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Items 1 to 34 of about 34
1. Rekhi B, Saxena S, Chintamani: Gastric outlet obstruction and cutaneous metastasis in adenocarcinoid tumor of stomach - unusual presentations with cytologic and ultra structural findings. Indian J Cancer; 2005 Apr-Jun;42(2):99-101
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  • [Title] Gastric outlet obstruction and cutaneous metastasis in adenocarcinoid tumor of stomach - unusual presentations with cytologic and ultra structural findings.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors, including carcinoids account for less than 1% of gastric tumors.
  • Various subtypes of gastric carcinoids have been reported earlier.
  • The present case deals with two unusual presentations, diagnosis and course of a gastric neuroendocrine tumor in an adult patient.
  • A 35-years-old male initially presented with gastric outlet obstruction for an antral growth in the emergency ward.
  • He underwent radical gastrectomy and was diagnosed with a gastric carcinoid tumor, on histopathology.
  • After 6 months, he developed hepatic along with nodular cutaneous lesions over the scalp.
  • Aspiration cytology (FNAC) from these metastatic lesions showed two distinct cell types with rosette formation.
  • Subsequently, he underwent 2 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • We present a case of a gastric adenocarcinoid tumor, with 2 rare presentations.
  • The metastatic lesions exhibited neuroendocrine features on cytology and electron microscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Gastric Outlet Obstruction / etiology. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / complications. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Microscopy, Electron. Neoplasm Metastasis. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16141510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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2. Christopoulos C, Balatsos V, Rotas E, Karoumpalis I, Papavasileiou D, Kontogeorgos G, Dupasquier S, Calender A, Skandalis N, Economopoulos P: The syndrome of gastric carcinoid and hyperparathyroidism: a family study and literature review. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;160(4):689-94
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  • [Title] The syndrome of gastric carcinoid and hyperparathyroidism: a family study and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the coexistence of gastric carcinoids (GCs) and hyperparathyroidism may represent a distinct clinical entity, not related to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).
  • All siblings underwent serial gastroscopies for the assessment of gastric neuroendocrine cell proliferations over a mean follow-up period of 31.2 months.
  • RESULTS: Four of the siblings, all male, were found to have GCs in a background of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis and pernicious anaemia, with no serological evidence of gastric autoimmunity.
  • Screening for MEN1 gene mutations or large deletions was negative, and hormone and imaging investigations did not support a diagnosis of familial MEN1 syndrome.
  • Screening for hyperparathyroidism seems to be justified in patients with GC of any type.

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  • (PMID = 19155316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Hormones; 0 / Pancreatic Hormones; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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3. Grozinsky-Glasberg S, Kaltsas G, Gur C, Gal E, Thomas D, Fichman S, Alexandraki K, Barak D, Glaser B, Shimon I, Gross DJ: Long-acting somatostatin analogues are an effective treatment for type 1 gastric carcinoid tumours. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Oct;159(4):475-82
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  • [Title] Long-acting somatostatin analogues are an effective treatment for type 1 gastric carcinoid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Gastric carcinoid tumours type 1 (GCA1) originate from hyperplastic enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells secondary to hypergastrinaemia.
  • Treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSA) might impede ECL-cell hyperplasia by suppressing gastrin secretion and/or by a direct anti-proliferative effect on ECL cells.
  • We conducted a multicentre prospective study to assess the effects of long-acting SSA on hypergastrinaemia and ECL-cell proliferation in patients with GCA1.
  • Patients had serum gastrin and chromogranin A measurements performed and biopsies taken from both tumours and surrounding mucosa before, and every 6-12 months following treatment.
  • Sections were immunostained for neuroendocrine markers.
  • The cell proliferation index Ki-67, intensity of staining before and after treatment and the degree of gastric wall invasion were also assessed.
  • RESULTS: All patients tolerated treatment well (mean follow-up of 18 months).
  • In 11 patients (73%), a complete disappearance of the tumours at 1 year of treatment was observed on endoscopy, while in three patients (20%), the tumours decreased significantly in number and size.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with SSAs in GCA1 leads to a substantial tumour load reduction, with a concomitant decrease of serum gastrin levels.
  • Our data indicate an important anti-proliferative effect of SSA on ECL cells, providing clinical benefit and obviating, at least temporarily, the need for invasive therapies for GCA1.

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  • (PMID = 18662970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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4. Duques P, Araújo RS, de Amorim WP: [Esophagus-enteric anastomosis ulceration caused by alendronate]. Arq Gastroenterol; 2001 Apr-Jun;38(2):129-31
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  • [Transliterated title] Ulceração de anastomose esôfago-entérica causada por alendronato.
  • BACKGROUND: Alendronate sodium is an aminobisphosphonate indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women and has been associated with esophagitis in many reports.
  • OBJECTIVE: Report a case of a patient who underwent total gastrectomy with Y-en-Roux anastomosis for a gastric carcinoid tumor and developed an esophagus-enteric anastomosis ulceration after the use of alendronate.
  • PATIENT AND METHOD: A 63-year-old woman started medical therapy with alendronate in a dose of 10 mg daily.
  • After a period of one month of medical treatment with this drug she began to complain of dysphagic symptoms and abdominal pain.
  • RESULTS: Medical treatment with alendronate was discontinued and the symptom of abdominal pain disappeared.
  • CONCLUSION: Alendronate sodium could cause lesions of the inferior esophageal portion or in distal segments of the gastrointestinal tube, in patients with a fast gastrointestinal transit.
  • Special attention must be given to gastrectomized patients that use this drug because of the possibility to develop mucosal lesions in the enteric anastomosed part and its fearful complications as stenosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Alendronate / adverse effects. Esophageal Diseases / chemically induced. Intestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Osteoporosis / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Ulcer / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 11793943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2803
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de gastroenterologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Gastroenterol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] X1J18R4W8P / Alendronate
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5. Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS, Khuroo NS: Treatment of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin analogs. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 Mar;25(3):548-54
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  • [Title] Treatment of type I gastric neuroendocrine tumors with somatostatin analogs.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIM: There are limited data on response and long-term follow-up of octreotide therapy in type-I gastric neuroendocrine tumors.
  • The objective of the present study was to assess the response of type-I gastric neuroendocrine tumors to octreotide-long acting, repeatable (LAR) therapy and evaluate long-term follow up of such patients after therapy.
  • METHODS: Three patients with documented type-I gastric neuroendocrine tumors from a tertiary gastroenterology centre were studied.
