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1. De Giorgi U, Rosti G, Slavin S, Yaniv I, Harousseau JL, Ladenstein R, Demirer T, Dini G, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Solid Tumours and Paediatric Disease Working Parties: Salvage high-dose chemotherapy for children with extragonadal germ-cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2005 Aug 22;93(4):412-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Salvage high-dose chemotherapy for children with extragonadal germ-cell tumours.
  • We reviewed the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) experience with salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) in paediatric patients with extragonadal germ-cell tumour (GCT).
  • A total of 23 children with extragonadal GCT, median age 12 years (range 1-20), were treated with salvage HDC with haematopoietic progenitor cell support.
  • Of six patients who had a disease recurrence after HDC, one achieved a disease-free status with surgical resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • HDC induced impressive long-term remissions as salvage treatment in children with extragonadal extracranial GCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Databases, Factual. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Remission Induction. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16106248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361583
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2. von Schlippe M, Fowler CJ, Harland SJ: Cisplatin neurotoxicity in the treatment of metastatic germ cell tumour: time course and prognosis. Br J Cancer; 2001 Sep 14;85(6):823-6
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  • [Title] Cisplatin neurotoxicity in the treatment of metastatic germ cell tumour: time course and prognosis.
  • In order to ascertain the incidence and prognosis of cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in testis cancer patients undergoing combination chemotherapy, 29 patients with metastatic disease were studied prospectively.
  • At the end of chemotherapy (3 to 4 cycles) only 3 out of 26 (11%) patients had paraesthesiae, but 3 months later the proportion rose to 65%.
  • None of the 11 patients treated with 3 cycles of chemotherapy had persisting symptoms.
  • Vibration thresholds showed a significant deterioration during chemotherapy (P = 0.032), further deterioration in the 3 months following chemotherapy (P = 0.009) and significant improvement between 3 and 12 months after chemotherapy (P = 0.038).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Brain / drug effects. Brain Diseases / chemically induced. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Germinoma / drug therapy. Reaction Time / drug effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Conduction / drug effects. Paresthesia / chemically induced. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Sural Nerve / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Cancer Research Campaign.
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  • (PMID = 11556831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2375074
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3. Pentheroudakis G, De Bono JS, Kaye SB, Simpson A, Paul J, Brown I, Pamenter B, Kirk A, Vasey P, Raby N, Kirk D: Improved prognosis of patients with intermediate- and poor-risk nonseminomatous germ cell tumours by optimizing combined treatment. BJU Int; 2003 Jul;92(1):36-42
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  • [Title] Improved prognosis of patients with intermediate- and poor-risk nonseminomatous germ cell tumours by optimizing combined treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the optimal use of combined treatment with chemotherapy and appropriately timed surgical intervention by a specialized team might improve the outcome for patients with poor- and intermediate-prognosis (International Germ Cell Consensus Classification, IGCCC) nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs).
  • RESULTS: Of the 47 patients only seven (15%) had a complete radiological response after primary chemotherapy; 36 (77%) required surgery after chemotherapy (29 para-aortic lymphadenectomy, 13 resection of pulmonary metastases, two each excision of supraclavicular and retrocrural lymph nodes and one resection of brain metastases; 13 required surgery at more than one site).
  • Of the 47 patients, 18 needed treatment for relapse, with four having surgery for growing mature teratoma, six chemotherapy plus surgery and eight salvage chemotherapy alone.
  • Prognostic factors, e.g. number of involved sites, IGCCC group and viable tumour in resected masses, were not significant.
  • CONCLUSION: The optimal delivery and timing of chemotherapy and surgical resection by a specialist team of oncologists, urological and cardiothoracic surgeons is critical in treating poor-risk NSGCT and might be responsible for improving the outcome of these patients.
  • The detection of residual malignant disease after chemotherapy by positron emission tomography should be investigated to identify those who might benefit from further systemic treatment before complete surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12823380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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4. Waragai M, Chiba A, Uchibori A, Fukushima T, Anno M, Tanaka K: Anti-Ma2 associated paraneoplastic neurological syndrome presenting as encephalitis and progressive muscular atrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2006 Jan;77(1):111-3
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  • A 36 year old man with a history of testicular germ cell tumour presented six months after bilateral orchidectomy with progressive amnesia, irritability, vertical gaze palsy, and generalised seizures.
  • Abnormal high signal in the grey matter was noted in the cervical spinal cord and brain by T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
  • The patient was treated with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and antiepileptic medication.
  • The patient improved clinically and symptom progression ceased after initiation of treatment.
