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1. Ghebeh H, Mohammed S, Al-Omair A, Qattan A, Lehe C, Al-Qudaihi G, Elkum N, Alshabanah M, Bin Amer S, Tulbah A, Ajarim D, Al-Tweigeri T, Dermime S: The B7-H1 (PD-L1) T lymphocyte-inhibitory molecule is expressed in breast cancer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma: correlation with important high-risk prognostic factors. Neoplasia; 2006 Mar;8(3):190-8
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  • [Title] The B7-H1 (PD-L1) T lymphocyte-inhibitory molecule is expressed in breast cancer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma: correlation with important high-risk prognostic factors.
  • Breast cancer is the second most common cause of mortality after lung cancer.
  • Direct evidence linking B7-H1 with cancer has been shown in several malignancies; however, its expression in breast cancer has not been investigated.
  • We used immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of the B7-H1 molecule in 44 breast cancer specimens and to study its correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters.
  • The expression of B7-H1 was shown in 22 of 44 patients and was not restricted to the tumor epithelium (15 of 44, 34% in tumor cells), but was also expressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL; 18 of 44, 41%).
  • Interestingly, intratumor expression of B7-H1 was significantly associated with histologic grade III-negative (P = .012), estrogen receptor-negative (P = .036), and progesterone receptor-negative (P = .040) patients.
  • In addition, the expression of B7-H1 in TIL was associated with large tumor size (P = .042), histologic grade III (P = .015), positivity of Her2/neu status (P = .019), and severe tumor lymphocyte infiltration (P = .001).
  • Taken together, these data suggest that B7-H1 may be an important risk factor in breast cancer patients and may represent a potential immunotherapeutic target using monoclonal antibody against the B7-H1 molecule.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD274. Cell Line, Tumor / chemistry. Cell Line, Tumor / immunology. Cell Line, Tumor / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Estrogens. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / metabolism. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / chemistry. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / immunology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / pathology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / surgery. Progesterone. Prognosis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. Risk Factors. Saudi Arabia / epidemiology. Tumor Burden. Tumor Escape / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16611412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5586
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD274; 0 / CD274 protein, human; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1578520
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2. Ford CE, Faedo M, Crouch R, Lawson JS, Rawlinson WD: Progression from normal breast pathology to breast cancer is associated with increasing prevalence of mouse mammary tumor virus-like sequences in men and women. Cancer Res; 2004 Jul 15;64(14):4755-9
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  • [Title] Progression from normal breast pathology to breast cancer is associated with increasing prevalence of mouse mammary tumor virus-like sequences in men and women.
  • Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like sequences have been found in up to 40% of breast cancer samples but in <2% of normal breast tissue samples from Australian women studied by our group.
  • Screening of a larger and more diverse cohort of female breast cancer samples has now shown a correlation of MMTV-like sequences with the severity (grade) of breast cancer.
  • Thirty-two percent (43 of 136) of female breast cancer samples were positive for MMTV-like sequences when screened using PCR.
  • A significant gradient of MMTV positivity was observed with increasing severity of cancer from 23% of infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) grade I tumors to 34% of IDC grade II tumors (P = 0.00034) and 38% of IDC grade III tumors (P = 0.00002).
  • We also report for the first time the detection of MMTV-like sequences in 62% (8 of 13) of male breast cancer samples and 19% (10 of 52) of male gynecomastia samples screened.
  • MMTV-like sequences were demonstrated in various premalignant breast lesions of females, including fibroadenoma (20%) and fibrocystic disease (28%) samples, at a significantly higher prevalence than that seen in normal breast tissue (1.8%; P = 0.00001).
  • Study of a longitudinal cohort of female breast cancer patients indicated that MMTV was co-incident with tumor but was not present when tumor was absent on histology.
  • These results support the association of MMTV-like sequences with development of breast tumors in men and women and suggest association of MMTV with increasing severity of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / virology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / virology. Cell Transformation, Viral / genetics. Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Breast / cytology. Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal / virology. Cohort Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. NIH 3T3 Cells. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 15256443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Ben Dhiab T, Bouzid T, Gamoudi A, Ben Hassouna J, Khomsi F, Boussen H, Benna F, El May A, Hechiche M, Rahal K: [Male breast cancer: about 123 cases collected at the Institute Salah-Azaiz of Tunis from 1979 to 1999]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Mar;92(3):281-5
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  • [Title] [Male breast cancer: about 123 cases collected at the Institute Salah-Azaiz of Tunis from 1979 to 1999].
  • Male breast cancer is rare compared to its female counterpart representing less than 1% of cancer in men.
  • The objective of our retrospective study is to report the epidemiologic and clinical profile and to analyse the therapeutic results and prognostic factors in a Tunisian population collected during a period of 20 years at a single institution.
  • We collected from 1979 to 1999, all the histological confirmed male breast cancers treated at our institution.
  • We analyse the following data: age, clinical presentation and features, therapeutic protocol, results and prognostic factors.
  • 123 cases of male breast carcinoma were collected with a median age of 65 years.
  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma represent 91% of all tumours.
