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1. Ortega JA, Douglass EC, Feusner JH, Reynolds M, Quinn JJ, Finegold MJ, Haas JE, King DR, Liu-Mares W, Sensel MG, Krailo MD: Randomized comparison of cisplatin/vincristine/fluorouracil and cisplatin/continuous infusion doxorubicin for treatment of pediatric hepatoblastoma: A report from the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jul;18(14):2665-75
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  • [Title] Randomized comparison of cisplatin/vincristine/fluorouracil and cisplatin/continuous infusion doxorubicin for treatment of pediatric hepatoblastoma: A report from the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: Previous studies demonstrated that chemotherapy with either cisplatin, vincristine, and fluorouracil (regimen A) or cisplatin and continuous infusion doxorubicin (regimen B) improved survival in children with hepatoblastoma.
  • After initial surgery, patients with stage I-unfavorable histology (UH; n = 43), stage II (n = 7), stage III (n = 83), and stage IV (n = 40) hepatoblastoma were randomized to receive regimen A (n = 92) or regimen B (n = 81).
  • Patients with stage I-favorable histology (FH; n = 9) were treated with four cycles of doxorubicin alone.
  • RESULTS: There were no events among patients with stage I-FH disease.
  • Patients with stage I-UH, stage II, stage III, or stage IV disease had 5-year EFS estimates of 91% (SD = 4%), 100%, 64% (SD = 5%), and 25% (SD = 7%), respectively.
  • At postinduction surgery I, patients with stage III or IV disease who were found to be tumor-free had no events; those who had complete resections achieved a 5-year EFS of 83% (SD = 6%); other patients with stage III or IV disease had worse outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment outcome was not significantly different between regimen A and regimen B.
  • Excellent outcome was achieved for patients with stage I-UH and stage II hepatoblastoma and for subsets of patients with stage III disease.
  • New treatment strategies are needed for the majority of patients with advanced-stage hepatoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hepatoblastoma / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10894865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA092049; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 30969
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; AP protocol 1
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2. Legrand F, Lecuit M, Dupont B, Bellaton E, Huerre M, Rohrlich PS, Lortholary O: Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy for chronic disseminated candidiasis. Clin Infect Dis; 2008 Mar 1;46(5):696-702
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  • [Title] Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy for chronic disseminated candidiasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is typically observed during neutrophil recovery in patients with acute leukemia and requires protracted antifungal therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to document the efficacy and tolerance of corticosteroid therapy (CST) in patients with symptomatic CDC, including those who experienced fever and abdominal pain despite ongoing antifungal therapy.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study involving 10 pediatric and adult patients who experienced ongoing symptomatic CDC despite receipt of appropriate antifungal therapy for whom adjuvant oral CST was initiated.
  • RESULTS: All cases of CDC were proven or probable, as determined on the basis of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Mycosis Study Group definition criteria, and occurred in patients with leukemia.
  • CDC-attributable clinical symptoms resolved with CST, which was started a mean of 33.8 days after antifungal therapy had been initiated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In children and adults who experience persistently symptomatic CDC despite ongoing receipt of antifungal therapy, CST involving a prednisone equivalent at a dosage of > or =0.5 mg/kg per day for at least 3 weeks is associated with a prompt resolution of symptoms and of inflammatory response.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Candidiasis / drug therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / microbiology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. C-Reactive Protein / analysis. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Fever / microbiology. Fibrinogen / analysis. Humans. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / drug therapy. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / microbiology. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / pathology. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / physiopathology. Length of Stay. Leukemia / complications. Liver Abscess / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Spleen / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18230039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 9001-32-5 / Fibrinogen; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein
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3. Saint-Faust M, Boyer C, Gari-Toussaint M, Deville A, Poiree M, Weintraub M, Sirvent N: Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy in 2 children with hepatosplenic candidiasis-related IRIS. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Oct;31(10):794-6
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  • [Title] Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy in 2 children with hepatosplenic candidiasis-related IRIS.
  • First described in HIV-infected patients who recently initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy, the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is best characterized as a collection of inflammatory disorders triggered by rapid resolution of immunosuppression.
  • Treatment of IRIS is a clinical challenge due to the variety of clinical presentations and the presence of multiple pathogens capable of causing the syndrome.
  • We report 2 cases of probable hepatosplenic candidiasis according to the guidelines of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycosis Study Group, occurring in pediatric patients with acute leukemia during rapid neutrophil recovery after cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • In both cases, abdominal computed tomography scan revealed multiple hepatic micronodules, and liver biopsy showed nonspecific granulomatous lesions.
  • Hepatosplenic candidiasis symptoms (fever, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain) resolved within 2 days after adjunction of corticosteroid therapy to antifungal treatment.
  • Corticosteroid therapy in this setting is associated with prompt resolution of the symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Candidiasis / complications. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Liver Diseases / microbiology. Male. Remission Induction. Splenic Diseases / microbiology


