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1. Ganguly R, Mitra S, Datta AK: Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):337-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland.
  • Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis.
  • Accordingly, anaplastic carcinomas have been seen to coincide with simultaneous papillary and follicular cancers.
  • We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years.
  • The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma.
  • The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy.
  • The common follicular cell origin will explain the concurrent presence of all these cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):434-5 [21623130.001]
  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):414-5; author reply 415 [21623114.001]
  • (PMID = 20551551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Sidibé el H: [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa]. Sante; 2007 Jan-Mar;17(1):33-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa].
  • Thyroid gland diseases vary according to the environment.
  • More cosmopolitan diseases are now added to these thyroid disorders.
  • The paucity of laboratories specializing in endocrinology and of nuclear medicine facilities, the delay in diagnosis that results in compressive or recurrent goiters, and endemic goiters are all typical in Africa.
  • Millet from semi-arid zones contains apigenin at a concentration of 150 mg/kg and luteolin at 350 mg/kg, both of which can interfere with thyroid function.
  • The proportion of thyroid surgery indicated for hyperthyroidism has tripled, now accounting for 18.5% of all such operations.
  • This disorder is found today in subjects older than 50 years, mainly from rural areas, and caused most often by Graves disease (25 of 51 cases).
  • Single-nodule tumors were assessed in 89 patients in Khartoum: they were found to be simple goiters in 72% of cases, follicular adenoma in 13.5%, cancer in 13.5% (with 6 of the 12 cases follicular, 5 papillary, and 1 anaplastic).
  • The sex ratio for thyroid cancer in Ouagadougou is 0.22, thus mainly women.
  • Thyroid cancer at Ibadan was found to be papillary carcinoma in 45.3% of cases; follicular forms were seen in 44.5% and this series includes 5% of medullary cancers (7 cases), with a mean age of 34 years.
  • Iodine deficiency is suggested to play a role because follicular cancer in southern Africa accounts for up to 55% of thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid cancers in Algeria are associated with low socioeconomic status and characterized by a high prevalence of cancers discovered at an advanced stage and of anaplastic carcinomas.
  • In conclusion, thyroid disease is due predominantly to iodine deficiency and goitrogenic products, but we also note the increasing emergence of hyperthyroidism, especially Graves disease, atrophic auto-immune hypothyroidism, and thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Age Factors. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Carbimazole / therapeutic use. Child. Female. Goiter / epidemiology. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Graves Disease / drug therapy. Graves Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / epidemiology. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Rural Population. Sex Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroiditis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17897900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1157-5999
  • [Journal-full-title] Santé (Montrouge, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sante
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 8KQ660G60G / Carbimazole
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3. Camacho CP, Latini FR, Oler G, Hojaij FC, Maciel RM, Riggins GJ, Cerutti JM: Down-regulation of NR4A1 in follicular thyroid carcinomas is restored following lithium treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Mar;70(3):475-83
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of NR4A1 in follicular thyroid carcinomas is restored following lithium treatment.
  • INTRODUCTION: The identification of follicular thyroid adenoma-associated transcripts will lead to a better understanding of the events involved in pathogenesis and progression of follicular tumours.
  • Using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, we identified five genes that are absent in a malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) library, but expressed in follicular adenoma (FTA) and normal thyroid libraries.
  • METHODS: NR4A1, one of the five genes, was validated in a set of 27 normal thyroid tissues, 10 FTAs and 14 FTCs and three thyroid carcinoma cell lines by real time PCR.
  • NR4A1 can be transiently increased by a variety of stimuli, including lithium, which is used as adjuvant therapy of thyroid carcinoma with (131)I.
  • To this end, lithium was used at different concentration (10 mm or 20 mm) and time (2 h and 24 h) and the level of expression was tested by quantitative PCR.
  • We next tested if Lithium could affect cell growth and apoptosis.
  • RESULTS: We observed that NR4A1 expression was under-expressed in most of the FTCs investigated, compared with expression in normal thyroid tissues and FTAs.
  • Lithium induced NR4A1 and FOSB expression, reduced CCDN1 expression, inhibited cell growth and triggered apoptosis in a FTC cell line.
  • Lithium restores NR4A1 expression, induces apoptosis and reduces cell growth.
  • These findings may explain a possible molecular mechanism of lithium's therapeutic action.

