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1. Abahssain H, Kairouani M, Gherman R, M'rabti H, Errihani H: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary and antecedent of adjuvant tamoxifen use for breast cancer. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:67
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary and antecedent of adjuvant tamoxifen use for breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Adult granulosa cell tumor associated with antecedent use of tamoxifen as adjuvant hormonotherapy for breast cancer is rare.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 47 year-old women was treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and tamoxifen for stage III estrogen receptor positive breast carcinoma.
  • Ten months after stopping tamoxifen, we diagnosed a stage Ic granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Its association with granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Granulosa Cell Tumor / chemically induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20704728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2928230
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2. Ellouze S, Krichen-Makni S, Trabelsi K, Ayadi L, Sellami A, Khabir A, Hammami S, Mnif H, Sellami-Boudawara T: [Granulosa-cell tumor of the ovary: report of 16 cases]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2006 Dec;35(8 Pt 1):767-72
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  • [Title] [Granulosa-cell tumor of the ovary: report of 16 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur de la granulosa de l'ovaire: à propos de 16 cas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological, pathological and clinical features of granulosa cell tumors and to study the different prognostic factors in order to determine an appropriate therapeutic attitude.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We proceeded with a retrospective study of 16 cases of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary diagnosed over a period of 10 years (1994-2003).
  • These cases included one case of juvenile type and 15 adult types.
  • RESULTS: Mean patient age was 46 years for the adult type (range 20-70 years) and 35 years for the juvenile type; 19% of the patients were nulliparous, 31% were menopausals.
  • Mean tumor size was 10.5 cm with a solido-cystic aspect in 50% of cases.
  • The treatment was surgical in all cases.
  • The juvenile tumor was at stage IV at time of diagnosis and only adjuvant chemotherapy was given.
  • No relapse nor recurrence were noted for the adult type after a mean follow up of 2 years 2 months.
  • For the juvenile form, locoregional recurrence with liver metastasis developed after 9 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is an uncommon neoplasm.
  • The adult form progresses slowly and often is diagnosed in an early stage of disease.
  • A prolonged post therapeutic follow-up is necessary because of the risk of recurrences, late and exceptional for the adult form but frequent and early for the juvenile form.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Parity. Postmenopause. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17151531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Fleming NA, de Nanassy J, Lawrence S, Black AY: Juvenile granulosa and theca cell tumor of the ovary as a rare cause of precocious puberty: case report and review of literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2010 Aug;23(4):e127-31
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  • [Title] Juvenile granulosa and theca cell tumor of the ovary as a rare cause of precocious puberty: case report and review of literature.
  • This case documents a rare cause of peripheral precocious puberty--a juvenile granulosa and theca cell ovarian tumor--and a brief review of the literature for this tumor type.
  • A thorough workup revealed a large multicystic left ovary.
  • Pathology reported a juvenile granulosa and theca cell tumor of the ovary, FIGO stage 1A.
  • A literature review found that early stage disease has an excellent prognosis and that adjuvant chemotherapy is not indicated in this setting.
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: Juvenile granulosa and theca cell tumor of the ovary is a rare cause of peripheral precocious puberty, even more so than juvenile granulosa cell tumor, due to the theca component.
  • Treatment is surgical and an excellent prognosis is possible for early stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Thecoma / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20371195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Al-Badawi IA, Brasher PM, Ghatage P, Nation JG, Schepansky A, Stuart GC: Postoperative chemotherapy in advanced ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2002 Jan-Feb;12(1):119-23
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  • [Title] Postoperative chemotherapy in advanced ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
  • The objective of this research is to assess the use of first-line postoperative chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT).
  • A retrospective population-based case series identified 60 women with stage IC or greater ovarian GCT over a 25-year period.
  • None of the patients had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to the diagnosis of advanced GCT.
  • Clinical outcomes and survival were compared between 13 women who received combination chemotherapy and eight who did not.
  • Univariate analysis was conducted to assess the impact of age at diagnosis, size of residual disease, and adjuvant use of radiation therapy on prognosis.
  • Median time to progression was 2.3 years (range 0.3-5.3).
  • Among stage III and IV patients, there were no differences with respect to age at diagnosis and use of radiation therapy between those who did and did not receive chemotherapy.
  • Although there was no statistical significant difference in overall survival, there was a trend toward a poorer outcome in the group that received chemotherapy.