  • There was complete resolution of the abnormal brain MRI lesions; however, the cervical spinal cord MRI lesion and muscular atrophy remained unchanged.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Brain / pathology. Encephalitis / diagnosis. Muscular Atrophy, Spinal / diagnosis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16361608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3050
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous; 0 / Ma2 antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2117426
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5. Gremmer R, Schröder ML, Ten Huinink WW, Brandsma D, Boogerd W: Successful management of brain metastasis from malignant germ cell tumours with standard induction chemotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2008 Dec;90(3):335-9
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  • [Title] Successful management of brain metastasis from malignant germ cell tumours with standard induction chemotherapy.
  • Because of possible long-term toxicity, cranial radiotherapy (RT) was withheld as part of standard treatment for brain metastasis (BM) from non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT).
  • Ten patients presented with BM at initial diagnosis (group 1), two patients developed BM at extra-cranial complete remission (CR) (group 2), and ten patients during treatment of the primary tumour without achieving CR (group 3).
  • All patients received cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy.
  • Five patients received chemotherapy and whole brain RT (WBRT), and five patients received chemotherapy without WBRT.
  • One patient received additional high-dose (HD) chemotherapy with WBRT, and the other HD chemotherapy without WBRT.
  • In group 3, one patient underwent craniotomy, seven patients received WBRT, and four patients additional HD chemotherapy.
  • In group 3, one of ten patients (10%) achieved CR after HD chemotherapy and WBRT (follow-up 107 months).
  • It is concluded that cure in patients with BM from NSGCT can be achieved with standard induction chemotherapy without WBRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18704268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Netalkar AS, Sharma RR, Mahapatra AK, Sousa J, Lad SD, Pawar SJ, Mishra GP, Musa MM: An unusual presentation of an intra-parenchymatous frontal yolk sac tumour : case report. Neurol India; 2001 Dec;49(4):395-7
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  • [Title] An unusual presentation of an intra-parenchymatous frontal yolk sac tumour : case report.
  • Yolk sac tumours are rare conditions among the germ cell tumours.
  • Intracerebral germ cell tumours are exceedingly rare.
  • The patient underwent microsurgical total excision of the tumour, followed by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / radiography. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Frontal Lobe
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Microsurgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11799415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol
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7. Regueiro CA: [Treatment of intracranial germ cell tumours and other tumours of the pineal region]. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2003 Apr;14(2):127-39
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  • [Title] [Treatment of intracranial germ cell tumours and other tumours of the pineal region].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento de los tumores germinales intracraneales y otros tumores de la región pineal.
  • The management of patients with central nervous system germ-cell tumours is evolving, and a definitive standard has not been achieved.
  • Various prospective trials evaluated the results of combinations of chemotherapy and reduced dose and/or volume radiotherapy.
  • The survival rates of combined treatment approaches were similar to the rates achieved with craniospinal radiotherapy alone.
  • Additional studies are necessary to determine the appropriate radiotherapy volumes and the role of combined treatments.
  • Chemotherapy alone results in high relapse rates and can not be recommended.
  • Mature teratomas are benign germ cell tumours that can be controlled with complete surgical resection in over 90% of cases.
  • Non-germinoma germ cell tumours are a heterogeneous group of tumours that includes very aggressive tumours such as mixed and pure choriocarcinomas, yolk sac tumours, and embryonal carcinomas; and tumours with intermediate aggressiveness such as mixed tumours with germinoma and teratoma, immature teratomas and teratomas with malignant transformation.
  • Both radiotherapy alone and chemotherapy alone result in quite low rates of tumour control and current treatment approaches include chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with surgical removal of the tumour in some patients.
  • Current treatment approaches for pineoblastomas include surgery, chemotherapy, and craniospinal irradiation with a local boost.
  • Chemotherapy alone was used to delay irradiation in infants with very little success.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Pineal Gland / radiation effects. Pineal Gland / surgery. Pinealoma / radiotherapy. Pinealoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12754642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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8. Berney DM, Shamash J, Gaffney J, Jordan S, Oliver RT: DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 Sep 9;87(6):624-9
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  • [Title] DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours.
  • A small number of testicular germ cell tumours are refractory to current chemotherapy regimens.
  • DNA topoisomerase I is the target for several new drugs and a potential candidate treatment for chemorefractory germ cell tumours.
  • DNA topoisomerase II alpha is the target for etoposide, which is currently used regularly in germ cell tumour treatment.
  • Pre-chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens were matched with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections to examine changes in expression.
