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1. Han SJ, Yang I, Ahn BJ, Otero JJ, Tihan T, McDermott MW, Berger MS, Prados MD, Parsa AT: Clinical characteristics and outcomes for a modern series of primary gliosarcoma patients. Cancer; 2010 Mar 1;116(5):1358-66
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  • [Title] Clinical characteristics and outcomes for a modern series of primary gliosarcoma patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary gliosarcoma (PGS) is a rare central nervous system tumor with limited experience reported in the literature.
  • RESULTS: All but 1 patient had undergone a preoperative MRI, with 1 patient receiving a computed tomography scan due to a cardiac pacemaker.
  • A total of 10 patients received radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy, and 8 patients received radiotherapy alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • In 2 patients, the history of adjuvant treatment could not be confirmed.
  • Patients with gliosarcomas resembling meningioma were found to have a significantly prolonged median survival compared with patients harboring gliosarcoma resembling glioblastoma multiforme (16 months vs 9.6 months; P = .011).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study support previous hypotheses that there are 2 distinct types of PGS.
  • The type mimicking the appearance of a meningioma appears to carry a significantly more favorable prognosis, most likely due to an increased chance at achieving macroscopic total resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Gliosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20052717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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2. Prados MD, Chang SM, Butowski N, DeBoer R, Parvataneni R, Carliner H, Kabuubi P, Ayers-Ringler J, Rabbitt J, Page M, Fedoroff A, Sneed PK, Berger MS, McDermott MW, Parsa AT, Vandenberg S, James CD, Lamborn KR, Stokoe D, Haas-Kogan DA: Phase II study of erlotinib plus temozolomide during and after radiation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme or gliosarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb 1;27(4):579-84
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  • [Title] Phase II study of erlotinib plus temozolomide during and after radiation therapy in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme or gliosarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: This open-label, prospective, single-arm, phase II study combined erlotinib with radiation therapy (XRT) and temozolomide to treat glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and gliosarcoma.
  • The objectives were to determine efficacy of this treatment as measured by survival and to explore the relationship between molecular markers and treatment response.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-five eligible adults with newly diagnosed GBM or gliosarcoma were enrolled.
  • We intended to treat patients not currently treated with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) with 100 mg/d of erlotinib during XRT and 150 mg/d after XRT.
  • After XRT, the erlotinib dose was escalated until patients developed tolerable grade 2 rash or until the maximum allowed dose was reached.
  • Molecular markers of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFRvIII, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and methylation status of the promotor region of the MGMT gene were analyzed from tumor tissue.
  • Treatment was well tolerated.

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  • (PMID = 19075262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 P50 CA097257
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2645859
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3. Oshiro S, Tsugu H, Komatsu F, Ohmura T, Ohta M, Sakamoto S, Fukushima T, Inoue T: Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Mar;29(3):911-7
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  • [Title] Efficacy of temozolomide treatment in patients with high-grade glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported the clinical efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ) treatment for high-grade glioma, but information on Japanese populations has been limited.
  • This study assessed the safety and early outcomes of TMZ treatment, with or without combination therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The subjects comprised ten patients with high-grade glioma [glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), n=3, gliosarcoma (GS), n=1, anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO), n=3, anaplastic mixed oligoastrocytoma (AOA), n=1, and anaplastic ependymoma (AE), n=2].
  • All the patients were initially treated with conventional radiotherapy following surgical resection with or without adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • As second- or third-line chemotherapy, patients received TMZ for recurrence or tumor progression.
  • As combination therapy, the local administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and the addition of carboplatin and etoposide were included for three patients during the course of oral TMZ treatment.
  • RESULTS: Partial response (PR) to TMZ therapy was achieved by four out of the ten patients (objective response rate, 40%), while three patients displayed stable disease (SD) and three showed disease progression (PD).
  • One of the patients receiving combination therapy has continued to show shrinkage of the relapsed tumor.
  • Despite prior radio- and chemotherapy, most patients experienced only grade 1-2 hematotoxicity that was well-controlled by conservative therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: TMZ chemotherapy is effective for the treatment of high-grade glioma in some patients without serious toxicity.
  • Assessing the true efficacy of TMZ will require a larger study with comparison of long-term outcomes between other agents or combined therapeutic modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19414327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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4. Trask TW, Trask RP, Aguilar-Cordova E, Shine HD, Wyde PR, Goodman JC, Hamilton WJ, Rojas-Martinez A, Chen SH, Woo SL, Grossman RG: Phase I study of adenoviral delivery of the HSV-tk gene and ganciclovir administration in patients with current malignant brain tumors. Mol Ther; 2000 Feb;1(2):195-203
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  • Between December 1996 and September 1998, 13 patients with advanced recurrent malignant brain tumors (9 with glioblastoma multiforme, 1 with gliosarcoma, and 3 with anaplastic astrocytoma) were treated with a single intratumoral injection of 2 x 10(9), 2 x 10(10), 2 x 10(11), or 2 x 10(12) vector particles (VP) of a replication-defective adenoviral vector bearing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene driven by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter (Adv.RSVtk), followed by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment.
