb-Apr;24(1-2):21-7
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  • [Title] Perspectives of new potential therapeutic applications of somatostatin analogs.
  • At the present time only two long-acting somatostatin (SS) analogs, octreotide and lanreotide, are commonly used in the routine therapy.
  • The established indications for SS analogs treatment include acromegaly, neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, and some gastro-enterologic diseases (pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleedings, refractory diarrheas, pancreatic and intestinal fistulas).
  • The recent investigations allow to predict the enlargement of therapeutic applications of SS analogs.
  • It concerns pituitary tumors other than somatotropinoma, tumors of other endocrine glands like thyroid and adrenal gland, as well as some non-endocrine tumors.
  • The pre- or postoperative in vivo imaging of SS receptors by means of the receptor scintigraphy, as well as the post-operative identification of SS receptor subtypes in the excised tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry, should play an important role in the prediction of the effects of SS analog treatment.
  • Beside oncology, new therapeutic applications of SS analogs could be presumed among others in ophthalmology; it concerns the treatment of progressive Graves-Basedow ophtalmopathy, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and corneal diseases connected with corneal vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Receptors, Somatostatin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12743527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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18. Donangelo I, Rodacki M, Peixoto MC, Vaisman M, Caldas NR, Gadelha MR: Dependency and analgesia related to treatment with subcutaneous octreotide in patients with growth hormone-secreting tumors. Endocr Pract; 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):107-11
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  • [Title] Dependency and analgesia related to treatment with subcutaneous octreotide in patients with growth hormone-secreting tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe three patients diagnosed with somatotropinomas in whom the analgesic effect of octreotide was observed, along with dependency to the drug.
  • METHODS: These patients had pituitary macroadenomas treated with transphenoidal surgery and pituitary radiotherapy, and received high daily doses (>900 microg/day) of subcutaneous octreotide because of persistent high levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I).
  • RESULTS: Headache occurred prior to drug administration in all three cases, with relief soon after.
  • We also observed tolerance to octreotide's analgesic and anti-secretory actions (one patient), craving for the drug (two patients), withdrawal syndrome (one patient), and drug abuse (one patient).
  • CONCLUSION: Dependency syndrome may occur when high doses of octreotide are used, sometimes leading to drug abuse.
  • Tolerance to the growth hormone anti-secretory effect of the drug may encourage physicians to increase doses to levels at which drug dependency has been observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Substance-Related Disorders
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Tolerance. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15256326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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19. Heaney AP: Novel pituitary ligands: peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-gamma. Pituitary; 2003;6(3):153-9
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  • [Title] Novel pituitary ligands: peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-gamma.
  • Pituitary tumors cause considerable morbidity due to local invasion, hypopituitarism, or hormone hypersecretion.
  • In many cases, no suitable drug therapies are available, and surgical excision is currently the only effective treatment.
  • We have recently demonstrated abundant expression of nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma in human pituitary tumors of different subtypes.
  • PPAR-gamma activators (thiazolidinediones) induced G0-G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human, and murine corticotroph, somatolactotroph, and gonadotroph pituitary tumor cells, and suppressed in vitro hormone secretion.
  • In vivo development and growth of murine corticotroph, somatolactotroph and gonadotroph tumors, generated by subcutaneous injection of ACTH-secreting AtT20, PRL- and GH-secreting GH3, and LH-secreting LbetaT2, and alpha-T3 cells, was markedly suppressed in rosiglitazone treated mice, and plasma ACTH, and serum corticosterone, GH, PRL and LH levels were attenuated in all treated animals.