  • Survival of patients with macroscopic residual disease was not influenced by use of chemotherapy (P = 0.976).
  • Although these patients were more likely to receive postoperative chemotherapy, there was no evidence to document a beneficial effect of systemic therapy in this group of women.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11860546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Chudecka-Głaz A, Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zielińska D: [Granulosa cell tumor in different periods of women's life]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):689-94
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  • [Title] [Granulosa cell tumor in different periods of women's life].
  • Ovarian granulosa cell tumor is uncommon malignancies.
  • By virtue of histopathological examination we distinguish two subtype of GCT: adult type granulosa cell tumor typically in older women and juvenile granulosa cell tumor recognized primarily in children and young adults.
  • Depending on histological type patients suffer recurrences in different time after treatment, even many years from diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study is clinical analysis of patients with AGCT and JGCT, especially the problem of choice of treatment, time to occurring recurrences and new possibility in long term follow up.
  • RESULTS: Among analyzed 22 patients 18 had adult type of granulosa cell tumor, mean age of these women was 47 years (32-72).
  • Juvenile type of granulosa cell tumor were recognized in 4 patients and they were from 4 to 7 years old.
  • In histopathological examination of 4 years old girl atypia and a lot of mitosis was observed and she was treated with chemotherapy.
  • Remained 3 girls live without evidence of disease and the longest time of follow up is 36 years.
  • 16 patients were treated with radiotherapy as an adjuvant treatment, two additionally with GnRH analogues.
  • Mean time to recurrence from diagnosis were 11.7 years.
  • Despite of aggressive chemotherapy four of these patients died during one year.
  • Remained 13 women with adult granulosa cell tumours live without evidence of disease and the longest time of observation is 9 years.
  • During long time follow up our patients were performed second-look laparoscopies, tested of estradiol levels and 5 of them also inhibin B levels which always correlated with actual condition.
  • CONCLUSION: Granulosa cell tumor is ovarian neoplasm of different behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Inhibins / blood. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Poland. Recurrence. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14674109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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6. Sasano S, Yamamoto H, Otsuka T, Imura Y, Nishii N, Nitta S: Pulmonary multiple metastases of ovarian granulosa cell tumor 15 years after initial diagnosis. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2000 Oct;48(10):655-8
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  • [Title] Pulmonary multiple metastases of ovarian granulosa cell tumor 15 years after initial diagnosis.
  • We report a case of multiple pulmonary metastases occurring 15 years after an ovarian granulosa cell tumor was initially diagnosed.
  • A 62-year-old woman undergoing left salpingo-oophorectomy for a granulosa cell tumor of the left ovary 15 years earlier presented with abnormal chest shadows.
  • Computed tomography of the chest confirmed the presence of 3 well-defined nodular lesions, and Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a 3.5 x 2.5 cm partially solid, cystic pelvic mass.
  • Left thoracotomy was conducted and tumors diagnosed a pulmonary metastases of a granulosa cell tumor.
  • The pelvic mass proved to be a granulosa cell tumor.
  • Adjuvant combination chemotherapy was started every 3 weeks and the woman has remained disease-free for 9 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11080955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
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7. Grabiec M, Kwiatkowski M, Walentowicz M, Greźlikowska U: [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Jan;79(1):42-6
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  • [Title] [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor].
  • The granulosa-cell tumor (folliculoma) is a rare type of ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 5% of all cases.
  • It is the most common type of sex cord-stromal tumors, diagnosed in 70% of cases.
  • The granulosa-cell tumor is a hormone active one, originating from granulosa cells which produce estradiol.
  • Overproduction of estradiol is helpful in the diagnosis of the tumor because of its numerous symptoms.
  • There are two types of folliculoma: juvenile (5%) and adult (95%).
  • The juvenile type is mostly recognized (90%) in FIGO I stage and has a better prognosis.
  • Operation is often a sufficient way of treatment in this group.
  • The adult folliculoma is more aggressive in its nature.
  • Patients with the disease diagnosed in higher stages must be treated by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Recurrence appears often many years after the treatment and has high mortality.
  • Many old (platinum) and new (taxans) agents are active when used in treatment of this type of tumor.
  • Randomized study must be made to establish standard therapy of granulosa-cell tumor.