  • Our primary objective was to determine the safety of this treatment.
  • One patient is living and stable 29.2 months after treatment.
  • Ten patients died within 10 months of treatment, 9 from tumor progression and 1 with sepsis and endocarditis.
  • Neuropathologic examination of postmortem tissue demonstrated cavitation at the injection site, intratumoral foci of coagulative necrosis, and variable infiltration of the residual tumor with macrophages and lymphocytes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoviridae / genetics. Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ganciclovir / pharmacology. Genetic Therapy. Simplexvirus / enzymology. Thymidine Kinase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / genetics. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / therapy. Avian Sarcoma Viruses / genetics. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Genetic Vectors / administration & dosage. Glioblastoma / diagnostic imaging. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / mortality. Glioblastoma / therapy. Gliosarcoma / genetics. Gliosarcoma / mortality. Gliosarcoma / therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Radiography. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10933931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-0016
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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5. Cheong JH, Kim CH, Kim JM, Oh YH: Transformation of intracranial anaplastic astrocytoma associated with neurofibromatosis type I into gliosarcoma: case report. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2010 Oct;112(8):701-6
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  • [Title] Transformation of intracranial anaplastic astrocytoma associated with neurofibromatosis type I into gliosarcoma: case report.
  • Gliosarcoma is an uncommon malignant brain tumor composed of distinct sarcomatous and malignant glial cell elements.
  • These tumors are defined as a variant of glioblastoma, and it can be developed by progression of the malignant glial cell tumors or primary tumors.
  • We report a rare case with gliosarcomatous recurrence of anaplastic astrocytoma with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) followed by chemoradiation therapy.
  • He was followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy postoperatively.
  • The subsequent follow-up period of 27 months was uneventful until he developed a generalized tonic-clonic seizure.
  • Pathological examination displayed a biphasic pattern of the glial and sarcomatous components suggesting gliosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20466481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6968
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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6. Higashino T, Inamura T, Kawashima M, Ikezaki K, Miyazono M, Yoshiura T, Iwaki T, Fukui M: A lateral ventricular gliosarcoma arising in an ependymoma. Clin Neuropathol; 2001 Sep-Oct;20(5):219-23
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  • [Title] A lateral ventricular gliosarcoma arising in an ependymoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We describe a 29-year-old man with gliosarcoma in the lateral ventricle.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging localized the tumor to the right lateral ventricle and showed heterogeneous enhancement with administration of contrast agents.
  • Histologic examination disclosed gliosarcoma arising by malignant transformation of an ependymoma.
  • POST-OPERATIVE COURSE: The patient died of tumor progression 78 days after admission, despite intensive radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Ependyma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology. Lateral Ventricles / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11594507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Han SJ, Yang I, Otero JJ, Ahn BJ, Tihan T, McDermott MW, Berger MS, Chang SM, Parsa AT: Secondary gliosarcoma after diagnosis of glioblastoma: clinical experience with 30 consecutive patients. J Neurosurg; 2010 May;112(5):990-6
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  • [Title] Secondary gliosarcoma after diagnosis of glioblastoma: clinical experience with 30 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECT: Gliosarcoma can arise secondarily, after conventional adjuvant treatment of high-grade glioma.
  • The current literature on the occurrence of secondary gliosarcoma (SGS) after glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is limited, with only 12 reported cases.
  • The authors present a large series of histologically confirmed SGSs, with follow-up to describe the clinical and radiological presentation, pathological diagnosis, and treatment outcomes.
  • METHODS: Gliosarcoma cases were identified using the University of California, San Francisco's Departments of Neurological Surgery and Neuropathology databases.
  • Through a retrospective chart review, cases of gliosarcoma were considered SGS if the following inclusion criteria were met:.
  • 1) the patient had a previously diagnosed intracranial malignant glioma that did not have gliosarcoma components; and 2) the histopathological tissue diagnosis of the recurrence confirmed gliosarcoma according to the most current WHO criteria.
  • For the initial malignant glioma, all patients underwent resection, and 25 patients received both external-beam radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Three patients received radiotherapy alone, 1 patient was treated with chemotherapy alone, and 1 patient's tumor rapidly recurred as gliosarcoma, requiring surgical intervention prior to initiation of adjuvant therapy.
  • The median time from diagnosis of the initial tumor to diagnosis of gliosarcoma was 8.5 months (range 0.5-25 months).
  • All but 1 patient (who only had a biopsy) underwent a second operation for gliosarcoma; 8 patients went on to receive radiotherapy (4 had brachytherapy, 3 had external-beam radiation, and 1 had Gamma Knife surgery); and 14 patients received additional chemotherapy.