  • PPAR-gamma is an important novel molecular target in pituitary adenoma cells and as PPAR-gamma ligands inhibit tumor cell growth and ACTH, GH, PRL and LH secretion in vitro and in vivo, thiazolidinediones are proposed as a novel oral medical management for pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Animals. Cell Division. Human Growth Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Ligands. Luteinizing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactin / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 14971739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Transcription Factors; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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20. Wasko R, Sawicka J, Stachowiak C, Kozak W, Junik R, Sowinski J: [Effect of lanreotide on prolactin level in patients with pituitary mixed tumors]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2002 Dec;63(6 Pt 1):532-5
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  • [Title] [Effect of lanreotide on prolactin level in patients with pituitary mixed tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Influence du lanréotide sur la concentration sérique de prolactine chez les patients atteints de tumeurs somato-lactotropes.
  • Acromegaly is a disease caused by a pituitary tumor (somatotropinoma) or by ectopic secretion of GH or IGF-1.
  • Last time a lanreotide and an octreotide (the somatostatine analogues) are useful in the therapy of acromegaly.
  • We noticed that the lanreotide caused not only serum level reduction of a growth hormone but also prolactine in patients with mixed pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactin / blood. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Growth Hormone / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12527855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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21. Flitsch J, Lüdecke DK, Stahnke N, Wiebel J, Saeger W: Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary gigantism and galactorrhea in a 3.5 year old child. Pituitary; 2000 May;2(4):261-7
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  • [Title] Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary gigantism and galactorrhea in a 3.5 year old child.
  • The management of pituitary macroadenomas which lead to gigantism may require multiple therapeutical approaches, including medical treatment, surgery, and radiation therapy.
  • Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) during early childhood that achieves total removal of a growth hormone (GH) secreting tumor is rarely reported.
  • In this case, a 3.5 year old child, the youngest successfully treated by TSS so far, suffered from a GH- and prolactin (PRL) secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • The girl initially presented with an increasing growth rate, later with breast development, and finally, at the age of 2.8 years, with galactorrhea and secretion of blood from the nipples.
  • Increased levels of GH [122 micrograms/l], insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) [830 micrograms/l], insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) [8.6 mg/l] and PRL [590 micrograms/l] were found.
  • An eight-week trial of relatively low dose dopamine agonists led to a reduction of PRL, while the GH- and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged; the tumor showed only little shrinkage.
  • A complete tumor removal was achieved despite the difficulties of a narrow approach.
  • After TSS, low levels of GH, IGF-1, and PRL documented a complete tumor removal, but persistent diabetes insipidus and anterior lobe deficits resulted from surgery.
  • In summary, if primary medical therapy alone is unable to adequately reduce hormone hypersecretion and tumor size in early childhood, TSS is recommended.
  • Thus, radiation therapy may be reserved for surgical failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Galactorrhea / complications. Galactorrhea / surgery. Gigantism / complications. Gigantism / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Postoperative Complications. Prolactin / blood. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / pathology. Prolactinoma / surgery. Sphenoid Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11081147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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22. Saeger W: [Effects of irradiation therapy and inhibiting drugs on the pituitary and its adenomas]. Pathologe; 2006 Feb;27(1):57-60
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  • [Title] [Effects of irradiation therapy and inhibiting drugs on the pituitary and its adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Wirkungen von Strahlentherapie und inhibierenden Medikamenten auf die Hypophyse und ihre Adenome.
  • Radiation therapies of pituitary adenomas induce an increase in fibroses and nuclear pleomorphism.
  • Most growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenomas react to somatostatin analogues by a distinct decrease of GH secretion.
  • Some cases show a shrinkage of adenomas that correlates with fibrosis of the tumor.
  • With these drugs, thyroid stimulating hormone secreting adenomas can also be treated.
  • Prolactin secreting adenomas are mostly treated primarily with dopamine agonists.
  • Up to 90% of cases show a strong decrease in hormone secretion and a distinct shrinkage of the adenomas based on strong decrease in adenoma cell volume.