  • Currently, the most frequent way of treatment is chemotherapy with BEP (Blemycyna, Etopozyd, Cisplatyna).
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18510049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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8. Donate-Moreno MJ, Pastor-Navarro H, Carrión-López P, Pascual-Martín A, Salinas-Sánchez AS, Lorenzo-Romero JG, Polo-Ruiz L, Virseda-Rodríguez JA: Late recurrence of ovarian granulosa cell tumor at the retroperitoneal and renal hilum level in a single-kidney patient--case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):487-90
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  • [Title] Late recurrence of ovarian granulosa cell tumor at the retroperitoneal and renal hilum level in a single-kidney patient--case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors are rare tumors characterized by a long natural history and a tendency to late recurrence.
  • Surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy are possible options to treat recurrent disease.
  • CASE: We describe the case of a 72-year-old patient with a single left kidney who presented retroperitoneal recurrence of ovarian granulosa cell tumor at the left renal hilum ten years after primary treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18179143.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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9. Chauhan A, Dahiya P, Singh H, Gill M, Verma S: Isolated breast metastasis from granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Dec;280(6):997-9
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  • [Title] Isolated breast metastasis from granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms arising from sex-cord stromal cells.
  • Granulosa cell tumor of ovary metastasizing to breast has never been reported in literature.
  • We present such a case of ovarian granulosa cell tumor with metastasis to the breast, which was the presenting symptom.
  • The patient was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy which was followed by chemotherapy.
  • The patient is relapse free 2 years after completion of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Granulosa Cell Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19306013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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10. Ameryckx L, Fatemi HM, De Sutter P, Amy JJ: GnRH antagonist in the adjuvant treatment of a recurrent ovarian granulosa cell tumor: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):764-6
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  • [Title] GnRH antagonist in the adjuvant treatment of a recurrent ovarian granulosa cell tumor: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are usually treated by surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Successful response to GnRH agonists as an adjuvant therapy has previously been reported.
  • In this case of recurrent GCT, we used a GnRH antagonist.
  • CASE: A 78-year-old woman underwent surgery for an ovarian granulosa cell tumor (pT1a N0 Mx).
  • Six months later, laparotomy revealed an inoperable recurrence of the tumor.
  • Experimental treatment with a GnRH antagonist was not clearly successful.
  • This is in contrast to the previously proven benefit of GnRH agonist therapy in this type of malignancy and to the positive response elicited by GnRH antagonists in epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: GnRH antagonist therapy had no demonstrable efficacy in the treatment of a poorly differentiated and aggressive recurrent granulosa cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2006 Sep;102(3):599-600 [16815534.001]
  • (PMID = 16112181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 123246-29-7 / ganirelix; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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11. Salani R, Goodrich K, Song C, Grumbine FC: Three case reports of laparoscopic management of granulosa cell tumor with intraoperative rupture and subsequent upstaging. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2008 Jul-Aug;15(4):511-3
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  • [Title] Three case reports of laparoscopic management of granulosa cell tumor with intraoperative rupture and subsequent upstaging.
  • Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary account for 2% to 5% of all ovarian tumors and typically demonstrate an indolent clinical course.
  • Three patients with clinical presumptive stage IA GCT of the ovary were initially treated with conservative laparoscopic surgery with intraoperative rupture of the tumor.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was required.
  • A thorough knowledge about GCT is important.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Bromhexine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Cysts / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 18602055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q1J152VB1P / Bromhexine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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12. Balat, Aydin A, Kutlar I, Camci C: Ruptured granulosa cell tumor of the left ovary and mature cystic teratoma of the right ovary: a case report of unusual acute abdominal syndrome. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(5):350-1
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  • [Title] Ruptured granulosa cell tumor of the left ovary and mature cystic teratoma of the right ovary: a case report of unusual acute abdominal syndrome.
  • Although granulosa cell tumor combined with a dermoid cyst in the same ovary is rarely seen, adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary with contralateral teratoma has not been reported to date.
  • In this report we present the first case in the English language literature of a ruptured granulosa cell tumor of the left ovary and mature cystic teratoma of the right ovary presenting as acute abdominal syndrome.
  • She received combined chemotherapy consisting of bleomycin, etoposide. and cisplatin for six cycles.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Rupture, Spontaneous / complications

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  • (PMID = 11766738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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13. Hardy RD, Bell JG, Nicely CJ, Reid GC: Hormonal treatment of a recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):865-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hormonal treatment of a recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare, primarily treated surgically.