  • Octreotide-LAR therapy 20 mg intramuscularly every 28 days was administered for one year.
  • Serum gastrin and chromogranin levels, gastroscopies and biopsies from tumor nodules at 6 months and one year on therapy and every 6 months after completion of drug therapy were taken.
  • Follow-up after completion of therapy extended for 3 years in two and 2.5 years in one patient.
  • RESULTS: During octreotide therapy there was normalization of serum gastrin levels and serum chromogranin levels.
  • Tumors in all three patients had regressed at 6 months of treatment.
  • Following cessation of therapy, there was progressive rise of serum gastrin to pre-treatment levels.
  • Gastroscopic and histologic examination of gastric biopsies did not reveal recurrence of tumors in any patients.
  • All patients tolerated therapy well and became asymptomatic soon after drug therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Octreotide-LAR therapy causes regression of type-I gastric neuroendocrine tumors.
  • After completion of drug therapy there was no recurrence of tumors even with continued hypergastrinemia.
  • Octreotide therapy should be considered as one of the treatment options in such patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chromogranins / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrins / blood. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20074162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Gastrins; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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6. Modlin IM, Lye KD, Kidd M: Carcinoid tumors of the stomach. Surg Oncol; 2003 Aug;12(2):153-72
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  • [Title] Carcinoid tumors of the stomach.
  • Interest in gastric carcinoid tumors has in recent time amplified considerably as the understanding of both their biological background and clinical significance has developed.
  • The increase in identification associated with the widespread availability of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy has facilitated diagnosis.
  • In addition concern related to the consequences of long-standing hypergastrinemia generated by the use of potent acid-suppressive medications has augmented both clinical and scientific focus on gastric neuro endocrine issues.
  • The elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of the progenitor cell (ECL cell) of the gastric carcinoid tumor, the refinement of a pathological grading system for ECL cell proliferation, and the availability of specific immunohistologic identification techniques have further amplified the characterization of this lesion.
  • Although the putative malignant potential of gastric carcinoids may ultimately be of only modest concern in a background of hypergastrinemia its relationship to gastric adenocarcinoma is still enigmatic and worthy of further consideration.
  • This review will describe the molecular interrelationship between low-acid states, gastrin, and ECL cell proliferation and will discuss the pathological classification of the distinct types of gastric carcinoid tumors.
  • In addition, the clinical rationale of current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies will be examined, providing a logical basis for the formulation of appropriate management strategies for patient care.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Chronic Disease. Endoscopy. Enterochromaffin-like Cells / metabolism. Gastritis, Atrophic / physiopathology. Humans. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12946486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 110
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7. Campana D, Nori F, Pezzilli R, Piscitelli L, Santini D, Brocchi E, Corinaldesi R, Tomassetti P: Gastric endocrine tumors type I: treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):337-42
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  • [Title] Gastric endocrine tumors type I: treatment with long-acting somatostatin analogs.
  • Gastric endocrine tumors associated with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (gastric carcinoid type I) are almost exclusively benign lesions with little risk of deep invasion of the gastric parietal wall.
  • For this reason, the role of octreotide in the treatment of these neoplastic lesions is controversial.
  • Nine patients with more than five type I gastric endocrine tumors each <1 cm in size, without invasion of the muscularis propria and with Ki-67 index lower than 3%, were treated with long-acting somatostatin analogs for 12 months.
  • In all patients, the gastric neoplastic lesions disappeared after 12 months of somatostatin analog therapy.
  • We also observed a significant reduction of CgA and gastrin levels at 6 and at 12 months of therapy as compared with the baseline values.
  • We demonstrate that somatostatin analog treatment provokes the pathological regression of type I gastric carcinoids.
  • This therapeutic approach should be considered as a valid option in selected patients with multiple type I gastric endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Gastritis, Atrophic / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chromogranin A / blood. Chronic Disease. Endosonography. Female. Gastrins / blood. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Parietal Cells, Gastric / immunology. Parietal Cells, Gastric / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18310299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Gastrins; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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8. Ekeblad S, Sundin A, Janson ET, Welin S, Granberg D, Kindmark H, Dunder K, Kozlovacki G, Orlefors H, Sigurd M, Oberg K, Eriksson B, Skogseid B: Temozolomide as monotherapy is effective in treatment of advanced malignant neuroendocrine tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 May 15;13(10):2986-91
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  • [Title] Temozolomide as monotherapy is effective in treatment of advanced malignant neuroendocrine tumors.
  • PURPOSE: A retrospective analysis of the toxicity and efficacy of temozolomide in advanced neuroendocrine tumors.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-six patients with advanced stages of neuroendocrine tumor (1 gastric, 7 thymic and 13 bronchial carcinoids, 12 pancreatic endocrine tumors, 1 paraganglioma, 1 neuroendocrine foregut, and 1 neuroendocrine cecal cancer) were treated with temozolomide (200 mg/m(2)) for 5 days every 4 weeks.
  • Tumor response was evaluated radiologically according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors every 3 months on an intent-to-treat basis.
  • The circulating tumor marker plasma chromogranin A was also assessed.
  • The expression of O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase, an enzyme implicated in chemotherapy resistance, was studied by immunohistochemistry (n=23) and compared with response to temozolomide.
  • RESULTS: Median overall time to progression was 7 months (95% confidence interval, 3-10).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Temozolomide as monotherapy had acceptable toxicity and antitumoral effects in a small series of patients with advanced malignant neuroendocrine tumors and four of these showed radiologic responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17505000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
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9. Liu Y, Liang H, Liu N, Zhang RP, Cui QH: [Relationship of biological behavior and the prognosis in gastric carcinoid]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Sep;10(5):472-5
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  • [Title] [Relationship of biological behavior and the prognosis in gastric carcinoid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of biologic behavior and prognosis in patients with gastric carcinoid.
  • METHODS: A total of 26 gastric carcinoid patients proven by pathology from Jan.
  • Tumor size, invasion depth, regional lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, adjuvant chemotherapy and 5-year survival were analyzed retrospectively.
  • A univariate analysis of survival rate with respect to gastric wall infiltration, regional lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, and adjuvant chemotherapy were accomplished by Kaplan-Meier estimation method.
  • Tumor size was not associated with gastric serosa invasion, regional lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis and 5-year survival (P>0.05).
  • Analysis of cumulative survival showed different survival time depending on gastric serosa invasion, regional lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis.
