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1. Bangaru ML, Woodliff J, Raff H, Kansra S: Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease. PLoS One; 2010;5(4):e9893
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  • [Title] Growth suppression of mouse pituitary corticotroph tumor AtT20 cells by curcumin: a model for treating Cushing's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Pituitary corticotroph tumors secrete excess adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resulting in Cushing's disease (CD).
  • Standard treatment includes surgery and, if not successful, radiotherapy, both of which have undesirable side effects and frequent recurrence of the tumor.
  • Pharmacotherapy using PPARgamma agonists, dopamine receptor agonists, retinoic acid or somatostatin analogs is still experimental.
  • Curcumin, a commonly used food additive in South Asian cooking, has potent growth inhibitory effects on cell proliferation.
  • Our laboratory recently demonstrated that curcumin inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in prolactin- and growth hormone-producing tumor cells.
  • Subsequently, Schaaf et.al. confirmed our findings and also showed the in vivo effectiveness of curcumin to suppress pituitary tumorigenesis.
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the mouse corticotroph tumor cells, AtT20 cells, we report that curcumin had a robust, irreversible inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and clonogenic property.
  • The curcumin-induced growth inhibition was accompanied by decreased NFkappaB activity.
  • CONCLUSION: The ability of curcumin to inhibit NFkappaB and induce apoptosis in pituitary corticotroph tumor cells leads us to propose developing it as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of CD.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Curcumin / pharmacology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Mice. NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [ErratumIn] PLoS One. 2010;5(4). doi:10.1371/annotation/38a101d6-a1f2-4a74-ab63-bc5c61e5f62b
  • (PMID = 20405005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / NF-kappa B; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; IT942ZTH98 / Curcumin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2854133
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2. Boulis NM, Noordmans AJ, Barkan A, Hassing J, Chandler WF: Somatotropinoma infarction during octreotide therapy leading to bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome. Pituitary; 2000 Nov;3(3):185-8
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  • [Title] Somatotropinoma infarction during octreotide therapy leading to bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome.
  • The cyclic somatostatin analog, octreotide, forms the mainstay of medical treatment for acromegaly.
  • In addition to lowering circulating growth hormone levels and shrinking tumor size, octreotide may provide symptomatic relief of headaches associated with growth hormone secreting tumors.
  • The majority of reported complications of octreotide therapy are gastrointestinal and metabolic.
  • The present case illustrates the development of acute bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome with loss of eye movement bilaterally during octreotide therapy.
  • Serial MRI examination suggest tumor infarction as the etiology.
  • The symptoms resolved over 2 months as the tumor shrunk in size and growth hormone was dramatically reduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus. Cerebral Infarction / chemically induced. Cranial Nerve Diseases / chemically induced. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / adverse effects. Ophthalmoplegia / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / chemically induced. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / drug effects. Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Oculomotor Nerve / drug effects. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 11383484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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3. Park C, Yang I, Woo J, Kim S, Kim J, Kim Y, Sohn S, Kim E, Lee M, Park H, Jung J, Park S: Somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype 2 and 5 gene expression in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: the relationship with endogenous srif activity and response to octreotide. Endocr J; 2004 Apr;51(2):227-36
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  • [Title] Somatostatin (SRIF) receptor subtype 2 and 5 gene expression in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: the relationship with endogenous srif activity and response to octreotide.
  • To investigate the potential pathophysiologic role of human SRIF receptor gene expression in GH-secreting adenomas in acromegalic patients, we studied the relationship between the SRIF receptor gene expression, endogenous SRIF activity and exogenous response to octreotide in 16 acromagalic patients.
  • Pituitary tumor SRIF receptor subtype 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5) mRNA levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR.