  • Long-term medication with high doses of glucocorticoids induces Crooke's cells in the anterior pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Dopamine Agonists / adverse effects. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16362259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Glucocorticoids
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23. Hu M, Tomlinson B: Pharmacokinetic evaluation of lanreotide. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol; 2010 Oct;6(10):1301-12
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  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Acromegaly is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease in adults related to excessive production of growth hormone (GH) by pituitary gland tumors and characterized by progressive somatic disfigurement that is associated with systemic manifestations related to organ overgrowth.
  • Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are effective in controlling GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion and in reducing tumor size.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: This article concisely reviews the rationale of SSA treatment in acromegaly and the pharmacology and clinical efficacy of lanreotide and provides a detailed overview of its pharmacokinetic profiles in its slow release (SR) and autogel (ATG) formulations.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Lanreotide is an effective and well-tolerated drug for the treatment of acromegaly.
  • In well-designed clinical trials, subcutaneous lanreotide ATG was shown to be no less effective than intramuscular lanreotide SR or octreotide treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Delayed-Action Preparations. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Injections, Subcutaneous

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  • (PMID = 20716034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7607
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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24. Waśko R, Bolko P, Owecki M, Jaskuła M, Sowiński J: The efficacy of octreotide LAR (long acting release) treatment in patients with somatotropinoma, and mixed pituitary tumours. Pharm World Sci; 2004 Dec;26(6):324-7
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  • [Title] The efficacy of octreotide LAR (long acting release) treatment in patients with somatotropinoma, and mixed pituitary tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of acromegaly is not always equal and therefore we wanted to evaluate the efficacy of therapy with octreotide long acting release (LAR) in patients with monohormonal tumours (somatotropinomas) in comparison to individuals with mixed pituitary tumours secreting alpha-subunit.
  • METHOD: The 35 acromegalic patients (18 males and 17 females), aged 41.8 +/- 8.8 years, were divided into 2 groups according to the secreted hormones: 1 with mixed pituitary tumours with elevated growth hormone and alpha-subunit concentrations, the other with isolated growth hormone hypersecretion and normal alpha-subunit levels.
  • RESULTS: The decrease of GH and IGF-I levels after octreotide LAR treatment were observed in both groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After octreotide LAR treatment, the decrease of GH level and of mean IGF-I values was greater in patients with mixed pituitary tumours and high alpha-subunit concentrations than in patients with isolated GH hypersecretion and normal alpha-subunit levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adult. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15683101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-1231
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacy world & science : PWS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm World Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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25. Wasko R, Jankowska A, Kotwicka M, Liebert W, Sowinski J, Warchol JB: Effects of treatment with somatostatin analogues on the occurrence of apoptosis in somatotropinomas. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2003 Oct;24(5):334-8
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  • [Title] Effects of treatment with somatostatin analogues on the occurrence of apoptosis in somatotropinomas.
  • Present study aimed to examine whether treatment of somatotropinoma types tumours with somatostatine analogue (lanreotide) results in apoptosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The studies were performed on 35 patients with somatotropinoma type tumours on whom adenomectomy was performed by transsphenoidal approach.
  • The results of the studies demonstrated the occurrence of lanreotide induced apoptosis in somatotropinoma type tumours.
  • The grade of apoptotic cells in macroadenomas type adenomas, treated with lanreotide, ranged from 4.0% to 17.1% (mean 8.7+/-2.6%).
  • Patients in whom hypophysectomy was not preceded by lanreotide treatment demonstrated low level of apoptotic cells (no more than 3.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The studies showed that treatment with somatostatine analogue-lanreotide induced apoptosis of tumour cell suggesting that the induction of apoptotic cell death may be involved in the anticancer activity of somatostatine analogue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Apoptosis / drug effects. Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14647007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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26. Neto LV, Machado Ede O, Luque RM, Taboada GF, Marcondes JB, Chimelli LM, Quintella LP, Niemeyer P Jr, de Carvalho DP, Kineman RD, Gadelha MR: Expression analysis of dopamine receptor subtypes in normal human pituitaries, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and somatotropinomas, and the association between dopamine and somatostatin receptors with clinical response to octreotide-LAR in acromegaly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jun;94(6):1931-7
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  • [Title] Expression analysis of dopamine receptor subtypes in normal human pituitaries, nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas and somatotropinomas, and the association between dopamine and somatostatin receptors with clinical response to octreotide-LAR in acromegaly.