  • The treatment consisted in a radical mastectomy in 93 cases (84%) followed by radiotherapy, chemotherapy and in many cases by hormonotherapy.
  • The presence of metastasis, nodal involvement, advanced disease, and grade affected survival.
  • Male breast cancer represent at our institution 1 % of the male cancers treated comparable to the literature data.
  • T4 tumours represent a higher rate, the treatment approach is the standard applicable in breast cancer; prognostic factors are the classical one like breast cancer in women.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms, Male / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15820923.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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4. Geffen DB, Cagnano E, Tokar M, Ariad S, Koretz M: Ipsilateral breast carcinoma following treatment for primary breast lymphoma. Onkologie; 2007 Mar;30(3):134-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ipsilateral breast carcinoma following treatment for primary breast lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The breast is an unusual site for primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Carcinoma in the same breast after treatment for lymphoma poses therapeutic challenges, but there is only 1 case report in Japanese, which describes this occurrence.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: A 59-year-old woman was diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast after receiving doxorubicinand vincristine-based chemotherapy for ipsilateral primary large cell breast lymphoma.
  • The cancer was of high grade histology, with immunohistochemistry staining 3+ positive for HER2/neu.
  • Radiotherapy to the breast was administered, and a 1-year course of trastuzumab was planned.
  • CONCLUSION: Breast cancer can occur after breast lymphoma.
  • For primary breast lymphoma, cumulative doses of cardiotoxic and neurotoxic drugs should be limited to 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy, using treatment protocols for stage I-II large cell lymphoma.
  • Consolidation radiotherapy should be considered at a dose curative for microscopic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Retreatment

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  • (PMID = 17341900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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5. Neonakis I, Mantadakis E, Gitti Z, Mitrouska I, Manidakis LG, Maraki S, Samonis G: Genital tuberculosis in a tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal woman with breast cancer and bloody vaginal discharge. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob; 2006;5:20
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  • [Title] Genital tuberculosis in a tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal woman with breast cancer and bloody vaginal discharge.
  • BACKGROUND: Female genital tuberculosis is an uncommon disease that is rarely diagnosed in developed countries.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old postmenopausal woman who had undergone surgery and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast five years ago, presented with bloody vaginal discharge, fatigue, weight loss, and low grade fevers at night for two months.
  • Histological examination of the endometrium, done based on the suspicion of a second primary cancer due to the tamoxifen therapy, revealed a granulomatous reaction.
  • Liquid and solid mycobacterial cultures of the tissues were performed.
  • The patient was treated with a three-drug antituberculosis regimen for 9 months and recovered fully.
  • Early diagnosis is important and may prevent unnecessary invasive procedures for the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Tuberculosis, Female Genital / drug therapy. Tuberculosis, Female Genital / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16948834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Clin. Microbiol. Antimicrob.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1570363
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6. Mathieu MC, Rouzier R, Llombart-Cussac A, Sideris L, Koscielny S, Travagli JP, Contesso G, Delaloge S, Spielmann M: The poor responsiveness of infiltrating lobular breast carcinomas to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be explained by their biological profile. Eur J Cancer; 2004 Feb;40(3):342-51
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  • [Title] The poor responsiveness of infiltrating lobular breast carcinomas to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be explained by their biological profile.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the chemosensitivity of infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma (ILC) in comparison with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC).
  • Between 1987 and 1995, 457 patients with invasive T2>3 cm-T4 breast carcinomas were treated with primary chemotherapy (CT), surgery, radiation therapy.
  • Clinical response, the possibility of breast preservation, pathological response and survival were evaluated according to the histological type.
  • ILC was an independent predictor of a poor clinical response (P=0.02) and ineligibility for breast-conserving surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.03).
  • Histological and biological factors predicting a poor response to CT (histological grade, ER, Ki67 and p53 status) were more frequent in ILC than in IDC patients.
  • Preoperative CT did not allow a high rate of conservative treatment for ILC and therefore the use of neoadjuvant CT for ILC patients should be questioned.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 14746851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Gupta S, Joshi K, Wig JD, Arora SK: High frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in advanced breast tumors associated with aggressiveness of the tumor. Indian J Cancer; 2009 Oct-Dec;46(4):303-10
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  • [Title] High frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in advanced breast tumors associated with aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: The product of Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1), a nuclear transcription factor, regulates the expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) systems, both of which are implicated in breast tumorigenesis and are known to facilitate angiogenesis.
  • In the present study, WT1 allelic integrity was examined by Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) studies in infiltrating breast carcinoma (n=60), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=10) and benign breast disease (n=5) patients, to determine its possible association with tumor progression.
  • TGF-beta1, IGF-II, IGF-1R and angiogenesis (VEGF and Intratumoral micro-vessel density) in breast carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Six of 22 (27.2%) genetically heterozygous of infiltrating breast carcinoma and 1 of 4 DCIS cases showed loss of one allele at WT1 locus.
  • Histologically, the tumors with LOH at WT1 were Intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and were of grade II and III.