  • These results suggest common transcriptional and/or post-transcriptonal regulatory mechanisms for these SRIF receptor subtypes within GH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • The functional observations suggest that the degree (or level) of sst2 and sst5 expression is critical for the ultimate GH response of somatotropinomas to endogenous SRIF tone and exogenous SRIF analogue therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adult. Female. Gene Expression. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15118275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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4. Ren SG, Kim S, Taylor J, Dong J, Moreau JP, Culler MD, Melmed S: Suppression of rat and human growth hormone and prolactin secretion by a novel somatostatin/dopaminergic chimeric ligand. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Nov;88(11):5414-21
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  • [Title] Suppression of rat and human growth hormone and prolactin secretion by a novel somatostatin/dopaminergic chimeric ligand.
  • The selective SSTR2 agonist, BIM-23023 (50% effective dose, 0.42), and the DAR2 agonist, BIM-53097 (50% effective dose, 22.1), dose- dependently inhibited GH secretion in cultured primary rat and human fetal as well as in human pituitary tumor cells derived from GH-secreting adenomas.
  • The combination of individual SSTR2 and DAR2 agonists was additive for suppressing GH secretion in both rat and human pituitary cells.
  • BIM-23A387 (50% effective dose, 0.16 for SSTR2 and 24.5 for DAR2), displayed similar efficacy in suppressing GH secretion from rat pituitary cells as the combination of the two individual agonists.
  • In contrast, the chimeric molecule was more potent than individual selective analogs in suppressing GH secretion by human fetal pituitary and GH-secreting adenoma cells (P < 0.05).
  • These results indicate that mechanisms by which the chimeric molecule suppresses pituitary GH secretion may not be mediated by individual SSTR2 or DAR2 signaling, respectively.
  • The SRIF/DA chimeric molecule, BIM-23A387, represents a novel tool for effective drug treatment of acromegaly and for prolactinomas otherwise resistant to dopaminergic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dopamine Agonists / pharmacology. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Prolactin / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Ligands. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology. Pituitary Gland / cytology. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Neoplasms. Prolactinoma. Rats. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / agonists. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / secretion

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  • (PMID = 14602782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIM 23023; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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5. Nasr C, Mason A, Mayberg M, Staugaitis SM, Asa SL: Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Dec;91(12):4776-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acromegaly and somatotroph hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation due to pituitary metastasis of a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting pulmonary endocrine carcinoma.
  • Hypothalamic gangliocytomas producing GHRH are also known to be associated with pituitary adenomas causing acromegaly.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe a case of acromegaly due to a pulmonary GHRH-secreting endocrine carcinoma with metastasis to the pituitary gland and to look at the peculiar histological features of this case.
  • SUBJECT: The patient was a 44-yr-old woman who was diagnosed with a biopsy-proven metastatic pulmonary endocrine tumor during pregnancy.
  • After delivery, she underwent radiation and chemotherapy for pulmonary and skeletal metastases.
  • Her disease was clinically stable for 7 yr until she developed bitemporal hemianopia.
  • The patient underwent uneventful transsphenoidal resection of the sellar tumor.
  • Histological examination confirmed metastatic endocrine carcinoma to the pituitary, and immunohistochemistry localized GHRH to the tumor cells.
  • The adjacent pituitary exhibited somatotroph hyperplasia with abundant reactivity for GH and alpha-subunit.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the first report of a GHRH-producing endocrine tumor metastasizing to the pituitary and causing local hyperstimulation with somatotroph hyperplasia and adenomatous transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / complications. Acromegaly / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Somatotrophs / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16968791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones, Ectopic; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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6. Pawlikowski M, Melen-Mucha G: Perspectives of new potential therapeutic applications of somatostatin analogs. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2003 Feb-Apr;24(1-2):21-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perspectives of new potential therapeutic applications of somatostatin analogs.
  • At the present time only two long-acting somatostatin (SS) analogs, octreotide and lanreotide, are commonly used in the routine therapy.
  • The established indications for SS analogs treatment include acromegaly, neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract, and some gastro-enterologic diseases (pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleedings, refractory diarrheas, pancreatic and intestinal fistulas).