  • There was considerable variation in the expression of topoisomerase I in different tumour types.
  • There was a negative correlation between topoisomerase I and II alpha expression (P=0.004) and downregulation of topoisomerase II alpha after chemotherapy (P=0.02).
  • These results suggest that topoisomerase I inhibitors may be useful in chemorefractory germ cell tumours, especially yolk sac tumours and where there are unresectable residual teratoma, mature deposits.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Seminoma / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Down-Regulation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Testis / chemistry. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12237772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364243
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9. Culine S, Droz JP: Comparative tolerability of chemotherapy regimens for germ cell cancer. Drug Saf; 2000 May;22(5):373-88

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative tolerability of chemotherapy regimens for germ cell cancer.
  • Germ cell tumours, even at an advanced stage, represent a unique model of malignant curable disease since >80% of patients are expected to be cured after appropriate therapy: surgery and radiotherapy in early stages, and chemotherapy and surgery in advanced stages.
  • In advanced stages, serum tumour marker levels as well as extrapulmonary (brain, liver and bone) visceral metastases are the most important prognostic factors that affect treatment modalities.
  • 'Gold standard' regimens for germ cell cancer currently include etoposide plus cisplatin with (BEP) or without (EP) bleomycin.
  • In patients with good risk disease (90% cure rate), the optimal regimen of chemotherapy should combine the best efficacy and the least toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Germinoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10830254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0114-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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10. Vervenne WL, Bakker PJ, Stalpers LJ, Bosch DA: [Malignant intracranial germ cell tumor treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy without histopathological confirmation]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2000 Mar 11;144(11):527-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant intracranial germ cell tumor treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy without histopathological confirmation].
  • [Transliterated title] Maligne intracerebrale kiemceltumor behandeld met chemotherapie en radiotherapie zonder histopathologische diagnose.
  • In two men aged 19 and 24 years, a rare malignant intracranial germ cell tumour was diagnosed in the pineal gland region and in the second patient in a suprasellar position as well.
  • The clinical picture of a young patient with an intracerebral tumour localised in the midline of the brain and increased levels of the tumour markers alpha-foetoprotein and/or human chorion gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) in blood and/or CSF makes any other diagnosis highly unlikely.
  • There is no place for radical surgery in the first-line treatment of malignant intracerebral germ cell tumours because of the sensitivity to radio- and chemotherapy.
  • Also, the sensitivity to chemotherapy makes it possible to reduce radiation volume and dose in an effort to avoid the serious complications of craniospinal irradiation.
  • Both patients responded well to chemotherapy based on cisplatin followed by radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / cerebrospinal fluid. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 10735140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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11. Nishizaki T, Kajiwara K, Adachi N, Tsuha M, Nakayama H, Ohshita N, Ikeda N, Ito H, Suzuki M: Detection of craniospinal dissemination of intracranial germ cell tumours based on serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of tumour markers. J Clin Neurosci; 2001 Jan;8(1):27-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of craniospinal dissemination of intracranial germ cell tumours based on serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of tumour markers.
  • Nineteen intracranial germ cell tumours treated during the past 11 years were evaluated retrospectively.
  • The tumours were classified into three groups according to the level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, and the optimal treatment for each group was determined.
  • Group A consisted of patients with normal titres of AFP and HCG, group B of patients with relatively high titres (< 10 times normal), and group C comprised patients with higher titres ( 10 times normal levels).
  • In group B, none of four patients who underwent total or subtotal resection of the tumour had craniospinal disseminatio n or tumour recurrence, whereas dissemination occurred in four further patients, including two who had received radiochemotherapy only, and two who had undergone partial resection of the tumour.
  • While patients in group C had dissemination at the time of initial diagnosis, most patients in group B developed dissemination more than 10 months after initial treatment, suggesting that the type of treatment received as first line therapy is important in patients in this group.
  • The prognosis of patients in group C, however, was unaffected by the priority given to either surgery, radiation or chemotherapy as first line treatment.
  • Craniospinal dissemination can be prevented in patients with germ cell tumours who have a relative increase in levels of AFP and HCG by aggressive removal of the tumours as first line therapy, regardless of the type of adjuvant therapy given.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / cerebrospinal fluid. Brain Neoplasms / blood. Brain Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / blood. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid. Germinoma / blood. Germinoma / cerebrospinal fluid. Spinal Neoplasms / blood. Spinal Neoplasms / cerebrospinal fluid
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin / cerebrospinal fluid. Female. Humans. Male. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • (PMID = 11322122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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12. Kühne T, Staehelin F, Avoledo P, Tichelli A, Passweg J, Imbach P, Gratwohl A: [Single and double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in children with advanced solid tumors: first experiences]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr; 2000 Mar 25;130(12):419-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Single and double high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in children with advanced solid tumors: first experiences].