  • There was no correlation in the appearance of LOH at WT1 locus with age, tumor stage, menopausal status, chemotherapy status and lymph node metastasis.
  • The expression of factor IGF-II and its receptor, IGF-1R was significantly higher in carcinoma having LOH at WT1 locus.
  • A positive correlation was observed between the TGF-beta1, VEGF expression and IMD scores in infiltrating carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicates that the high frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in high-graded breast tumors is associated with aggressiveness of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Genes, Wilms Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor II / biosynthesis. Loss of Heterozygosity. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / biosynthesis. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / biosynthesis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19749460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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8. Kaufmann P, Dauphine CE, Vargas MP, Burla ML, Isaac NM, Gonzalez KD, Rosing D, Vargas HI: Success of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in conversion of mastectomy to breast conservation surgery. Am Surg; 2006 Oct;72(10):935-8
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  • [Title] Success of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in conversion of mastectomy to breast conservation surgery.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) in patients with breast cancer results in high response rates and has been used with the purpose of reducing tumor size and achieving breast conservation (BC) in individuals who initially require mastectomy.
  • We conducted a cohort study of women with invasive breast cancer who required mastectomy but desired BC surgery.
  • Tumors were predominantly infiltrating ductal carcinoma (83.3%) and high grade (62.2%).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mastectomy. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Cohort Studies. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17058739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Zunzunegui RG, Chung MA, Oruwari J, Golding D, Marchant DJ, Cady B: Casting-type calcifications with invasion and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ: a more aggressive disease? Arch Surg; 2003 May;138(5):537-40
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  • [Title] Casting-type calcifications with invasion and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ: a more aggressive disease?
  • HYPOTHESIS: Women with breast cancer who have casting-type microcalcifications associated with multifocal invasion and extensive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) form a subset of patients with a poor prognosis.
  • DESIGN: Women with casting-type microcalcifications, multifocal invasion, and extensive DCIS were identified from our tumor board registry.
  • Mammographic features, tumor characteristics, treatment, and survival rates were evaluated.
  • Invasive tumors were limited to 14 mm or smaller.
  • SETTING: University medical teaching hospital and breast cancer specialty clinic.
  • RESULTS: Of the 984 patients with breast cancer treated at our center, 15 patients were identified who had extensive casting-type calcifications and DCIS.
  • Twelve of these patients also had multifocal invasive breast cancer.
  • All had casting-type microcalcifications occupying more than 1 breast quadrant.
  • All but 1 patient had extensive grade 3 DCIS.
  • Invasive tumors were negative for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression in half of the patients, and 60% were positive for the HER-2-neu receptor.
  • Positive axillary lymph nodes were found in 33% of patients, and 75% received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Of the 3 patients who had DCIS without invasion, 1 experienced a recurrence with infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In women with small multifocal breast cancers with extensive casting calcifications and DCIS, the incidence of positive lymph nodes was 33%, with a tendency for poor tumor markers.
  • These women appear to be at substantial risk for systemic disease; lymph node sampling and adjuvant systemic therapy are recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiography. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12742959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Tsai KB, Hou MF, Lin HJ, Chai CY, Liu CS, Huang TJ: Expression of HER-2/NEU oncoprotein in familial and non-familial breast cancer. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2001 Feb;17(2):64-76
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  • [Title] Expression of HER-2/NEU oncoprotein in familial and non-familial breast cancer.
  • The HER-2/neu proto-oncogene amplification or oncoprotein overexpression is an important prognostic factor and a predictive factor for resistance to endocrine therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancers.
  • Moreover, it is an entry criterion in the assessment of patients for whom Herceptin (Trastuzumab) treatment is considered.
  • The overexpression rate of HER-2/neu oncoprotein has been identified in 10% to 40% of human breast cancers.
  • In Taiwan, a higher grade of pathobiologic characteristics of familial breast cancer was also noted than that found in the non-familial group.
  • It is worthwhile to evaluate whether the overexpression is more frequent in familial breast cancers.
  • Fifty-six familial and 111 non-familial breast cancers were studied between 1990 and 1999 to assess both the overexpression of HER-2/neu oncoprotein immunohistochemically and the correlation with the histological type, grade and stage of breast carcinoma.
  • The overexpression rate is higher in the familial breast cancer group (50.0%) when compared with non-familial breast cancer group (36.9%), which did not prove to be statistically significant (P = 0.1068).
  • However, when the infiltrating ductal carcinomas of both groups are compared, it is statistically significant (52.3% vs. 33.7%, P = 0.0429).
  • Overexpression correlated with node status and histological grade of infiltrating ductal carcinomas in non-familial and overall breast cancers.
  • It also correlated with nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts, but not tubule formation or tumor size.
  • All 3 cases of Paget's disease revealed overexpression, whereas all 12 cases of mucinous and one case of metaplastic carcinoma and one case of medullary carcinoma were negative.
  • A case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma combined with intraductal carcinoma revealed heterogeneous staining in the component of ductal carcinoma in situ, while the invasive component did not.
  • This suggests that overexpression decreases within individual tumors as they evolve from in situ to invasive lesioins.