  • The recent investigations allow to predict the enlargement of therapeutic applications of SS analogs.
  • It concerns pituitary tumors other than somatotropinoma, tumors of other endocrine glands like thyroid and adrenal gland, as well as some non-endocrine tumors.
  • The pre- or postoperative in vivo imaging of SS receptors by means of the receptor scintigraphy, as well as the post-operative identification of SS receptor subtypes in the excised tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry, should play an important role in the prediction of the effects of SS analog treatment.
  • Beside oncology, new therapeutic applications of SS analogs could be presumed among others in ophthalmology; it concerns the treatment of progressive Graves-Basedow ophtalmopathy, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and corneal diseases connected with corneal vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Receptors, Somatostatin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12743527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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7. Zatelli MC, Maffei P, Piccin D, Martini C, Rea F, Rubello D, Margutti A, Culler MD, Sicolo N, degli Uberti EC: Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Apr;90(4):2104-9
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  • [Title] Somatostatin analogs in vitro effects in a growth hormone-releasing hormone-secreting bronchial carcinoid.
  • A 29-yr-old woman presented with acromegaly, pituitary gland enlargement, and an isolated pulmonary mass of 3.3 cm in diameter, which displayed a very high tracer uptake after OctreoScan.
  • The tissue was examined for somatostatin (SRIH) receptor subtypes (SSTRs) 1-5 expression by RT-PCR.
  • Cultured tumor cells were treated with SRIH, lanreotide (BIM-23014), or SRIH analogs selective for SSTR2 (BIM-23120), SSTR5 (BIM-23206), or SSTR1 (BIM-23926).
  • Our data show SSTR expression in a GHRH-secreting bronchial carcinoid and provide evidence that, in vitro, selective SSTR activation differently inhibit ectopic GHRH secretion.
  • These findings suggest that SSTR-specific SRIH analogs may be useful in the medical therapy of GHRH-secreting bronchial carcinoids.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone / secretion. Receptors, Somatostatin / agonists
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Survival / drug effects. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15671091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone
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8. Mannelli M, Cantini G, Poli G, Mangoni M, Nesi G, Canu L, Rapizzi E, Borgogni E, Ercolino T, Piccini V, Luconi M: Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells. Neuroendocrinology; 2010;92 Suppl 1:23-7
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  • [Title] Role of the PPAR-γ system in normal and tumoral pituitary corticotropic cells and adrenal cells.
  • PPAR-γ is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors, whose thiazolidinedione ligands (TZD) have been recently demonstrated to also possess anticancer properties in addition to their well-known insulin-sensitizer and glucose/lipid regulation activity.
  • In this minireview, we summarize the current knowledge on PPAR-γ in normal and tumoral corticotropic pituitary and adrenal cells.
  • The receptor expression has been shown in ACTH-secreting cells in both normal and adenomal pituitary as well as in normal and tumor adrenal cortex.
  • Preclinical studies conducted both in vitro on tumor cells and in vivo on xenograft tumor models obtained by subcutaneous injection of cancer cells have evidenced the anticancer properties of TZD, in particular rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PIO).
  • In both pituitary and adrenocortical cancer, RGZ treatment results in inhibition of cell proliferation, through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and induction of cell apoptosis, leading to significant inhibition of tumor growth in the xenograft tumor models.
  • In addition, since RGZ can reduce ACTH and corticosterone secretion in mouse corticotropic pituitary tumors, both RGZ and PIO have been used in the treatment of Cushing's disease with variable but generally unsatisfactory results.