  • [Transliterated title] Einfache und doppelte Hochdosis-Chemotherapie mit autologer Stammzelltransplantation bei Kindern mit fortgeschrittenen soliden Tumoren: erste Erfahrungen.
  • The disease-free survival of children with malignant disorders has increased impressively over the last three decades due to better understanding of tumour biology and the resultant improvement in diagnosis and therapy.
  • Children with advanced and relapsed solid tumours, such as brain tumour, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, or neuroblastoma, have not benefited from this progress.
  • The concept of myeloablative high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) is based on the observation that certain cytostatic drugs have a steep linear dose-response curve, and thus escalating the dose may increase the tumour cell kill.
  • The interest in HDT intensified when autologous stem cells mobilised from the peripheral blood became available, in view of the possibility of increasing the cell dose, which correlates directly with the time period of haematopoietic recovery and thus reduces therapy-associated toxicity.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of single or double HDT by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) after each cycle in children, and to obtain pilot data for future prospective clinical trials.
  • 11 children aged between 2.8 and 17.2 years with brain tumours, soft tissue sarcomas, germ-cell tumours and neuroblastomas were analysed over a 2-year-period.
  • 7 of the 11 children are in complete remission 2+ and 24+ months after HDT, 3 died of progressive disease and one child died of therapy-associated complications.
  • Painful stomatitis leading to total parenteral nutrition (9 children) and intravenous morphine therapy (6 children) was the most serious toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Parenteral Nutrition, Total. Platelet Transfusion. Time Factors. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 10780056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-7672
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz Med Wochenschr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
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13. Brandes AA, Pasetto LM, Monfardini S: The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Aug;26(4):233-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours.
  • Germ cell tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) include many subtypes whose response to treatment varies, even though the symptoms and radiological appearances are similar.
  • Patients with choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, or yolk sac tumour have the lowest survival rates; patients with germinoma or mature teratoma have longer survival rates.
  • Although a wider resection is associated with a higher rate of survival for patients with non-germinomatous germ cell (NGGC) tumours, to date an aggressive surgical approach has been advocated only for pineal region tumours, but not for hypothalamic/neurohypophyseal tumours.
  • Beside the delayed injury induced by radiotherapy, the late injury induced by chemotherapy is becoming increasingly evident.
  • Cisplatin is considered an indispensable drug, but it may cause renal damage, ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy and sterility, while etoposide is associated with an excess frequency of second neoplasms.
  • Taking into account all of the published literature, the following therapeutic options are suggested: in pure germinoma tumours (GT) radiotherapy alone will usually ensure adequate control of the disease, and the long-term sequelae may be limited by reducing the dose delivered, as was proposed for germ cell testicular tumours, to 30 Gy to limited fields plus 25-30 Gy to the spinal axis if there is disseminated disease.
  • In cases of recurrence, which should be uncommon, patients may be rescued with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • In NGGC tumours, the prognosis is more unfavourable and there is often dissemination to the spine at diagnosis; however, the tumour's high chemosensitivity suggests neoadjuvant treatment chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for three cycles followed by consolidation radiotherapy with 40 Gy to the limited fields plus 30 Gy to the spinal axis if disseminated.
  • In our opinion, a higher dose of radiotherapy in cases in which chemotherapy does not achieve a radiological complete remission is not advisable, because very often the residual radiological abnormality does not represent biologically active tumour but differentiated forms such as mature teratoma.
  • The challenge for 2000 is to both cure these patients, and avoid the late and permanent sequelae of radiation and/or chemotherapy that may subsequently impair quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10913379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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14. Goetz CM, Schmid I, Pietsch T, Peraud A, Haas RJ: Mixed malignant germ cell tumour of the lateral ventricle in an 8-month-old girl: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2002 Nov;18(11):644-7
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  • [Title] Mixed malignant germ cell tumour of the lateral ventricle in an 8-month-old girl: case report and review of the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a huge intracerebral malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) which appeared in the lateral ventricles of an 8-month-old girl.
  • Due to extensive tumour vascularisation only partial resection was achieved.
  • Chemotherapy induced a marked regression of the tumour.
  • After chemotherapy complete resection of the tumour remnant was easily achieved.