  • In patients with gastric serosa invasion, regional lymph node metastasis and liver metastasis, estimated 5-year cumulative survivals were 16.7%, 16.7% and 0 respectively.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was administrated in 10 patients (38.5%) and was not beneficial to prolong the survival time and increase the 5-year survival rate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection is the major strategy for the treatment of gastric carcinoid, and adjuvant chemotherapy is not proved to produce obvious effects.
  • The prognosis of gastric carcinoid depends on the tumor infiltration of gastric wall, regional metastasis and liver metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17851792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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10. Konturek SJ, Konturek PC, Bielański W, Lorens K, Sito E, Konturek JW, Kwiecień S, Bobrzyński A, Pawlik T, Karcz D, Areny H, Stachura T: Case presentation of gastrinoma combined with gastric carcinoid with the longest survival record -- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy. Med Sci Monit; 2002 Jun;8(6):CS43-59
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  • [Title] Case presentation of gastrinoma combined with gastric carcinoid with the longest survival record -- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a very rare disease caused by tumor with gastrin producing cells accompanied by hypergastrinemia leading to gastric hypersecretion and peptic ulcers and their complications.
  • Because of ulcer recurrence and complications, patient was subjected to several gastric surgeries but refused total gastrectomy.
  • She was also treated with many H2-receptor (R) antagonists and proton-pump inhibitors (PPI), each new drug being initially highly effective but then showing declining efficacy except when PPI, lansoprazole was used.
  • During the last 2 yrs, metastasis mainly to liver developed and they were successfully treated by synthetic octapeptide derivative of somatostatin and, as a result, metastatis partly reduced and plasma gastrin drasticly decreased.
  • Biopsy taken from liver metastasis showed the presence of typical gastrinoma cells with gastrin and chromogranin, while that from oxyntic mucosa revealed the ECL-cell hyperplasia with carcinoid tumors and unexpected gastric atrophy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This phenomenal case described in this article might be the new proven evidence needed by gastroenterologists to overturn the traditional treatment using total gastrectomy as a treatment of choice to the partial gastrectomy combined with proton pump inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Gastrinoma / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Survivors. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Histamine H2 Antagonists / pharmacology. Humans

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  • [CommentIn] Med Sci Monit. 2003 Sep;9(9):LE23 [14598848.001]
  • (PMID = 12070442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Histamine H2 Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 129
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11. Doggui MH, Ben Yaghlène L, Hefaiedh R, Bouguassas W, Mestiri A, Dellagi K: A gastric collision tumor composed of adenocarcinoma and gastrinoma: case report. Tunis Med; 2008 Aug;86(8):755-7
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  • [Title] A gastric collision tumor composed of adenocarcinoma and gastrinoma: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Collision tumors of the stomach are exceedingly rare, with only six previous reported instance in which adenocarcinoma of the stomach were found in association with carcinoid tumor.
  • AIM: we report the second case of Collision tumor between adenocarcinoma and gastrinoma.
  • OBSERVATION: A 55 years old man was admitted in our department for an exploration of gastric pain with rapid weight loss.
  • Upper endoscopy showed in the fundic region of the stomach an exophytic process wildly ulcerative in his center associated with the presence of a multiple polypoid tumors.
  • The pathologic examination of the biopsy specimen of the process revealed an adenocarcinoma and of the polypoid tumors showed a carcinoid type tumor.
  • There was no merged appearance between both tumors suggesting collision tumor.
  • The biopsies of the non tumoral gastric mucosa were normal.
  • The diagnosis of collision type tumors between adenocarcinoma and gastrinoma was retained.
  • The patient was treated by chemotherapy but he died three months after initiation of chemotherapy because of tumoral progression.
  • CONCLUSION: Through this observation and with a review of literature, the coexistence of adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor of the stomach is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gastrinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19472762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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12. Manfredi S, Pagenault M, de Lajarte-Thirouard AS, Bretagne JF: Type 1 and 2 gastric carcinoid tumors: long-term follow-up of the efficacy of treatment with a slow-release somatostatin analogue. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;19(11):1021-5
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  • [Title] Type 1 and 2 gastric carcinoid tumors: long-term follow-up of the efficacy of treatment with a slow-release somatostatin analogue.
  • Little is known about the long-term results of treating gastric carcinoid tumors with a slow-release somatostatin analogue.
  • We report three patients with type 1 and 2 gastric carcinoid tumors who were treated in the above mentioned way and followed for 27-50 months.
  • Treatment with a slow-release somatostatin analogue was begun in light of a favorable recent report.
  • No side-effects were reported and, most notably, none of the patients developed gallstones.
  • This small study may help define the optimal duration, dose, and administration interval of the treatment.
  • Slow-release somatostatin analogue is a safe and efficacious treatment for type 1 and 2 gastric carcinoid tumors, and can be used when tumors are growing rapidly.
  • Slow-release somatostatin analogue represents an alternative to repeated endoscopic treatment or high-risk surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18049175.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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13. Nakamura Y, Okada Y, Endo C, Aikawa H, Sakurada A, Sato M, Kondo T: Endobronchial carcinoid tumor combined with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection: report of two cases. Lung Cancer; 2003 Feb;39(2):227-9
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  • [Title] Endobronchial carcinoid tumor combined with pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection: report of two cases.
  • We report here two cases of endobronchial carcinoid tumor complicated with pulmonary infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM).
  • Bronchoscopy showed complete obstruction of the left basal bronchus by a tumor and a sleeve lower lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Pathological examination showed typical carcinoid located in the left basal bronchus and many caseous granulomas containing mycobacteria in the lung parenchyma distal to the bronchus.
  • Bacterial examinations of sputum and gastric juice after the operation showed a growth of Mycobacterium kansasii.
  • Bronchoscopy showed complete obstruction of the left upper division bronchus by a tumor and a left upper lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Pathological examination showed typical carcinoid located in the left upper division bronchus and many caseous granulomas in the lung parenchyma distal to the bronchus.
  • We also discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for the specific relationship between carcinoid tumor and TNM.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchial Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Mycobacterium avium Complex / isolation & purification. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection / complications. Mycobacterium kansasii / isolation & purification. Pneumonia, Bacterial / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Bronchoscopy. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Female. Gastric Juice / microbiology. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Sputum / microbiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
  • (PMID = 12581578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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14. Corbetta S, Peracchi M, Cappiello V, Lania A, Lauri E, Vago L, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A: Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with pancreatic and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: identification of one pancreatic ghrelinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Jul;88(7):3117-20
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  • [Title] Circulating ghrelin levels in patients with pancreatic and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors: identification of one pancreatic ghrelinoma.