  • In advanced or recurrent disease, data are inconclusive regarding the benefit of either primary or adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Hormonal therapy has been suggested as an alternative treatment.
  • CASE: Our patient had three recurrences of estrogen receptor negative and progesterone receptor positive GCT, the first two treated by surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Computed tomography showed stable disease at 6 months, partial response at 18 months, and complete response at 22 months.
  • The patient continues on hormonal therapy and has been disease-free for 5 years.
  • CONCLUSION: This study and others suggest that hormonal therapy may provide another option for treating these relatively rare tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Megestrol / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15721440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; EA6LD1M70M / Megestrol
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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14. Chu S, Alexiadis M, Fuller PJ: Expression, mutational analysis and in vitro response of imatinib mesylate and nilotinib target genes in ovarian granulosa cell tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jan;108(1):182-90
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  • [Title] Expression, mutational analysis and in vitro response of imatinib mesylate and nilotinib target genes in ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (GCT) represent approximately 5% of malignant ovarian tumors.
  • Surgery remains the primary modality of therapy and treatment options for advanced disease are limited.
  • The molecular pathogenesis of GCT is not known but is likely to involve activation of tyrosine kinase-mediated cell signaling pathways.
  • A recent case report of a patient with advanced recurrent GCT responding to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate prompted us to explore a role for these therapies in GCT.
  • METHODS: The expression of the imatinib-sensitive tyrosine kinases, c-kit, c-Abl, PDGFR-alpha and PDGFR-beta, was determined using RT-PCR in a panel of GCT.
  • The functional response was examined in two human-derived GCT cell lines.
  • RESULTS: All four kinases were expressed but at levels lower than those observed in pre-menopausal ovarian samples.
  • Both cell lines responded to imatinib and to the second generation, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, nilotinib, with dose-dependent decreases in cell proliferation and viability.
  • These responses paralleled the imatinib-sensitive, K562 cell line but at approximately 240- and approximately 1000-fold higher concentrations of imatinib and nilotinib, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that human GCT, in general, are unlikely to respond to imatinib or nilotinib therapy.
  • The response of the cell lines at high concentrations implies an "off-target" effect, which suggests that a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, of appropriate specificity, may represent a therapeutic option in GCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Piperazines / pharmacology. Pyrimidines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Benzamides. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, fms. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / biosynthesis. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / biosynthesis. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18028988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-methyl-N-(3-(4-methylimidazol-1-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-((4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-yl)amino)benzamide; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / flt3 ligand protein; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.10.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl
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15. Auranen A, Sundström J, Ijäs J, Grénman S: Prognostic factors of ovarian granulosa cell tumor: a study of 35 patients and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):1011-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of ovarian granulosa cell tumor: a study of 35 patients and review of the literature.
  • Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCT) are rare tumors with a tendency of late relapse and good prognosis.
  • FIGO stage, tumor size, degree of cellular atypia, and mitotic index have been reported to predict recurrence.
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate treatment practice and prognostic factors of GCT.
  • For this purpose, a detailed review of patient files and histopathologic evaluation of tumor samples, including estimation of growth pattern, presence of Call-Exner bodies, nuclear atypia, mitotic index, and immunohistochemical staining for inhibin and Ki-67 were analyzed.
  • Thirty-five patients had histologically confirmed GCT.
  • Median follow-up time was 135 months (range 19-334 months).
  • Time from diagnosis to the first recurrence varied from 24 to 141 months.
  • There was no difference in tumor size, nuclear atypia, mitotic index, presence of Call-Exner bodies, or Ki-67 staining between nonrecurred and recurred patients.
  • The only factor associated with risk of recurrence was rupture of the tumor (P < 0.0001), and the only factor associated with overall survival was FIGO stage (P = 0.032).
  • The disease-free and overall survivals were not statistically different between patients treated (N = 18) or not treated (N = 17) with adjuvant therapy.
  • One patient has experienced seven recurrences, has been treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy, and is still alive 26 years from diagnosis.
  • FIGO stage and tumor rupture were the only factors associated with the outcome of GCT.