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  • (PMID = 18727708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113461-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA113461
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FOSB protein, human; 0 / Lithium Compounds; 0 / NR4A1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS93432; NLM/ PMC2742303
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4. Espiritu RP, Dean DS: Parathyroidectomy-induced thyroiditis. Endocr Pract; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):656-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: In 2 women (84 years old and 55 years old) with no history of thyroid disease in one of them and a remote history of excision of a follicular adenoma in the other, thyrotoxicosis developed a few days to a week after parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The first patient underwent bilateral cervical exploration with removal of a right inferior parathyroid adenoma, whereas the second patient had excision of 3 1/2 parathyroid glands for 4-gland hyperplasia and 2 benign nodules from the left thyroid lobe.
  • Neither patient had received any iodinated contrast agents or medications such as lithium or amiodarone before presentation.
  • Laboratory results showed elevated levels of free thyroxine, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, very low radioiodine uptake (in the second patient), and an elevated thyroglobulin level (in the first patient).
  • Thyroid function normalized and symptoms diminished after 1 to 2 months.
  • Candidates for parathyroidectomy should be informed of this potential complication, and thyroid function should be assessed if clinically indicated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyrotoxicosis / blood. Thyrotoxicosis / drug therapy. Thyrotoxicosis / epidemiology. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20350919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
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5. Johns Putra L, Lawrentschuk N, Ballok Z, Hannah A, Poon A, Tauro A, Davis ID, Hicks RJ, Bolton DM, Scott AM: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluation of germ cell tumor after chemotherapy. Urology; 2004 Dec;64(6):1202-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in evaluation of germ cell tumor after chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the assessment of germ cell tumors after chemotherapy.
  • 18F-FDG PET results were correlated with tissue histologic features where available; and if not available, the correlation was with the clinical outcome.
  • All patients had received chemotherapy.
  • In the nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) group, of the 31 patients with one scan, 18 PET scans were reported as positive, with only 2 not having active disease.
  • The equivocal scan revealed thyroid adenoma.
  • Four patients underwent salvage chemotherapy, and in this subgroup, the PET findings also correlated with the outcome.
  • CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FDG PET is a promising tool as an adjunct to current imaging techniques in detecting residual viable germ cell tumor after chemotherapy.
  • PET was also predictive of the response to salvage chemotherapy and was highly specific for active tumor in both NSGCT and seminoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm, Residual / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Salvage Therapy. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / radionuclide imaging

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  • [ErratumIn] Urology. 2005 Mar;65(3):632. Putra, L Johns [corrected to Johns Putra L]
  • (PMID = 15596197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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6. Matsumoto M, Ishiguro H, Tomita Y, Inoue H, Yasuda Y, Shimizu T, Shinagawa T, Hattori K, Yabe H, Kubota C, Yabe M, Kato S, Shinohara O: Changes in thyroid function after bone marrow transplant in young patients. Pediatr Int; 2004 Jun;46(3):291-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changes in thyroid function after bone marrow transplant in young patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Changes in thyroid function among young patients who received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) were evaluated.
  • Preconditioning regimen for BMT included 12 Gy of fractionated-total body irradiation (TBI) for patients with neoplastic disease and 3-8 Gy of irradiation for the remaining patients, in addition to chemotherapy.
  • Evaluation of thyroid function was performed by serial assessment of basal serum FT4, FT3, TSH concentrations as well as by TRH test.
  • In 33 patients whose thyroid status was evaluated before, within 3 months, and 1 year after BMT, serum FT3 concentrations as well as peak TSH response to TRH stimulation significantly decreased immediately after BMT (<3 months) and normalized within 1 year.
  • One patient developed primary hypothyroidism and another developed follicular adenoma of the thyroid 5 and 12 years after BMT, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Short-term changes in thyroid function after BMT can indicate euthyroid sick syndrome rather than tertiary hypothyroidism.
  • It must be noted that overt hypothyroidism may occur several years after BMT, hence long-term follow-up of thyroid function is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Euthyroid Sick Syndromes / diagnosis. Euthyroid Sick Syndromes / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypothyroidism / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Infant. Male. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone. Time Factors. Transplantation Conditioning

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  • (PMID = 15151545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1328-8067
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 5Y5F15120W / Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone
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7. Vidal-Trecan GM, Stahl JE, Durand-Zaleski I: Managing toxic thyroid adenoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2002 Mar;146(3):283-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Managing toxic thyroid adenoma: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the cost-effectiveness of therapeutic strategies for patients with toxic thyroid adenoma.