  • Discrepancies in the antitumor effects of TZD observed between successful preclinical and unsuccessful clinical studies may be particularly due to differences in treatment duration and doses used.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / metabolism. Corticotrophs / metabolism. PPAR gamma / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20829614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0194
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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9. Taboada GF, Luque RM, Neto LV, Machado Ede O, Sbaffi BC, Domingues RC, Marcondes JB, Chimelli LM, Fontes R, Niemeyer P, de Carvalho DP, Kineman RD, Gadelha MR: Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtypes (1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and correlation to in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to treatment with octreotide LAR. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Mar;158(3):295-303
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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of somatostatin receptor subtypes (1-5) gene expression levels in somatotropinomas and correlation to in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to treatment with octreotide LAR.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the somatostatin receptor subtype (SSTR) expression profile correlates with hormonal and tumor volume responses to postsurgical octreotide long acting repeatable (OCT LAR) treatment.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to evaluate the absolute mRNA copy numbers for all five SSTR subtypes in 22 somatotropinomas.
  • Response to OCT LAR was studied by hormone levels (GH and IGF-I) and tumor volume (sella turcica magnetic resonance imaging).
  • A positive correlation was also found between SSTR2 mRNA levels and the percentage decrease in tumor volume after 6 months of OCT LAR (r=0.79, P=0.002, n=12).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 mRNA expression levels in somatotropinomas correlate positively with in vivo hormonal and tumor volume responses to OCT LAR.

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  • (PMID = 18299461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / NIDDK 30677
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 3; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor subtype-4; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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10. Freda PU, Reyes CM, Nuruzzaman AT, Sundeen RE, Khandji AG, Post KD: Cabergoline therapy of growth hormone & growth hormone/prolactin secreting pituitary tumors. Pituitary; 2004;7(1):21-30
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  • [Title] Cabergoline therapy of growth hormone & growth hormone/prolactin secreting pituitary tumors.
  • Dopamine agonists have been used as adjunctive therapy for acromegaly for many years, but relatively few studies have assessed the efficacy of a newer agonist, cabergoline.
  • Some data suggest that cabergoline may be more effective than bromocriptine, in particular for those patients whose tumors secrete both growth hormone and prolactin.
  • In order to assess this possibility further, we have evaluated the biochemical response to cabergoline therapy in patients with acromegaly at our center.
  • We describe first an unusual patient who presented with a pituitary macroadenoma secreting both GH and prolactin.
  • At presentation he had elevated levels of growth hormone 6.0 microg/L, IGF-I, 722 ng/ml, and prolactin, 6000 ng/ml.
  • Cabergoline therapy alone was highly effective in this patient and normalized his levels of all three hormones and his gonadal function as well as produced significant shrinkage of his pituitary tumor.
  • Mean baseline GH was 1.3 +/- .23 ng/ml and fell to a nadir of 0.85 +/- .18 ng/ml on cabergoline therapy (p = 0.03).
  • Mean baseline IGF-I was 520 +/- 45.2 ng/ml and fell to a mean nadir during cabergoline therapy of 368 +/- 29.8 ng/ml (p = 0.0013).
  • At the completion of the cabergoline therapy study period, however, mean IGF-I was 453 +/- 46 ng/ml, not significantly lower than the baseline value (p = 0.11).
  • No changes in tumor sizes occurred on cabergoline therapy.
  • Eight of 14 patients achieved a normal IGF-I at some point during the 24 weeks study period, but the efficacy of cabergoline waned with time as only 3 of 14 (21%) of patients had a persistently normal IGF-I with up to 18 months of cabergoline therapy.
  • Six patients had modest hyperprolactinemia at diagnosis (26-142 ng/ml) and 5 patients had positive immunohistochemical staining of their tumor for prolactin, but in neither of these small groups was cabergoline therapy more effective at normalizing IGF-I than in those patients with apparently pure GH secreting tumors.
  • Three of 14 patients (21%) had side effects that limited therapy.