  • Treatment of relapse, even in case of multiple recurrences, is usually worthwhile.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17374124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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16. Merras-Salmio L, Vettenranta K, Möttönen M, Heikinheimo M: Ovarian granulosa cell tumors in childhood. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Apr-May;19(3):145-56
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  • [Title] Ovarian granulosa cell tumors in childhood.
  • Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary are prepubertal in 5% of the patients.
  • These juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) are usually benign.
  • GCTs belong to ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, the more common ovarian tumors being epidermal and germinal.
  • The etiology of GCT remains unknown.
  • Most young children with GCT present with precorious pseudopuberty.
  • Among adolescents GCT often causes menstrual irregularities, virilization, abdominal swelling, and pain.
  • Cisplatin-containing chemotherapy can induce remissions in adult GCTs.
  • The authors describe 3 children with GCT and review current data on this rare tumor from molecular biology to clinical aspects.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11936727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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17. Billmire D, Vinocur C, Rescorla F, Cushing B, London W, Schlatter M, Davis M, Giller R, Lauer S, Olson T, Children's Oncology Group (COG): Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study. J Pediatr Surg; 2004 Mar;39(3):424-9; discussion 424-9
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  • [Title] Outcome and staging evaluation in malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary in children and adolescents: an intergroup study.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to perform an evaluation of outcome and the role of surgical staging components in malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary in children and adolescents.
  • METHODS: From 1990 to 1996, 2 intergroup trials for malignant GCT were undertaken by Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) and Children's Cancer Study Group (CCG).
  • Stage I-II patients were treated with surgical resection and 4 cycles of standard dose cisplatin (100 mg/m2/cycle), etoposide, and bleomycin (PEB) chemotherapy.
  • Stage III-IV patients were treated with surgical resection and randomly assigned to chemotherapy with PEB or high-dose cisplatin (200 mg/m2/cycle) with etoposide and bleomycin (HDPEB).
  • Patients unresectable at diagnosis had second-look operation after 4 cycles of chemotherapy if residual tumor was seen on imaging studies.
  • An analysis of outcome data, operative notes, and pathology reports in girls with ovarian primary site was done for this report.
  • RESULTS: There were 131 patients with ovarian primary tumors of 515 entered on these studies.
  • Surgical omissions resulting in protocol noncompliance resulted from failure to biopsy bilateral nodes (97%), no omentectomy (36%), no peritoneal cytology (21%), no contralateral ovary biopsy (59%).
  • More aggressive procedure than recommended by guidelines included total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in 6 patients and retroperitoneal node dissection in 10 patients.
  • Correlation of gross operative findings with pathology results was carried out for ascites, lymph nodes, implants, omentum, and contralateral ovary.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric ovarian malignant GCT (stages I-IV) have excellent survival with conservative surgical resection and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15017564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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18. Powell JL, Connor GP, Henderson GS: Management of recurrent juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Apr;81(1):113-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of recurrent juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: Juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are a rare form of neoplasm that makes up less than 5% of ovarian tumors in childhood and adolescence.
  • About 90% are diagnosed in stage I with a favorable prognosis.
  • CASE: A patient was initially diagnosed at age 17 with FIGO stage IIIC disease and treated with a right salpingo-oophorectomy, debulking, and staging followed by six cycles of carboplatin and etoposide chemotherapy.
  • Tumor recurrence in the liver and adjacent to the spleen occurred 13 months after completion of primary therapy.
  • Aggressive surgical removal of tumor followed by six cycles of bleomycin and taxol as salvage chemotherapy resulted in 44 months of disease-free survival.
  • Exploration revealed no evidence of tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the second case report of a patient with advanced juvenile granulosa cell tumor to become pregnant after apparently successful chemotherapy.
  • These results are encouraging, but the best treatment for extensive and recurrent disease has yet to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Splenic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11277661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Frausto SD, Geisler JP, Fletcher MS, Sood AK: Late recurrence of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2004 Jul;191(1):366-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late recurrence of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) of the ovary, if diagnosed at an early stage, has a favorable prognosis.
  • The patient presented here was treated with a left oophorectomy after initial presentation.
  • Tumor recurrence in the left adnexa, diagnosed 48 months later, was treated with cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy; she remains disease free 19 months after this recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Ovariectomy. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 15295395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Psyrri A: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 Feb;34(1):1-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are uncommon neoplasms that arise from the sex-cord stromal cells of the ovary.
  • Occasionally, tumor rupture causes abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum.