  • The HER-2/neu may imply a different role in intraductal carcinoma, Paget's disease and invasive duct carcinoma.
  • Although the overexpression rate of HER-2/neu oncoprotein of familial breast cancer was not significantly higher than that of the non-familial group, it is appropriate to evaluate the rate of HER-2/neu overexpression according to the histological type of breast cancers from familial breast cancer and non-familial breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / chemistry. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11416960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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11. Hussien M, Lioe TF, Finnegan J, Spence RA: Surgical treatment for invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast. Breast; 2003 Feb;12(1):23-35
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  • [Title] Surgical treatment for invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.
  • The management and outcome of 131 women with infiltrating lobular carcinoma treated in the Belfast City Hospital between October 1987 and February 1999 were reviewed.
  • Two patients had primary hormonal treatment and were excluded from the statistical analysis, and 129 patients were followed up.
  • Fifty-four patients (41%) had initial breast conservation surgery, which was followed by re-excision of margins in eight patients (14.8%) and completion total mastectomy in 26 patients (48.1%).
  • The breast conservation surgery group, 28 patients (21.7%), was compared with the total mastectomy group, 101 patients (78.2%), after a median follow-up period of 90 months (range 24-160 months).
  • Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression which showed that lymph node involvement and tumour grade were the only variables affecting survival (P<0.0001, and 0.01, respectively).
  • The type of surgery performed did not affect survival (P=0.42).
  • The total number of patients who developed local recurrence was 17 patients (13.1%, 12 patients in the breast conservation surgery group and five patients in the total mastectomy group, P<0.0001).
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis of local recurrence showed that the type of surgery (P<0.0001), patient age (P=0.02), tumour grade (P=0.002), adjuvant radiotherapy (P=0.013), chemotherapy (P=0.031) and hormonal treatment (P=0.003) significantly affected local recurrence.
  • Cox regression analysis showed that the only factor significantly affecting local recurrence was the type of surgery performed (P=0.02).
  • Patients who underwent mastectomy had less local recurrence than those who had breast conservation surgery.
  • Local recurrence after breast conservation surgery is high, even with clear surgical margins and post-operative radiotherapy.
  • The authors believe that total mastectomy for infiltrating lobular carcinoma is a safer option to control local disease, especially in younger patients and those with high-grade tumours.
  • Overall survival is not affected by the type of surgical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental / methods. Mastectomy, Simple / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 14659352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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12. Cuan Martínez JR, Mainero Ratchelous FE, Aguilar Gallegos IU, Bernechea Miranda A, Buenrostro Pineda MA, Burgos Portillo I, Cortés Herrera AE, Burguete Vera JJ: [Comparative study of clinical and pathological features of breast cancer in women with 40 years old and younger vs 70 years old and older]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2008 Jun;76(6):299-306
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  • [Title] [Comparative study of clinical and pathological features of breast cancer in women with 40 years old and younger vs 70 years old and older].
  • [Transliterated title] Comparación de las características de pacientes de 40 o menos y 70 años o más de edad con carcinoma mamario.
  • BACKGROUND: Invasive breast cancer is the most common neoplasia in women attended at IMSS health system since 2004.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical and radiological characteristics on initial appraisal, as well as surgical treatment, pathological features and adjuvant treatment in women with primary breast cancer of 40 years old and younger vs 70 years old and older.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Clinical, radiological and pathological data of 150 patients with breast cancer treated at Hospital de ginecoobstetricia Luis Castelazo Ayala, from January 2003 to June 2006 were collected, and after divided in two groups:.
  • Group 1 and group 2 had 22 and 13%, respectively, of family history of breast cancer.
  • Most frequent histological type in both groups was infiltrating ductal carcinoma, followed by infiltrating lobular carcinoma, most common in older women (19 vs 12%), and we found more well differentiated ductal carcinomas in the group of 70 years old and older (12 vs 4%).
  • Seventy-six percent of group 1 and 75% of group 2 were classified as early stage breast cancer (stages I and II).
  • Cytotoxic therapy was offered mostly to group 1, 92 vs 35%.
  • Radiotherapy (80 vs 59%), and hormonal therapy was given only to 56% of group 1 vs 80% of group 2.
  • Well-differentiated carcinomas were higher in patients of group 2, and group 1 had more high-grade carcinomas.
  • There was a trend to perform more conservative surgery at group 1, as well as they underwent more adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Use of hormonal therapy was more common at group 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18800585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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13. Hajduk M: Topoisomerase II alpha--a fundamental prognostic factor in breast carcinoma. Pol J Pathol; 2009;60(2):67-75
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  • [Title] Topoisomerase II alpha--a fundamental prognostic factor in breast carcinoma.
  • The objective of the present investigation was the assessment of topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) expression in patients with infiltrating breast carcinoma, as a prognostic factor in correlation with other recognized prognosticators and patient survival.
  • The study was carried out in 151 patients treated by mastectomy and lymph node excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The material was evaluated histopathologically according to the pTNM system, taking into consideration such parameters as grade of malignancy (G); the ER, PR as well as HER2 and TOP2A receptors status--all of them were assessed immunohistochemically.