  • The median length of survival from the time of gliosarcoma diagnosis was 4.4 months (range 0.7-46 months).
  • The median survival from the time of the original GBM diagnosis was 12.6 months (range 5.7-47.4 months).
  • There was no difference in time to diagnosis of gliosarcoma in these 2 groups (8 and 8.5 months; p = 0.387).
  • Two patients who had not received radiation therapy for GBM had an anecdotally very prolonged survival (20.9 and 46.4 months).
  • The strikingly poor survival of patients with SGS who had previously received combined radiation and temozolomide chemotherapy for GBM may reflect a unique molecular profile of GBM that eventually recurs as SGS.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Glioblastoma / complications. Gliosarcoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies


8. Yung WK, Albright RE, Olson J, Fredericks R, Fink K, Prados MD, Brada M, Spence A, Hohl RJ, Shapiro W, Glantz M, Greenberg H, Selker RG, Vick NA, Rampling R, Friedman H, Phillips P, Bruner J, Yue N, Osoba D, Zaknoen S, Levin VA: A phase II study of temozolomide vs. procarbazine in patients with glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse. Br J Cancer; 2000 Sep;83(5):588-93
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  • Primary objectives were to determine progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months and safety for TMZ and PCB in adult patients who failed conventional treatment.
  • TMZ was given orally at 200 mg/m(2)/day or 150 mg/m(2)/day (prior chemotherapy) for 5 days, repeated every 28 days.
  • PCB was given orally at 150 mg/m(2)/day or 125 mg/m(2)/day (prior chemotherapy) for 28 days, repeated every 56 days.
  • HRQL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 [+3]) and the Brain Cancer Module 20 (BCM20).
  • Freedom from disease progression was associated with maintenance of HRQL, regardless of treatment received.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Procarbazine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Recurrence. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Cancer Research Campaign.
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  • (PMID = 10944597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] SCOTLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363506
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9. Salvati M, Caroli E, Raco A, Giangaspero F, Delfini R, Ferrante L: Gliosarcomas: analysis of 11 cases do two subtypes exist? J Neurooncol; 2005 Aug;74(1):59-63
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  • The goal of this study is to examine clinical, radiological, surgical and therapeutic aspects of 11 patients with gliosarcoma.
  • Between 1993 and 2001, 11 patients with cerebral gliosarcoma were treated at our Institute.
  • One patient refused any additional treatment after surgery and one patient was not treated postoperatively for poor clinical conditions (KPS 40).
  • Chemotherapy (temozolomide) was administered to four patients.
  • Patients with prevalent sarcomatous component showed median survival time more prolonged than patients with prevalent gliomatous component (71 +/- 6 weeks vs. 63 +/- 6; P=0.0417).
  • Moreover, the survival rate differed in relation to the therapy: patients treated with multimodality therapy (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy) had a longer survival time than patients treated in single or bimodality.
  • Despite prognosis of gliosarcomas remains poor, a multidisciplinary approach (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy) seems to be associated with slight more prolonged survival times.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16078109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Levin VA, Phuphanich S, Yung WK, Forsyth PA, Maestro RD, Perry JR, Fuller GN, Baillet M: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of marimastat in glioblastoma multiforme patients following surgery and irradiation. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jul;78(3):295-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Because raised matrix metalloprotease (MMP) levels are associated with glioma invasion and angiogenesis, we tested the efficacy of marimastat (MT) an orally active drug that can reduce MMP levels, in patients with gliomas.
  • The median survival time from protocol initiation was 37.9 weeks for the PB group and 42.9 weeks for the MT group, with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.60).
  • CONCLUSION: MT does not improve survival in patients with glioblastoma or gliosarcoma following surgery and radiotherapy.
  • Therefore, single-agent MT appears unwarranted; however, MT in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy may be warranted, as suggested by observations in our study and other studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Hydroxamic Acids / therapeutic use. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Double-Blind Method. Female. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Middle Aged. Musculoskeletal Diseases / chemically induced. Quality of Life. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16636750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; D5EQV23TDS / marimastat; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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11. Kano T, Ikota H, Wada H, Iwasa S, Kurosaki S: A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):11-7
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  • Computed tomography revealed a large cystic lesion with a mural nodule-like mass homogeneously enhanced with contrast medium in the right cerebellum.
  • Chemotherapy (Paraplatin and VePeside-S) and focal radiation therapy at 60 Gy were administered following surgery.
  • Thereafter, at 39 years of age, or 4 years after radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging again revealed a recurrence of the tumor, which was heterogeneously enhanced with gadoliniumdiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid in the right cerebellum.
  • Immunohistochemical findings showed some parts of the sarcomatous components to stain positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein and, as a result, these sarcomatous components were diagnosed to be gliosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebellar Neoplasms / pathology. Ependymoma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paraffin Embedding. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19408092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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12. Kondo A, Goldman S, Lulla RR, Mania-Farnell B, Vanin EF, Sredni ST, Rajaram V, Soares MB, Tomita T: Longitudinal assessment of regional directed delivery in a rodent malignant glioma model. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Dec;4(6):592-8
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  • OBJECT: Direct delivery of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of brain tumors is an area of focus in the development of therapeutic paradigms because this method of delivery circumvents the blood-brain barrier without causing adverse systemic side effects.