  • DESIGN: A decision analytic model was used to examine strategies, including thyroid lobectomy after a 3-month course of antithyroid drugs (ATDs), radioactive iodine (RAI), and lifelong ATDs followed by either RAI (ATD-RAI) or surgery (ATD-surgery) in patients suffering severe drug reactions.
  • Data on the prevalence of co-incident thyroid cancer, complications and treatment efficacies were derived from a systematic review of the literature (1966-2000).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age, surgical mortality, therapeutic costs and patient preference must all be considered in choosing an appropriate therapy.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Endocrinol. 2003 Mar;148(3):377-9; author reply 381-2 [12611622.001]
  • (PMID = 11888833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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8. Lukjanowicz M, Bobrowska-Snarska D, Brzosko M: [Coexistence of hypothyroidism with polymyositis or dermatomyositis]. Ann Acad Med Stetin; 2006;52 Suppl 2:49-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 46.1 years (40-54 years).
  • Four patients were diagnosed with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, in two patients the autoimmune etiology was probable, whereas one patient was diagnosed with hypothyroidism secondary to strumectomy for follicular adenoma.
  • RESULTS: Every patient suspected of poly/dermatomyositis should be tested for thyroid hormone levels to exclude hypothyroidism with muscle weakness arising from the polymyositis-like syndrome or alternatively to confirm the coexistence of hypothyroidism and poly/dermatomyositis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatomyositis / complications. Dermatomyositis / diagnosis. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Polymyositis / diagnosis. Polymyositis / drug therapy. Thyroid Hormones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Muscle Weakness / drug therapy. Muscle Weakness / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17471837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1427-440X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Acad Med Stetin
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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9. Camera A, Magri F, Fonte R, Villani L, Della Porta MG, Fregoni V, Manna LL, Chiovato L: Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):1033-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Burkitt-like lymphoma infiltrating a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma and presenting as a hot nodule.
  • BACKGROUND: Most solitary hyperfunctiong regions on thyroid scan consist of benign tissue.
  • SUMMARY: A 56-year-old man was referred to our Endocrine Unit in May 2009 due to the incidental discovery of a large left thyroid lobe nodule by a computed tomography study.
  • He was clinically and biochemically thyrotoxic with no evidence of humoral thyroid autoimmunity.
  • The nodule had a dyshomogenous appearance at neck ultrasonography, with multiple hypoechogenic areas and calcifications. (99m)-Technetium thyroid scintiscan revealed a hot nodule with suppression of the contralateral lobe.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated the presence of neoplastic cells not of thyroid origin.
  • Histological analysis of the surgical specimen led to a diagnosis of Burkitt-like large B-cell lymphoma harbored within a thyroid adenoma.
  • After further staging, the final diagnosis was stage IV E Burkitt-like lymphoma with the involvement of the bone and the thyroid.
  • This is the first description of an aggressive Burkitt-like lymphoma that infiltrated an hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma, thus presenting as a hot nodule at thyroid scintiscan.
  • In our patient there was no humoral or histological evidence of thyroid autoimmunity, thus suggesting a metastatic seeding of the lymphoma within the hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of the thyroid gland by Burkitt-like lymphoma is extremely rare as is close localization of malignancy and a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Burkitt Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Technetium. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20825299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7440-26-8 / Technetium; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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10. Zakavi SR, Mousavi Z, Davachi B: Comparison of four different protocols of I-131 therapy for treating single toxic thyroid nodule. Nucl Med Commun; 2009 Feb;30(2):169-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of four different protocols of I-131 therapy for treating single toxic thyroid nodule.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare low and high doses as well as fixed and calculated doses of I-131 in treating toxic thyroid adenoma.
  • METHODS AND PATIENTS: In a prospective study, patients with hyperthyroidism and a single hot thyroid nodule and 24-h radioactive iodine uptake of more than 25% were randomly treated with one of four protocols: fixed low dose (FLD, 481 MBq), fixed high dose (FHD, 832 MBq), calculated low dose (CLD, 3.33-3.70 MBq/g), and calculated high dose (CHD, 6.66-7.4 MBq/g).
  • The patients were asked to visit the endocrinologist 2 and 6 months after treatment and every 6 months thereafter.
  • A curative effect was considered as absence of thyroid stimulating hormone suppression (thyroid stimulating hormone>0.3).
  • No significant difference was noted in the four groups regarding age, sex ratio, thyroid uptake, and thyroid weight.
  • About 10 months after therapy, cure of hyperthyroidism was higher in CHD group compared with other groups.