  • Although the expression of ghrelin has been demonstrated in most gastrointestinal carcinoids and pancreatic tumors, the circulating levels of this peptide have been marginally assessed in patients with these disorders.
  • We measured plasma ghrelin levels in 16 patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid (10 with midgut and 6 with gastric carcinoid), 24 patients with pancreatic tumor (8 with gastrinoma, 2 with insulinoma, 2 with vipoma, 1 with glucagonoma, and 11 with nonfunctioning tumor), and 35 healthy controls.
  • Plasma ghrelin levels recorded in patients with gastroenteropancreatic tumors were similar to controls (mean +/- SE, 182.7 +/- 66.5 pM in patients vs. 329 +/- 32 pM in controls, P = not significant), and no significant difference between gastrointestinal and pancreatic, functioning and nonfunctioning, and metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors was observed.
  • One patient with metastatic nonfunctioning pancreatic tumor had circulating ghrelin levels of 12,000 pM that were slightly reduced during chemotherapy and interferon therapy.
  • In conclusion, the study showed that carcinoids and pancreatic tumors rarely cause ghrelin hypersecretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / blood. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / blood. Pancreatic Neoplasms / blood. Peptide Hormones / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Gastrinoma / blood. Ghrelin. Glucagonoma / blood. Humans. Insulinoma / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Vipoma / blood

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  • (PMID = 12843152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones
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15. Treska V, Liska V, Skalický T, Sutnar A, Smíd D, Narsanská A, Vachtová M, Tresková I, Brůha J, Vycítal O: [Liver metastases of other than colorectal origin]. Rozhl Chir; 2010 Mar;89(3):202-7
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  • Liver metastases of so called non-colorectal carcinomas are significantly less common, and considering different biological character of these metastases, compared to colorectal ones, surgical management of some of these types is debatable, however, in some cases remains highly successful.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the authors' outcomes of surgical and termoablation therapy of non-colorectal liver metastases.
  • METHODS: The authors present their experience with surgical treatment in 68 patients - mean age of 58.2 y.o.a (33.1-77.5) with liver metastases of non-colorectal carcinomas- NKJM (the commonest types: breast carcinoma--32.4%, carcinoid--20.6%, renal carcinoma--13.3%, gynecological tumors--13.3%, gastrointestinal stromal tumor--4.4%, gastric carcinoma--4.4% ) during 2001-2008.
  • The mean time after primary surgery for carcinoma was 3.9 years (0-8.5 let).
  • Preoperative chemotherapeutical "downstaging" or portal vein embolization on the tumor side, in order to improve the NKJM resecability, was performed in 10 subjects (14.7%).
  • Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, combined with biological treatment in some patients, was administered to a total of 33 patients (48.5%).
  • RESULTS: One year after the procedure and RFA, a total of 88.6% of patients were surviving, at 3 years 72.5 % and at 5 years 36.9% of the subjects.
  • Considering four commonest tumors (breast carcinoma, carcinoid, gynecological carcinomas and renal carcinoma), the best 5-year survival rates were recorded in patients with carcinoid metastases (100%), 33.8% of patients with breast metastases were surviving at 5 years, 44.4% of patients with renal carcinoma metastases were surviving at 3 years and 72.9% of patients with gynecological tumors were surviving at 2 years.
  • CONCLUSION: Liver resection and RFA have their definite place in multimodal treatment strategy in the management of non- colorectal carcinoma liver metastases (NKJM).

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  • (PMID = 20514918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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16. Watari J, Sakurai J, Morita T, Oshima T, Hori K, Miwa H: [Therapeutic trends of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with negative H. pylori status]. Nihon Rinsho; 2009 Dec;67(12):2378-86
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic trends of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with negative H. pylori status].
  • Many diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract developed in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, thus the conditions unrelated to H. pylori are rare.
  • Here, we described the therapeutic trends of diseases in H. pylori negative individuals.
  • Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is superior to H2 receptor antagonist in both gastroesohageal reflux disease (GERD) including reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) whereas therapeutic gains of PPI treatment for NERD patients are lower than those reported in GERD because of heterogeneity of NERD pathophysiology.
  • Endoscopic therapy for PPI refractory GERD patients remains to be established because there are few studies concerning the effectiveness or safety of the procedures.
  • Main cause of H. pylori-negative ulcer diseases is the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • PPI therapy is effective for both the prevention and treatment of NSAIDs-induced peptic ulcer.
  • Gastric cancer and carcinoid tumor should be treated with endoscopic or surgical resection regardless of H. pylori infection.
  • As for the treatment for gastric H. pylori-negative MALT lymphoma, radiation therapy (RT) should be selected first, and next chemotherapy will be given to the patients who failed to RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastroesophageal Reflux / drug therapy. Peptic Ulcer / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Gastritis / therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy. Proton Pump Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19999128.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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17. Bajetta E, Bichisao E, Artale S, Celio L, Ferrari L, Di Bartolomeo M, Zilembo N, Stani SC, Buzzoni R: New clinical trials for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors. Q J Nucl Med; 2000 Mar;44(1):96-101

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New clinical trials for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors.
  • In oncology there is an increasing interest in neuroendocrine tumors, whose incidence is generally considered low, although in a recent analysis of 5,468 cases there was an increase in the proportion of pulmonary and gastric carcinoids and a decrease in the appendiceal carcinoids.
  • However carcinoid tumors are indolent and their diagnosis is often difficult to carry out, so the true incidence may be higher.
  • Surgery remains the treatment of choice and it should always be considered in patients with neuroendocrine tumors although a complete cure is difficult to obtain.
  • Cytotoxic chemotherapy is the medical treatment for highly proliferating neuroendocrine tumors, but it has showed a modest benefit.
  • Somatostatin analogues, octreotide and lanreotide are the standard hormonal treatment for neuroendocrine tumors.
  • However, there are methodological and clinical aspects which make it difficult to carry out new trials for studying neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10932606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1125-0135
  • [Journal-full-title] The quarterly journal of nuclear medicine : official publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Q J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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18. Lendel I, Manni A, Ruggiero FM: Novel association of duodenal gastrinoma and atrophic gastritis: case report and literature review. Endocr Pract; 2007 Nov-Dec;13(7):770-5
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  • RESULTS: In a 46-year-old woman with a history of stable pituitary microprolactinoma, multiple gastrointestinal symptoms developed and prompted the performance of an esophagogastroduodenoscopy in conjunction with small bowel biopsies.