  • Histology showed only mesenchymal differentiated tumour tissue and the embryonal carcinoma could no longer be detected.
  • More than 2 years after the second operation and 31 months after diagnosis the child remains tumour-free.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12420127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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15. Cohn DA, Stuart-Harris R: Isolated central nervous system relapse of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis. A case report and review of the literature. Oncology; 2001;61(3):184-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated central nervous system relapse of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis. A case report and review of the literature.
  • Isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT) of the testis has been reported in only 12 patients previously.
  • From a review of previous cases, isolated CNS relapse appears to be more common in patients with embryonal cell histology (alone or mixed with other elements) and occurred after a median of 8.5 months following initial presentation.
  • Long-term survival appears possible using multi-modal treatment with whole-brain radiotherapy, surgery and/or chemotherapy.
  • However, the optimal treatment of isolated CNS relapse remains undefined.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Occipital Lobe. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vision Disorders / etiology. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11574772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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16. Wong LC, Yang TL, Gao F, Tan AM, Sethi VK, Chua EJ: Intracranial germ cell tumour: experience of a Singaporean institution over 11-year period. Singapore Med J; 2002 Apr;43(4):182-8

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  • [Title] Intracranial germ cell tumour: experience of a Singaporean institution over 11-year period.
  • BACKGROUND: Intracranial germ cell tumours (IGCT) are rare.
  • We present our experience in Therapeutic Radiology Department, National Cancer Centre, Singapore.
  • Median radiotherapy (RT) dose to whole brain, primary site and spine was 35.3,54 and 30 Gys respectively.
  • Four to six cycles of BEP or JEB chemotherapy (CM) were given in 10 patients.
  • Mixed germinoma and non-germinoma germ cell tumours (NGGCT) group had 50% one-year RFS and 44% two-year OS.
  • There was no statistically significant difference in side-effects when treatment modalities were compared.
  • CONCLUSION: In the treatment of intracranial germinoma, we recommend biopsy and CSRT.
  • Primary chemotherapy (+/- low-dose cranial RT) should be used in the protocol or clinical trial settings.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Singapore. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12188062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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17. Schwarz AJ, Maisey NR, Collins DJ, Cunningham D, Huddart R, Leach MO: Early in vivo detection of metabolic response: a pilot study of 1H MR spectroscopy in extracranial lymphoma and germ cell tumours. Br J Radiol; 2002 Dec;75(900):959-66
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  • [Title] Early in vivo detection of metabolic response: a pilot study of 1H MR spectroscopy in extracranial lymphoma and germ cell tumours.
  • Monitoring therapeutic efficacy is essential in oncological practice.
  • We have investigated the feasibility of using proton (1)H MR spectroscopy (MRS), localized to malignant lymphoma and germ cell lesions outside the cranial cavity, to monitor tumour metabolism in vivo during chemotherapy treatment. (1)H single voxel MRS, (stimulated echo acquisition mode, repetition time/echo time=2000/20 ms) was performed prior to treatment in patients with lymphoma or germ cell tumours, and during the first cycle of chemotherapy.
  • Patient response was assessed by independent clinical follow-up at a median of 57 days (range 44-93 days) post-treatment.
  • All 12 non-cystic lesions scanned showed a signal assigned to choline-containing metabolites (tCho); 9 were scanned both pre- and post-treatment.
  • Changes in the tCho:water ratio following treatment were found to predict subsequent patient response.
  • In seven of these nine patients, the tCho:water ratio decreased in the first post-treatment scan, and all subsequently achieved a partial response to treatment.
  • In the remaining two patients, both of whom progressed on treatment, the tCho:water ratio did not change significantly.
  • Normalized to pre-treatment values, the non-responder group values (1.07 and 0.97) were clearly distinct from the responder group, whose values ranged from 0.43 to below detection level.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of (1)H MR spectra from these tumour types and sites.
  • These preliminary results indicate that metabolite signals can be detected using (1)H MRS in these tumour types and locations, as has already been established in the brain, breast and prostate.
  • Moreover, the differential changes observed in the tCho region of the spectrum suggest that (1)H MRS could provide an early and sensitive indicator of metabolic response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Monitoring / methods. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Choline / metabolism. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12515704.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1285
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA62557-02
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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18. Chung TT, Drake WM, Evanson J, Walker D, Plowman PN, Chew SL, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP: Tumour surveillance imaging in patients with extrapituitary tumours receiving growth hormone replacement. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Sep;63(3):274-9
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  • [Title] Tumour surveillance imaging in patients with extrapituitary tumours receiving growth hormone replacement.
