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1. Fouladi M, Hunt DL, Pollack IF, Dueckers G, Burger PC, Becker LE, Yates AJ, Gilles FH, Davis RL, Boyett JM, Finlay JL: Outcome of children with centrally reviewed low-grade gliomas treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy on Children's Cancer Group high-grade glioma study CCG-945. Cancer; 2003 Sep 15;98(6):1243-52
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  • [Title] Outcome of children with centrally reviewed low-grade gliomas treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy on Children's Cancer Group high-grade glioma study CCG-945.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of the current study were to determine the outcome of children who were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) high-grade glioma protocol (CCG-945) who were diagnosed with low-grade gliomas on post hoc central pathologic review and to identify clinical and biologic features associated with prognosis.
  • Patients older than 24 months with intracranial lesions were assigned randomly to receive either lomustine, vincristine, and prednisone (control regimen) or the 8-drugs-in-1-day regimen (experimental regimen); younger patients and those with primary spinal cord tumors were assigned nonrandomly to the experimental regimen.
  • RESULTS: The study involved 42 males and 28 females (median age, 7.7 years) with a median follow-up of 10.4 years.
  • At 5 years, the progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 63% +/- 6%, and the overall survival (OS) rate was 79% +/- 5%, compared with a PFS rate of 19% +/- 3% (P < 0.0001) and an OS rate of 22% +/- 3% (P < 0.0001) in the remainder of the cohort.
  • Significantly poorer 5-year PFS was seen in children younger than 24 months, those with fibrillary astrocytoma, and those with posterior fossa tumors.
  • Patients demonstrated a modest improvement in PFS but no improvement in OS compared with children with low-grade gliomas who were treated with contemporary chemotherapy-alone approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11637
  • (PMID = 12973849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS01810; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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2. Chernov MF, Ivanov PI, Zhinzhina IV, Getmanova OY, Zabrodskaya JM, Tigliev GS: Complete recovery of visual functions after multimodality treatment for intrinsic chiasmatic-hypothalamic astrocytoma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2004 Mar;44(3):129-32
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  • [Title] Complete recovery of visual functions after multimodality treatment for intrinsic chiasmatic-hypothalamic astrocytoma--case report.
  • The histological diagnosis was fibrillary astrocytoma.
  • Adjuvant treatment included one course of fractionated radiation therapy and six courses of chemotherapy.
  • The prognosis for recovery of vision after treatment of optic pathway gliomas mainly depends on the severity of visual loss at admission and is negatively influenced by intrinsic tumor growth, symmetrical extension, and involvement of the chiasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / therapy. Optic Chiasm. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / therapy. Vision Disorders / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 15095966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Sievert AJ, Fisher MJ: Pediatric low-grade gliomas. J Child Neurol; 2009 Nov;24(11):1397-408
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  • Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas occur most frequently followed by supratentorial diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas.
  • Surgery is the mainstay of therapy.
  • Combination chemotherapy is currently recommended as front-line adjuvant treatment for progressive or recurrent tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19841428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1708-8283
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of child neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Child Neurol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA133173-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA133173-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 146
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS208342; NLM/ PMC2917804
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4. Hukin J, Siffert J, Velasquez L, Zagzag D, Allen J: Leptomeningeal dissemination in children with progressive low-grade neuroepithelial tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2002 10;4(4):253-60
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  • Satisfactorily followed data were obtained on 427 of the 588 patients with localized LGN at diagnosis between 1986 and 1998, 177 (42%) of whom developed progressive or recurrent disease.
  • The histologies were pilocytic astrocytoma (4), ganglioglioma (4), fibrillary astrocytoma (3), mixed glioma (1), and glioneurofibroma (1).
  • Management included chemotherapy (2) or radiotherapy (3) or both (7); 1 patient received only radical resections of symptomatic lesions.
  • We strongly urge that for optimum treatment planning all patients with recurrent LGN be staged with an enhanced spine and brain MRI before adjuvant therapy is initiated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12356355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920666
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5. Gururangan S, Fisher MJ, Allen JC, Herndon JE 2nd, Quinn JA, Reardon DA, Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Phillips PC, Watral MA, Krauser JM, Friedman AH, Friedman HS: Temozolomide in children with progressive low-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):161-8
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  • Patients received a median of nine cycles (range, 2-12 cycles) of treatment.
  • Best responses in the 26 patients (86%) with optic pathway glioma (OPG)/pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) included partial response in 3 patients (11%), minor response in 1 (4%), stable disease in 10 (38%), and progressive disease in 12 (46%).