  • A 2-mm duodenal gastrin-producing neuroendocrine tumor was discovered.
  • The tumor stained negative for serotonin and somatostatin and involved the mucosa and submucosa.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of the gastrinoma tissue with a monoclonal antibody to the cholecystokinin-B (gastrin) receptor was negative.
  • After pantoprazole therapy was discontinued, the serum gastrin level remained elevated at 403 pg/mL.
  • There was no family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and genetic testing for the MEN1 mutation was negative.
  • An upper endoscopy with measurement of gastric pH and performance of gastric biopsies confirmed the presence of chronic atrophic gastritis.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with atrophic gastritis and associated hypergastrinemia are known to have a high frequency of hypergastrinemia-induced gastric carcinoid tumors, some of which are actual gastrinomas or are thought to arise from the G cells of the stomach.
  • Gastrin is a well-recognized growth factor for many tissues.
  • No gastrin receptors were detected on the gastrinoma cells; however, that result might have been attributable to technical (fixation or antibody) or tumor (dedifferentiation) problems.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / secretion. Female. Gastrins / blood. Gastrins / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prolactinoma / complications. Prolactinoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18194935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrins
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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19. Palmeri ML, Frinkley KD, Zhai L, Gottfried M, Bentley RC, Ludwig K, Nightingale KR: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging of the gastrointestinal tract. Ultrason Imaging; 2005 Apr;27(2):75-88
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  • The evaluation of lesions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using ultrasound can suffer from poor contrast between healthy and diseased tissue.
  • Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging provides information about the mechanical properties of tissue using brief, high-intensity, focused ultrasound to generate radiation force and ultrasonic correlation-based methods to track the resulting tissue displacement.
  • ARFI images of an adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal (GE) junction, status-post chemotherapy and radiation treatment, demonstrate better contrast between healthy and fibrotic/malignant tissue than standard B-mode images.
  • ARFI images of healthy gastric, esophageal, and colonic tissue specimens differentiate normal anatomic tissue layers (i.e., mucosal, muscularis and adventitial layers), as confirmed by histologic evaluation.
  • An endocavity probe created ARFI images to a depth of over 2 cm in tissue-mimicking phantoms, with maximum displacements of 4 microm.
  • These findings support the clinical feasibility of endocavity ARFI imaging to guide diagnosis and staging of disease processes in the GI tract.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnostic imaging. Humans. Phantoms, Imaging. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16231837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-7346
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasonic imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrason Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114075; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB002132; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / T32 GM-07171
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Jensen RT: Consequences of long-term proton pump blockade: insights from studies of patients with gastrinomas. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol; 2006 Jan;98(1):4-19
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  • Proton pump inhibitors are being increasingly used and for longer periods of time, especially in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  • Both long-term effects of hypergastrinaemia due to the profound acid suppression caused by proton pump inhibitors as well as the effects of hypo-/achlorhydria per se have been raised and studied.
  • Potential areas of concern that have been raised in the long-term use of proton pump inhibitors, which could alter this risk-benefit ratio include: gastric carcinoid formation; the development of rebound acid hypersecretion when proton pump inhibitor treatment is stopped; the development of tolerance; increased oxyntic gastritis in H. pylori patients and the possibility of increasing the risk of gastric cancer; the possible stimulation of growth of non-gastric tumours due to hypergastrinaemia; and the possible effect of the hypo/achlorhydria on nutrient absorption, particularly iron and vitamin B12.
  • Most patients with gastrinomas with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have life-long hypergastrinaemia, require continuous proton pump inhibitors treatment and a number of studies report results of >5-10 years of tratment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / etiology. Gastric Acid / secretion. Gastrinoma / metabolism. Gastrins / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Agents / adverse effects. Proton Pump Inhibitors. Stomach Neoplasms / etiology. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Drug Tolerance. Enterochromaffin-like Cells / drug effects. Enterochromaffin-like Cells / metabolism. Enterochromaffin-like Cells / pathology. Gastric Mucosa / drug effects. Gastric Mucosa / metabolism. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Gastritis / etiology. Gastroesophageal Reflux / drug therapy. Gastroesophageal Reflux / metabolism. Gastroesophageal Reflux / microbiology. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Malabsorption Syndromes / etiology. Peptic Ulcer / drug therapy. Peptic Ulcer / metabolism. Peptic Ulcer / microbiology. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Jan;98(1):3 [16433885.001]
  • (PMID = 16433886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-7835
  • [Journal-full-title] Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrins; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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21. Tomassetti P, Salomone T, Migliori M, Campana D, Corinaldesi R: Optimal treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and related conditions in elderly patients. Drugs Aging; 2003;20(14):1019-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal treatment of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and related conditions in elderly patients.
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is characterised by refractory peptic ulcer disease, severe diarrhoea and gastric acid hypersecretion associated with an islet-cell tumour of the pancreas (gastrinoma).
  • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is sporadic in 62-80% of cases and in 20-38% of cases is associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1).
  • The diagnosis of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is certain when the plasma gastrin is >1000 pg/mL and the basal acid output is >15 mEq/h in patients with an intact stomach, >5 mEq/h in gastrectomised patients, or when this hypergastrinemia is associated with a pH <2.
  • The treatment is based on control of gastric acid hypersecretion and of the malignant tumour and its possible metastases.
  • Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective antisecretory drugs and can be administered in the elderly at high dosages without drug-related adverse effects.
  • As an initial therapy, daily dosages of omeprazole 80-100 mg or pantoprazole 40-160 mg are employed.
  • In long-term treatment the doses can be greatly reduced once effective control of the gastric output has been established.
  • Intravenous proton pump inhibitors may be administered when patients cannot take oral therapy, particularly in acute conditions.
  • When liver metastases are also present, their debulking may improve symptoms and survival, and facilitate medical treatment.
  • Somatostatin analogues can be useful in reducing gastric acid hypersecretion, serum gastrin and gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and can thus contribute to treating the disease more effectively.
  • Chemotherapy is not the therapy of choice in patients with gastrinomas and is indicated only in those with malignant progressive disease; interferon alpha, embolisation and chemoembolisation are not advisable for the elderly.
  • The treatment of elderly Zollinger-Ellison syndrome patients, similarly to all elderly oncological patients, should be based on the use of comprehensive geriatric assessment.