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4. Malogolowkin M, Cotton CA, Green DM, Breslow NE, Perlman E, Miser J, Ritchey ML, Thomas PR, Grundy PE, D'Angio GJ, Beckwith JB, Shamberger RC, Haase GM, Donaldson M, Weetman R, Coppes MJ, Shearer P, Coccia P, Kletzel M, Macklis R, Tomlinson G, Huff V, Newbury R, Weeks D, National Wilms Tumor Study Group: Treatment of Wilms tumor relapsing after initial treatment with vincristine, actinomycin D, and doxorubicin. A report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Feb;50(2):236-41
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  • [Title] Treatment of Wilms tumor relapsing after initial treatment with vincristine, actinomycin D, and doxorubicin. A report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the use of alternating cycles of cyclophosphamide/etoposide and carboplatin/etoposide in children entered on National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS)-5 who were diagnosed between August 1, 1995 and May 31, 2002 and who relapsed after chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin D, and doxorubicin (VAD) and radiation therapy (DD-4A).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred three patients who relapsed or had progressive disease after initial VAD chemotherapy and radiation therapy were registered on stratum C of the NWTS-5 Relapse protocol.
  • Twelve patients were not evaluable: five due to insufficient data, six due to major protocol violations, and one for refusal of therapy.
  • Among the 91 remaining patients, 14 with stage V Wilms tumor (WT), 1 with contralateral relapse, and 16 who did not achieve a complete response (CR) to the initial three-drug chemotherapy were not included in this analysis.
  • Relapse treatment included alternating courses of the drug pairs cyclophosphamide/etoposide and carboplatin/etoposide, surgery, and radiation therapy.
  • The lung was the only site of relapse for 33 patients; other sites of relapse included the operative bed, the abdomen, and liver.
  • CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that approximately one-half of children with unilateral WT who relapse after initial treatment with VAD and radiation therapy can be successfully retreated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17539021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-42326
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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5. Adachi Y, Matsubara S, Muramatsu T, Curiel DT, Reynolds PN: Midkine promoter-based adenoviral suicide gene therapy to midkine-positive pediatric tumor. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Apr;37(4):588-92
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  • [Title] Midkine promoter-based adenoviral suicide gene therapy to midkine-positive pediatric tumor.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Suicide gene therapy based on the delivery of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene combined with ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) is a promising approach for cancer treatment.
  • Adenoviral (Ad) vectors are useful gene delivery vehicles for this approach; however, because these agents possess a high natural tropism for the liver, systems must be designed to avoid potential hepatotoxicity induced by expression of the therapeutic gene in this organ.
  • In addition, no MK expression is observed in mouse or human liver.
  • The authors investigated the application of MK promoter-based adenoviral gene therapy for MK-positive tumors, especially Wilms' tumors or neuroblastomas, and have shown that the MK promoter retains its fidelity in the adenoviral context, having low activity in liver and high activity in MK-positive tumor cells.
  • We present herein the efficacy of in vivo tumor regression as well as prevention of lethal hepatic toxicity by using the MK promoter in an Ad vector-based HSV-tk/GCV treatment approach.
  • In concurrent studies, the therapeutic impact of AdMKTK/GCV versus AdCMVTK/GCV on subcutaneous G-401 Wilms' tumors in nude mice was assessed.
  • RESULTS: By day 8 of systemic viral treatment, 4 of 5 mice treated with AdCMVTK/GCV had died, whereas all mice treated with AdMKTK/GCV survived at least 10 days.
  • In the subcutaneous tumor study, equivalent regression of tumor was seen in the group that received AdMKTK as the group that received AdCMVTK intratumoral injection.
  • CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the MK promoter-based adenoviral suicide gene therapy is a unique therapeutic candidate for MK-positive tumors, Wilms' tumors, or neuroblastomas, by virtue of its mild hepatotoxicity and high efficacy against MK-positive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / administration & dosage. Cytokines. Genetic Therapy / methods. Neuroblastoma / therapy. Wilms Tumor / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Vectors. Mice. Mice, Nude. Promoter Regions, Genetic / physiology. Simplexvirus / chemistry. Simplexvirus / genetics. Thymidine / chemistry. Thymidine / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 11912516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA83591; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA89019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA83821
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 137497-38-2 / midkine; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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6. Brotto M, Finegold MJ: Distinct patterns of p27/KIP 1 gene expression in hepatoblastoma and prognostic implications with correlation before and after chemotherapy. Hum Pathol; 2002 Feb;33(2):198-205
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  • [Title] Distinct patterns of p27/KIP 1 gene expression in hepatoblastoma and prognostic implications with correlation before and after chemotherapy.
  • Information about morphologic changes due to chemotherapy in hepatoblastoma (Hbs) is limited, and so is information about distinct patterns of p27 gene expression.
  • Twenty-nine hepatoblastomas were evaluated for possible prognostic correlation between p27 expression in different histotypes of hepatoblastoma, changes during chemotherapy, and outcome.
  • Patients were treated according to the Children's Cancer Group and Pediatric Oncology Group protocols, which included initial surgery before chemotherapy wherever possible.
  • The vast majority of small undifferentiated cell components are p27 negative. p27 protein expression is downregulated after chemotherapy in the remaining fetal well-differentiated component of Hbs.
  • Aggressiveness and ultimate prognosis for incompletely resected tumors after chemotherapy remain indeterminate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression. Hepatoblastoma / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 11957145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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7. Langevin AM, Bernstein M, Kuhn JG, Blaney SM, Ivy P, Sun J, Chen Z, Adamson PC, Children's Oncology Group: A phase II trial of rebeccamycin analogue (NSC #655649) in children with solid tumors: a Children's Oncology Group study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):577-80
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of rebeccamycin analogue (NSC #655649) in children with solid tumors: a Children's Oncology Group study.
  • BACKGROUND: Rebeccamycin Analogue (NSC #655649), a chemically synthesized glycosyl-dichloro-indolocarbazole derivative of rebeccamycin with topoisomerase inhibiting activity, has in vitro activity against pediatric tumor cell lines and tumor specimens including rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma and medulloblastoma.
  • PROCEDURE: The primary objective of this trial was to determine the response rate to Rebeccamycin analogue NSC #655649 in children with refractory solid and CNS tumors.
  • Secondary objectives included further evaluation of the toxicity and pharmacokinetic profile of Rebeccamycin analogue in children with relapsed and refractory cancer.
  • A two-stage design was used for this Phase II trial.
  • Rebeccamycin analogue, 650 mg/m(2), was administered every 21 days, and could be escalated to 780 mg/m(2) in subsequent cycles to achieve a maximum plasma drug concentration >5 microg/ml.
  • With a global response rate of 3% observed in children with relapsed CNS and non-CNS solid tumors, further development of Rebeccamycin analogue in pediatric solid tumors is not recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Marrow Diseases / chemically induced. Carbazoles. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Female. Glucosides. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Pancreatitis / chemically induced. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17610262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA-54174
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Carbazoles; 0 / Glucosides; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Topoisomerase II Inhibitors; A60X6MBU6G / becatecarin
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8. Aronson DC, Schnater JM, Staalman CR, Weverling GJ, Plaschkes J, Perilongo G, Brown J, Phillips A, Otte JB, Czauderna P, MacKinlay G, Vos A: Predictive value of the pretreatment extent of disease system in hepatoblastoma: results from the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Liver Tumor Study Group SIOPEL-1 study. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb 20;23(6):1245-52
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  • [Title] Predictive value of the pretreatment extent of disease system in hepatoblastoma: results from the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Liver Tumor Study Group SIOPEL-1 study.
  • PURPOSE: Preoperative staging (pretreatment extent of disease [PRETEXT]) was developed for the first prospective liver tumor study by the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOPEL-1 study; preoperative chemotherapy and delayed surgery).
  • The Children's Cancer Study Group/Pediatric Oncology Group-based staging system showed no predictive value for survival (P = .516), but the tumor-node-metastasis-based system and PRETEXT system showed good predictive values (P = .0021 and P = .0006, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: PRETEXT has moderate accuracy with a tendency to overstage patients, shows good interobserver agreement (reproducibility), shows superior predictive value for survival, offers the opportunity to monitor the effect of preoperative therapy, and can also be applied in patients who have not had operations.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Feb 20;25(6):737; author reply 737-8 [17308285.001]
  • (PMID = 15718322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Morimura T, Fujita K, Akita M, Nagashima M, Satomi A: The proton pump inhibitor inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Oct;24(10):1087-94
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  • [Title] The proton pump inhibitor inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma.
  • PURPOSE: In normal physiology, a vacuolar-type proton pump (V-ATPase) maintains an intracellular acid microenvironment in lysosome, endosome, and other endomembrane systems.
  • Cancer cells overexpress V-ATPase compared with normal cells, and disturbances of the acid environment are thought to significantly impact the cancer cell infiltration and growth.
  • Neoplastic cells are reportedly more sensitive to Baf-A1 than normal cells, and the difference between the susceptibility to Baf-A1 in normal cells and that in cancer cells may become a target in the cancer therapy.
  • With this in mind, we used cells of hepatoblastoma, the cancer type accounting for 80% of all childhood liver cancers, to investigate the effects of Baf-A1 as an inducer of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibitor of cancer cell reproduction METHODS AND RESULTS: Electron microscopy showed significant morphological change of the hepatoblastoma cells of the Baf-A1-treated group compared with hepatoblastoma cells of the Baf-A1-free group.
  • The rate of the apoptotic cell increased, and cell reproduction was inhibited.
  • In normal human hepatic cells, on the other hand, the inhibition of cell growth of the Baf-A1-treated cells was negligible compared to that of the cells without Baf-A1 treatment.
  • The result of apoptotic cell detection by morphological observations and flow cytometry revealed that Baf-A1 inhibits hepatoblastoma cellular reproduction by inducing apoptosis.
  • On the other hand, the Baf-A1-conferred inhibition of cell growth was negligible in normal human hepatocytes CONCLUSION: The V-ATPase inhibitor Baf-A1 has been proven to selectively inhibit the reproduction and induce the apoptosis of hepatoblastoma cells without adversely influencing normal hepatic cells.
  • With these effects, V-ATPase inhibitors may hold promise as therapeutic agents for hepatoblastoma.
  • Given that three V-ATPase-related genes (ATP6V0D2, ATP6V1B1, and ATP6V0A1) were more weakly expressed in the hepatoblastoma cells of the Baf-A1-treated group than in the Baf-A1-free cells, drug development targeting V-ATPase gene of hepatoblastomas is expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Macrolides / pharmacology. Proton Pump Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Flow Cytometry. Humans. Microscopy, Electron. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases / antagonists & inhibitors. Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases / drug effects. Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18712525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Macrolides; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors; 88899-55-2 / bafilomycin A1; EC 3.6.1.- / Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases
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10. Katzenstein HM, Krailo MD, Malogolowkin MH, Ortega JA, Liu-Mares W, Douglass EC, Feusner JH, Reynolds M, Quinn JJ, Newman K, Finegold MJ, Haas JE, Sensel MG, Castleberry RP, Bowman LC: Hepatocellular carcinoma in children and adolescents: results from the Pediatric Oncology Group and the Children's Cancer Group intergroup study. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jun 15;20(12):2789-97
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  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma in children and adolescents: results from the Pediatric Oncology Group and the Children's Cancer Group intergroup study.
  • PURPOSE: To determine surgical resectability, event-free survival (EFS), and toxicity in children with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) randomized to treatment with either cisplatin (CDDP), vincristine, and fluorouracil (regimen A) or CDDP and continuous-infusion doxorubicin (regimen B).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients were enrolled onto Pediatric Intergroup Hepatoma Protocol INT-0098 (Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) 8945/Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 8881).
  • After initial surgery or biopsy, children with stage I (n = 8), stage III (n = 25), and stage IV (n = 13) HCC were randomly assigned to receive regimen A (n = 20) or regimen B (n = 26).
  • Patients with stage I, III, and IV had 5-year EFS estimates of 88% (SD = 12%), 8% (SD = 5%), and 0%, respectively.
  • Events occurred before postinduction surgery I in 18 (47%) of 38 patients with stage III or IV disease, and tumor resection was possible in two (10%) of the remaining 20 children with advanced-stage disease after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Children with initially resectable HCC have a good prognosis and may benefit from the use of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Outcome was uniformly poor for children with advanced-stage disease treated with either regimen.
  • New therapeutic strategies are needed for the treatment of advanced-stage pediatric HCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12065555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA092049
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Sevinir B, Meral A, Günay U, Ozkan T, Ozuysal S, Sinirtas M: Increased risk of chronic hepatitis in children with cancer. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2003 Feb;40(2):104-10
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  • [Title] Increased risk of chronic hepatitis in children with cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a risk of viral hepatitis for children with cancer.
  • Both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in countries with high prevalence cause major problems in the management of cancer patients.
  • In this study, we evaluated the incidence and chronicity of HBV and HCV infections in children with malignant diseases receiving chemotherapy.
  • PROCEDURE: One hundred ninety-eight children with cancer (mean age = 7.5 +/- 2.5 years) and 100 healthy children as a control group were screened for HBV and HCV.
  • Liver function tests, the number of transfusions, HBV and HCV serology were regularly monitored.
  • Chronic hepatitis was defined as having an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level three times of upper normal limit, positive HBV and HCV antigenemia for longer than 6 months.
  • Liver biopsies were performed in all children with chronic hepatitis.
  • Most HBV infected children developed chronic hepatitis (48%) while 26 and 21.7% became carriers and immune, respectively.
  • Children with HBsAg antigenemia developed chronic hepatitis in shorter time than HCV positive children (median 13 months vs. 51 months, P < 0.001).
  • This suggests that HBV and HCV infections are serious causes of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. DNA, Viral / blood. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Hepacivirus / genetics. Hepacivirus / isolation & purification. Hepatitis B virus / genetics. Hepatitis B virus / isolation & purification. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Function Tests. Male. Polymerase Chain Reaction. RNA, Viral / blood. Risk Factors. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12461794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ABVD protocol
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12. Schnater JM, Aronson DC, Plaschkes J, Perilongo G, Brown J, Otte JB, Brugieres L, Czauderna P, MacKinlay G, Vos A: Surgical view of the treatment of patients with hepatoblastoma: results from the first prospective trial of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Liver Tumor Study Group. Cancer; 2002 Feb 15;94(4):1111-20
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  • [Title] Surgical view of the treatment of patients with hepatoblastoma: results from the first prospective trial of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology Liver Tumor Study Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgical resection is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with hepatoblastoma (HB).
  • The Society of Pediatric Oncology Liver Tumor Study Group launched its first prospective trial (SIOPEL-1) with the intention to treat all patients with preoperative chemotherapy and delayed surgical resection.
  • The objective of this article was to assess the assumed surgical advantages of primary chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-two patients showed pulmonary metastases at the time of diagnosis, and 7 patients underwent thoracotomy.
  • Complete macroscopic surgical resection was achieved in 106 patients (92%), including 6 patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy is a safe procedure and should be performed routinely.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy seems to make tumor resection easier.
  • Reresection of a positive resection margin does not necessarily have to be performed, because postoperative chemotherapy showed good results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Hepatoblastoma / drug therapy. Hepatoblastoma / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infusions, Intravenous. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Morbidity. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.10282
  • (PMID = 11920482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Emir S, Büyükpamuk M, Akyüz C, Kutluk T, Güler E, Cağlar K: The comparison of antibody response to different hepatitis b vaccines with and without pre-S2 antigen in children with cancer. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Jun;19(4):227-33
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  • [Title] The comparison of antibody response to different hepatitis b vaccines with and without pre-S2 antigen in children with cancer.
  • Children with cancer are at an increased risk of hepatitis B infection and chronic liver disease.
  • Since hepatitis B vaccines containing pre-S2 antigen has been recently reported as being more efficient in providing immunization in healthy individuals, the authors compared antibody response to pre-S2-containing vaccine with no-pre-S2-containing hepatitis B vaccine, when given in double doses to 100 children receiving chemotherapy.
  • Patients, aged 1 to 16 years with negative HBV serology, were vaccinated with 2 different types of HBV vaccines between 1997 and 1999.
  • Group 1 received Gen Hevac B containing pre-S2 (n = 41) in a dose of 20 microg for patients younger than 10 years old and 40 microg for older patients.
  • Group 2 was vaccinated at the same dose with hepatitis B vaccines not containing pre-S2 antigen.
  • After the third dose of vaccine, the seroconversion rate was 72% in group 1 and 62% in group 2.
  • The anti-HBs levels were higher in the group receiving pre-S2-containing hepatitis B vaccine.
  • The administration of pre-S2-containing hepatitis B vaccines may give a better seroconversion and higher antibody response to vaccination in children with cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B / prevention & control. Hepatitis B Antibodies / blood. Hepatitis B Surface Antigens / immunology. Hepatitis B Vaccines / therapeutic use. Hepatitis B virus / immunology. Protein Precursors / immunology. Vaccines, Synthetic / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunization. Infant. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Male. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Serologic Tests. Vaccination