  • TOP2A was expressed with varying intensity in the majority of infiltrating ductal carcinomas studied, more frequently in large T3 and T4, grade G2 and G3 tumours, in patients with extensive metastases to regional N2 and N3 lymph nodes, a positive HER2 and negative ER and PR status.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / enzymology. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19886180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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14. Geylan-Su YS, Isgör B, Coban T, Kapucuoglu N, Aydintug S, Iscan M, Iscan M, Güray T: Comparison of NAT1, NAT2 and GSTT2-2 activities in normal and neoplastic human breast tissues. Neoplasma; 2006;53(1):73-8
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  • [Title] Comparison of NAT1, NAT2 and GSTT2-2 activities in normal and neoplastic human breast tissues.
  • In this study, arylamine N-acetyltransferases, NATs (E.C.2.3.1.5) and glutathione-S-transferase-T2-2, GSTT2-2 (E.C.2.5.1.18) enzyme activities in the breast tumor and surrounding tumor-free tissues of 22 female breast cancer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma were measured.
  • The possible impacts of grade of malignancy, chemotherapy treatment, estrogen receptor status and menopausal status on all enzyme activities were evaluated.
  • The results showed that, both NAT2 and GSTT2-2 display significant differences between tumor and tumor-free breast tissues, while no difference was observed in NAT1.
  • Grade of malignancy seems to be positively associated with NAT1 and negatively associated with GSTT2-2.
  • Though, both NAT2 and GSTT2-2 have increased mean tumor activities, the grade of malignancy, chemotherapy status, menopausal status or estrogen receptor status are not correlated statistically.
  • [MeSH-major] Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. Breast / enzymology. Breast Neoplasms / enzymology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / enzymology. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Isoenzymes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16416017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 2.3.1.5 / Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase; EC 2.3.1.5 / N-acetyltransferase 1; EC 2.3.1.5 / NAT2 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.- / GSTT2 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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15. Gil Gil MJ, Barnadas A, Cirera L, Tusquets I, Muñoz M, Arcusa A, Prieto L, Moreno A, Graupera J, Margeli M: Primary hormonal therapy with exemestane in patients with breast tumors &gt;3 cm in diameter: Results of a Spanish multicenter phase II trial. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):603

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  • [Title] Primary hormonal therapy with exemestane in patients with breast tumors >3 cm in diameter: Results of a Spanish multicenter phase II trial.
  • : 603 Background: Primary hormonal therapies have demonstrated great activity in elderly women with locally advanced and hormone-dependent breast tumors.
  • The primary aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of exemestane as a neoadjuvant treatment.
  • Inclusion criteria were histologic diagnosis of infiltrating breast carcinoma, no metastatic disease, tumor >3 cm (T2, T3, T4a-b), >50% ER+, and no previous hormonal treatment/chemotherapy.
  • At baseline, all p were considered noneligible for breast-conserving surgery.
  • TREATMENT: oral exemestane 25 mg/d for 6 months.
  • Response was estimated by mammography and breast ultrasound every 2 months (RECIST criteria).
  • Secondary endpoints were rate of breast-conserving surgery, time to progression, duration of response, and toxicity.
  • To date, 50 p have been evaluated for response and 5 remain under treatment.
  • RESULTS: Patient characteristics: median age 77 (67-88); tumor stage: T2: 25, T3: 7 and T4a-b: 23; nodal status: N0: 30, N1: 20 and N2: 5; tumor grade I: 3, II: 24, III: 6 and unknown: 22.
  • Median time to surgery: 7 months.
  • Surgery type: conservative 21 p, mastectomy 17 p, no operation 12 p (various reasons).
  • Pathologic complete response was observed in the breast and axilla in 3 p; partial pathologic remission was seen in 14 p.
  • Grade I-II toxicity: hot flushes, nausea, dizziness, and pain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Exemestane was found to be a well-tolerated and effective neoadjuvant treatment in elderly patients with a breast cancer tumor >3 cm in diameter.
  • No severe treatment-related adverse events were detected.

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  • (PMID = 28016638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Székely B, Langmár Z, Somlai K, Szentmártoni G, Szalay K, Korompay A, Szász AM, Kulka J, Bánhidy F, Dank M: [Treatment of pregnancy associated breast cancer]. Orv Hetil; 2010 Aug 8;151(32):1299-303
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  • [Title] [Treatment of pregnancy associated breast cancer].
  • Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as cancer of the breast diagnosed during pregnancy and up to 1 year postpartum.
  • Young patients with PABC do not have worse prognosis compared with those with non-PABC; however, pregnancy can contribute to a delay in breast cancer diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment.
  • Primary care physicians and gynecologists should be careful in the thorough workup of breast symptoms in the pregnant population to expedite diagnosis and allow multidisciplinary treatment as early as possible following the established diagnosis.
  • Authors report a case of a 30-year-old pregnant woman, who detected inflammatory signs of her right breast and a palpable axillary mass at the 21st week of gestation.