  • This will enable the clinician to define the functional status of the elderly person, to decide whether the patient can tolerate surgery and/or the stress of antineoplastic therapy, and finally, to determine whether this patient can tolerate an aggressive treatment for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or whether the only possible choice is palliative relief of symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Geriatrics. Helicobacter pylori. Histamine H2 Antagonists / therapeutic use. Proton Pump Inhibitors. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications

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  • (PMID = 14651442.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histamine H2 Antagonists; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 143
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22. Kianmanesh R, O'toole D, Sauvanet A, Ruszniewski P, Belghiti J: [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors]. J Chir (Paris); 2005 May-Jun;142(3):132-49
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  • [Title] [Surgical treatment of gastric, enteric, and pancreatic endocrine tumors Part 1. Treatment of primary endocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement chirurgical des tumeurs endocrines gastro-entéro-pancréatiques.
  • Endocrine tumors (ET) of the digestive tract (formerly called neuroendocrine tumors) are rare.
  • They are classified into two principal types: gastrointestinal ET's (formerly called carcinoid tumors) which are the most common, and pancreaticoduodenal ET's.
  • Poorly-differentiated ET's have a poor prognosis and are treated by chemotherapy.
  • Surgical excision is the only curative treatment of well-differentiated ET's.
  • The surgical goals are to: 1. prolong survival by resecting the primary tumor and any nodal or hepatic metastases, 2. control the symptoms related to hormonal secretion, 3. prevent or treat local complications.
  • The most common sites of gastrointestinal ET's ( carcinoids) are the appendix and the rectum; these are often small (<1 cm), benign, and discovered fortuitously at the time of appendectomy or colonoscopic removal.
  • The carcinoid syndrome (consisting of abdominal pain, flushing, diarrhea, hypertension, bronchospasm, and right sided cardiac vegetations) is caused by the hypersecretion of serotonin into the systemic circulation; it occurs in 10% of cases and is usually associated with hepatic metastases.
  • They are usually malignant and of advanced stage at diagnosis presenting as a palpable or obstructing mass or as liver metastases.
  • Insulinoma and gastrinoma (cause of the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) are the most common functional ET's. 80% are sporadic; in these cases, tumor size, location, and malignant potential determine the type of resection which may vary from a simple enucleation to a formal pancreatectomy.
  • In 10-20% of cases, pancreaticoduodenal ET presents in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia (NEM type I), an autosomal-dominant genetic disease with multifocal endocrine involvement of the pituitary, parathyroid, pancreas, and adrenal glands.
  • For insulinoma with NEM-I, enucleation of lesions in the pancreatic head plus a caudal pancreatectomy is the most appropriate procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Carcinoma, Islet Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Insulinoma / surgery. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Gastrinoma / surgery. Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / surgery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / diagnosis. Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome / surgery. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Pancreatectomy. Postoperative Care. Postoperative Complications. Prognosis. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / surgery. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16142076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-7697
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chir (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 236
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23. Nikou GC, Lygidakis NJ, Toubanakis C, Pavlatos S, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Giannatou E, Mallas E, Safioleas M: Current diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoids in a series of 101 patients: the significance of serum chromogranin-A, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin analogues. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 May-Jun;52(63):731-41
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  • [Title] Current diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoids in a series of 101 patients: the significance of serum chromogranin-A, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin analogues.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoids are relatively rare tumors that arise from neuroendocrine cells and have proved to be slow growing malignancies which involve many organs and most frequently the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
  • Herein we present in this study 101 pts with carcinoid tumors that originated from the GI tract and pancreas.
  • The primary tumors originated from the GI tract in 97/101 pts (appendix 34%, small intestine 31%, stomach 14%, duodenum 6%, colon 6%, rectum 3%) and from the pancreas in 4/101 (4%).
  • The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in all cases, after surgical excision of the primary tumor or by biopsies taken during endoscopy.
  • All pts were evaluated several times per year with clinical, biochemical and imaging assessments, including neuroendocrine markers [urinary 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), serum Chromogranin-A (CgA)] and Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphy (OCTREOSCAN).
  • The follow-up period ranged between 1.5 to 12.5 years (mean time: 5 years and 3 months) and it is still in progress.
  • RESULTS: Patients were referred to us with gastrointestinal symptoms or symptoms of the "carcinoid syndrome" (flushing, and diarrhea), depending mainly on the location of the primary tumors and the existence or not of metastases.
  • Furthermore, it revealed the primary and the metastatic lesions in 16% and 33% of pts with carcinoids of the small intestine respectively, while other conventional imaging procedures (including MRI) were negative at the same time.
  • Seventy-four percent of the pts underwent a surgical resection of the primary tumor, while in 21%, an endoscopic polypectomy was performed.
  • All pts with metastatic tumors and positive OCTREOSCAN, were treated with Somatostatin analogues, which resulted in control of symptoms (75%), stabilization of tumor growth (71%) or tumor shrinkage (9%).
  • A combined therapy with the addition of interferon-a was initiated in pts in whom, despite the increase of drug dosage and the shortening of administration intervals, a complete clinical and biochemical response was no more achieved with Somatostatin analogues alone.
  • Pancreatic carcinoids and also those that originated from the proximal colon were found to have worst prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: a) Tumor size (especially in appendiceal and gastric carcinoids) and, also, the dispersion of disease, highly predict the evolution of the patients;.
  • b) serum Chromogranin-A seems to be a very useful tumor marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of pts with GI carcinoids;.
  • c) the introduction of new imaging techniques and especially OCTREOSCAN contributes to a better localization of the primary tumors and their metastases, as well as, to the right decision of the appropriate medical treatment;.
  • d) surgical excision is the treatment of choice in nonmetastatic tumors; and e) in pts with metastatic disease, the administration of Somatostatin analogues improves their quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Chromogranins / blood. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptors, Somatostatin / blood. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 15966194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CHGA protein, human; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 54-16-0 / Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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24. Mrad K, Morice P, Fabre A, Pautier P, Lhommé C, Duvillard P, Sabourin JC: Krukenberg tumor: a clinico-pathological study of 15 cases. Ann Pathol; 2000 May;20(3):202-6
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  • [Title] Krukenberg tumor: a clinico-pathological study of 15 cases.
  • Krukenberg tumor clinically mimics primary ovarian cancer.
  • We report a series of 15 cases of Krukenberg tumor.
  • A primary digestive tumor was diagnosed pre-operatively in 3 cases, per-operatively in 3 cases and post-operatively in 4 cases.
  • No primary tumor was identified in the 5 other cases.