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  • (PMID = 12051588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Engerix-B; 0 / Gen-H-B-Vax; 0 / Hepatitis B Antibodies; 0 / Hepatitis B Surface Antigens; 0 / Hepatitis B Vaccines; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / Vaccines, Synthetic; 0 / presurface protein 2, hepatitis B surface antigen
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14. Nagatoshi Y, Matsuzaki A, Suminoe A, Inada H, Ueda K, Kawakami K, Yanai F, Nakayama H, Moritake H, Itonaga N, Hotta N, Fujita K, Hidaka Y, Yamanaka T, Kawano Y, Okamura J: Randomized trial to compare LSA2L2-type maintenance therapy to daily 6-mercaptopurine and weekly methotrexate with vincristine and dexamethasone pulse for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Aug;55(2):239-47
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  • [Title] Randomized trial to compare LSA2L2-type maintenance therapy to daily 6-mercaptopurine and weekly methotrexate with vincristine and dexamethasone pulse for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: A total of 201 pediatric cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia were treated with the ALL-96 protocol by the Kyushu-Yamaguchi Children's Cancer Study Group.
  • PROCEDURE: Risk stratification was based on white cell counts, immunophenotype, the presence of central nervous system disease at diagnosis, organomegaly, and early treatment response (day 14 bone marrow status).
  • All of the patients were classified into standard-risk (SR) or high-risk (HR) groups and were randomly assigned to receive maintenance therapy with either LSA2L2-type or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)/methotrexate (MTX) with vincristine (VCR) and dexamethasone (DEX) pulse in both risk groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences in the EFS between the different maintenance therapies in each risk group; however, grade IV liver toxicity occurred more often in the patients receiving 6-MP/MTX with VCR and DEX therapy than in patients receiving LSA2L2.
  • [MeSH-major] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Humans. Infant. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20582970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; LSA2-L2 protocol
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15. Dubowy R, Graham M, Hakami N, Kletzel M, Mahoney D, Newman E, Ravindranath Y, Camitta B: Sequential oral hydroxyurea and intravenous cytosine arabinoside in refractory childhood acute leukemia: a pediatric oncology group phase 1 study. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 May;30(5):353-7
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  • [Title] Sequential oral hydroxyurea and intravenous cytosine arabinoside in refractory childhood acute leukemia: a pediatric oncology group phase 1 study.
  • All patients developed grade 4 cytopenias.
  • Only liver toxicities and nausea/vomiting exhibited any dosage effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / toxicity. Hydroxyurea / toxicity. Leukemia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infection / epidemiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / mortality. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Skin / drug effects. Skin / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18458568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS721202; NLM/ PMC4601800
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16. Baron PW, Majlessipour F, Bedros AA, Zuppan CW, Ben-Youssef R, Yanni G, Ojogho ON, Concepcion W: Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver successfully treated with chemotherapy and liver resection. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Jan;11(1):73-5
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  • [Title] Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver successfully treated with chemotherapy and liver resection.
  • Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma is the third most common malignant tumor of the liver in children, accounting for 13% of hepatic malignancies in this age group.
  • It has been considered an aggressive neoplasm with very poor prognosis until the late 1980s, when long-term survivors were reported after multiagent chemotherapy followed by resection.
  • We, herein, report two pediatric cases of undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma treated successfully with surgical resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on therapy used in childhood soft tissue sarcomas and in childhood hepatic malignancies.
  • The first patient also had a concurrent cerebellar tumor (pilocytic astrocytoma), for which he first underwent craniotomy and resection, delaying the liver tumor resection by 10 weeks.
  • They are alive and tumor free at 48 months (case no. 1) and 18 months (case no. 2) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy and liver resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Hepatectomy. Humans. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
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17. Ladas EJ, Kroll DJ, Oberlies NH, Cheng B, Ndao DH, Rheingold SR, Kelly KM: A randomized, controlled, double-blind, pilot study of milk thistle for the treatment of hepatotoxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Cancer; 2010 Jan 15;116(2):506-13
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  • [Title] A randomized, controlled, double-blind, pilot study of milk thistle for the treatment of hepatotoxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • BACKGROUND: Despite limited preclinical and clinical investigations, milk thistle (MT) is often used for the treatment of chemotherapy-associated hepatotoxicity.
  • Limited treatment options exist for chemotherapy-related hepatoxicity.
  • Liver function tests were evaluated during the study period.
  • To assess MT in vitro, the authors evaluated supratherapeutic concentrations in an ALL cell line.
  • At Day 56, the MT group had a significantly lower AST (P = .05) and a trend toward a significantly lower ALT (P = .07).
  • Although not significantly different, chemotherapy doses were reduced in 61% of the MT group compared with 72% of the placebo group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In children with ALL and liver toxicity, MT was associated with a trend toward significant reductions in liver toxicity.
  • MT did not antagonize the effects of chemotherapy agents used for the treatment of ALL.