  • In most cases, AO-GHD arises as a result of pituitary/peripituitary tumours and/or their treatment, but the effect of GH replacement on recurrence/regrowth of these tumours is unknown.
  • The aim of this study was to examine the effect of GH replacement in a group of patients with primary tumours of the parasellar region, many of which (e.g. craniopharyngioma, glioma or germ cell tumours) might be anticipated to have a higher recurrence rate than secretory and nonsecretory anterior pituitary tumours.
  • The primary diagnoses were: craniopharyngioma (28), germ cell tumour (8), arachnoid cyst (4), meningioma (4), glioma (4) and mensenchymal tumour (2).
  • Measurements Surveillance imaging (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 70%, computed tomography (CT) 16%, both 14%) was performed at baseline (prior to GH), at 6--12 months, and then again yearly or as clinically indicated.
  • RESULTS: Four patients had an apparent increase in tumour volume but in only one patient was it considered necessary to abandon GH replacement.
  • In two of the four cases marginal increases in cystic parasellar tumours were not progressive; and in the fourth case apparent recurrence of a suprasellar germ cell tumour was shown to be acellular fibrous tissue only on biopsy.
  • In all other cases either the appearances were unchanged or the amount of tissue was reduced during long-term follow-up on GH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Overall, GH appears safe with respect to tumour recurrence over this time period in this patient group.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniopharyngioma / complications. Craniopharyngioma / therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germinoma / complications. Germinoma / therapy. Glioma / complications. Glioma / therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Irradiation

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  • (PMID = 16117814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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19. Suzuki S, Nishio S, Takata K, Morioka T, Fukui M: Radiation-induced brain calcification: paradoxical high signal intensity in T1-weighted MR images. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2000;142(7):801-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation-induced brain calcification: paradoxical high signal intensity in T1-weighted MR images.
  • BACKGROUND: Irradiation to the central nervous system (CNS) in childhood is known to induce cerebral calcification after a latent period.
  • However, we have studied three patients with radiation-induced brain calcification, who manifested increased signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images.
  • METHOD: Three girls had each been diagnosed as having a suprasellar germ cell tumour and were treated with conventional fractionated radiotherapy in their childhood.
  • In one case, chemotherapy was given prior to the CNS irradiation.
  • FINDINGS: All three patients survived their disease, and a follow-up CT scan revealed calcification in the brain, which has shown an increased signal intensity in the T1-weighted images of MR.
  • INTERPRETATION: Cerebral calcification may be presented as a high signal intensity in the T1-weighted MR images.
  • This may be explained by a surface-relaxation effect by the calcium salt particle, precipitated in the brain due to radiation-induced mineralising microangiopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Diseases / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Calcinosis / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects


20. Mickisch GH: Prognostic parameters for the management of advanced testis tumours. Curr Opin Urol; 2000 Sep;10(5):465-71
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  • The need for prognostic parameters in testicular germ cell tumours is sometimes questioned based on an overall cure rate of more than 80% of the patients regardless of tumour stage.
  • However, the trend for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis amenable to curative treatment as well as the high effectiveness of standard Cisplatinum containing chemotherapy has masked the continuing need for intensifying therapy in patients with adverse risk factors.
  • This intense treatment is often associated with worrysome morbidity and the assessment of prognostic factors, stage by stage, is warranted on which patient at risk can be identified and treated accordingly.
  • Traditional prognostic factors, on which most classification systems are based, include large tumour volume, the presence of liver, bone or brain metastasis, grossly elevated tumour markers and an extragonadal primary site, particularly in the mediastinum.
  • Novel prognostic factors are either (1) independent from the patient and his disease, (2) inherent on the patient's characteristics or (3) based on tumour biology.
  • Clearly, the infrastructure and the experience of the treating uro-oncology unit (see 1) is decisive for treatment outcomes, and -at least-'difficult to treat' patients should be referred to properly resourced cancer centres.
  • However, the search for even better (molecular) biologic factors is speeding up because more complex treatment decisions such as in advanced testicular cancers rely on a more precise determination of prognosis, enabling a more tailored selection of individualized therapeutic options.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11005453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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21. Kopp HG, Kuczyk M, Classen J, Stenzl A, Kanz L, Mayer F, Bamberg M, Hartmann JT: Advances in the treatment of testicular cancer. Drugs; 2006;66(5):641-59
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

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  • [Title] Advances in the treatment of testicular cancer.