  • Therefore fine needle aspiration biopsy of the axillary lump was performed, with the result of unequivocal diagnosis of metastatic invasive carcinoma.
  • The patient was referred to the multidisciplinary tumor board of our Department at the 27st week of gestation with the symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer, palpable right axillary and supraclavicular lymph nodes.
  • Core biopsy showed an ER and PR negative, Her-2 positive, grade 3, infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.
  • After multidisciplinary team consultation the patient declined any kind of therapy during her pregnancy.
  • After 6 cycles of chemotherapy (docetaxel-doxorubicin-cycclophosphamid) the patient underwent right mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection.
  • After radiotherapy, trastuzumab medication was initiated.
  • Had the patient accepted chemotherapy, the damage of the newborn baby would have been avoidable.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Choice Behavior. Female. Humans. Inflammation. Interdisciplinary Communication. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Patient Participation. Pregnancy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome


17. López-Bonet E, Alonso-Ruano M, Barraza G, Vazquez-Martin A, Bernadó L, Menendez JA: Solid neuroendocrine breast carcinomas: incidence, clinico-pathological features and immunohistochemical profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Dec;20(6):1369-74
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  • [Title] Solid neuroendocrine breast carcinomas: incidence, clinico-pathological features and immunohistochemical profiling.
  • Primary pure neuroendocrine breast carcinomas (NEBC) have been considered special features within conventional breast carcinomas until recently.
  • In 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of breast tumors definitely established that the immunohistochemical expression of NE markers in more than 50% of the tumor cell population is the unique requisite for NEBC diagnosis.
  • Herein, we sought to determine the incidence, the clinico-pathological features and the immunohistochemical profile of NEBC in a large series of 1368 infiltrating breast tumors collected from 1989 to 2008 in our institution (Dr Josep Trueta University Hospital, Girona, Catalonia).
  • All the NECB were grade 2 ductal carcinoma infiltrating (DCI) with tumor sizes ranging from 7 to 55 mm.
  • All the patients bearing NECB received hormone therapy and 4 of them underwent radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • These findings revealed that: a) Pure solid NEBC do not significantly differ from other breast carcinomas in terms of general clinical features;.
  • Although it remains to be elucidated whether the good prognosis of NEBC relates to the intrinsic nature of the tumor and/or to a high rate of treatment responses, their immunohistochemical profile strongly suggest that NEBC belong to the Luminal A BC subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / immunology. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / epidemiology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm. Cell Differentiation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19020716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
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18. Bollet MA, Sigal-Zafrani B, Mazeau V, Savignoni A, de la Rochefordière A, Vincent-Salomon A, Salmon R, Campana F, Kirova YM, Dendale R, Fourquet A: Age remains the first prognostic factor for loco-regional breast cancer recurrence in young (&lt;40 years) women treated with breast conserving surgery first. Radiother Oncol; 2007 Mar;82(3):272-80
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  • [Title] Age remains the first prognostic factor for loco-regional breast cancer recurrence in young (<40 years) women treated with breast conserving surgery first.
  • PURPOSE: To ascertain the loco-regional recurrence (LRR) rate and its major prognostic factors in patients younger than 40 and to determine the influence of age on the features of breast cancer and its treatment in two age groups: 35 years and [36-39] years.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1985 and 1995, 209 premenopausal women, younger than 40, were treated for early breast cancers with primary breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy+/-chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: LRR rate was 38% at 10 years, contralateral breast cancer rate 12%.
  • The annual risk of local recurrence peaked between 2 and 3 years after the initial diagnosis and returned to the level of contra-lateral breast cancer at 10 years.
  • The younger population had infiltrating carcinomas that were significantly more commonly ductal, less commonly lobular, and of higher grade - they received chemotherapy more often.
  • CONCLUSION: Using conventional methods we could find no explanation as to why age remained the most important prognostic factor for breast cancer LRR.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Segmental. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Radiother Oncol. 2008 Feb;86(2):286-7; author reply 287-8 [17963905.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Radiother Oncol. 2007 May;83(2):215
  • (PMID = 17287037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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19. Perera F, Yu E, Engel J, Holliday R, Scott L, Chisela F, Venkatesan V: Patterns of breast recurrence in a pilot study of brachytherapy confined to the lumpectomy site for early breast cancer with six years' minimum follow-up. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Dec 1;57(5):1239-46
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  • [Title] Patterns of breast recurrence in a pilot study of brachytherapy confined to the lumpectomy site for early breast cancer with six years' minimum follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: In this pilot study of high-dose-rate brachytherapy to the lumpectomy site as the sole radiation, ipsilateral and contralateral breast recurrences are documented with specific attention to the location of recurrence relative to the lumpectomy site.
  • METHODS: Between March 1992 and January 1996, 39 patients with T1 (32 patients) and T2 breast cancers received 37.2 Gy in 10 fractions (b.i.d.) over 1 week prescribed to a volume encompassing the surgical clips.
  • Thirteen received adjuvant tamoxifen, and 4 received chemotherapy.
  • Follow-up included annual bilateral mammograms and clinical breast examination every 3 to 6 months.