  • CONCLUSION: CHD protocol is preferable in old patients with toxic adenoma whereas CLD is more appropriate in young patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Radiopharmaceuticals / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19194214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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11. Vetshev PS, Chilingaridi KE, Bannyĭ DA, Dmitriev EE: [Repeated surgeries on the thyroid gland in nodular euthyroid goiter]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2004;(8):37-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Repeated surgeries on the thyroid gland in nodular euthyroid goiter].
  • Medical histories of 214 patients hospitalized with diagnosis "recurrent nodular goiter" were studied retrospectively.
  • Other patients (15.9%) were the ones underwent surgery for other thyroid diseases (hypertrophied form of autoimmune thyroiditis, follicular adenoma, thyroid cysts, thyroid cancer).
  • Inadequate surgery and prophylactic therapy with iodine drugs were the main causes of recurrent goiter.
  • Adequate iodine prophylaxis (potassium iodide 100-200 mg per day), complex examination of patients, correct indications for primary surgery and adequate surgical volume, valuable postoperative therapy (iodine drug, LT-4 if it is necessary) permit to reduce the risk of recurrent nodular (multiple-nodular, diffuse-nodular) goiter.
  • Ways of researches for improvement of diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment results of "recurrence nodular goiter" are projected.

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  • (PMID = 15340316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
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13. Vidal-Trecan GM, Stahl JE, Eckman MH: Radioiodine or surgery for toxic thyroid adenoma: dissecting an important decision. A cost-effectiveness analysis. Thyroid; 2004 Nov;14(11):933-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radioiodine or surgery for toxic thyroid adenoma: dissecting an important decision. A cost-effectiveness analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the cost effectiveness of therapeutic strategies for toxic thyroid adenoma.
  • DESIGN: Markov state transition decision analytic model.
  • PATIENTS: Hypothetical cohort of 40- year-old women with toxic thyroid adenomas.
  • Data on the prevalence of coincident thyroid cancer, complications, and treatment efficacies were derived from a systematic review of the literature.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Thyroid lobectomy after a 3 month-course of antithyroid drugs (ATDs), high-dose (<555 MBq) radioactive iodine (RAI), low-dose (>555 MBq) RAI, and lifelong ATDs.
  • However, for any given patient, surgical mortality, therapeutic costs and preference must be considered in choosing an appropriate therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adenoma / surgery. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotoxicosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antithyroid Agents / economics. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Drug Costs. Female. Health Care Costs. Humans. Markov Chains. Middle Aged. Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15671772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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14. Megson MN: Is autism a G-alpha protein defect reversible with natural vitamin A? Med Hypotheses; 2000 Jun;54(6):979-83
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  • Autism may be a disorder linked to the disruption of the G-alpha protein, affecting retinoid receptors in the brain.
  • Those most at risk report a family history of at least one parent with a pre-existing G-alpha protein defect, including night blindness, pseudohypoparathyroidism or adenoma of the thyroid or pituitary gland.
  • Recent evidence indicates that autism is a disorder of the nervous system and the immune system, affecting multiple metabolic pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Autistic Disorder / drug therapy. Autistic Disorder / genetics. GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics. Vitamin A / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Choline / therapeutic use. Humans. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 10867750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-9877
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SCOTLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 11103-57-4 / Vitamin A; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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15. Imai T, Onose J, Hasumura M, Ueda M, Takizawa T, Hirose M: Sequential analysis of development of invasive thyroid follicular cell carcinomas in inflamed capsular regions of rats treated with sulfadimethoxine after N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiation. Toxicol Pathol; 2004 Mar-Apr;32(2):229-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sequential analysis of development of invasive thyroid follicular cell carcinomas in inflamed capsular regions of rats treated with sulfadimethoxine after N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiation.
  • A 2-stage thyroid follicular carcinogenesis model in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN) is widely used to detect modifying effects of chemicals on thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • A number of goitrogens are known to strongly promote carcinogenesis, and the carcinomas often originate adjacent to the thyroid capsule and show invasive growth into the capsule or adjacent tissues.
  • In DHPN-SDM-treated rats, multiple focal hyperplasias and adenomas developed in thyroid follicular parenchyma at weeks 4 to 6.
  • Apart from the proliferative lesions, capsular thickening with inflammatory cell infiltration, mainly consisting of macrophages, and migration of follicular epithelium into the capsule were also observed.
  • Focal hyperplasias/adenomas adjacent to the capsule progressively developed to invasive carcinomas at weeks 6 to 10.