  • Few studies have investigated longitudinal tumor response to this type of therapy.
  • In this study, the authors examined the time course of tumor response to direct delivery of a chemotherapeutic agent in a rodent malignant glioma model.
  • METHODS: To visualize tumor response to chemotherapy, the authors used bioluminescence imaging in a rodent model.
  • Rat 9L gliosarcoma cells expressing a luciferase gene were inoculated into adult male rat striata.
  • Groups 1 and 2 received 20 and 40 microl carboplatin (1 mg/ml), respectively, via convection-enhanced delivery (CED); Group 3 received 60 mg/kg carboplatin intraperitoneally; and Group 4 received no treatment.
  • Systemically treated rats showed decreasing photon flux emission at 15.0 + or - 4.7 days; rats treated with 20- or 40-microl CED showed decreased emissions at 4.0 + or - 2.0 and 3.2 + or - 1.3 days after treatment, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Direct and systemic delivery of carboplatin was examined to determine how the method of drug delivery affects tumor growth.
  • The present report is one of the first in vivo studies to examine the time course of tumor response to direct drug delivery.
  • The results indicate that direct drug delivery may be a promising option for treating gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Luciferases. Luminescent Agents. Male. Rats. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19951051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Luminescent Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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13. Grosu AL, Weber WA, Franz M, Stärk S, Piert M, Thamm R, Gumprecht H, Schwaiger M, Molls M, Nieder C: Reirradiation of recurrent high-grade gliomas using amino acid PET (SPECT)/CT/MRI image fusion to determine gross tumor volume for stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):511-9
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  • PURPOSE: To develop a valid treatment strategy for recurrent high-grade gliomas using stereotactic hypofractionated reirradiation based on biologic imaging and temozolomide.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The trial included a total of 44 patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas (1 patient with anaplastic oligodendroglioma, 8 with anaplastic astrocytoma, 33 with glioblastoma multiforme, and 2 with gliosarcoma) after previous surgery and postoperative conventional radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy.
  • For fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SFRT) treatment planning, the gross tumor volume was defined by (11)C-methionine positron emission tomography (MET-PET) or (123)I-alpha-methyl-tyrosine (IMT) single-photon computed emission tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fusion in 82% of the patients and by CT/T1+gadolinium-MRI image fusion in 18% of the patients.
  • Six fractions of 5 Gy were administered in 6 days.
  • In 29 of 44 patients (66%), chemotherapy with temozolomide (200 mg/m(2) body surface/day) was given in one to two cycles before and four to five cycles after SFRT.
  • RESULTS: The median survival time in the whole group was 8 months.
  • Treatment planning based on PET(SPECT)/CT/MRI imaging was associated with improved survival in comparison to treatment planning using CT/MRI alone: median survival time 9 months vs. 5 months (p = 0.03, log-rank).
  • Median survival time were 11 months for patients who received SFRT based on biologic imaging plus temozolomide and significantly lower, 6 months for patients treated with SFRT without biologic imaging, without temozolomide or without both (p = 0.008, log rank).
  • In the multivariate model, time interval to retreatment (p = 0.006) and temozolomide (p = 0.04) remained statistically significant.
  • The most striking result of the trial is the statistically significant longer survival time in the univariate analysis for patients reirradiated using MET-PET or IMT-SPECT/CT/MRI image fusion in the treatment planning, in comparison to patients treated based on MRI/CT alone.
  • Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant survival benefit from multimodal treatment (i.e., addition of temozolomide), despite the limited number of patients.
  • Whether treatment planning with SPECT/PET independently influences survival has to be studied in a larger series of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Dose Fractionation. Female. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radionuclide imaging. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Gliosarcoma / radionuclide imaging. Gliosarcoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Methionine. Middle Aged. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / radionuclide imaging. Oligodendroglioma / radiotherapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Prospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Stereotaxic Techniques. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. alpha-Methyltyrosine

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  • (PMID = 16168843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 658-48-0 / alpha-Methyltyrosine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; AE28F7PNPL / Methionine
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14. Prabhu SS, Aldape KD, Gagel RF, Benjamin RS, Trent JC, McCutcheon IE: Sarcomatous change after sellar irradiation in a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. Can J Neurol Sci; 2003 Nov;30(4):378-83
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  • RESULTS: The patient underwent transsphenoidal resection of the recurrent tumor, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • This led to significant relief in the patient's symptoms including radiological evidence of tumor shrinkage, but the tumor regrew when, owing to dose-limiting toxicity, chemotherapy was stopped.