  • The latter group and 7 of the former group had surgical clips marking the lumpectomy site, which allowed estimates of the distance of any ipsilateral breast recurrence from the lumpectomy site, using the mediolateral and cranio-caudad mammographic views.
  • The 5-year actuarial rate of ipsilateral breast recurrence was 16.2%.
  • One of the 2 patients had a 1-mm microscopic margin at initial diagnosis; the recurrence was a 3.5-mm microscopic focus of duct carcinoma in situ.
  • The other patient had a 1.5-cm, high-grade infiltrating mammary carcinoma with no residual at wider resection at first diagnosis; the 5-mm invasive recurrence was also of high grade.
  • Four women developed invasive recurrences at least 1.6 cm or more from the lumpectomy site (out-of-field recurrences).
  • All ipsilateral breast recurrences were salvaged by mastectomy (4 patients) or by repeat lumpectomy (2 patients) and whole-breast radiation.
  • There were two contralateral breast recurrences at intervals of 34 and 36 months; 1 of these patients also had a multifocal, ipsilateral recurrence at 58 months, as previously described.
  • Among patients with any breast recurrence, 1 patient had a family history of prostate cancer; there was no family history of breast or ovarian cancer.
  • Of 17 patients who received adjuvant systemic therapy, only 1 had a breast recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, breast recurrences outside of the lumpectomy site were the predominant pattern of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / radiotherapy. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose Fractionation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pilot Projects. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Failure

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Dec 1;57(5):1214-6 [14630253.001]
  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2003 Dec 1;57(5):1210-3 [14630252.001]
  • (PMID = 14630257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Cowen D, Houvenaeghel G, Bardou V, Jacquemier J, Bautrant E, Conte M, Viens P, Largillier R, Puig B, Resbeut M, Maraninchi D: Local and distant failures after limited surgery with positive margins and radiotherapy for node-negative breast cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 May 1;47(2):305-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Local and distant failures after limited surgery with positive margins and radiotherapy for node-negative breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the outcome of patients with positive margins after lumpectomy for breast cancer and to address the issue of the relationship between local recurrences and distant metastasis in the absence of chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Among 3697 patients with primary breast cancer, we retrospectively analyzed 152 patients who had undergone conservative surgery with axillary dissection, had infiltrating carcinomas with positive margins, were node-negative, and received radiotherapy without chemotherapy.
  • One-third received hormonal therapy.
  • Infiltrating carcinoma on the margins was associated with early local relapse as opposed to intraductal carcinoma.
  • Hazard of relapsing from metastasis was 2.5 times higher after a local recurrence.
  • In the multivariate analysis, negative estrogen receptors (ER-)(p = 0.0012), histologic multifocality (p = 0.0028), and no hormonal therapy (p = 0.017) predicted local relapses, while ER- (p = 0.004) and pathologic grade (p = 0.009) predicted metastasis.
  • Hormonal therapy did not prevent early local recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Lobular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analysis of Variance. Axilla. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes. Neoplasm, Residual

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  • (PMID = 10802353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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21. Borg M, Wilkinson D, Humeniuk V, Norman J: Successful treatment of radiation induced breast ulcer with hyperbaric oxygen. Breast; 2001 Aug;10(4):336-41

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of radiation induced breast ulcer with hyperbaric oxygen.
  • The purpose of this report was to investigate the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in the management of a persisting radiation induced ulcer following standard breast irradiation.
  • A 57-year-old Caucasian patient was referred following partial mastectomy and axillary node clearance for a T2N0 grade 3 infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the left breast.
  • She received 45 Gy in 25 fractions at 1.8 Gy per fraction to the isocentre to the whole breast using tangential fields and 4 MV photons, in conjunction with intravenous chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5 fluorouracil).
  • Treatment was interrupted for 3.5 weeks because of a grade 4 skin and subcutaneous reaction.
  • Treatment resumed to the tumour bed alone.
  • Chemotherapy was abandoned.
  • The tumour bed received 14 Gy in 7 fractions at 2 Gy per fraction prescribed to the 100% using 10 MeV electrons and a direct field, completing treatment on 7 July 1998.
  • The radiation induced a painful 8x4 cm ulcer which persisted in spite of rigorous treatment including Gentian Violet, Silvazine Cream, Duoderm and antibiotics.
  • The patient received 30 hyperbaric treatments, six times a week, completing treatment on 15 December 1998.
  • The breast ulcer showed a response to treatment with early healing after 7-8 days and clinical evidence of re-epithelization.
  • At completion of 30 treatments the patient was left with a small shallow faintly discharging multilocular 3-4 cm ulcer.
  • The patient has been symptom free since completion of treatment.
  • This report highlights the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the management of persisting radiation-induced ulcers.

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  • (PMID = 14965605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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22. Paciucci PA, Raptis G, Bleiweiss I, Weltz C, Lehrer D, Gurry R: Neo-adjuvant therapy with dose-dense docetaxel plus short-term filgrastim rescue for locally advanced breast cancer. Anticancer Drugs; 2002 Sep;13(8):791-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neo-adjuvant therapy with dose-dense docetaxel plus short-term filgrastim rescue for locally advanced breast cancer.