  • A trial of cabergoline as adjunctive therapy may be considered in select patients with mild disease and small tumor residuals, but the expectation for biochemical control in these patients needs to be kept low, even for tumors that co-secrete GH and prolactin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / pathology. Adult. Biomarkers / blood. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Prolactin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 15638294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K08 DK02561
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ergolines; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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11. Donangelo I, Rodacki M, Peixoto MC, Vaisman M, Caldas NR, Gadelha MR: Dependency and analgesia related to treatment with subcutaneous octreotide in patients with growth hormone-secreting tumors. Endocr Pract; 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):107-11
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  • [Title] Dependency and analgesia related to treatment with subcutaneous octreotide in patients with growth hormone-secreting tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe three patients diagnosed with somatotropinomas in whom the analgesic effect of octreotide was observed, along with dependency to the drug.
  • METHODS: These patients had pituitary macroadenomas treated with transphenoidal surgery and pituitary radiotherapy, and received high daily doses (>900 microg/day) of subcutaneous octreotide because of persistent high levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I).
  • RESULTS: Headache occurred prior to drug administration in all three cases, with relief soon after.
  • We also observed tolerance to octreotide's analgesic and anti-secretory actions (one patient), craving for the drug (two patients), withdrawal syndrome (one patient), and drug abuse (one patient).
  • CONCLUSION: Dependency syndrome may occur when high doses of octreotide are used, sometimes leading to drug abuse.
  • Tolerance to the growth hormone anti-secretory effect of the drug may encourage physicians to increase doses to levels at which drug dependency has been observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / secretion. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Octreotide / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Substance-Related Disorders
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Tolerance. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15256326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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12. Hubina E, Nanzer AM, Hanson MR, Ciccarelli E, Losa M, Gaia D, Papotti M, Terreni MR, Khalaf S, Jordan S, Czirják S, Hanzély Z, Nagy GM, Góth MI, Grossman AB, Korbonits M: Somatostatin analogues stimulate p27 expression and inhibit the MAP kinase pathway in pituitary tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Aug;155(2):371-9
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  • [Title] Somatostatin analogues stimulate p27 expression and inhibit the MAP kinase pathway in pituitary tumours.
  • OBJECTIVES: Somatostatin (SST) analogues play an important role in the medical management of somatotroph pituitary adenomas and new agonists have the potential to be effective in a wider group of pituitary and other tumours.
  • METHODS: Human pituitary adenoma cells and rat pituitary cell line (GH3) were cultured and treated in vitro with octreotide and the broad-spectrum SST agonist SOM230 (pasireotide).
  • Histological samples from acromegalic patients treated with octreotide before surgery were immunostained for p27 and compared to samples from untreated patients matched for sex, age, tumour size, extension and invasiveness.
  • RESULTS: We detected upregulation of p27 protein levels with SST analogue treatment in vitro in human pituitary adenoma samples. pERK1/2 was inhibited by SST analogues in both the human samples and GH3 cells.
  • SST and its analogues inhibited the proliferation of GH3 cells. p27 immunostaining was stronger in samples from patients with longer preoperative octreotide treatment (more than 6 months) than in samples from patients with shorter treatment periods.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that SST-mediated growth inhibition is associated with the downregulation of pERK and upregulation of p27.
  • More potent and broader-spectrum SST analogues are likely to play an increasing role in the treatment of tumours, where the MAP kinase pathway is overactivated.

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  • (PMID = 16868153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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13. Waśko R, Bolko P, Owecki M, Jaskuła M, Sowiński J: The efficacy of octreotide LAR (long acting release) treatment in patients with somatotropinoma, and mixed pituitary tumours. Pharm World Sci; 2004 Dec;26(6):324-7
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  • [Title] The efficacy of octreotide LAR (long acting release) treatment in patients with somatotropinoma, and mixed pituitary tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: The efficacy of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of acromegaly is not always equal and therefore we wanted to evaluate the efficacy of therapy with octreotide long acting release (LAR) in patients with monohormonal tumours (somatotropinomas) in comparison to individuals with mixed pituitary tumours secreting alpha-subunit.