  • CONTEXT: Dopamine receptor (DR) and somatostatin receptor subtype expression in pituitary adenomas may predict the response to postsurgical therapies.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to assess and compare the mRNA levels of DR1-5 and somatostatin receptors 1-5 in normal pituitaries (NPs), nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), and somatotropinomas.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Eight NPs, 30 NFPAs, and 39 somatotropinomas were analyzed for receptor mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR.
  • The relationship between expression levels of DR subtypes in NPs and somatotropinomas was DR2T>>>DR4>>DR5>DR1, whereas in NFPAs, DR2T>>>DR4>>DR1>DR5.
  • CONCLUSIONS: DR2 is the predominant DR subtype in NPs, NFPAs, and somatotropinomas.
  • The fact that DR1, DR4, and DR5 are also expressed in many adenomas tested suggests that these receptors might also play a role in the therapeutic impact of postsurgical medical therapies in patients with NFPA and acromegaly.

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  • (PMID = 19293270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / 30677
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2730344
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27. Pisarek H, Pawlikowski M, Kunert-Radek J, Winczyk K: Does the response of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas to octreotide depend on the cellular localization of the somatostatin receptor subtypes SSTR2 and SSTR5? Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Mar-Apr;61(2):178-81
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  • [Title] Does the response of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas to octreotide depend on the cellular localization of the somatostatin receptor subtypes SSTR2 and SSTR5?
  • INTRODUCTION: The immunohistochemical examination of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtypes expression in different endocrine tumours, including pituitary adenomas, revealed membranous or cytoplasmic distribution of SSTR1-5.
  • In an earlier study a positive correlation between the summarized score of SSTR2A + SSTR2B expressions and growth hormone (GH) response to octreotide administration was found, independently of receptor distribution within the cell.
  • The pituitary adenomas from these patients were immunostained to determine the hormonal phenotype and expression of SSTR subtypes.
  • The cytoplasmic but not the membranous localization is connected with the higher responsiveness to the octreotide in somatotropinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / pathology. Octreotide / pharmacology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cytoplasm / pathology. Female. Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 20464704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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28. Taboada GF, Luque RM, Neto LV, Machado Ede O, Sbaffi BC, Domingues RC, Marcondes JB, Chimelli LM, Fontes R, Niemeyer P, de Carvalho DP, Kineman RD, Gadelha MR: Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtypes (1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and correlation to in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to treatment with octreotide LAR. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Mar;158(3):295-303
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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtypes (1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and correlation to in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to treatment with octreotide LAR.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the somatostatin receptor subtype (SSTR) expression profile correlates with hormonal and tumor volume responses to postsurgical octreotide long acting repeatable (OCT LAR) treatment.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to evaluate the absolute mRNA copy numbers for all five SSTR subtypes in 22 somatotropinomas.
  • Response to OCT LAR was studied by hormone levels (GH and IGF-I) and tumor volume (sella turcica magnetic resonance imaging).
  • A positive correlation was also found between SSTR2 mRNA levels and the percentage decrease in tumor volume after 6 months of OCT LAR (r=0.79, P=0.002, n=12).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA expression levels in somatotropinomas correlate positively with in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to OCT LAR.

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  • (PMID = 18299461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / NIDDK 30677
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor subtype-4; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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29. Zieliński G, Podgórski JK, Koziarski A, Warczyńska A, Zgliczyński W, Makowska A: [Surgical treatment of invasive pituitary adenomas (somatotropinoma or corticotropinoma)]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2003 Nov-Dec;37(6):1239-55
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of invasive pituitary adenomas (somatotropinoma or corticotropinoma)].