  • Histological diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor is usually easy either on paraffin or frozen sections.
  • Two main histological types were found in our series : the classic form with sarcoma-like storiform tumoral stroma and an alternative cellular-acellular pattern.
  • Mucinous carcinoid was microscopically challenged in two cases.
  • Nor surgery, neither chemotherapy is efficient but bilateral oophorectomy should be proposed in post-menopausal women with gastric linitis removed surgically.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 10891713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
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25. Modlin IM, Kidd M, Latich I, Zikusoka MN, Shapiro MD: Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids. Gastroenterology; 2005 May;128(6):1717-51
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  • [Title] Current status of gastrointestinal carcinoids.
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoids are ill-understood, enigmatic malignancies, which, although slow growing compared with adenocarcinomas, can behave aggressively.
  • Carcinoids are classified based on organ site and cell of origin and occur most frequently in the GI (67%) where they are most common in small intestine (25%), appendix (12%), and rectum (14%).
  • Local manifestations--mass, bleeding, obstruction, or perforation--reflect invasion or tumor-induced fibrosis and often result in incidental detection at emergency surgery.
  • Biochemical diagnosis is established by elevation of plasma chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, or urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), while topographic localization is by Octreoscan, computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan, or endoscopy/ultrasound.
  • Primary therapy is surgical excision to avert local manifestations and decrease hormone secretion.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have minimal efficacy and substantially decrease quality of life.
  • Local endoscopic excision for gastric (type I and II) and rectal carcinoids may be adequate.
  • Somatostatin analogues provide the most effective symptomatic therapy, although interferon has some utility.
  • Overall 5-year survival for carcinoids of the appendix is 98%, gastric (types I/II) is 81%, rectum is 87%, small intestinal is 60%, colonic carcinoids is 62%, and gastric type III/IV is 33%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy


26. Laine L, Ahnen D, McClain C, Solcia E, Walsh JH: Review article: potential gastrointestinal effects of long-term acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2000 Jun;14(6):651-68
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This review examines the evidence for the development of adverse effects due to prolonged gastric acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors.
  • Potential areas of concern regarding long-term proton pump inhibitor use have included: carcinoid formation; development of gastric adenocarcinoma (especially in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection); bacterial overgrowth; enteric infections; and malabsorption of fat, minerals, and vitamins.
  • Prolonged proton pump inhibitor use may lead to enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia, but has not been demonstrated to increase the risk of carcinoid formation.
  • Long-term proton pump inhibitor treatment has not been documented to hasten the development or the progression of atrophic gastritis to intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer, although long-term studies are required to allow definitive conclusions.
  • Gastric bacterial overgrowth does increase with acid suppression, but important clinical sequelae, such a higher rate of gastric adenocarcinoma, have not been seen.
  • However, vitamin B12 concentration may be decreased when gastric acid is markedly suppressed for prolonged periods (e.g.
  • Thus, current evidence suggests that prolonged gastric acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors rarely, if ever, produces adverse events.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemically induced. Anti-Ulcer Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoid Tumor / chemically induced. Gastric Acid / metabolism. Proton Pump Inhibitors. Stomach Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Helicobacter Infections / complications. Humans. Malabsorption Syndromes / chemically induced. Risk Factors. Stomach Diseases / chemically induced. Stomach Ulcer / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Jul;15(7):1085-6 [11421886.001]
  • [CommentIn] Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Nov;14(11):1537-8 [11069327.001]
  • [CommentIn] Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 May;15(5):729-30 [11328270.001]
  • (PMID = 10848649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 141
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27. Fykse V, Sandvik AK, Qvigstad G, Falkmer SE, Syversen U, Waldum HL: Treatment of ECL cell carcinoids with octreotide LAR. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2004 Jul;39(7):621-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of ECL cell carcinoids with octreotide LAR.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and hypergastrinaemia are at risk of developing hyperplasia of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and ECL-cell-derived tumours.
  • The effect of the somatostatin analogue octreotide on ECL cell carcinoids is examined.
  • METHODS: Five patients with hypergastrinaemia and ECL cell carcinoids were enrolled in a 1-year study of octreotide LAR (long-acting release) 20 mg given at monthly intervals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: During treatment the patients were still markedly hypergastrinaemic, whereas the serum CgA showed normalization.
  • A diminished tumour load and reduced ECL cell density were found, indicating an antiproliferative effect of octreotide directly on the ECL cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Enterochromaffin-like Cells / drug effects. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / blood. Chromogranins / drug effects. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Gastric Mucosa / drug effects. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Gastrins / blood. Gastrins / drug effects. Gastroscopy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15370681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Gastrins; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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28. Naunton M, Peterson GM, Bleasel MD: Overuse of proton pump inhibitors. J Clin Pharm Ther; 2000 Oct;25(5):333-40
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  • In particular, their potent action can suppress the features and delay the diagnosis of gastric cancer, while prolonged exposure may hasten the development of gastric carcinoids.
  • AIM: To examine the use of proton pump inhibitors in patients at the major teaching hospital in Tasmania, Australia, principally to determine the appropriateness of the therapy according to published guidelines.
  • Endoscopy had been performed in 54.1% of patients prior to commencing therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and within the next 7 days in another 12.8% of patients.
  • Only 59% of patients had previously been treated with an H2-receptor antagonist before commencing therapy with a proton pump inhibitor.
  • The median duration of proton pump inhibitor therapy for patients admitted to the hospital and already receiving one of the drugs was 450 days.
  • Over half of the patients were being concurrently treated with other drugs which are known to cause or exacerbate gastro-oesophageal disease, and 18% were smokers.
  • This poses economic and safety concerns, particularly in light of the suggestion that these drugs could delay the diagnosis of gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Utilization. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Australia. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Female. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11123484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-4727
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Pharm Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
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29. Nehra V, Camilleri M, Burton D, Oenning L, Kelly DG: An open trial of octreotide long-acting release in the management of short bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol; 2001 May;96(5):1494-8
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  • Baseline and posttreatment measurements of body weight, stool fat, sodium and potassium, and gastric and small bowel transit of a radiolabeled egg meal were compared by paired analysis.
  • The underlying diagnoses were Crohn's disease (n = 6), intestinal ischemia (n = 1), and resection for carcinoid tumor (n = 1).
  • Treatment with Sandostatin LAR Depot significantly increased small bowel transit time (p = 0.03).