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  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104286-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104286; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104286-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Placebos
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS150158; NLM/ PMC3542639
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18. 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NP, RECORD Study Group, Münscher C, Potthoff F, Golbach U, Weidenhammer J, Kusterer K, Lundershausen R, O'Neill MC, Goldstein BJ, Wooddell MJ, Strow LJ, Waterhouse BR, Cobitz AR, Wyne KL, Porter LE, Weston WM, Chen T, James RE, Kravitz BG, Pinkowski D, Ruxer J, Mozdzan M, Siejka A, Kaiser M, Häuser C, Jacober SJ, Zagar AJ, Althouse SK, Pinaire JA, Becker RH, Frick AD, Rave K, Moses R, Ways K, Krones R, Basir S, Klein C, Sawicki PT, Rotella CM, Pala L, Dicembrini I, Mannucci E, Annuzzi G, De Natale C, Bozzetto L, Patti L, Cipriano P, Campaigne B, Malone JK, Bai S, Reviriego J, Augendre-Ferrante B, Schreiber SA, Schneider K, Schweitzer MA, Fach EM, Busch K, Karimi Anderesi Z, HOE901/4009 Study Group, Dunseath GJ, Şengül AM, Haupt A, Eckert H, Schweitzer MA, Peiker J, Fritsche A, Janka HU, Plewe G, Kliebe-Frisch C, Maxeiner S, Teng L, Chan C, Ernest CS, Skrivanek Z, Brodows RG, Soon D, Pan CY, Chung KD, Rußmann A, Ryysy L, Hänninen J, Hulme S, Kauppinen-Mäkelin R, Lahdenperä S, Lehtonen 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Nagase R, Ohga S, Tone A, Sasaki M, Wada J, Unno Y, Horiuchi S, McLennan SV, Kamarinos M, Kelly D, Waltham M, Dy V, Yue D, Langham R, Gilbert R, Zdychova J, Komers R, Cresci B, Giannini S, Manuelli C, Giunti S, Pinach S, Ianni Palarchio A, Arnaldi L, Vittone F, Camussi G, Cavallo Perin P, Gruden G, Marshall SM, Jones SE, White KE, Brizzi M, Dentelli P, Rosso A, Calvi C, Gambino R, Cassader M, Salvidio G, Deferrari G, Pegoraro L, Pagano G, Cavallo-Perin P, Oates R, Ellery C, Beebe D, Coutcher J, Qian YZ, Lowe V, Appleton T, Raunig D, O'Neil S, Mylari B, Amazonas RB, Fujita A, Doi A, Matsuno S, Okamoto K, Matsumoto E, Furuta H, Nishi M, Tsuno T, Taniguchi H, Bessho H, Wasén E, Isoaho R, Mattila K, Vahlberg T, Kivelä SL, Irjala K, Rigalleau V, Lasseur C, Perlemoine C, Barthes N, Raffaitin C, Chauveau P, Combe C, Baillet-Blanco L, Beauvieux MC, Gin H, Heinrich S, Steiner T, Ott U, Holdass H, Fellström B, Jardine A, Staffler B, Logan JO, Gimpelewicz C, Stanciu CC, Pena CM, Serafinceanu CC, 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Idzior-Walus B, Woźniakiewicz E, Dimitriou K, Apostolou O, Kontela E, Devangelio E, Gould EM, Serri O, Roussin A, Buithieu J, Mamputu JC, Renier G, Giordanetti S, De Amici E, Poggi G, Turpini C, Fratino P, Garzaniti A, Yin D, Banu I, Paries J, Roman G, Negrean M, Bala CG, Nita C, Kistorp C, Gustafsson F, Chong A, Lip G, Galatius S, Shearer AT, Ari N, Sahilli M, Ceylan-Isık A, Ozansoy G, Karasu-Yilmaz C, Matteucci E, Rosada J, Pallini M, Evangelista I, Cassetti G, Giusti C, Giampietro O, Capaldo B, Galderisi M, Cicala S, Turco A, Imbroinise A, Nosso G, D'Errico A, de Divitiis O, Klimontov VV, Korolyova EA, Jeltova LI, Bondar IA, Tarkun I, Arslan B, Canturk Z, Tarkun P, Agacdiken A, Komsuoglu B, Méneveau N, Pierre-Justin E, Alsayed M, Sabbah R, Paulin S, Marcu S, Tauveron I, Zimmermann C, Schiele F, Seronde ME, Vautrin P, Lusson JR, Thieblot P, Bernard Y, Mistry A, Pye MP, Peovska I, Maksimovic Pavlovic J, Vavlukis M, Pop Gorceva D, Bosevski M, Scognamiglio R, Negut C, de Kreutzenberg S, 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Fowelin JH, Samuelsson P, Brandrup-Wogsen G, Okumura K, Tokmakova AY, Staroverova DN, Antcieferov MB, Shutichina IV, Kuntchevich GI, Vriesendorp TM, Morélis QJ, Legemate DA, Schaper F, Mainas EI, Gkioulmpasanis I, Panagiotou I, Vassilikos G, Skorda L, Sidira M, Christoforidou M, Alaveras A, Artikis V, Evdemon E, Lechleitner M, Koch T, Ebenbichler C, Sturm W, Moretti L, Moruzzo D, Boldrini E, Pandolfo C, Kameyama M, Iwasa R, Cho MH, Nam JY, Kim CS, Kim DM, Ahn CW, Cha BS, Lim SK, Kim KR, Lee HC, Huh KB, Kaplar M, Paragh G, Erdei A, Csongradi E, Garai I, Varga J, Galuska L, Udvardy M, Higa M, Kaneko Y, Hiroi N, Koziarska D, Nowacki P, Majkowska L, Luzniak P, Wojciechowska-Luźniak A, Tushuizen ME, Nieuwland R, Snoeck DP, Sturk A, Diamant M, Aguiar LG, Bahia L, Villela N, Laflor C, Conde C, Bottino D, Dorigo D, Bouskela E, Pu S, Yu HL, Luo ZT, Lam KS, Dan Q, Xu A, Shen J, Cheng K, Xu JY, Thamer C, Stefan N, Haap M, Heller E, Tschritter O, de Prado A, Ortiz A, Ybarra J, Gich I, Pou JM, Ehren M, Meyer MF, Roggenland D, Reinsen B, Klein HH, Rittig K, Stock J, Kocher B, Balletshofer B, Lee J, Shon HS, Chung DS, Nakatani Y, Matsuhisa M, Kaneto H, Hatazaki M, Yoshiuchi K, Katakami N, Kawamori D, Ohtoshi K, Sakamoto K, Matsuoka TA, Ozawa K, Ogawa S, Hori M, Yamasaki Y, Zitouni K, Harry D, Nourooz-Zadeh J, Betteridge JD, Earle KA, Rasmussen LM, Olesen P, Franco L, Corvaja C, Semplicini A, Ceylan-Işık A, Arı N, Rösen P, Lee IK, Kim MJ, Park KG, Jung ED, Shin DW, Jo SR, Obuobie K, Prakash PK, Hanna FW, Evans M, Lazarus J, Varadhan L, Gurushankar J, James D, Sheikh S, Gaede P, Li H, Zou D, Lee SJ, Choi MG, Kim DS, Kim TW, Vilarrasa N, Perez-Maraver M, Mena E, Perez D, Setti G, Buckingham R, Urbančič V, Stefanovska A, Bernjak A, Ažman-Juvan K, Kocijančič A, Glowania A, Filters TS, Fosmark DS, Torjesen PA, Kilhovd B, Berg TJ, Sandvik L, Hanssen KF, Mentink CJ, Kilhovd BK, Kuchmerovska TM, Shymanskyy IO, Donchenko GV, Stepanenko SP, Klimenko AP, Park J, Maingrette F, Deng HC, Lindenmair A, Waldhäusl WK, Freudenthaler A, Baumgartner-Parzer SM, Nizheradze K, Khoruzhenko A, Tronko N, Sheu WH, Ou HC, Shen HM, Lin TM, Wu HS, Yang CH, Mogylnytska L, Mankovsky B, Schmoelzer I, Davies JI, Band M, Morris A, Struthers AD, Prázný M, Škrha J, Kasalová Z, Neelotpol S, Jahan P, Kauschke SG, Harrop CA, Schäfer A, Widder J, Eigenthaler M, Walter U, Uchimura I, Ikebukuro M, Kaibara M, Hirata M, Helal R, Pervin F, Khan AK, Yang X, Jansson PA, Nagaev I, Jack MM, Carvalho E, Sunnerhagen KS, Cam MC, Cushman SW, Smith U, Creely SJ, Farmer J, Creely S, Gustafson B, Kusminski CM, Krusinova E, Wohl P, Klementova M, Lanska V, McDougall C, Thomas SJ, Kelly I, Abbas ZG, Lutale JK, Archibald LK, Karunajeewa H, Stingemore N, Stuccio G, McGechie D, Muller LM, Hak E, Goudzwaard WL, Montorsi F, Homering M, Sprenger K, Goldstein I, Asnaghi V, Ferrari G, Rastaldi M, Gabellini D, Dell'Antonio G, Maestroni A, Ruggieri D, Luzi L, Piemonti L, Zerbini G, Anafaroglu I, Tutuncu NB, Sultana M, Siddiqua N, Iwasaki T, Nakajima A, Yoneda M, Mukasa K, Tanaka S, Sekihara H: 40&lt;sup&gt;th&lt;/sup&gt; EASD Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes : Munich, Germany, 5-9 September 2004. Diabetologia; 2004 Aug;47(Suppl 1):A1-A464
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  • [Title] 40<sup>th</sup> EASD Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes : Munich, Germany, 5-9 September 2004.

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  • (PMID = 27770180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0428
  • [Journal-full-title] Diabetologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diabetologia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Radford IR: Gd-Tex Pharmacyclics Inc. Curr Opin Investig Drugs; 2000 Dec;1(4):524-8
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  • Pharmacyclics is developing Gd-Tex (gadolinium texaphyrin) as a radiosensitizer for the potential treatment of various cancers including brain metastases and primary brain tumors, pancreatic tumors, lung tumors and pediatric cancers [196711], [348919].
  • Phase I clinical trials for the treatment of primary brain tumors and pancreatic cancer have been initiated while several trials in other cancer types are in the planning stages [367716].
  • In September 1998, Pharmacyclics announced the initiation of a pivotal phase III trial for the treatment of patients with brain metastases.
  • In September 2000, Pharmacyclics and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) initiated two phase I trials of Gd-Tex.
  • The first was to determine the safety of two different dosing regimens of the drug during preoperative radiotherapy after induction chemotherapy in patients with stage IIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • Full results were announced in October 1998 at the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology.
  • Gd-Tex was well tolerated, and liver enzyme elevation was the dose-limiting effect, which was reversible.
  • Death due to tumor progression was seen in 15% of the Gd-Tex group as opposed to 35% in the control group [302872].
  • In March 1997 the Decision Network of the NCI voted to sponsor additional clinical indications including adult and pediatric brain tumors, as well as cancers involving the lung, head & neck, pancreas and prostrate.
  • Two phase I trials of Gd-Tex for the treatment of primary brain tumors commenced in August 1998 under a CRADA with the NCI [237538], [295592], [348919].
  • [MeSH-major] Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / therapy. Organometallic Compounds / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11249709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4472
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drugs, Investigational; 0 / Gd-Tex complex; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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20. Metzelder M, Kuebler J, Shimotakahara A, Vieten G, von Wasielewski R, Ure BM: CO(2) pneumoperitoneum increases systemic but not local tumor spread after intraperitoneal murine neuroblastoma spillage in mice. Surg Endosc; 2008 Dec;22(12):2648-53
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  • At the 28th postoperative day, local (peritoneal and surface of the gut) and systemic (liver, lung, spine) tumor spread was graded in a blinded manner (1-4 point scale) and specimens were histologically examined for tumor manifestation (hematoxylin and eosin stain) and tumor cell proliferation rate (Ki-67-stain).
  • Incidence of liver metastasis was higher after CO(2) pneumoperitoneum versus laparotomy (83% versus 31%; p < 0.05).
  • Intrapulmonary metastasis was found in one mouse of each group, but no metastasis of the spine.
  • However, the grading of liver metastasis was higher after CO(2) pneumoperitoneum compared to laparotomy (p < 0.05).
  • Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67 stain) in the liver did not differ between both groups.
  • This suggests that laparoscopy could promote systemic dissemination of intraperitoneally spilled tumor cells when no chemotherapy is applied.
  • It remains to be determined whether this is due to local immune suppression or direct modulation of tumor cell behavior.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carbon Dioxide. Cell Line, Tumor / transplantation. Laparotomy. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred A. Neoplasm Transplantation. Reproducibility of Results. Single-Blind Method

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  • (PMID = 18270765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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21. Lowe EJ, Sposto R, Perkins SL, Gross TG, Finlay J, Zwick D, Abromowitch M, Children's Cancer Group Study 5941: Intensive chemotherapy for systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in children and adolescents: final results of Children's Cancer Group Study 5941. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Mar;52(3):335-9
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  • [Title] Intensive chemotherapy for systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma in children and adolescents: final results of Children's Cancer Group Study 5941.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is characterized by advanced disease at presentation (70-80% of pediatric cases) and accounts for 10-15% of all childhood lymphomas.
  • Treatment strategies for pediatric ALCL vary from short pulse B-NHL chemotherapy to prolonged leukemia like therapy.
  • The optimal treatment strategy is unknown.
  • METHODS: CCG-5941 used a compressed aggressive multiagent T-cell lineage chemotherapy regimen consisting of a 3-week induction therapy (vincristine, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, daunomycin, asparaginase) followed by a 3-week consolidation period (vincristine, prednisone, etoposide, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine, asparaginase, methotrexate) followed by six courses of maintenance chemotherapy at 7-week intervals (cyclophosphamide, 6-thioguanine, vincristine, prednisone, doxorubicin, asparaginase, methotrexate etoposide, cytarabine).
  • Total therapy was 48 weeks.
  • Extranodal disease was common (mediastinum 35%, skin 15%, lung 14%, bone 12%, bone marrow 13%, liver 6%, and other viscera 17%).
  • Relapse occurred early with 17 (81%) relapses occurring within 2 years of diagnosis and 12 (57%) while receiving therapy.