  • METHOD: The 35 acromegalic patients (18 males and 17 females), aged 41.8 +/- 8.8 years, were divided into 2 groups according to the secreted hormones: 1 with mixed pituitary tumours with elevated growth hormone and alpha-subunit concentrations, the other with isolated growth hormone hypersecretion and normal alpha-subunit levels.
  • RESULTS: The decrease of GH and IGF-I levels after octreotide LAR treatment were observed in both groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After octreotide LAR treatment, the decrease of GH level and of mean IGF-I values was greater in patients with mixed pituitary tumours and high alpha-subunit concentrations than in patients with isolated GH hypersecretion and normal alpha-subunit levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adult. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15683101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-1231
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacy world & science : PWS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm World Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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14. Waśko R, Bolko P, Kostrzewski J, Horst-Sikorska W, Liebert W, Sowiński J: [Estimation of efficacy of the octreotide LAR administration in the patients with somatotropinoma]. Pol Arch Med Wewn; 2001 Aug;106(2):693-8
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  • [Title] [Estimation of efficacy of the octreotide LAR administration in the patients with somatotropinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Ocena skuteczności stosowania oktreotydu LAR u pacjentów z guzami przysadki typu somatotropinoma.
  • Acromegaly is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone by a hypophyseal adenoma type of somatotropinoma.
  • Treatment of adenomas, which secrete GH, involves pharmacotherapy followed by surgery.
  • Modern pharmacotherapy leaning is based on somatostatin analogues (factor restrictive secretion GH): octreotide, octreotide LAR and lanreotide.
  • The aim of our study was estimation of efficiency of octreotide LAR in the patients with somatotropinoma prepared to neurosurgery intervention.
  • The presence of pituitary adenoma in all patients was confirmed by MRI.
  • The concentration of GH before octreotide LAR therapy in all patients increased remarkable and ranged from 15.6 to 78.6 ng/ml, mean: 31.20 +/- 16.84 (norm: 0-10 ng/ml), also, in all cases the serum IGF-I level was increased and ranged from 451 to 1107.6 ng/ml, mean: 801.75 +/- 207.82 (norm: 100-400 ng/ml).
  • Long acting somatostatin analogues--octreotide LAR is particular efficient in lowering of growth hormone and IGF-I in patients with somatotropinoma and shows efficiency in normalization of increased prolactin concentration.
  • Because of extreme effectiveness of octreotide LAR, it should be used the routine treatment at the patients suffering from active acromegaly and preparing to neurosurgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Peptides, Cyclic / administration & dosage. Prolactin / blood. Somatostatin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Hormones / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Radiography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11926144.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Arch. Med. Wewn.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0G3DE8943Y / lanreotide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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15. Rozhivanov RV, Kurbatov DG: [Sexual function rehabilitation of men with pituitary tumors]. Urologiia; 2010 Jul-Aug;(4):48, 50-3
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  • [Title] [Sexual function rehabilitation of men with pituitary tumors].
  • A prospective trial of the methods of sexual rehabilitation of 31 men with pituitary tumors has shown that therapy with testosterone and chorionic gonadotropin effectively corrects hypogonadism and sexual disorders.
  • Both methods of treatment had no negative effect on the size of the prostatic gland and PSA level except 2 patients with somatotropinoma on testosterone.
  • In the course of chorionic gonadotropin treatment pituitary tumor increased in size in 3 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / therapeutic use. Erectile Dysfunction / drug therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Testosterone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cohort Studies. Humans. Libido / drug effects. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


16. Hu M, Tomlinson B: Pharmacokinetic evaluation of lanreotide. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol; 2010 Oct;6(10):1301-12
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  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Acromegaly is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease in adults related to excessive production of growth hormone (GH) by pituitary gland tumors and characterized by progressive somatic disfigurement that is associated with systemic manifestations related to organ overgrowth.
  • Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are effective in controlling GH/IGF-1 hypersecretion and in reducing tumor size.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: This article concisely reviews the rationale of SSA treatment in acromegaly and the pharmacology and clinical efficacy of lanreotide and provides a detailed overview of its pharmacokinetic profiles in its slow release (SR) and autogel (ATG) formulations.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Lanreotide is an effective and well-tolerated drug for the treatment of acromegaly.
  • In well-designed clinical trials, subcutaneous lanreotide ATG was shown to be no less effective than intramuscular lanreotide SR or octreotide treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacokinetics. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Delayed-Action Preparations. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Injections, Subcutaneous

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  • (PMID = 20716034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7607
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin
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17. Flitsch J, Lüdecke DK, Stahnke N, Wiebel J, Saeger W: Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary gigantism and galactorrhea in a 3.5 year old child. Pituitary; 2000 May;2(4):261-7
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  • [Title] Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary gigantism and galactorrhea in a 3.5 year old child.
  • The management of pituitary macroadenomas which lead to gigantism may require multiple therapeutical approaches, including medical treatment, surgery, and radiation therapy.
  • Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) during early childhood that achieves total removal of a growth hormone (GH) secreting tumor is rarely reported.
  • In this case, a 3.5 year old child, the youngest successfully treated by TSS so far, suffered from a GH- and prolactin (PRL) secreting macroadenoma of the pituitary gland.
  • The girl initially presented with an increasing growth rate, later with breast development, and finally, at the age of 2.8 years, with galactorrhea and secretion of blood from the nipples.
  • Increased levels of GH [122 micrograms/l], insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) [830 micrograms/l], insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) [8.6 mg/l] and PRL [590 micrograms/l] were found.
  • An eight-week trial of relatively low dose dopamine agonists led to a reduction of PRL, while the GH- and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged; the tumor showed only little shrinkage.
  • A complete tumor removal was achieved despite the difficulties of a narrow approach.
  • After TSS, low levels of GH, IGF-1, and PRL documented a complete tumor removal, but persistent diabetes insipidus and anterior lobe deficits resulted from surgery.
  • In summary, if primary medical therapy alone is unable to adequately reduce hormone hypersecretion and tumor size in early childhood, TSS is recommended.
  • Thus, radiation therapy may be reserved for surgical failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Galactorrhea / complications. Galactorrhea / surgery. Gigantism / complications. Gigantism / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Postoperative Complications. Prolactin / blood. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / pathology. Prolactinoma / surgery. Sphenoid Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11081147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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18. Heaney AP: Novel pituitary ligands: peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-gamma. Pituitary; 2003;6(3):153-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel pituitary ligands: peroxisome proliferator activating receptor-gamma.
  • Pituitary tumors cause considerable morbidity due to local invasion, hypopituitarism, or hormone hypersecretion.
  • In many cases, no suitable drug therapies are available, and surgical excision is currently the only effective treatment.
  • We have recently demonstrated abundant expression of nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma in human pituitary tumors of different subtypes.
  • PPAR-gamma activators (thiazolidinediones) induced G0-G1 cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human, and murine corticotroph, somatolactotroph, and gonadotroph pituitary tumor cells, and suppressed in vitro hormone secretion.
  • In vivo development and growth of murine corticotroph, somatolactotroph and gonadotroph tumors, generated by subcutaneous injection of ACTH-secreting AtT20, PRL- and GH-secreting GH3, and LH-secreting LbetaT2, and alpha-T3 cells, was markedly suppressed in rosiglitazone treated mice, and plasma ACTH, and serum corticosterone, GH, PRL and LH levels were attenuated in all treated animals.
  • PPAR-gamma is an important novel molecular target in pituitary adenoma cells and as PPAR-gamma ligands inhibit tumor cell growth and ACTH, GH, PRL and LH secretion in vitro and in vivo, thiazolidinediones are proposed as a novel oral medical management for pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Animals. Cell Division. Human Growth Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Ligands. Luteinizing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Prolactin / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 14971739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; 0 / Transcription Factors; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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