  • In thyroid parenchyma, malignant lesions were seldom observed.
  • With SDM-treatment alone, although no neoplastic lesions were observed, capsular thickening with inflammation and epithelial migration resulted in intracapsular residual follicles.
  • Intracapsular residual follicular cells as well as invasive and intrathyroidal carcinoma cells generally showed increased cell proliferative activity, coincidental with cytoplasmic/nuclear positivity for beta-catenin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemically induced. Carcinogens / toxicity. Nitrosamines / toxicity. Sulfadimethoxine / toxicity. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemically induced. Adenoma / pathology. Administration, Oral. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Drug Therapy, Combination. Hyperplasia. Injections, Subcutaneous. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Water Supply. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15200161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Ctnnb1 protein, rat; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Nitrosamines; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 30CPC5LDEX / Sulfadimethoxine; 4J072HB2ND / diisopropanolnitrosamine
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16. Koren R, Bernheim J, Schachter P, Schwartz A, Siegal A, Gal R: Black thyroid adenoma. Clinical, histochemical, and ultrastructural features. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2000 Mar;8(1):80-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Black thyroid adenoma. Clinical, histochemical, and ultrastructural features.
  • A 22-year-old woman with a "hot" thyroid nodule who was being treated with minocycline for severe acne vulgaris is presented.
  • A partial thyroidectomy specimen revealed a black adenoma.
  • Microscopically, the black pigment was found in the follicular cells and the colloid of the adenoma.
  • However, electron microscopic examination revealed a dense osmophilic material present within the lysosomes of the follicular cells.
  • Twenty-six previously reported cases are reviewed, and the possible mechanisms for the deposition of the pigment in the adenoma and its relation to minocycline degradation products are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 10937053.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; FYY3R43WGO / Minocycline
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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17. Paulino AC, Fowler BZ: Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):89-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy.
  • Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm.
  • There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%).
  • The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3.
  • Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 12.3 to 60 Gy) using 4 MV in 9, 1.25 MV in 8, 250 KV in 4, and 6 MV photons in 1 patient.
  • Fourteen had chemotherapy.
  • For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years.
  • The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1.
  • The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field.
  • The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian cystadenofibroma in 1, and giant cell tumor in 1.
  • Only 5 (36%) of the 14 benign tumors occurred in the RT field, with osteochondroma being the most common.
  • More than two-thirds of children with a radiation-induced malignancy are alive 10 years after the diagnosis of a SMN.

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  • (PMID = 15804994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Lafferty JS, Kamendulis LM, Kaster J, Jiang J, Klaunig JE: Subchronic acrylamide treatment induces a tissue-specific increase in DNA synthesis in the rat. Toxicol Lett; 2004 Dec 1;154(1-2):95-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Subchronic acrylamide treatment induces a tissue-specific increase in DNA synthesis in the rat.
  • Chronic treatment with acrylamide results in increased incidence of adrenal (pheochromocytoma), testicular (mesotheliomas) and thyroid (adenoma) neoplasia in male rats.
  • While acrylamide has been demonstrated to be DNA reactive, the tissue pattern of neoplasm induction by acrylamide suggests other mechanisms in addition to DNA reactivity may be involved in the carcinogenesis of this compound.
  • The present studies were performed to determine whether acrylamide or an acrylamide metabolite altered cell growth in the neoplastic target tissues in the rat.
  • Acrylamide increased DNA synthesis in the target tissues for tumor development (thyroid, testicular mesothelium, adrenal medulla) in both rat species.
  • In contrast, cell growth was not altered in the liver and adrenal cortex (non-target tissues for acrylamide carcinogenesis).
  • No changes in apoptosis or mitosis were observed in any of the tissues examined.
  • Inhibition of oxidative metabolism of acrylamide using 1-aminobenzotriazole reduced acrylamide-induced DNA synthesis only in the adrenal medulla, having no apparent effect in the testicular mesolthelium or thyroid.
  • In summary, acrylamide produced a selective increase in DNA synthesis that correlates with the previously reported tumor target tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bromodeoxyuridine / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Male. Mitosis / drug effects. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Triazoles / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15475183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4274
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Triazoles; 1614-12-6 / 1-aminobenzotriazole; 20R035KLCI / Acrylamide; 9007-49-2 / DNA; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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19. Hartl DM, Leboulleux S, Klap P, Schlumberger M: Myasthenia gravis mimicking unilateral vocal fold paralysis at presentation. J Laryngol Otol; 2007 Feb;121(2):174-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the importance of detailed clinical analysis in the differential diagnosis of unilateral vocal fold paralysis, and to provide an update on current knowledge and treatment of myasthenia gravis.