  • Only one of four patients with fibrillary astrocytoma had stable disease for 29 months after TMZ.
  • Seventeen of 26 patients had progressive disease either on or off therapy, and three have died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Survivors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17347491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871667
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6. Lebrun C, Fontaine D, Vandenbos F, Chanalet S, Bourg V, Frénay M, Alchaar H, Bleuse A, Bondiau PY, Brunetto JL, Chatel M, Courdi A, Darcourt J, Fauchon F, Guibert F, Grellier P, Lanteri-Minet M, Lonjon M, Michiels JF, Paquis P, Paquis V, Ramaioli A, Rasendrarijao D, Groupe de Neuro-Oncologie de Nice: [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for symptomatic non operable grade II fibrillary astrocytoma in adults]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2004 May;160(5 Pt 1):533-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for symptomatic non operable grade II fibrillary astrocytoma in adults].
  • We collected 6 case-reports of symptomatric non removable low grade fibrillary astrocytoma of adults treated with a procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine chemotherapy regimen.
  • All patients had drug-resistant epilepsy but brain imaging was stable.
  • After 4 to 7 cycles of chemotherapy, 2 patients had partial response and one minor response on brain MRI.
  • Up-front chemotherapy for low-grade astrocytomas may be useful and has to be prospectively evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance. Epilepsy / complications. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / adverse effects. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Rev Neurol (Paris). 2004 May;160(5 Pt 1):507-9 [15269667.001]
  • (PMID = 15269670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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7. Frenay MP, Fontaine D, Vandenbos F, Lebrun C: First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas. Eur J Neurol; 2005 Sep;12(9):685-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.
  • At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications.
  • We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT.
  • All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection.
  • CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity.
  • Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms.
  • These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status.
  • This report suggests that benefits of CT on symptoms, survival, and quality of life should be prospectively compared with RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Epilepsy / complications. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16128869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-5101
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds
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8. Mazurek U, Bierzyńska-Macyszyn G, Gola J, Orchel J, Słowiński J, Wilczok T: BCL2 and BAX mRNA concentration profile in fibrillary astrocytoma. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2001;39 Suppl 2:179-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] BCL2 and BAX mRNA concentration profile in fibrillary astrocytoma.
  • A high level of the BCL2 protein and the lack of apoptosis promoting protein BAX are beginning to be treated as markers of cellular resistance to anti-neoplastic drugs.
  • The object of the study were specimens from stereotactic biopsy of Astrocytoma fibrillare in the central brain area, inaccessible to conventional surgery.
  • The molecular analysis conducted in order to determine the sensitivity of the tumour to radio- or chemotherapy included the determination of the number of mRNA BCL2 alpha and beta molecules and of BAX in 1 microg total RNA obtained from microscope slides.
  • A trace number of mRNA BCL2-beta molecules and a smaller number of mRNA BCL2-alpha molecules than mRNA BAX is a good prognosis for therapy.

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  • (PMID = 11820596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 2.7.7.- / Taq Polymerase
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9. Walter AW, Gajjar A, Reardon DA, Thompson SJ, Langston JW, Jones-Wallace D, Kun LE, Heideman RL: Tamoxifen and carboplatin for children with low-grade gliomas: a pilot study at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 May-Jun;22(3):247-51
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  • PURPOSE: The authors conducted a single-arm, prospective study using tamoxifen and carboplatin for the treatment of children with progressive or symptomatic low-grade gliomas.
  • One patient was excluded after induction chemotherapy because of the diagnosis of a nonmalignant condition.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 5.3 years, the median age at initiation of chemotherapy was 8.3 years.
  • Tumor histologic findings included fibrillary astrocytoma (n = 2), juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 6), and oligodendroglioma (n = 1).
  • The best response to therapy was a partial response in two patients, stable disease in nine patients, and progressive disease in two patients.
  • Tamoxifen and carboplatin chemotherapy did not result in a significant number of objective responses in children with low-grade gliomas.
  • Nonmyelosuppressive agents such as tamoxifen deserve additional evaluation in the treatment of children with low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Life Tables. Male. Prospective Studies. Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10864056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-20180; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-23099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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10. Viano JC, Herrera EJ, Suárez JC: Cerebellar astrocytomas: a 24-year experience. Childs Nerv Syst; 2001 Oct;17(10):607-10; discussion 611

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cerebellar astrocytomas: a 24-year experience.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cerebellar astrocytomas are the most benign tumors of the CNS.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We report on 38 children under 18 who had cerebellar astrocytoma in the posterior fossa and were treated by a multidisciplinary team in our Neurosurgical Department from January 1974 to December 1997.