  • Testicular cancer is the most common solid tumour in young men, and the treatment of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) has been called a success story of medical oncology, germ cell cancer being regarded as the "model of a curable neoplasm".
  • Today, elaborate systems for prognostic evaluation for gonadal and extragonadal germ cell tumours facilitate the choice of the most appropriate therapy for individual patients.
  • In doing so, the ultimate goal of treatment is tumour-free survival for any patient with TGCT.
  • This goal has already been reached for >99% of the patients with early-stage tumours, as well as for the majority of patients with advanced disease (56% of patients with metastases are considered to have a good prognosis at the time of diagnosis; the 5-year survival rate for this group is 90%).
  • However, patients with 'intermediate' or 'poor' prognosis at the time of diagnosis, as well as patients with relapsed disease after cisplatin-containing therapy, still have an unsatisfactorily low 5-year survival rate after standard therapy with PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) of only 80%, 45-55% and 20-25%, respectively.Therefore, our goals must be (i) to limit acute and chronic toxicity by avoiding overtreatment for patients with localised disease and/or good prognosis with advanced disease; and (ii) to identify patients with poor prognosis and treat them in specialised centres, where not only is optimal interdisciplinary care available but new treatment strategies are being applied.
  • For example, tandem high-dose chemotherapy regimens might be effective in achieving higher cure rates in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16620142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 172
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22. Hale GA, Greenwood MF, Geil JD, Moscow JA: Langerhans cell histiocytosis after therapy for a malignant germ cell tumor of the central nervous system. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jul-Aug;22(4):355-7
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  • [Title] Langerhans cell histiocytosis after therapy for a malignant germ cell tumor of the central nervous system.
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal neoplastic disorder that results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations.
  • A child with a malignant germ cell tumor of the brain who subsequently experienced LCH is reported.
  • The 8-year-old boy was treated for an immature teratoma of the posterior fossa with gross total resection and craniospinal irradiation preceding bleomycin, etoposide, and vinblastine chemotherapy for four cycles.
  • Seven months after completion of therapy, he experienced multifocal bone disease with LCH.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Teratoma / pathology


23. Sloetjes KG, van den Bergh JP, Wesseling P, Otten BJ, Pieters GF, Hermus AR: [Clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 32 patients with a primary intracranial germinoma, registered during the previous 15 years in the Dutch Pathological-Anatomical National Automated Archive (PALGA)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2000 Nov 18;144(47):2264-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 32 patients with a primary intracranial germinoma, registered during the previous 15 years in the Dutch Pathological-Anatomical National Automated Archive (PALGA)].
  • [Transliterated title] Kliniek, behandeling en follow-up van 32 patiënten met een primair intracranieel germinoom uit de afgelopen 15 jaar, geregistreerd in het Pathologisch-Anatomisch Landelijk Geautomatiseerd Archief (PALGA).
  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up of patients with intracranial germinoma in the Netherlands.
  • Informed consent was obtained from 32 of the 44 patients with respect to studying their medical records for age, symptoms at presentation, diagnostic investigations, presence of tumour markers, treatment and follow up.
  • RESULTS: The patient group consisted of 23 men and 9 women aged 6 to 35.6 years (mean: 17.3) and was subdivided with respect to their tumour localization.
  • Thirty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy, one with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy and one surgically.
  • One patient developed an intracranial embryonal carcinoma and another a testis seminoma.
  • CONCLUSION: At the time of this study 84% of all patients treated with radiotherapy were disease-free.
  • Although the percentage patients who had recovered after treatment (surgical and radiotherapy) was high, many patients either already had or subsequently developed neurological and endocrinological deficiencies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cause of Death. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / etiology. Netherlands. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology. Recurrence. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11109472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
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24. Sarkar S, Kundu AK, Chakrabarti S: Lungs: victim of synchronous double malignancies. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Mar;55:235-7
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  • CT-guided FNAC from the mass lesion was consistent with the diagnosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
  • Both FNAC and excisional biopsy of the testicular mass confirmed the diagnosis of immature teratoma with choriocarcinoma, a form of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT).
  • With chemotherapy all metastatic lesions of lung and SVC syndrome disappeared, and the tumour-marker levels decreased.
  • However, the opacity in RUZ progessed to involve right recurrent laryngeal nerve at thoracic inlet, metastasized to the brain, and the patient expired after 4th cycle of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Male. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17598338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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25. Kuczyk M, Horstmann M, Merseburger A, Beyer J: [Therapy for recurrent testicular cancer]. Urologe A; 2005 Apr;44(4):352-7
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  • [Title] [Therapy for recurrent testicular cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapie des Rezidivs beim Hodentumor.