  • Changes in body weight, urine volume, stool weight, fecal fat excretion, stool sodium and potassium excretion, or gastric emptying rate were highly variable, and no overall significance was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sandostatin LAR Depot for 15 wk significantly prolonged small bowel transit time.
  • Body weight and stool parameters in response to Sandostatin LAR Depot treatment needs to be assessed further in multicenter studies assessing dose, frequency of administration, and a larger sample size.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Short Bowel Syndrome / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Weight / drug effects. Delayed-Action Preparations. Diuresis / drug effects. Electrolytes / analysis. Fats / analysis. Feces / chemistry. Female. Gastrointestinal Transit / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11374688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK-02638; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK54681; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00585
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / Fats; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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30. Fykse V, Sandvik AK, Waldum HL: One-year follow-up study of patients with enterochromaffin-like cell carcinoids after treatment with octreotide long-acting release. Scand J Gastroenterol; 2005 Nov;40(11):1269-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] One-year follow-up study of patients with enterochromaffin-like cell carcinoids after treatment with octreotide long-acting release.
  • OBJECTIVE: In a one-year study of 5 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), pernicious anaemia (PA), hypergastrinaemia and enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell tumours, the somatostatin analogue octreotide LAR (long-acting release) in a dose of 20 mg given intramuscularly at monthly intervals had an antiproliferative effect on the ECL cells.
  • The aim of the present study was to follow neuroendocrine (NE) markers in the blood and macroscopic and histopathological changes in the stomach during a 12-month follow-up after discontinuation of octreotide LAR treatment.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at 6 and 12 months' follow-up after octreotide LAR treatment.
  • Sections were stained with haematoxylin-erythrosin and immunostained for the NE cell marker chromogranin A (CgA).
  • One lesion showed carcinoid tumour and the others various degrees of linear and micronodular NE hyperplasia.
  • At the same time-point, biopsies from flat, oxyntic mucosa showed a slightly (non-significant) elevated number of CgA immunoreactive (IR) cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: During follow-up, slightly elevated levels of serum CgA and CgA IR cells in the oxyntic mucosa, without significant recurrence of ECL cell carcinoids, were observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Delayed-Action Preparations / administration & dosage. Enterochromaffin Cells / drug effects. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Male. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16334435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5521
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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31. Hirayama F, Takagi S, Yokoyama Y, Yamamoto K, Iwao E, Haga K: Long-term effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication in Mongolian gerbils. J Gastroenterol; 2002;37(10):779-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: In this study, to clarify whether Helicobacter pylori eradication alters the course of the development of gastric mucosal changes in the stomach, we examined the long-term effects of H. pylori eradication on H. pylori-inoculated gerbils.
  • METHODS: A total of 40 H. pylori-inoculated gerbils were randomized and subjected, at 22 months after inoculation, to eradication treatment with dual therapy of omeprazole plus clarithromycin, or with therapy with a novel quinolone compound, Y-34867, alone.
  • The animals were killed at the start of administration (control group) or at 8 months after the completion of therapy (vehicle or eradication-treatment groups).
  • RESULTS: Severe histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa were observed in all H. pylori-inoculated gerbils at the start of administration.
  • At 8 months after completion of therapy, the frequency of gastritis, erosion, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoid in the eradication therapy groups was markedly reduced compared with that in the control and vehicle groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that H. pylori eradication may have had a therapeutic effect not only on gastritis, erosion, and gastric ulcer but also on glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Gastritis / pathology. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Infective Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-Ulcer Agents / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Bacterial / analysis. Clarithromycin / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Gerbillinae. Male. Omeprazole / administration & dosage. Quinolones / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12424560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Bacterial; 0 / Quinolones; 0 / Y34867; H1250JIK0A / Clarithromycin; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
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32. Pohle T, Domschke W: Results of short-and long-term medical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2000 Aug;385(5):317-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of short-and long-term medical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
  • Many find relief by avoiding trigger substances such as coffee or sweets; in other cases, lifestyle modifications do not suffice and drug treatment is necessary for symptom control.
  • TREATMENT AIMS: The control of symptoms should be achieved in all patients: in addition, if esophagitis is present, the healing of erosions/ulcers as well as the prevention of further complications, such as strictures, hemorrhage, Barrett's esophagus or ulceration, must be accomplished.
  • SHORT-TERM TREATMENT: In the case of rare symptoms, control might be achieved by lifestyle modifications and by antacids or mucosal protectants taken on demand.
  • In the case of continuous symptoms or signs of esophagitis, effective inhibition of gastric acid secretion with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is necessary in many patients.
  • PREVENTION OF RELAPSE: After discontinuation of medical therapy, almost all patients with esophagitis will experience a relapse within 30 weeks.
  • RISKS OF LONG-TERM TREATMENT: Long-term acid suppressive therapy, as with the use of PPIs, may lead to hypergastrinemia, a situation in which the endocrine cells of the stomach may proliferate.
  • In the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, PPIs are more efficient in healing esophagitis; however, the occurrence of gastric mucosal atrophy, a potentially pre-cancerous condition, has been described.
  • To date, however, no case of gastric cancer or endocrine neoplasia associated with PPI treatment has been documented; gastric mucosal atrophy is more likely to result from H. pylori infection and gastric carcinoid formation needs a genetic predisposition, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type I.
  • Long-term use of PPIs seems to be a safe and efficient treatment for GERD.

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  • (PMID = 11026702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0 / Histamine H2 Antagonists; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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33. Erlandsen SE, Fykse V, Waldum HL, Sandvik AK: Octreotide induces apoptosis in the oxyntic mucosa. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2007 Jan 29;264(1-2):188-96

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Previous studies show that octreotide LAR causes regression of gastric ECL-cell carcinoids, reducing both number and size of tumours.
  • Serum gastrin was measured and tissue samples for RNA extraction and histology collected from the oxyntic mucosa.
  • Verification by real time qRT-PCR showed a high degree of consistency to the microarray results.
  • Supporting the molecular results, histomorphometry showed significant decreases in the number of gastric glands, cells per gland and length of glands, and a tendency towards increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Gastric Mucosa / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Agents / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Octreotide / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17210224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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34. Tomassetti P, Migliori M, Caletti GC, Fusaroli P, Corinaldesi R, Gullo L: Treatment of type II gastric carcinoid tumors with somatostatin analogues. N Engl J Med; 2000 Aug 24;343(8):551-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of type II gastric carcinoid tumors with somatostatin analogues.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Gastrins / blood. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 10954763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-4793
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Gastrins; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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