  • GCT is usually associated with a mass on pelvic examination which is subsequently confirmed with imagine techniques.
  • In postmenopausal women and those with more advanced disease a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the appropriate surgical treatment.
  • The most important prognostic factor associated with a higher risk of relapse is the stage of disease.
  • The role of post-operative chemo- or radiotherapy in stage I disease and those with completely resected tumor has not been defined.
  • Nevertheless, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy has sometimes been associated with prolonged disease-free survival and possibly overall survival.
  • Chemotherapy should be considered for patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic disease and the BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) is the currently preferable regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Estradiol / analysis. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17945423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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21. Guo H, Keefe KA, Kohler MF, Chan JK: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary associated with tuberous sclerosis. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Jul;102(1):118-20
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  • [Title] Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary associated with tuberous sclerosis.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms that typically occur in the first three decades of life and have excellent prognosis for early-staged disease.
  • CASE REPORT: We report the first case of an 8-year-old white female with tuberous sclerosis and juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • She presented with a 20 x 22 cm pelvic mass and received a right salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • Three months later, she recurred and underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy, lymphadenectomy, and omentectomy followed by four cycles of Bleomycin, Etoposide, and Cisplatin chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment options and a review of the literature pertaining to juvenile ovarian granulosa cell tumors and tuberous sclerosis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 16516278.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Schumer ST, Cannistra SA: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Mar 15;21(6):1180-9
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is oftentimes a hormonally active, stromal cell neoplasm that is distinguished by its ability to secrete sex steroids such as estrogen.
  • Patients may present with vaginal bleeding caused by endometrial hyperplasia or uterine cancer as a result of prolonged exposure to tumor-derived estrogen.
  • In addition, GCT is a vascular tumor that may occasionally rupture and result in abdominal pain, hemoperitoneum, and hypotension, mimicking an ectopic pregnancy in younger patients.
  • GCT is usually associated with a mass on pelvic examination that is subsequently confirmed on ultrasonography.
  • Surgery is required for definitive tissue diagnosis, staging, and tumor debulking.
  • In women of childbearing age, a more conservative unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy may be performed, assuming that careful staging reveals that the disease has not extended outside of the involved ovary and that a concomitant uterine cancer has been excluded.
  • Survival of patients with GCT is generally excellent because most patients present with early-stage disease, although certain high-risk patient groups may be identified.
  • Stage is the most important prognostic factor, with a higher risk of relapse being associated with stages II through IV disease.
  • In addition, patients with stage I disease associated with features such as large tumor size, high mitotic index, or tumor rupture may also be at higher risk in some series.
  • The value of postoperative adjuvant therapy for high-risk patients has not been investigated by prospective randomized trials, which are difficult to perform because of the rarity of this tumor.
  • Nonetheless, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation has sometimes been associated with prolonged disease-free survival in patients with high-risk features.
  • Because of the propensity of GCT to recur years after initial diagnosis, prolonged surveillance with serial physical examination and serum tumor markers such as estradiol and inhibin is reasonable.
  • [MeSH-major] Glycoproteins. Granulosa Cell Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Anti-Mullerian Hormone. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Climacteric. Estradiol / blood. Female. Growth Inhibitors / analysis. Humans. Incidence. Inhibins / blood. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Population Surveillance. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Testicular Hormones / analysis. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 12637488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Growth Inhibitors; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Testicular Hormones; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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23. Li W, Wu X, Fang C, Yao J, Guo Y, Zhang S: Prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Saudi Med J; 2009 Feb;30(2):247-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathologic prognostic factors in adult granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary.
  • Forty-six patients with GCT were enrolled in this study.
  • Demographic data, pathologic findings, treatments, and survival time were reviewed and analyzed for prognostic significance.
  • Age, residual tumor disease, parity, and size of the tumor had no significant effect on survival.
  • The only factor associated with risk of recurrence was rupture of the tumor (p=0.038).
  • Patients who received chemotherapy had a better median disease-free survival than those who did not (105 versus 78 months), however, this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.080).
  • CONCLUSION: The FIGO stage, nuclear atypia, and increased mitoses are the statistically significant prognostic factors, and may be used for selecting patients for adjuvant therapy.