22. Steinherz PG, Seibel NL, Ames MM, Avramis VI, Krailo MD, Liu-Mares W, Reid JM, Safgren SL, Reaman GH: Phase I study of gemcitabine (difluorodeoxycytidine) in children with relapsed or refractory leukemia (CCG-0955): a report from the Children's Cancer Group. Leuk Lymphoma; 2002 Oct;43(10):1945-50
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  • [Title] Phase I study of gemcitabine (difluorodeoxycytidine) in children with relapsed or refractory leukemia (CCG-0955): a report from the Children's Cancer Group.
  • To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the toxicity profile and pharmacokinetics of weekly gemcitabine infusions in pediatric patients with refractory hematologic malignancies.
  • Pharmacokinetics of the drug's metabolism were measured by high pressure-liquid chromatography (HPLC) for 24 h after the first dose.
  • The activity of the drug at this schedule in heavily pretreated, refractory patients warrants a phase II trial in hematologic malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Leukemia / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biotransformation. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Female. Half-Life. Humans. Infant. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Metabolic Clearance Rate

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  • (PMID = 12481889.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA092049
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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23. Karaman A, Kirimlioglu H, Tas E, Karadag N, Gülsul C, Fadillioglu E, Demircan M: Effect of leflunomide on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats. Pediatr Surg Int; 2010 Feb;26(2):219-226
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  • [Title] Effect of leflunomide on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in rats.
  • PURPOSE: Partial hepatectomy (PH) can be an inevitable surgical therapy in some conditions, such as hepatic malignancies, trauma or partial liver transplantation.
  • Its capacity for regeneration distinguishes the liver from other essential organs.
  • In the event of ineffective or total absent liver regeneration, the life threatening picture of acute liver failure may supervene.
  • METHODS: Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: group 1, control; group 2, sham; group 3, drug control (was treated with leflunomide 10 mg/kg/d/i.g.
  • ); group 4, PH; group 5, PH + leflunomide.
  • As for PH, approximately 70% of the rat liver was surgically removed under general anesthesia.
  • Catalase (CAT), superooxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities with malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide and protein carbonyl (PC) levels were determined in remnant liver tissue.
  • Inflammatory process and liver regeneration were evaluated with H&E and KI67, respectively.
  • RESULTS: The tissue levels of MDA, PC and MPO were lower in group 5 than levels in group 1.
  • This reduction was significantly improved by the treatment with leflunomide.
  • Histopathologically the enhancement of the liver parenchymal regeneration in the group 5 was significantly greater than the group 4.
  • CONCLUSION: The findings imply that oxidative stress products play a preventive role in liver regeneration after PH and leflunomide ameliorates the regeneration probably by the radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatectomy / methods. Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Isoxazoles / pharmacology. Liver / drug effects. Liver Regeneration / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic. Animals. Catalase / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Liver Diseases / metabolism. Liver Diseases / surgery. Malondialdehyde / metabolism. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Peroxidase / metabolism. Protein Carbonylation / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20128110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Isoxazoles; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; G162GK9U4W / leflunomide
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24. Furtwaengler R, Reinhard H, Leuschner I, Schenk JP, Goebel U, Claviez A, Kulozik A, Zoubek A, von Schweinitz D, Graf N, Gesellschaft fur Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie (GPOH) Nephroblastoma Study Group: Mesoblastic nephroma--a report from the Gesellschaft fur Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie (GPOH). Cancer; 2006 May 15;106(10):2275-83
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  • BACKGROUND: Surgery alone is the appropriate first-line treatment for patients with mesoblastic nephroma (MN).
  • The authors evaluated the outcome of patients with MN who were enrolled in either the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) 93-01/GPOH or the SIOP 2001/GPOH Nephroblastoma Study and Trial.
  • The median observation time was 4.2 years.
  • Five patients older than 6 months received preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Nine patients had a Stage III MN, 5 of those patients had tumor ruptures, and 8 had positive surgical margins.
  • After they underwent nephrectomy, 40 patients received no further treatment.
  • For the entire group, event-free survival (EFS) (94%) and overall survival (OS) (95%) were excellent.
  • Patients with a cellular MN, patients with age 3 months or older, and patients with Stage III MN had lower EFS.
  • Three patients developed recurrent disease, and 2 of those patients died.
  • Metastases to the brain, lung, and liver were observed in 1 patient.
  • Nonetheless, a subgroup of patients with MN (Stage III cellular MN in patients age 3 months or older) tends to develop recurrences more often.
  • Further prospective studies will be needed to verify this finding and should help determine whether these patients may benefit from adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Nephroma, Mesoblastic / diagnosis. Nephroma, Mesoblastic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Female. Germany. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Logistic Models. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy / methods. Pediatrics. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Societies, Medical. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16596620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Thompson PA, Allen CE, Horton T, Jones JY, Vinks AA, McClain KL: Severe neurologic side effects in patients being treated for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 May;52(5):621-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by uncontrolled inflammation that is generally fatal without immune modulating chemotherapy.
  • At Texas Children's Hospital, we have observed significant central nervous system (CNS) toxicity in several patients treated for HLH according to the Histiocyte Society protocol HLH-2004 in which cyclosporine is given early in the treatment regimen.
  • A reference group of patients treated between August 2001 and March 2004, prior to the introduction of HLH-2004, was also evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Five of 17 patients in the study group developed severe neurotoxicity.
  • Timing of the development of neurologic side effects ranged from day 5 to week 6 of therapy.
  • Cyclosporine levels were outside the therapeutic range (200-300 ng/ml) prior to the onset of symptoms in two of the five patients.
  • By comparison only one patient in the reference group (n = 15) had neurotoxicity (PRES).
  • Elevated blood pressure, worsening renal and liver function, increased cyclosporine levels, and CNS involvement of HLH may be triggers for the neurotoxic side effects of treatment.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 19137570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD037249-10; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U10 HD037249; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U10 HD037249-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS312704; NLM/ PMC3660724
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26. Pham TH, Iqbal CW, Grams JM, Zarroug AE, Wall JC, Ishitani MB, Nagorney DM, Moir C: Outcomes of primary liver cancer in children: an appraisal of experience. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 May;42(5):834-9
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  • [Title] Outcomes of primary liver cancer in children: an appraisal of experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: Hepatoblastoma (HB) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the most common primary liver cancers in children.
  • Recent advances in management of pediatric liver cancer have improved disease-specific survival (DSS).
  • This is a review of our experience with childhood liver malignancy over the past 3 decades.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review from 1975 to 2005 identified patients who were 18 years old or younger with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of primary liver cancer.
  • Patients were staged according to the Children's Cancer Group and Pediatric Oncology Group (CCG/POG) system.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were confirmed to have primary liver cancers, where 24 (46%) patients had HB, 22 (42%) had HCC, 3 (6%) had sarcomas, and 3 (6%) had other histologies.
  • Most patients underwent major liver resection (n = 45, 87%), including: lobectomy (n = 25, 48%), and trisegmentectomy (n = 11, 21%).
  • Three patients underwent liver transplantation (n = 3, 6%) for advanced local disease.
  • Forty-five (87%) received primary or neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Complete gross resection (stage I and II) was achieved in 37 (71%) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Complete resection of the pediatric primary liver tumors remains the cornerstone of treatment to achieve cure.
  • Major liver resection can be performed with minimal perioperative mortality and morbidity.
  • Liver transplantation in conjunction with chemotherapy may have an increasing role in the management of locally advanced primary liver cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Hepatoblastoma / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Analysis of Variance. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Hepatectomy. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17502194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Blouin P, Brugières L, Tabone MD, Leverger G, Rubie H, Branchereau S, De Kraker J: Carboplatin-epirubicin regimen for the treatment of hepatoblastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2004 Feb;42(2):149-54
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  • [Title] Carboplatin-epirubicin regimen for the treatment of hepatoblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In order to lower the long-term toxicity of chemotherapy for hepatoblastoma patients, a prospective study was designed based on pre-operative chemotherapy combining carboplatin and epirubicin (CE).
  • Patients were treated with a pre-operative chemotherapy regimen combining carboplatin 600 mg/m(2) and epirubicin 80 mg/m(2).
  • The initial PRETEXT group according to the SIOPEL classification was: group 2 (5 pts), group 3 (15 pts), group 4 (5 pts), and 2 pts were not assessed.
  • During the same time period, 7 pts with a hepatocellular carcinoma were treated according to this protocol.
  • However, only a randomized study will permit a valid comparison of the efficacy of cisplatin and carboplatin for the treatment of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hepatoblastoma / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Infant. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 14752879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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28. Castellino S, Muir A, Shah A, Shope S, McMullen K, Ruble K, Barber A, Davidoff A, Hudson MM: Hepato-biliary late effects in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 May;54(5):663-9
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  • [Title] Hepato-biliary late effects in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • Curative therapy for childhood and adolescent cancer translates to 1 in 640 young adults being a survivor of cancer.
  • Although acute hepato-biliary toxicity occurs commonly during pediatric cancer therapy, the impact of antineoplastic therapy on long-term liver health in childhood/adolescent cancer survivors is unknown.
  • This article reviews the medical literature on late liver dysfunction following treatment for childhood/adolescent cancer.
  • We also outline the Children's Oncology Group (COG) guidelines for screening and follow-up of hepato-biliary sequelae.
  • As the population of survivors grow and age, vigilance for risks to hepatic health needs to continue based on specific exposures during curative cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Diseases / prevention & control. Continuity of Patient Care. Liver Diseases / prevention & control. Mass Screening. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Blood Transfusion / adverse effects. Child. Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic / etiology. Drug-Induced Liver Injury, Chronic / prevention & control. Hepatitis, Viral, Human / etiology. Hepatitis, Viral, Human / prevention & control. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 19890896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA122061-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA98543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA095861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA122061; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 64
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS144364; NLM/ PMC2838980
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29. De Moerloose B, Suciu S, Bertrand Y, Mazingue F, Robert A, Uyttebroeck A, Yakouben K, Ferster A, Margueritte G, Lutz P, Munzer M, Sirvent N, Norton L, Boutard P, Plantaz D, Millot F, Philippet P, Baila L, Benoit Y, Otten J, Children's Leukemia Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC): Improved outcome with pulses of vincristine and corticosteroids in continuation therapy of children with average risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): report of the EORTC randomized phase 3 trial 58951. Blood; 2010 Jul 08;116(1):36-44
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  • [Title] Improved outcome with pulses of vincristine and corticosteroids in continuation therapy of children with average risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): report of the EORTC randomized phase 3 trial 58951.
  • The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 58951 trial for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) addressed 3 randomized questions, including the evaluation of dexamethasone (DEX) versus prednisolone (PRED) in induction and, for average-risk patients, the evaluation of vincristine and corticosteroid pulses during continuation therapy.
  • At a median follow-up of 6.3 years, there were 19 versus 34 events for pulses versus no pulses; 6-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 90.6% (standard error [SE], 2.1%) and 82.8% (SE, 2.8%), respectively (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.94; P = .027).
  • Grade 3 to 4 hepatic toxicity was 30% versus 40% in pulses versus no pulses group and grade 2 to 3 osteonecrosis was 4.4% versus 2%.
  • For average-risk patients treated according to Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster-based protocols, pulses should become a standard component of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage. Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Osteonecrosis / chemically induced. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DEXAMETHASONE .
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  • (PMID = 20407035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00003728
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-38; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-39; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-35; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-37; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA011488; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-36; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10 CA11488-30
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2904579
  • [Investigator] Baila L; Suciu S; Dresse MF; Hoyoux C; Laithier V; Plouvier E; Rohrlich P; Méchinaud F; Plantaz D; Fournier M; Mazingue F; Nelken B; Boutard P; Minckes O; Rialland X; Dastugue N; Plat G; Robert A; Millot F; Francotte N; Philippet P; Deville A; Poirée M; Sirvent N; Soler C; Lutz P; Béhar C; Munzer M; Adjaoud D; Cavé H; Dalle JH; Lescoeur B; Yakouben K; Devalck C; Ferster A; Margueritte G; Bertrand Y; Girard S; Kebaili K; Philippe N; Norton L; Borges S; Otten J; Van Damme A; Van der Werff J; Benoit J; De Moerloose B; Dhooge C; Laureys G; Renard M; Uyttebroeck A; Bravo S; Maes P
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30. von Schweinitz D, Faundez A, Teichmann B, Birnbaum T, Koch A, Hecker H, Glüer S, Fuchs J, Pietsch T: Hepatocyte growth-factor-scatter factor can stimulate post-operative tumor-cell proliferation in childhood hepatoblastoma. Int J Cancer; 2000 Jan 15;85(2):151-9
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  • [Title] Hepatocyte growth-factor-scatter factor can stimulate post-operative tumor-cell proliferation in childhood hepatoblastoma.
  • Rapid growth of residual tumor after partial hepatectomy has been observed during the period of liver regeneration in children with malignant embryonal hepatoblastoma.
  • Markedly increased serum levels of HGF-SF up to 15 ng/ml were found in 13/18 patients after liver resection and in 6/16 patients with regressive tumors after chemotherapy, in comparison with 15 patients with non-pre-treated hepatoblastoma and 20 healthy children of the same age group.
  • The hepatoblastoma cell lines HepT1, HepT3 and HUH6 reacted with significantly increased proliferation to rhHGF-SF in these concentrations (1-15 ng/ml).
  • Cultured hepatoblastoma cells ceased to proliferate at 20-50 ng/ml HGF-SF, and they underwent cell death at >/=100 ng/ml.
  • In contrast, the hepatocellular-carcinoma cell line HepG2 decreased growth under HGF-SF in a dose-dependent manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Hepatocyte Growth Factor / physiology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / physiology. Child, Preschool. Fibroblasts / secretion. Humans. Infant. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured


31. Alonso EM, Limbers CA, Neighbors K, Martz K, Bucuvalas JC, Webb T, Varni JW, Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation (SPLIT) Functional Outcomes Group (FOG): Cross-sectional analysis of health-related quality of life in pediatric liver transplant recipients. J Pediatr; 2010 Feb;156(2):270-6.e1
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  • [Title] Cross-sectional analysis of health-related quality of life in pediatric liver transplant recipients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of health-related quality of life in pediatric liver transplant recipients compared with a normative population.
  • Patients between 2 and 18 years of age, surviving liver transplantation by at least 12 months, were eligible.
  • Scores were compared with a sample of healthy children (n = 3911) matched by age group, sex, and race/ethnicity and with a sample of pediatric patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy and/or radiation.
  • Patients and their parents reported better physical functioning than patients with cancer but similar social and school functioning.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric liver transplant recipients and their parents report lower health-related quality of life than control subjects with some domains equal to children receiving cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Health Status. Liver Transplantation / rehabilitation. Mental Health. Quality of Life

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19846110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6833
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD045694; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD045694; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / U01 DK061693; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025741
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS499625; NLM/ PMC3736556
  • [Investigator] McDiarmid S; Sokol R; Mittal N; Ng V; Langnas A; Kerkar N; Gilmour S; Haber B; Kato T; Rosenthal P; Schwarz KB; Daniel JF; Shepherd R; Karpen S; Humar A; Mazariegos G; Fair J; Lavine JE; Dunn S; Jonas M
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32. Coradini PP, Cigana L, Selistre SG, Rosito LS, Brunetto AL: Ototoxicity from cisplatin therapy in childhood cancer. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Jun;29(6):355-60
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  • [Title] Ototoxicity from cisplatin therapy in childhood cancer.
  • This study was carried out to identify impairment of hearing function in children and adolescents with cancer after cisplatin therapy.
  • Twenty-three survivors of childhood cancer treated with cisplatin at our Unit from 1991 to 2004 performed tympanometry, pure tone audiometry, transient otoacoustic emissions, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE).
  • There was no influence of sex and number of ototoxic drugs other than cisplatin on hearing loss.
  • Our data provide further evidence on hearing damage due to cisplatin therapy in children.
  • The high incidence of patients with hearing function abnormalities found in this study and in previous reports highlights the importance of monitoring hearing function in children and adolescents undergoing cisplatin therapy, or as early as possible at follow-up.
  • This study also demonstrates that DPOAE should be used for screening of hearing abnormalities and, once hearing damage is identified, patients require expert audiologic pediatric evaluation and (where indicated) use of hearing aids and/or speech therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Hearing Disorders / chemically induced. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. African Continental Ancestry Group. Audiometry. Auditory Threshold / drug effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brazil. Child. European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Survivors


33. Kesik V, Uysal B, Kurt B, Kismet E, Koseoglu V: Ozone ameliorates methotrexate-induced intestinal injury in rats. Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Sep;8(17):1623-8
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  • Methotrexate (Mtx) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used in various cancer treatments.
  • Gastrointestinal toxicity is the drug's major limiting factor, arising mainly from oxidative damage.
  • Thus, this study was designed to investigate the efficacy of ozone therapy in the prevention of Mtx-induced intestinal injury in rats.
  • Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by measuring the histopathologic injury score (HIS), and biochemically by determining tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in ileum, liver and kidney homogenates.
  • Although two rats (25%) died in the untreated group, all rats in the sham and treatment groups survived the study.
  • The HIS, antioxidant enzyme and MDA levels of the ileal tissue were significantly lower in the ozone treated group than the untreated group (p < 0.05).
  • Although the antioxidant enzyme and MDA levels of liver and kidney were significantly lower in the ozone treated group (p < 0.05), there was no significant change in histopathology (p > 0.05).
  • Thus, ozone preconditioning shows a preventative effect in the ileum by decreasing tissue damage and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity in an experimental model of Mtx-induced intestinal injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Ileum / drug effects. Intestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Intestinal Diseases / prevention & control. Methotrexate / toxicity. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Ozone / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Models, Animal. Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney / metabolism. Kidney / pathology. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. Malondialdehyde / metabolism. Rats