  • They should be suspected in patients following sellar irradiation who show abrupt onset of new symptoms and appropriate radiological findings, and such tumors may respond to cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology. Growth Hormone / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Sella Turcica / pathology. Sella Turcica / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 14672272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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15. Brown PD, Jensen AW, Felten SJ, Ballman KV, Schaefer PL, Jaeckle KA, Cerhan JH, Buckner JC: Detrimental effects of tumor progression on cognitive function of patients with high-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec 1;24(34):5427-33
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  • PURPOSE: There is growing recognition that the primary cause of cognitive deficits in adult patients with primary brain tumors is the tumor itself and more significantly, tumor progression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 1,244 high-grade brain tumor patients entered onto eight consecutive North Central Cancer Treatment Group treatment trials that used radiation and nitrosourea-based chemotherapy.
  • Imaging studies and Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores recorded at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were analyzed to assess tumor status and cognitive function over time.
  • In patients without radiographic evidence of progression, clinically significant deterioration in MMSE scores was a strong predictor of a more rapid time to tumor progression and death.
  • CONCLUSION: The proportion of high-grade glioma patients with cognitive deterioration over time is stable, most consistent with the constant pressure of tumor progression over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cognition Disorders / etiology. Glioma / complications. Gliosarcoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17135644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35415; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37404
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Portnow J, Suleman S, Grossman SA, Eller S, Carson K: A cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor compared with dexamethasone in a survival study of rats with intracerebral 9L gliosarcomas. Neuro Oncol; 2002 01;4(1):22-5
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  • Twenty-nine adult male Fischer 344 rats were implanted with intracerebral 9L gliosarcomas and divided into 3 treatment groups.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis on pairwise group comparisons showed improved survival that was statistically significant for each treatment group compared with the control group (log-rank test P = 0.009 for dexamethasone to control and P = 0.005 for COX-2 to control), and no significant difference in survival for the COX-2 compared with dexamethasone (log-rank test P = 0.2).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Isoenzymes / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrazoles / therapeutic use. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11772429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-(5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Sulfonamides; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920630
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17. Rao RD, Thomé SD, O'Fallon J, Earle JD, Dinapoli RP, Buckner JC: Safety of thrice-daily hyperfractionated radiation and BCNU for high-grade gliomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Jun 1;53(2):376-84
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  • The median time to progression was 37.8 weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Carmustine / adverse effects. Dose Fractionation. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Brain Diseases / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Gliosarcoma / drug therapy. Gliosarcoma / mortality. Gliosarcoma / pathology. Gliosarcoma / radiotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12023142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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18. Reardon DA, Akabani G, Coleman RE, Friedman AH, Friedman HS, Herndon JE 2nd, McLendon RE, Pegram CN, Provenzale JM, Quinn JA, Rich JN, Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Gururangan S, Badruddoja M, Dowell JM, Wong TZ, Zhao XG, Zalutsky MR, Bigner DD: Salvage radioimmunotherapy with murine iodine-131-labeled antitenascin monoclonal antibody 81C6 for patients with recurrent primary and metastatic malignant brain tumors: phase II study results. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 1;24(1):115-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase II trial, 100 mCi of 131I-m81C6 was injected directly into the surgically created resection cavity (SCRC) of 43 patients with recurrent malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM], n = 33; anaplastic astrocytoma [AA], n = 6; anaplastic oligodendroglioma [AO], n = 2; gliosarcoma [GS], n = 1; and metastatic adenocarcinoma, n = 1) followed by chemotherapy.
  • Ten patients (23%) developed acute hematologic toxicity.
  • Five patients (12%) developed acute reversible neurotoxicity.
  • One patient (2%) developed irreversible neurotoxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: In this single-institution phase II study, administration of 100 mCi of 131I-m81C6 to recurrent malignant glioma patients followed by chemotherapy is associated with a median survival that is greater than that of historical controls treated with surgery plus iodine-125 brachytherapy.
  • We are now conducting a phase II trial, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, using patient-specific 131I-m81C6 dosing, to deliver 44 Gy to the SCRC followed by standardized chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy. Tenascin / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Salvage Therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Mar 20;24(9):1484. Guruangan, Sri [corrected to Gururangan, Sridharan]
  • (PMID = 16382120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1-P50-CA108786-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11898; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / MO1 RR 30; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS20023
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Tenascin
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19. Korones DN, Benita-Weiss M, Coyle TE, Mechtler L, Bushunow P, Evans B, Reardon DA, Quinn JA, Friedman H: Phase I study of temozolomide and escalating doses of oral etoposide for adults with recurrent malignant glioma. Cancer; 2003 Apr 15;97(8):1963-8
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  • Therefore, combination oral chemotherapy for these patients is a particularly attractive approach.
  • Therapy was given in 28-day cycles.
  • Diagnoses included glioblastoma (n = 19), gliosarcoma (n = 3), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 5), and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (n = 2).
  • The median time from diagnosis to disease recurrence was 8 months (3-188 months).