  • A prolonged follow-up is necessary due to risk of recurrences, late, and exceptional for the adult ovarian GCT, especially when the tumor ruptured before, or at operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19198715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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24. Koukourakis GV, Kouloulias VE, Koukourakis MJ, Zacharias GA, Papadimitriou C, Mystakidou K, Pistevou-Gompaki K, Kouvaris J, Gouliamos A: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: tumor review. Integr Cancer Ther; 2008 Sep;7(3):204-15
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  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: tumor review.
  • Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms that originate from sex-cord stromal cells.
  • The long natural history of granulosa cell tumors and their tendency to recur years after the initial diagnosis are the most prominent of their characteristics.
  • Abdominal pain and hemoperitoneum, which occasionally can occur, are attributable to tumor rupture.
  • The most common finding in pelvic examination is a tumor mass, which is subsequently confirmed with imaging techniques.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the appropriate surgical treatment for postmenopausal women and those with more advanced disease.
  • There are no clear conclusions regarding the role of postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy in stage I disease and in those with completely resected tumor.
  • The use of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy has sometimes been associated with prolonged disease-free survival and possibly overall survival.
  • Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with advanced, recurrent, or metastatic disease, and BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) is the preferred regimen.
  • Although the overall rate of response to treatment is high, the impact of treatment on disease-free or overall survival is unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 18815151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Integrative cancer therapies
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Integr Cancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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25. Peng P, Shen K, Lang J, Cui Q, Wu M: Clinical analysis of 4 cases of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2002 Jul;37(7):402-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical analysis of 4 cases of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary (JGCT).
  • All 4 patients were at stage I and treated with surgery and combined chemotherapy.
  • Cytoreductive surgery is the treatment of choice and combination chemotherapy may be helpful to improve the prognosis of JGCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 12411036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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26. Uygun K, Aydiner A, Saip P, Basaran M, Tas F, Kocak Z, Dincer M, Topuz E: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: retrospective analysis of 45 cases. Am J Clin Oncol; 2003 Oct;26(5):517-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: retrospective analysis of 45 cases.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary are rare neoplasms, accounting for less than 5% of all ovarian malignancies.
  • In addition to the tumor stage, residual disease, patient age, tumor size, extent of surgery, and also some histologic factors have been reported to be of prognostic importance.
  • Tumor registries were screened for all patients treated between 1979 and 1998 for ovarian tumors at the University of Istanbul.
  • There were 952 ovarian carcinomas, of which 47 were granulosa cell tumors.
  • Prognostic factors and treatment results were evaluated retrospectively.
  • The benefit of chemotherapy and radiotherapy remains controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Turkey / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 14528083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Barrena Medel NI, Herzog TJ, Wright JD, Lewin SN: Neoadjuvant bevacizumab in a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: a case report. Anticancer Res; 2010 Nov;30(11):4767-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neoadjuvant bevacizumab in a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: a case report.
  • Growing evidence points toward the key role of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer.
  • Granulosa cell tumor (GCT) does not seem to be an exception.
  • Recent studies reporting the use of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the vascular epithelial growth factor, in recurrent GCT have shown encouraging results in terms of both symptoms control and response rate.
  • This study presented the case of an adult-type GCT treated with neoadjuvant bevacizumab.
  • To the best of the Authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of an anti-angiogenic agent as neoadjuvant therapy in GCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / immunology

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  • (PMID = 21115938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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28. Mehta H, Trivedi P, Parikh B, Shukla K, Shah MJ: Clinicopathological prognostic factors of adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary--a study of 37 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Oct;48(4):439-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological prognostic factors of adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary--a study of 37 cases.
  • Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is the most common malignancy amongst the sex cord stromal tumors.
  • Clinical stage, age, tumor size, residual disease and several histologic factors have been reported to be of prognostic significance.
  • There were 839 ovarian malignancies at our institute during the period from 1998 to 2002.
  • Out of 54 granulosa cell tumors, 40 cases were evaluable which includes 37 cases of adult GCT and 3 cases of juvenile GCT.
  • All patients were treated surgically and 62.1% of adult GCTs were given post-operative chemotherapy.
  • Clinical stage, presence of residual disease and tumor volume were the most important prognostic factors.