  • Neo-adjuvant, dose-dense docetaxel, 100 mg/m(2) every 2 weeks x 4 cycles, was administered to 12 patients with locally advance breast cancer (LABC) (10 stage IIIa and three stage IIIb).
  • Filgrastim [granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)] was started 1 day after chemotherapy and was given for 6 days.
  • The median age was 45 (range 34-73) and pre-treatment pathology revealed poorly differentiated infiltrating duct carcinoma in 11 and infiltrating lobular cancer in one, with positive ER/PR status in five.
  • Three patients (of whom two with stage IIIb) had progressive disease and went on to receive neo-adjuvant therapy with AC.
  • There was one instance of grade 3 hematologic toxicity (neutropenic fever in one G-CSF non-compliant patient).
  • There were two instances of grade 3 extra-hematologic toxicity: one patient had severe pain and one had treatment-related fatigue.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Filgrastim. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 12394262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Taxoids; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; PVI5M0M1GW / Filgrastim
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23. Pezzi CM, Patel-Parekh L, Cole K, Franko J, Klimberg VS, Bland K: Characteristics and treatment of metaplastic breast cancer: analysis of 892 cases from the National Cancer Data Base. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Jan;14(1):166-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characteristics and treatment of metaplastic breast cancer: analysis of 892 cases from the National Cancer Data Base.
  • BACKGROUND: Metaplastic breast cancer (MBC) is characterized by various combinations of adenocarcinoma, mesenchymal, and other epithelial components.
  • With few published reports, we hypothesized that MBC may have markedly different characteristics at presentation than typical infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) and may be managed differently.
  • METHODS: Data from patients with MBC and IDC reported to the National Cancer Database from January 2001 through December 2003 were reviewed for year of diagnosis, patient age, race/ethnicity, tumor size, nodal status, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, and initial treatment, and were analyzed statistically by the Pearson chi(2) test.
  • Patients with MBC were treated with breast-conserving surgery less frequently than patients with IDC (38.5% vs. 55.8%, OR, 2.0, P = .001) because of the larger tumor size.
  • Chemotherapy was used more often for patients with MBC (53.4% vs. 42.1%, OR, 1.6, P = .001) because of more advanced AJCC stage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MBC is a rare tumor with different characteristics than IDC: it presents with larger tumor size, less nodal involvement, higher tumor grade, and hormone receptor negativity.
  • Patients with MBC are treated more aggressively than IDC (more often with mastectomy and chemotherapy) because of a higher stage at presentation, but are being treated by the same principles as IDC.
  • Follow-up will determine the long-term results of the current treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17066230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Wolf I, Ben-Baruch N, Shapira-Frommer R, Rizel S, Goldberg H, Yaal-Hahoshen N, Klein B, Geffen DB, Kaufman B: Association between standard clinical and pathologic characteristics and the 21-gene recurrence score in breast cancer patients: a population-based study. Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;112(4):731-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association between standard clinical and pathologic characteristics and the 21-gene recurrence score in breast cancer patients: a population-based study.
  • BACKGROUND: The 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay has been reported to accurately predict the risk of disease recurrence and chemotherapy benefit in women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, lymph node (LN)-negative breast cancer who are treated with tamoxifen.
  • METHODS: The authors analyzed the correlation between clinicopathologic breast cancer characteristics and RS among 300 consecutive Israeli patients who were referred to undergo the test between October 2004 and October 2006.
  • RESULTS: Low, intermediate, and high RS were noted in 109 patients (36%), 134 patients (45%), and 57 patients (19%), respectively.
  • High tumor grade, low progesterone receptor expression, infiltrating ductal histology, and high HER-2 expression were found to be associated with a high RS, whereas patient age, tumor size, ER expression, and lymph node micrometastasis were found to correlate poorly with the RS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that neither standard clinicopathologic features nor commonly used assessment tools can reliably predict the RS among referred breast cancer patients compared with a clinical trial population.
  • These data also may indicate the need for additional studies regarding the role of the RS among certain subsets of breast cancer patients, including those with noninfiltrating ductal carcinoma histology and the presence of lymph node micrometastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Cancer 2008. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 18076012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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25. Agrawal R: Synchronous dual malignancy: successfully treated cases. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Jul-Sep;3(3):153-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Case report 1-A 70 year old female presented to us with lump in right breast for two years and bleeding per vaginum for two years.
  • Histopathology of cervix showed squamous cell carcinoma (large cell non keratinizing) and clinical stage was IIIB.
  • HPE mastectomy specimen showed infiltrating duct carcinoma and stage II.
  • Patient was treated with external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix and breast simultaneously and chemotherapy as required.
  • HPE brain tissue showed astrocytoma grade II and HPE parotid tumour showed low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma.
  • Thus it was concluded that patients responded well to treatment.
  • Treatment strategies in case of synchronous double malignancy depend on treating the malignancy that is more advanced first or sometimes both could be treated simultaneously.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome






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