  • Diagnostic investigation revealed a 10 mm thyroid adenoma, but no other abnormality likely to cause unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
  • A personal or family history of auto-immune disease, fluctuating symptoms, motor deficits in cranial nerve territories, and normal or subnormal laryngeal EMG results should lead the physician to reconsider a diagnosis of idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis and to perform specific testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Myasthenia Gravis / diagnosis. Myasthenia Gravis / drug therapy. Vocal Cord Paralysis / diagnosis. Vocal Cord Paralysis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholinesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Electromyography / methods. Female. Humans. Pyridostigmine Bromide / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17112394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors; KVI301NA53 / Pyridostigmine Bromide
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20. Tonacchera M, Vitti P, De Servi M, Agretti P, De Marco G, Chiovato L, Pinchera A: Gain of function TSH receptor mutations and iodine deficiency: implications in iodine prophylaxis. J Endocrinol Invest; 2003;26(2 Suppl):2-6
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  • Toxic NG, including toxic multinodular goiter and toxic thyroid adenoma is usually encountered in subjects with long-standing NG, in whom thyrotoxicosis is usually preceded by a long phase of euthyroidism and then subclinical hyperthyroidsm (abnormally low TSH with normal circulating thyroid hormones).
  • Epidemiological studies indicate that, compared to Graves' disease, the incidence and prevalence of non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism due to toxic adenoma and toxic multinodular goiter differ in different regions of the world, being much more frequent in areas of iodine deficiency.
  • Recently, mutations of the TSH receptor (TSHr) gene causing permanent activation of the thyroid follicular cell adenylate-cyclase, have been shown to be the most probable cause of the hyperfunction and growth of toxic adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Nodular / prevention & control. Iodine / deficiency. Iodine / therapeutic use. Mutation. Preventive Medicine. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Deficiency Diseases / drug therapy. Global Health. Humans. Incidence. Molecular Biology

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  • (PMID = 12762632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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21. Bommireddipalli S, Gadiraju R, DePuey GE: Spontaneous transition of an autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma to Graves' disease. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Dec;34(12):845-7
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  • [Title] Spontaneous transition of an autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma to Graves' disease.
  • We report a case of a 57-year-old postmenopausal woman with an autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma spontaneously developing Graves' disease (GD) as documented by I-123 scintigraphy.
  • To date, anecdotal case reports citing the progression of an autonomous nodule to GD have documented either a major thyroidal insult, spontaneous or therapeutic, or the activation of thyroid tissue by circulating thyroid stimulating IgG, with variable progression characteristics.
  • In contradiction to the proposed inciting factors, our patient underwent a minimally invasive fine needle aspiration biopsy followed by suppressive pharmacotherapy.
  • We conclude that this is a rare case of autonomously functioning adenoma where neither significant thyroid tissue damage nor the presence of thyroid stimulating IgG can be implicated as an inciting trigger in its progression to GD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Graves Disease / etiology. Graves Disease / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 20139814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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22. Gessl A, Vierhapper H, Feichtinger H: Non-suppressible TSH in a patient thyroidectomized due to follicular thyroid carcinoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Jul;114(7):389-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-suppressible TSH in a patient thyroidectomized due to follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Poor compliance or drug malabsorption are the most common reasons why an adequate TSH suppression is not achieved with oral levothyroxin in patients with hypothyroidism or thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report a female patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma in whom, under intended levothyroxin suppression therapy, a TSH-PRL-producing pituitary adenoma manifested by failure to achieve adequate TSH suppression, subtle signs of hyperthyroidism,and finally symptoms of elevated PRL.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16915543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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23. Sharma V, Cui H, Whalen G, Khan A, Torres M: A case of trabecular adenoma of the thyroid with black pigmentation. Thyroid; 2007 Jun;17(6):593-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of trabecular adenoma of the thyroid with black pigmentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Minocycline / adverse effects. Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 17614784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] FYY3R43WGO / Minocycline
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24. Reschini E, Castellani M, Gerundini P: Antithyroid treatment changes thyroid scintigraphy in autonomous thyroid adenoma. Thyroid; 2003 Feb;13(2):223-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antithyroid treatment changes thyroid scintigraphy in autonomous thyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroid Function Tests

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  • (PMID = 12699599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 554Z48XN5E / Methimazole; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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