  • All patients had received previous radiation, and 25 of 29 had been treated with chemotherapy previously.
  • Of the 6 patients at dose level 2, 1 patient had DLT: Grade 3 thrombocytopenia resulting in a > 2-week delay in starting the next cycle of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12673724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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20. Murphy S, Boyle FM, Davey RA, Gu XQ, Mather LE: Enantioselectivity of thalidomide serum and tissue concentrations in a rat glioma model and effects of combination treatment with cisplatin and BCNU. J Pharm Pharmacol; 2007 Jan;59(1):105-14
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  • [Title] Enantioselectivity of thalidomide serum and tissue concentrations in a rat glioma model and effects of combination treatment with cisplatin and BCNU.
  • Thalidomide is currently under evaluation as an anti-angiogenic agent in cancer treatment, alone and in combination with cytotoxic agents.
  • Thalidomide is a racemate with known pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic enantioselectivity.
  • In a previous study with thalidomide combination chemotherapy, we found evidence of anti-tumour synergy.
  • Adult female F344 rats were implanted with 9L gliosarcoma tumours intracranially, subcutaneously (flank), or both.
  • Effectiveness of oral thalidomide alone, and with intraperitoneal BCNU or cisplatin combination chemotherapy, was assessed after several weeks treatment.
  • Presumed pseudo steady-state serum, tumour and other tissues, collected after treatment, were assayed for R- and S-thalidomide by chiral HPLC.
  • Both serum and tissue concentrations of R-thalidomide were 40-50% greater than those of S-thalidomide.
  • Poor correlation of concentration with subcutaneous anti-tumour effect was found for individual treatments, and with all treatments for intracranial tumours.
  • The consistency of the enantiomer concentration ratios across treatments strongly suggests that the favourable antitumour outcomes from interactions between thalidomide and the cytotoxic agents BCNU and cisplatin did not have altered enantioselectivity of thalidomide pharmacokinetics as their basis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Disease Models, Animal. Female. Neoplasm Transplantation. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Stereoisomerism. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 17227627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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21. Brada M, Hoang-Xuan K, Rampling R, Dietrich PY, Dirix LY, Macdonald D, Heimans JJ, Zonnenberg BA, Bravo-Marques JM, Henriksson R, Stupp R, Yue N, Bruner J, Dugan M, Rao S, Zaknoen S: Multicenter phase II trial of temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma multiforme at first relapse. Ann Oncol; 2001 Feb;12(2):259-66
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  • BACKGROUND: Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is resistant to most therapeutic endeavors, with low response rates and survival rarely exceeding six months.
  • There are no clearly established chemotherapeutic regimens and the aim of treatment is palliation with improvement in the quality of life.
  • One hundred twenty-eight patients were histologically confirmed with GBM or gliosarcoma (GS) by independent central review.
  • Chemotherapy-naïve patients were treated with temozolomide 200 mg/m2/day orally for the first five days of a 28-day cycle.
  • Patients previously treated with nitrosourea-containing adjuvant chemotherapy received 150 mg/m2/day for the first five days of a 28-day cycle.
  • Temozolomide had an acceptable safety profile, with only 9% of therapy cycles requiring a dose reduction due to thrombocytopenia.
  • The use of this drug should be explored further in an adjuvant setting and in combination with other agents.

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  • [CommentIn] Ann Oncol. 2001 Feb;12(2):149-50 [11300316.001]
  • (PMID = 11300335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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22. Bax DA, Gaspar N, Little SE, Marshall L, Perryman L, Regairaz M, Viana-Pereira M, Vuononvirta R, Sharp SY, Reis-Filho JS, Stávale JN, Al-Sarraj S, Reis RM, Vassal G, Pearson AD, Hargrave D, Ellison DW, Workman P, Jones C: EGFRvIII deletion mutations in pediatric high-grade glioma and response to targeted therapy in pediatric glioma cell lines. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Sep 15;15(18):5753-61
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  • [Title] EGFRvIII deletion mutations in pediatric high-grade glioma and response to targeted therapy in pediatric glioma cell lines.
  • PURPOSE: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified and overexpressed in adult glioblastoma, with response to targeted inhibition dependent on the underlying biology of the disease.
  • No kinase or extracellular domain mutations were observed; however, 6 of 35 (17%) cases harbored the EGFRvIII deletion, including two anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and a gliosarcoma overexpressing EGFRvIII in the absence of gene amplification and coexpressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha.
  • Pediatric glioblastoma cells transduced with wild-type or deletion mutant EGFRvIII were not rendered more sensitive to erlotinib despite expressing wild-type PTEN.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Sequence Deletion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Blotting, Western. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Child. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Humans. Prognosis. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Nov 15;15(22):7110
  • (PMID = 19737945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C1178/A10294; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C309/A2187; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C309/A8274
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / epidermal growth factor receptor VIII; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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23. Tang P, Roldan G, Brasher PM, Fulton D, Roa W, Murtha A, Cairncross JG, Forsyth PA: A phase II study of carboplatin and chronic high-dose tamoxifen in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. J Neurooncol; 2006 Jul;78(3):311-6
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  • PURPOSE: To determine the response rate, time to disease progression, survival, and toxicity of intravenous carboplatin and chronic oral high-dose tamoxifen in patients with recurrent malignant gliomas.