  • We included all patients in whom the histopathological diagnosis was astrocytoma, regardless of malignancy.
  • Neither radiotherapy nor chemotherapy was indicated in patients with pilocytic or fibrillary astrocytomas.
  • Histopathological results revealed 27 (71%) pilocytic astrocytomas, 8 (21%) diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, 1 (2%) anaplastic astrocytoma and 2 (6%) glioblastomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma. Cerebellar Neoplasms. Cerebellum / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11685523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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11. Allen JC: Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 Mar;32(3):154-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Optic pathway/hypothalamus gliomas (OPG) arise primarily from a slower-growing juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, and thalamic gliomas arise primarily from a fibrillary astrocytoma which can become clinically and histologically more aggressive.
  • Children with OPG have an excellent long-term prognosis with a 10-year survival of over 85%.
  • The major therapeutic challenge for these patients is to maximize their quality of life by preserving visual and endocrine function while minimizing treatment-related morbidity.
  • Treatment is often initiated at diagnosis in infants and toddlers who have a major visual impairment or the diencephalic syndrome.
  • The judicious application of chemotherapy may serve to forestall the need for radiotherapy or surgery.
  • However, over 90% of children with OPG without NF-1 will require some form of therapy.
  • Patients with thalamic gliomas present with a shorter history, often with hydrocephalus.
  • Current multimodality therapy is relatively ineffective.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Neurofibromatosis 1 / surgery. Thalamic Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Glioma / surgery. Thalamus / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10867564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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12. Engelhard HH, Stelea A, Cochran EJ: Oligodendroglioma: pathology and molecular biology. Surg Neurol; 2002 Aug;58(2):111-7; discussion 117
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  • RESULTS: On histologic examination, oligodendrogliomas must be differentiated from tumors including the fibrillary astrocytoma, clear cell ependymoma, central neurocytoma, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT).
  • New molecular and genetic markers may aid in grading oligodendrogliomas and identifying patients with a better prognosis or response to chemotherapy.
  • The combination of allelic losses on chromosomes 1p and 19q has been statistically associated with a longer recurrence-free survival after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A patient with an oligodendroglioma may at times still present a diagnostic challenge for the neuropathologist.
  • Yet making an accurate diagnosis is essential, since the clinical course and optimal therapeutic approach differs from that of other gliomas.


13. Cohen KJ, Broniscer A, Glod J: Pediatric glial tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Dec;2(6):529-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Glial neoplasms in children comprise many heterogeneous tumors that include pilocytic and fibrillary astrocytomas, ependymomas, and the diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.
  • In contrast to adults, most of whom present with high-grade fibrillary neoplasms, alternate histologies represent most cases seen in the pediatric setting.
  • We discuss three specific tumors: diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas; pilocytic astrocytomas; and ependymomas.
  • Maximal surgical resection is the mainstay of therapy for both pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas.
  • Failure to achieve an optimal resection often results in progression and the need for further therapy for patients with pilocytic astrocytomas, and is ultimately fatal in most children with subtotally resected ependymomas.
  • Surgical resection has no role in the treatment of pontine gliomas.
  • Focal radiation therapy is included routinely in the treatment of ependymomas, and it has been shown to improve event-free survival.
  • This therapy also is used in the treatment of pontine gliomas because radiation treatment appears to slow inevitable tumor progression.
  • Radiation therapy in pilocytic astrocytomas is generally reserved for patients who progress after an initial surgical resection or for those patients with midline tumors; these patients are poor candidates for aggressive surgical resection.
  • The role of chemotherapy in these tumors is in evolution.
  • Chemotherapy for pilocytic astrocytomas, particularly in young children (for whom radiation therapy is avoided), appears to be effective in the treatment of a subset of patients.
  • Up-front chemotherapy is generally reserved for the youngest children who present with ependymoma.
  • In the recurrence setting, chemotherapy has shown some activity, although this approach is never curative.
  • Despite the application of various chemotherapeutics and other biologic agents, none of these therapies has improved the prognosis for patients with the uniformly lethal pontine glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / therapy. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Palliative Care. Pons. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12057098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Massimino M, Spreafico F, Riva D, Biassoni V, Poggi G, Solero C, Gandola L, Genitori L, Modena P, Simonetti F, Potepan P, Casanova M, Meazza C, Clerici CA, Catania S, Sardi I, Giangaspero F: A lower-dose, lower-toxicity cisplatin-etoposide regimen for childhood progressive low-grade glioma. J Neurooncol; 2010 Oct;100(1):65-71
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  • Diagnoses were clinical in 13 cases and histological in 24, and comprised: pilocytic astrocytoma (17), ganglioglioma (3), pilomyxoid astrocytoma (2), and fibrillary astrocytoma (2).