  • In the case of an insufficient response to primary treatment or a tumor relapse, regardless of an initially complete remission, conventional as well as high dose chemotherapy regimens are available as salvage therapy for metastatic germ cell tumors.
  • A multimodal approach should include the radiation of simultaneously occurring brain metastases as well as the surgical resection of residual tumour masses still detectable after completion of chemotherapy.
  • However, a recurrence-free survival of 50% is worse when compared with that observed after primary chemotherapy.
  • Salvage therapy should be reserved for specialized centres due to the increased complexity of a salvage approach and a significantly increased therapy-induced morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Germinoma / secondary. Germinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods. Terminal Care / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15756533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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26. Kobayashi H, Sawamura Y, Ikeda J: A tumor in the medulla oblongata producing beta-HCG and AFP. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Aug;12(6):709-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A tumor in the medulla oblongata producing beta-HCG and AFP.
  • An intracranial non-germinomatous germ cell tumour (NGGCT) was strongly suspected.
  • The patient received combination chemotherapy using ifosfamide, cisplatin, and etoposide and local irradiation to a total of 52 Gy.
  • Serum AFP and beta-HCG levels normalized after four cycles of chemotherapy and she became asymptomatic apart from mild postural hypotension.
  • Surgical resection should be carefully considered in patients with brainstem tumours with elevation of serum tumour markers as chemo- and radiotherapy may be effective for brainstem NGGCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / blood. Lindane / blood. Medulla Oblongata / pathology. Neoplasms / blood. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16098752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 319-85-7 / beta-hexachlorocyclohexane; 59NEE7PCAB / Lindane
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27. Mandat T, Roszkowski M, Barszcz S, Podgórski JK, Jurkiewicz E: [Neuroendoscopy in the treatment of third ventricular hydrocephalus accompanying tumors of the posterior part of the third ventricle in children]. Neurol Neurochir Pol; 2002 Jul-Aug;36(4):711-22
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  • [Title] [Neuroendoscopy in the treatment of third ventricular hydrocephalus accompanying tumors of the posterior part of the third ventricle in children].
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in non-communicating hydrocephalus secondary to tumour of the posterior part of the third ventricle tumours in children.
  • In 22 cases benign tectal mass (BTM) and 10 malignant neoplasms (including 9 germ cell tumours and 1 ependymoma) were diagnosed.
  • 8 patients with malignant neoplasms after initial chemotherapy underwent residual tumor excision (more than 3 months after ETVs) and in two of them the CFS meningeal tumor spreads were detected.
  • The reason of failure in 2 cases was associated with meningeal tumor dissemination, and in one with postoperative bleeding after surgical tumor excision (communicating hydrocephalus).
  • Five out of 6 patients underwent shunt placements and in 1 case with late ventriculostomy occlusion another endoscopic procedure (after 26 months) was successfully performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic third ventriculostomy was an efficient method to control non-communicating hydrocephalus in children with posterior part of the third ventricle brain tumours.
  • The PC MR flow study was a useful diagnostic tool in the stomy patency evaluation and in further treatment planning in cases of failures.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / complications. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Endoscopy. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Third Ventricle. Ventriculostomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt

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  • (PMID = 12418136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3843
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Neurochir. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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28. Blohm ME, Göbel U: Unexplained anaemia and failure to thrive as initial symptoms of infantile choriocarcinoma: a review. Eur J Pediatr; 2004 Jan;163(1):1-6
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  • Infantile choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant germ cell tumour sub-entity thought to originate from the placenta.
  • The aim of this review is to alert clinicians to clinical symptoms and course of neonatal/infantile choriocarcinoma in order to improve the prognosis of affected children by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
  • The clinical details of all 30 cases according to a Medline literature search including two cases documented in the MAKEI germ cell tumour study are analysed.
  • The tumour affected more than one organ in most cases; organs involved were liver (23/30 cases, 77%), lung (20/30, 67%), brain (8/30, 27%), or skin (3/30, 10%).
  • Without appropriate anti-neoplastic treatment, infantile death occurs on average within 3 weeks from first presentation with a high rate of post-mortem diagnoses (9/28, 32% of live born infants).
  • In recent years, five reported patients (5/30, 18%) achieved a sustained remission after multi-agent cisplatinum-based chemotherapy and delayed (4/5) or primary tumour resection (1/5).
  • [MeSH-minor] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Placenta Diseases. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14628141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6199
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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