  • [Transliterated title] Leczenie operacyjne czynnych hormonalnie (wydzielajacych GH lub ACTH) inwazyjnych gruczolaków przysadki mózgowej.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate efficiency of the transcranial epidural approach in the treatment of invasive GH- or ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas with extension to the cavernous sinus.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the past two years (from January 2000 to December 2001) 14 patients with invasive GH- or ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas extending to the cavernous sinus were operated on using the transcranial epidural approach.
  • Our experience is based on an analysis of 12 patients with GH-secreting tumors and 2 patients with ACTH-secreting adenomas.
  • Parasellar extension of the tumor was measured using the Knosp scale--in all the cases there was an extension to the cavernous sinus, in stage III (4 patients) or stage IV (10 patients).
  • RESULTS: In none of the cases a total surgical removal of the invasive GH-secreting adenoma was attained (according the following cure criteria: basal serum GH level below 2.5 micrograms/l, OGTT < 1 microgram/l, normal sex- and age-related IGF-I level).
  • There was no deterioration of pituitary function and no cases of diabetes insipidus in our group.
  • CONCLUSION: Transcranial epidural approach is an alternative to radiotherapy and/or prolonged medication in the treatment of invasive GH- or ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Growth Hormone / secretion. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Female. Humans. Hypophysectomy / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15174237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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30. Casarini AP, Pinto EM, Jallad RS, Giorgi RR, Giannella-Neto D, Bronstein MD: Dissociation between tumor shrinkage and hormonal response during somatostatin analog treatment in an acromegalic patient: preferential expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 3. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Oct;29(9):826-30
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  • [Title] Dissociation between tumor shrinkage and hormonal response during somatostatin analog treatment in an acromegalic patient: preferential expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 3.
  • SSTR2 and SSTR5 are usually expressed in GH-secreting pituitary tumors, and both SA bind preferentially to SSTR2 and, to a lesser extent, to SSTR5.
  • We herein describe an acromegalic patient who presented impressive tumor shrinkage without hormonal normalization during primary therapy with SA.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This 23-yr-old male acromegalic patient was treated with slow-release LAN (LAN-SR), 30 mg every 10 days for six months, followed by OCT-LAR, 30 mg every 28 days for an additional six months with a 75% tumor volume reduction but without GH and IGF-I normalization.
  • Subsequently, he underwent pituitary surgery and expression of SSTR in the removed tumor was performed by real time RT-PCR by the 2-deltaCt method, using GAPDH as internal control.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These unusual clinical and receptor subtypes profile suggest an important role of SSTR3 on tumor shrinkage.
  • The low affinity of LAN and OCT for this SSTR subtype could be compensated by its high expression in this GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / analysis. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gene Expression. Humans. Male. Pituitary Gland / diagnostic imaging. Radiography. Remission Induction / methods

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  • (PMID = 17114915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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31. Zatelli MC, Maffei P, Piccin D, Martini C, Rea F, Rubello D, Margutti A, Culler MD, Sicolo N, degli Uberti EC: Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;90(4):2104-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Carcinoid Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid.
  • A 29-yr-old woman presented with acromegaly, pituitary gland enlargement, and an isolated pulmonary mass of 3.3 cm in diameter, which displayed a very high tracer uptake after OctreoScan.
  • The tissue was examined for somatostatin (SRIH) receptor subtypes (SSTRs) 1-5 expression by RT-PCR.
  • Cultured tumor cells were treated with SRIH, lanreotide (BIM-23014), or SRIH analogs selective for SSTR2 (BIM-23120), SSTR5 (BIM-23206), or SSTR1 (BIM-23926).
  • Our data show SSTR expression in a GHRH-secreting bronchial carcinoid and provide evidence that, in vitro, selective SSTR activation differently inhibit ectopic GHRH secretion.
  • These findings suggest that SSTR-specific SRIH analogs may be useful in the medical therapy of GHRH-secreting bronchial carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15671091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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