  • Treatment consisted of 400 mg/m2 carboplatin intravenously every 4 weeks and oral high dose chronic tamoxifen (80 mg bid in women and 100 mg bid in men).
  • The histological subtypes were: 16 (59%) glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), malignant astrocytoma (5 patients), malignant mixed glioma (5 patients), and glioblastoma/gliosarcoma (1 patient).
  • Median time to progression was 3.65 months (95%CI 2.56, 4.83).
  • One patient with a recurrent GBM had a sustained partial response and is progression free 81 months since starting treatment.
  • Another patient with mixed malignant oligoastrocytoma also had a prolonged partial response (lasting 63 months) and is alive 84 months after treatment for recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anorexia / chemically induced. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Fatigue / chemically induced. Female. Headache / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16710748.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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24. Buckner JC, Schomberg PJ, McGinnis WL, Cascino TL, Scheithauer BW, O'Fallon JR, Morton RF, Kuross SA, Mailliard JA, Hatfield AK, Cole JT, Steen PD, Bernath AM: A phase III study of radiation therapy plus carmustine with or without recombinant interferon-alpha in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. Cancer; 2001 Jul 15;92(2):420-33
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  • [Title] A phase III study of radiation therapy plus carmustine with or without recombinant interferon-alpha in the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma.
  • BACKGROUND: The current study was conducted to determine whether the addition of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) to treatment with radiation therapy and carmustine (BCNU) improves time to disease progression or overall survival in patients with high-grade glioma.
  • METHODS: Patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, anaplastic oligoastrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, or gliosarcoma received radiation therapy plus BCNU as initial therapy.
  • Subsequently, patients without tumor progression at the completion of radiation therapy were stratified by age, extent of surgery, tumor grade and histology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and treating institution, and then were randomly assigned to receive either BCNU alone (200 mg/m(2) on Day 1) or BCNU (150 mg/m(2) on Day 3) plus IFN--alpha (12 million U/m(2) on Days 1-3, Weeks 1, 3, and 5) every 7 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles.
  • There was no significant difference with regard to time to disease progression or overall survival between the two groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IFN-alpha does not appear to improve time to disease progression or overall survival in patients with high-grade glioma and appears to add significantly to toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carmustine / pharmacology. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Interferon-alpha / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11466698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35101; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35195; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35272; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35415; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35448; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37417; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-52352; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-60276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63849
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Interferon-alpha; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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25. Buckner JC, Ballman KV, Michalak JC, Burton GV, Cascino TL, Schomberg PJ, Hawkins RB, Scheithauer BW, Sandler HM, Marks RS, O'Fallon JR, North Central Cancer Treatment Group 93-72-52, Southwest Oncology Group 9503 Trials: Phase III trial of carmustine and cisplatin compared with carmustine alone and standard radiation therapy or accelerated radiation therapy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme: North Central Cancer Treatment Group 93-72-52 and Southwest Oncology Group 9503 Trials. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3871-9
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  • [Title] Phase III trial of carmustine and cisplatin compared with carmustine alone and standard radiation therapy or accelerated radiation therapy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme: North Central Cancer Treatment Group 93-72-52 and Southwest Oncology Group 9503 Trials.
  • PURPOSE: In patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme, to determine whether cisplatin plus carmustine (BCNU) administered before and concurrently with radiation therapy (RT) improves survival compared with BCNU and RT and whether survival using accelerated RT (ART) is equivalent to survival using standard RT (SRT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: After surgery, patients were stratified by age, performance score, extent of surgical resection, and histology (glioblastoma v gliosarcoma) and then randomly assigned to arm A (BCNU plus SRT), arm B (BCNU plus ART), arm C (cisplatin plus BCNU plus SRT), or arm D (cisplatin plus BCNU plus ART).
  • Median survival times and 2-year survival rates for patients who received BCNU plus RT (arms A and B) compared with cisplatin, BCNU, and RT (arms C and D) were 10.1 v 11.5 months, respectively, and 11.5% v 13.7%, respectively (P = .19).
  • Median survival times and 2-year survival rates for patients who received SRT (arms A and C) compared with ART (arms B and D) were 11.2 v 10.5 months, respectively, and 13.8% v 11.4%, respectively (P = .33).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carmustine / administration & dosage. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • (PMID = 16921039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35101; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35195; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35272; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35415; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35448; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37417; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-45450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-52352; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-60276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63826; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63844; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63848; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63849
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U68WG3173Y / Carmustine
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26. Butowski N, Chang SM, Lamborn KR, Polley MY, Parvataneni R, Hristova-Kazmierski M, Musib L, Nicol SJ, Thornton DE, Prados MD: Enzastaurin plus temozolomide with radiation therapy in glioblastoma multiforme: a phase I study. Neuro Oncol; 2010 Jun;12(6):608-13
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  • [Title] Enzastaurin plus temozolomide with radiation therapy in glioblastoma multiforme: a phase I study.