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2009 Sep;8(17):1629-31 [19633432.001]
  • (PMID = 19617702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; 66H7ZZK23N / Ozone; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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34. Hung KC, Chiu HH, Tseng YC, Wang JH, Lin HC, Tsai FJ, Peng CT: Monotherapy with meropenem versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as empirical therapy for neutropenic fever in children with malignancy. J Microbiol Immunol Infect; 2003 Dec;36(4):254-9
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  • [Title] Monotherapy with meropenem versus combination therapy with ceftazidime plus amikacin as empirical therapy for neutropenic fever in children with malignancy.
  • Fifty-four pediatric cancer patients with a total of 100 febrile neutropenic episodes treated at China Medical College Hospital were randomized to receive meropenem or ceftazidime plus amikacin from January 2001 to April 2002.
  • The success rate with unmodified therapy was not significantly different between the meropenem group (72%) and the ceftazidime-plus-amikacin group (57%).
  • The clinical response rates in subgroups of documented infection and unexplained fever did not significantly differ between the 2 treatment groups.
  • As an empirical treatment, meropenem seems to be as effective and safe as ceftazidime plus amikacin for febrile episodes in children with cancer and neutropenia.
  • Meropenem is more effective for pediatric cancer patients at the high risk of severe infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Amikacin / therapeutic use. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Ceftazidime / therapeutic use. Fever / drug therapy. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neutropenia / drug therapy. Thienamycins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Drug Therapy, Combination. Drug-Induced Liver Injury. Female. Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification. Gram-Positive Cocci / isolation & purification. Hospitals, University. Humans. Infant. Male. Taiwan. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14723254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1684-1182
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Microbiol Immunol Infect
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Thienamycins; 84319SGC3C / Amikacin; 9M416Z9QNR / Ceftazidime; FV9J3JU8B1 / meropenem
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35. Mingo L, Seguel F, Rollán V: Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumour. Pediatr Surg Int; 2005 Apr;21(4):279-81
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  • [Title] Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumour.
  • Desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT) is an extremely rare neoplasm.
  • Laboratory values were altered, and imaging showed multiples masses in the liver and retroperitoneum.
  • A minilaparotomy was carried out, and a biopsy showed a stage III DSRCT.
  • He was treated with chemotherapy but died of hepatic failure.
  • After treatment with chemotherapy, two operations were carried out to resect different intraabdominal masses.
  • The first patient died due to the advanced stage of the disease, and the second died after chemotherapy, peripheral blood stem transplantation, and multiple operations.
  • The occurrence of this type of tumour in the paediatric age group as well as its high malignancy is noteworthy.
  • Until more effective forms of treatment are found, we recommend treatment with chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy, with close monitoring of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Liver Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15761710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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36. Schäfer T, Sperling J, Kollmar O, Richter S, Schilling MK, Menger MD, Lindemann W: Early effect of hepatic artery TNF-alpha infusion on systemic hemodynamics and inflammation: a dose-response study in pigs. Int J Colorectal Dis; 2010 Apr;25(4):523-32
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  • PURPOSE: Therapy of unresectable hepatic metastases may include tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha treatment.
  • This, however, is a technically demanding procedure with a substantial mortality rate.
  • In group 1, HAI was performed with 0.9% NaCl (n = 6).
  • In group 2, 20 microg/kg TNF-alpha (n = 6), and in group 3, 40 microg/kg TNF-alpha (n = 6) were added.
  • TNF-alpha HAI did not induce liver toxicity, and all hemodynamic changes normalized either spontaneously within the 120-min observation period, or, at least, after HAES resuscitation.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemodynamics / drug effects. Hepatic Artery. Inflammation / drug therapy. Infusions, Intra-Arterial / adverse effects. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Heart Rate / drug effects. Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / administration & dosage. Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives / pharmacology. Swine. Vascular Resistance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19888588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1262
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of colorectal disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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37. Fioredda F, Gigliotti AR, Haupt R, Calevo MG, Giudice CL, Bocciardo L, Giacchino R: HCV infection in very-long-term survivors after cancer chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation: a single-center experience. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Sep;27(9):481-5
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  • [Title] HCV infection in very-long-term survivors after cancer chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation: a single-center experience.
  • Patients treated for cancer are different from the general HCV-infected population because of the immunosuppression and the hepatotoxic treatments, which act as co-factors of liver damage.
  • The aims of this retrospective study were to describe the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C acquired during anticancer treatment in a group of patients referred to a single center, and to correlate the course of hepatic disease to the type of treatment they received.
  • Among the 17 children who underwent very long follow-up (range 10-18.5 years), the authors identified a group with more active hepatic cytolysis through the serial observation of mean ALT values, HCV RNA determination, and histologic data when available.
  • During follow-up, none of them developed hepatic failure, cirrhosis, or hepatocarcinoma.
  • No single risk factor, such as exposure to antimetabolites, alkylating agents, or other chemotherapy, radiotherapy to the abdomen, exposure to other hepatotoxic drugs, appearance of vaso-occlusive disease, acute and/or chronic graft-versus-host disease, or length of immunosuppression, correlated with a worse course of hepatitis.
  • No definitive conclusions can be drawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Hepatitis C, Chronic / epidemiology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Survivors / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome


38. Mofenson LM, Brady MT, Danner SP, Dominguez KL, Hazra R, Handelsman E, Havens P, Nesheim S, Read JS, Serchuck L, Van Dyke R, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, American Academy of Pediatrics: Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. MMWR Recomm Rep; 2009 Sep 04;58(RR-11):1-166
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  • [Title] Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.
  • Topic areas covered for each OI include a brief description of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of the OI in children; prevention of exposure; prevention of disease by chemoprophylaxis and/or vaccination; discontinuation of primary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution; treatment of disease; monitoring for adverse effects during treatment; management of treatment failure; prevention of disease recurrence; and discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis after immune reconstitution.
  • A separate document about preventing and treating of OIs among HIV-infected adults and postpubertal adolescents (Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents) was prepared by a working group of adult HIV and infectious disease specialists.
  • The guidelines were developed by a panel of specialists in pediatric HIV infection and infectious diseases (the Pediatric Opportunistic Infections Working Group) from the U.S. government and academic institutions.
  • For each OI, a pediatric specialist with content-matter expertise reviewed the literature for new information since the last guidelines were published; they then proposed revised recommendations at a meeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in June 2007.
  • After these presentations and discussions, the guidelines underwent further revision, with review and approval by the Working Group, and final endorsement by NIH, CDC, the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA) of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society (PIDS), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).
  • These guidelines for treating OIs in children therefore consider treatment of infections among all children, both HIV-infected and uninfected, born to HIV-infected women.
  • Although guidelines for postpubertal adolescents can be found in the adult OI guidelines, drug pharmacokinetics and response to treatment may differ for younger prepubertal or pubertal adolescents.
  • Therefore, these guidelines also apply to treatment of HIV-infected youth who have not yet completed pubertal development.
  • Major changes in the guidelines include 1) greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy for preventing and treating OIs, especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists;.
  • 3) information about managing antiretroviral therapy in children with OIs, including potential drug--drug interactions;.
  • Because treatment of OIs is an evolving science, and availability of new agents or clinical data on existing agents might change therapeutic options and preferences, these recommendations will be periodically updated and will be available at http://AIDSInfo.nih.gov.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Infections / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / diagnosis. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome / drug therapy. Immunization Schedule. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Pregnancy. Recurrence. Treatment Failure. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19730409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] MMWR. Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Recommendations and reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMWR Recomm Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS015547; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS015547-28; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS012969; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS012969-34; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA051323
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS171151; NLM/ PMC2821196
  • [Investigator] Brady M; Dominguez KL; Havens P; Handelsman E; Mofenson LM; Nesheim S; Read JS; van Dyke R; Benjamin DK Jr; Bialek SR; Boulware D; Christenson J; Gaur A; Gershon A; Hazra R; Hughes W; Kimberlin D; Ikeda T; Kleiman M; McAuley J; Moscicki AB; Nelson L; Oleske J; Rutstein R; Sanchez PJ; Schuval S; Seward JF; Stauffer W; Ch'ng TW; Yogev R
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39. Weitzman S, Braier J, Donadieu J, Egeler RM, Grois N, Ladisch S, Pötschger U, Webb D, Whitlock J, Arceci RJ: 2'-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) as salvage therapy for Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). results of the LCH-S-98 protocol of the Histiocyte Society. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec 15;53(7):1271-6
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  • [Title] 2'-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) as salvage therapy for Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). results of the LCH-S-98 protocol of the Histiocyte Society.
  • BACKGROUND: A prospective phase II Histiocyte Society study, LCH-S-98, evaluated the efficacy of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (2-CdA) monotherapy as salvage therapy in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).
  • PROCEDURES: Patients with poor and intermediate risk LCH not responsive to initial therapy and patients with low-risk chronic recurrent LCH were evaluated for response and survival after treatment with 2-6 courses of 2-CdA.
  • RESULTS: Forty-six patients (55%) had involvement of risk organs; lung, liver, spleen, or hematopoetic system (RO+), 37 (45%) were RO-.
  • Two-year pSU for the entire group is 68%.
  • Patient age at 2-CdA therapy and length of time from diagnosis to 2-CdA significantly affect response and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] 2-Chloroadenosine / analogs & derivatives. Antimetabolites / therapeutic use. Deoxyadenosines / therapeutic use. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Histiocytes / drug effects. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Prospective Studies. Risk. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19731321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Deoxyadenosines; 146-77-0 / 2-Chloroadenosine; 2627-62-5 / 2'-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine
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40. Prakash S, Sarran L, Socci N, DeMatteo RP, Eisenstat J, Greco AM, Maki RG, Wexler LH, LaQuaglia MP, Besmer P, Antonescu CR: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in children and young adults: a clinicopathologic, molecular, and genomic study of 15 cases and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Apr;27(4):179-87
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  • All five pediatric GISTs occurred in girls, involved the stomach as multiple nodules, showed predominantly an epithelioid morphology, often involved lymph nodes, and lacked KIT or PDGFRA mutations.
  • Although all five patients developed recurrence (four in the liver, three in the peritoneum, and two in both sites), four are still alive with disease.
  • Of the 10 GISTs in young adults, half occurred in the small bowel and had spindle cell morphology, and one case had lymph node metastasis.
  • Seven patients developed recurrence, and at last follow-up two patients had died of disease.
  • Gene expression analysis showed high expression of PHKA1, FZD2, NLGN4, IGF1R, and ANK3 in the pediatric and young adult versus older adult cases.
  • GISTs that occur in children are a separate clinicopathologic and molecular subset with predilection for girls, multifocal gastric tumors, and wild-type KIT/PDGFRA genotype.
  • In contrast, GISTs in young adults are a more heterogeneous group, including cases that resemble either the pediatric or the older adult-type tumors.
  • The distinct gene expression profile suggests avenues for investigation of pathogenesis and potential therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amino Acid Sequence. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzamides. Child. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • (PMID = 15838387.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA102774; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA94503; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL/DK55748; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 47179-10A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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41. Cohen IT: An overview of the clinical use of ondansetron in preschool age children. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2007 Jun;3(2):333-9
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  • The introduction of 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist has revolutionized the prevention and treatment of nausea and vomiting in preschool aged children.
  • These distressing symptoms, arising from multiple etiologies such as anesthesia, chemotherapy, and viral infection, are a major concern of patients and their families.
  • Although most of these studies focus primarily on preventing vomiting across the pediatric age group, they provide strong evidence for the use of ondansetron in preschool age children.
  • For children at high risk, pediatric practice guidelines recommend ondansetron in conjunction with other antiemetics to achieve complete control of symptoms.