  • Age of patient, menstrual status, post-operative chemotherapy, mitosis or histological patterns were of little significance in our study.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16366090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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29. Uygun K, Aydiner A, Saip P, Kocak Z, Basaran M, Dincer M, Topuz E: Clinical parameters and treatment results in recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Mar;88(3):400-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical parameters and treatment results in recurrent granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the patients' characteristics and treatment results for 11 recurrent granulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary.
  • METHODS: Tumor registries were screened retrospectively for all patients treated between 1979 and 1999 for ovarian tumors at the University of Istanbul.
  • There were 952 ovarian carcinomas, of which 45 were GCT.
  • Eleven of 45 patients (24%) developed recurrent disease on follow-up.
  • The median progression-free interval (PFI) was 16 months (range, 5-39 months) with a marked difference in PFI between patients receiving (24 months) and not receiving (8 months) initial chemotherapy.
  • Among patients received chemotherapy (six patients), two complete and two partial responses were observed, for an overall response rate of 67%.
  • The median survival for all patients was 26 (4-73) months with a longer survival (38 versus 8 months) for patients retreated with a platinum-containing regimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that small number of treated cases does not allow an adequate evaluation, retreatment with cis-platinum-containing regimens may be the treatment of choice for patients with recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12648593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Hirakawa M, Nagai Y, Yagi C, Nashiro T, Inamine M, Aoki Y: Recurrent juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary managed by palliative radiotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):913-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrent juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary managed by palliative radiotherapy.
  • Prognosis in the few patients with advanced-stage juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) of the ovary has traditionally been unfavorable.
  • A 37-year-old woman with recurrent JGCT received a combination of paclitaxel-carboplatin chemotherapy and then single-agent docetaxel, but her disease progressed with multiple abdominal masses and ascites.
  • We chose palliative radiation therapy to relieve her complaints.
  • She tolerated the treatment well.
  • After the completion of radiotherapy, ultrasonography showed shrinkage of the tumor, and the ascites disappeared.
  • We should consider using radiation therapy in a palliative setting for such patients with recurrent JGCT suffering from abdominal complaints.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18028383.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Erdreich-Epstein A, Monforte HL, Lavey RS, Joshi S, Phillips JD, Villablanca JG: Successful multimodality therapy of recurrent multifocal juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Mar-Apr;24(3):229-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful multimodality therapy of recurrent multifocal juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) of the ovary, a rare pediatric cancer, carries a very poor prognosis in advanced and recurrent cases.
  • She underwent surgery, chemotherapy (cisplatin/paclitaxel alternating with cisplatin/cyclophosphamide/etoposide/bleomycin), myeloablative chemotherapy (carboplatin/etoposide/melphalan) with autologous bone marrow transplant, and pelvic radiation.
  • She tolerated therapy well and is in complete remission 69 months after her recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. General Surgery. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11990313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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32. Piura B, Wiznitzer A, Shaco-Levy R: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary associated with hypercalcemia. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Mar;277(3):257-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary associated with hypercalcemia.
  • INTRODUCTION: Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) are rare ovarian neoplasms that typically occur in children and young women.
  • While most JGCTs are diagnosed in Stage IA and can be cured by unilateral oophorectomy alone, the remainders are diagnosed in more advanced stages and may exhibit aggressive behavior despite surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Paraneoplastic hypercalcemia occurs in 5% of ovarian malignancies with small cell and clear cell carcinoma being the commonest ovarian tumors associated with hypercalcemia.
  • Only one case of ovarian JGCT associated with hypercalcemia has previously been documented in the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: A 25-year-old married childless woman presented with a unilateral ovarian mass associated with profound hypercalcemia and suppressed serum parathyroid hormone-intact (PTH-i) level.
  • After rectifying the hypercalcemia with saline hydration, furosemide, and anti-hypercalcemic drugs, the patient underwent unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy that demonstrated Stage IC ovarian JGCT.
  • The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with three courses of BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) and to date, ten months after surgery, she is disease-free, eucalcemic, and menstruating normally.
  • CONCLUSION: This is the second case reported in the literature of ovarian JGCT associated with hypercalcemia.
  • Since serum PTH-i level was suppressed and the hypercalcemia did not recur after resection of the tumor, it is concluded that the hypercalcemia was caused by parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) produced by the tumor.
  • It seems that unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by BEP chemotherapy is an appropriate treatment for unilateral Stage IC ovarian JGCT in women desiring to preserve ovarian function and childbearing capacity.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17849133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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