  • We conducted a phase I study to determine the safety and recommended phase II dose of enzastaurin (oral inhibitor of the protein kinase C-beta [PKCbeta] and the PI3K/AKT pathways) when given in combination with radiation therapy (RT) plus temozolomide to patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme or gliosarcoma.
  • Patients with Karnofsky performance status > or =60 and no enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs received RT (60 Gy) over 6 weeks, concurrently with temozolomide (75 mg/m(2) daily) followed by adjuvant temozolomide (200 mg/m(2)) for 5 days/28-d cycle.
  • Patients continued treatment for 12 adjuvant cycles unless disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred.
  • The other patient recovered to Grade <1 toxicity after 28 days and did not restart treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Indoles / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20156802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-5866
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indoles; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; UC96G28EQF / enzastaurin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940647
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27. Toung TJ, Tyler B, Brem H, Traystman RJ, Hurn PD, Bhardwaj A: Hypertonic saline ameliorates cerebral edema associated with experimental brain tumor. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol; 2002 Jul;14(3):187-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Therapeutic modalities for tumor-associated cerebral edema include diuretics, osmotherapy, and corticosteroids.
  • Recently, hypertonic saline (HS) has received attention as an osmotic agent in the treatment of cerebral edema from diverse causes.
  • 9L gliosarcoma, propagated as a solid flank tumor, was implanted intracranially over the left hemisphere in adult female Fischer 344 rats (180-220 g).
  • On day 11 after implantation, rats were divided in a blinded, randomized fashion into groups that received no treatment or continuous infusion of 0.9% saline (NS) (0.3 mL/h) and in a subsequent series that included NS + intravenous furosemide 2.5 mg/kg every six hours, NS + intravenous mannitol 2.5 g/kg every six hours, or continuous infusion 7.5% HS (chloride:acetate 50:50) (0.3 mL/h).
  • Hemispheric water content ipsilateral (IH) and contralateral to tumor implantation was determined at day 13 by wet-to-dry weight ratio after 48 hours of therapy.
  • After 48 hours of treatment, IH water content was attenuated with continuous HS (n = 15) (79.3 +/- 0.2%), mannitol (n = 14) (80.1 +/- 0.2%), and furosemide (n = 15) (79.9 +/- 0.2%) as compared to NS (n = 7) (80.8 +/- 0.5%).
  • These findings suggest a potential new treatment strategy for tumor-associated cerebral edema.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / drug therapy. Brain Edema / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Saline Solution, Hypertonic / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Body Water / metabolism. Brain Chemistry / drug effects. Diuretics / therapeutic use. Diuretics, Osmotic / therapeutic use. Female. Furosemide / therapeutic use. Mannitol / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Transplantation. Osmolar Concentration. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344

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  • (PMID = 12172290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0898-4921
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgical anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Anesthesiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS20020; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS33668; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA52857
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 0 / Diuretics, Osmotic; 0 / Saline Solution, Hypertonic; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide
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28. Fabel K, Dietrich J, Hau P, Wismeth C, Winner B, Przywara S, Steinbrecher A, Ullrich W, Bogdahn U: Long-term stabilization in patients with malignant glioma after treatment with liposomal doxorubicin. Cancer; 2001 Oct 1;92(7):1936-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term stabilization in patients with malignant glioma after treatment with liposomal doxorubicin.
  • BACKGROUND: Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and poor blood-brain barrier penetration are major limitations in the treatment of malignant glioma.
  • To improve drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier, the authors used doxorubicin as liposomal encapsulated formulation (Caelyx, Scheringh-Plough, Munich, Germany) in therapy of recurrent malignant glioma.
  • Of these, 13 patients could be evaluated, including 6 patients with glioblastoma, 1 patient with gliosarcoma and 6 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • The treatment consisted of liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m(2)), applied intravenously every 2 weeks.
  • Median time-to-progression was 11 weeks.
  • Median overall survival (OS) after doxorubicin therapy was 40.0 weeks, whereas the median OS after diagnosis reached 20.0 months (87.0 weeks).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Doxorubicin has been shown to be a safe treatment with moderate activity that may lead to long-term stabilization in recurrent high-grade glioma patients.
  • Of note, median OS after all and after initiation of recurrence therapy was prolonged in comparison with the OS in other Phase II studies, as recently described by Wong et al. (Wong ET, Hess KR, Gleason MJ, Jaeckle KA, Kyritsis AP, Prados MD, et al.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Liposomes. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11745268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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