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  • (PMID = 18360642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1936315
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42. Stauffer JK, Khan T, Salcedo R, Hixon JA, Lincoln E, Back TC, Wigginton JM: Multicolor fluorescence-based approaches for imaging cytokine-induced alterations in the neovascularization, growth, metastasis, and apoptosis of murine neuroblastoma tumors. J Immunother; 2006 Mar-Apr;29(2):151-64
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  • The prognosis of patients with advanced neuroblastoma is poor overall despite standard therapeutic modalities and has stimulated substantial interest in the potential role for biologics such as immunotherapeutic and/or antiangiogenic agents for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
  • To facilitate preclinical investigation of the efficacy and mechanisms of action of new biologic agents for the treatment of neuroblastoma, a comprehensive panel of disease-specific fluorescence-based model systems has been developed by our group to image the growth, neovascularization, metastasis, and apoptosis of neuroblastoma tumors.
  • These model systems use fluorescent proteins to monitor cytokine-induced alterations in the growth and metastasis of neuroblastoma and allow for monitoring and/or quantitation of even minimal residual disease that is localized to visceral organ sites such as the liver, lung, and/or bone marrow.
  • Further, based on the differential spectra of red fluorescent protein, green fluorescent protein (GFP), and agents such as 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) (blue) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (green), multicolor systems have now been established by our group that allow for combined assessment of parameters, including the macroscopic relation of tumors to their associated vasculature and, within tissue sections, simultaneous quantitation of tumor neovascularization and evaluation of therapy-induced apoptosis within the tumor and vascular endothelial compartments.
  • Collectively, these model systems provide important tools for investigation of the biology of neuroblastoma tumors and evaluation of mechanisms that mediate the regression of these tumors in response to novel therapeutic agents, including cytokines such as interleukin-12.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Interleukin-12 / administration & dosage. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cytokines / administration & dosage. Cytokines / therapeutic use. Dextrans. Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate / analogs & derivatives. Fluorescence. Green Fluorescent Proteins. Indoles. Luminescent Proteins. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16531816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-9557
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Luminescent Proteins; 0 / fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran; 0 / red fluorescent protein; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 47165-04-8 / DAPI; I223NX31W9 / Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans
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43. Meyers RL, Rowland JR, Krailo M, Chen Z, Katzenstein HM, Malogolowkin MH: Predictive power of pretreatment prognostic factors in children with hepatoblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Dec;53(6):1016-22
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  • [Title] Predictive power of pretreatment prognostic factors in children with hepatoblastoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: PRETEXT is used to stratify risk in children with hepatoblastoma by the Liver Tumor Strategy Group (SIOPEL) of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP).
  • A recent analysis excluding patients that did not survive neoadjuvant chemotherapy, concluded that PRETEXT was superior to Children's Oncology Group (COG) stage for predicting survival.
  • Puzzled by this result, we made a similar comparison of PRETEXT and COG stage.
  • This time, however, we include all patients, and we compare predictive value at diagnosis, instead of after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The 5-year overall survival rates by COG stage were 100%, 97.5%, 100%, 70.2%, and 39.3% for Stage I pure fetal histology (PFH), Stage I unfavorable histology (UH = not PFH), Stage II, Stage III, and Stage IV, respectively.
  • PRETEXT added significant additional prognostic information within the COG Stage III, but not COG Stage IV.
  • Additional prognostic factors statistically significant for an increased risk of death were small-cell-undifferentiated (SCU) histologic subtype and AFP < 100 at diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PRETEXT, COG stage, SCU histology, and AFP < 100, as assessed at diagnosis, are important determinants of survival that will allow us to better develop common international criteria for risk stratification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Histology. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19588519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098413-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS183909; NLM/ PMC4408767
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44. Sukhotnik I, Shteinberg D, Ben Lulu S, Bashenko Y, Mogilner JG, Ure BM, Shaoul R, Shamian B, Coran AG: Transforming growth factor-alpha stimulates enterocyte proliferation and accelerates intestinal recovery following methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in a rat and a cell culture model. Pediatr Surg Int; 2008 Dec;24(12):1303-11
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  • [Title] Transforming growth factor-alpha stimulates enterocyte proliferation and accelerates intestinal recovery following methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in a rat and a cell culture model.
  • Cell proliferation was determined by FACS cytometry.
  • Western blotting was used to determine the level of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) protein, a marker of cell proliferation.
  • RESULTS: The in vitro experiment demonstrated that treatment with TGF-alpha of Caco-2 cells resulted in a significant stimulation of cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner.
  • The in vivo experiment showed that treatment with TGF-alpha resulted in a significant increase in bowel and mucosal weight, DNA and protein content in jejunum and ileum, villus height in jejunum and ileum, crypt depth in ileum, and increased cell proliferation in jejunum and ileum compared to the MTX group.
  • The increase in levels of cell proliferation in MTX-TGF-alpha rats corresponded with the increase in ERK protein levels in intestinal mucosa.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment with TGF-alpha prevents mucosal injury, enhances ERK-induced enterocyte proliferation, and improves intestinal recovery following MTX-induced intestinal mucositis in rats.
  • These findings correlated with the observation that TGF-alpha also caused a significant stimulation of cell proliferation in a Caco-2 cell culture model treated with MTX.
  • These observations may have significant implications for the treatment of patients on chemotherapy who develop severe mucositis.
  • [MeSH-major] Enterocytes / drug effects. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / pharmacology. Mucositis / drug therapy. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Caco-2 Cells. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects. Male. Methotrexate. Noxae. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Recovery of Function

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  • (PMID = 18956197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Noxae; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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45. Vila L, Moreno L, Andrés MM, Fernández JM, Verdeguer A, Pérez-Valle S, Sangüesa C, Berbel O, Castel V: Could other viruses cause pediatric posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder? Clin Transl Oncol; 2008 Jul;10(7):422-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Could other viruses cause pediatric posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder?
  • INTRODUCTION: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) constitutes a heterogeneous group of diseases.
  • We summarize the experience of our hospital, one of Spain's largest series of renal (294), liver (47) and allogeneic stem cell transplants (67), where four cases of PTLD have developed related to complex viral infections.
  • METHODS: Case 1 was a 24-month-old boy diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT).
  • He was seropositive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and developed an aggressive Bcell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) related to EBV reactivation and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection.
  • Cases 2, 3, and 4 developed after kidney transplantation and were all EBV seronegative.
  • Current therapies include rituximab, decreasing immunosuppressive drugs. and conventional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Cytomegalovirus Infections / epidemiology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Male. Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 18628071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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46. Wex H, Ahrens D, Hohmann B, Redlich A, Mittler U, Vorwerk P: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Int J Hematol; 2005 Aug;82(2):137-42
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  • Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) is a potent inhibitor of IGF-mediated cell proliferation.
  • To investigate the functional relevance of IGFBP-4 in leukemia, we measured plasma IGFBP-4 levels and messenger RNA expression in leukemic cell clones of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and in control subjects.
  • We evaluated the patients at diagnosis and after 33 days of chemotherapy and found plasma IGFBP-4 levels at day 33 to be significantly lower than the levels at diagnosis.
  • There was no correlation of plasma IGFBP-4 level with age, sex, immunophenotype, or ALL risk group, and there was no correlation of IGFBP-4 level with plasma IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 levels.
  • The decrease in plasma IGFBP-4 levels during chemotherapy represents an indirect effect, probably caused by the chemotherapeutic effects on IGFBP-4-expressing cells of the liver and other organs.
  • In addition, IGFBP-4 gene expression was investigated in 13 human immune cell-related cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis.
  • IGFBP-4 was exclusively expressed in cell lines derived either from B-cells or from myelomonocytic cells, whereas IGFBP-4 was not expressed in T-cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4 / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood

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  • (PMID = 16146846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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47. Stringer MD: Liver tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2000 Nov;9(4):196-208
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  • [Title] Liver tumors.
  • Liver tumors in children are rare, potentially complex, and encompass a broad spectrum of disease processes.
  • Any age group may be affected, including the fetus.
  • Accurate preoperative diagnosis is usually possible using a combination of ultrasound scanning and cross-sectional imaging techniques (CT and/or MR), supplemented by liver biopsy and measurement of tumor markers.
  • In Western countries, hepatoblastoma is the most common primary malignant liver tumor; disease-free survival is now possible in more than 80% of affected patients because of advances in combination chemotherapy, improved techniques of surgical resection, and the selective use of liver transplantation.
  • In contrast, there has been less progress in the management of hepatocellular cancer, which still poses many therapeutic challenges.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / therapy. Child. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hemangioma / diagnosis. Hemangioma / surgery. Hepatoblastoma / diagnosis. Hepatoblastoma / pathology. Hepatoblastoma / therapy. Humans. Liver Transplantation. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company
  • (PMID = 11112837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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