  • Treatment was prompted by radiological evidence of progression and/or clinical deterioration a median 18 months after the first diagnosis.
  • After initial MRI staging, neurological and clinical examinations were performed before each chemotherapy cycle, with MRI after the first three courses and every three months thereafter.
  • After a median 48 months, a volume reduction was appreciable in 24 cases (65%) and response was maximum 12 months after starting treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Electroencephalography. Evoked Potentials, Visual / drug effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Longitudinal Studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male

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  • (PMID = 20151174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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15. Hadjipanayis CG, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2003 May 15;14(5):e15
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  • [Title] The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas.
  • OBJECT: This study was conducted to examine the role of radiosurgery in the management of patients with recurrent or unresectable low-grade astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: During a 13-year interval, 49 patients underwent stereotactic radiosurgery as part of multimodal treatment of their recurrent or unresectable low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Thirty-seven of these patients (median age 14 years) harbored pilocytic astrocytomas and 12 patients harbored World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II fibrillary astrocytomas (median age 25 years).
  • Multimodal treatment included fractionated radiotherapy in 14 patients, stereotactic intracavitary irradiation in five, chemotherapy in two, cyst drainage in eight, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in five, and additional cytoreductive surgery in five.
  • The median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 9.6-22.5 Gy).
  • No procedure-related death was encountered.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a potential alternative or adjunctive intervention in the management of selected patients with pilocytic or WHO Grade II fibrillary astrocytomas, usually performed for small-volume tumors in an attempt to avoid larger-field fractionated radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 15669811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Akay KM, Izci Y, Baysefer A, Atabey C, Kismet E, Timurkaynak E: Surgical outcomes of cerebellar tumors in children. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2004 Sep-Oct;40(5):220-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cerebellar tumors in childhood are generally associated with a favorable outcome if they are managed appropriately.
  • Histopathological diagnoses were as follows: pilocytic astrocytoma (48.2%); medulloblastoma (22.2%); ependymoma (18.5%); fibrillary astrocytoma grade III (3.7%); cystic oligodendroglioma (3.7%), and hemangioblastoma (3.7%).
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the adjuvant therapies according to the pathological diagnosis and the patient's age.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Medulloblastoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15687736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Suárez JC, Viano JC, Zunino S, Herrera EJ, Gomez J, Tramunt B, Marengo I, Hiramatzu E, Miras M, Pena M, Sonzini Astudillo B: Management of child optic pathway gliomas: new therapeutical option. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Jul;22(7):679-84

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience in the treatment of child optic pathway gliomas in the last 25 years.
  • One of the patients presented neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), another patient had Down syndrome.
  • Diagnosed using computed tomography or/and magnetic resonance imaging, histological studies showed pilocytic astrocytomas in 13 cases and a fibrillary astrocytoma grade II in 1 case.
  • The treatment consisted of surgery, external beam radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and brachytherapy with iodine 125, separately or combined.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy and brachytherapy are therapeutic methods to be considered, especially in children under 5.
  • Marsupialization of the residual cyst into the ventricular system postradio or oncolytic treatment through endoscopic or stereotactic techniques is useful in the treatment of endocranial hypertension and/or hypothalamic compression in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neurosurgery. Radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [Cites] Pediatr Neurosurg. 1993 Jul-Aug;19(4):186-95 [8329303.001]
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  • (PMID = 16389565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Lesniak MS, Klem JM, Weingart J, Carson BS Sr: Surgical outcome following resection of contrast-enhanced pediatric brainstem gliomas. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2003 Dec;39(6):314-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pediatric patients admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital with a diagnosis of a brainstem tumor between January 1985 and December 2000.
  • Fifty-seven patients (64.0%) underwent surgical resection while 32 (36%) were treated with radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • The pathology was consistent with juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in 30 patients (52.6%) and glioblastoma multiforme in 12 patients (21.1%).
  • The remaining cases consisted of 10 patients (17.5%) with fibrillary astrocytomas, 3 (5.3%) with gangliogliomas, 1 (1.8%) with an oligodendroglioma and 1 (1.8%) with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • Consequently, we recommend surgical resection and pathological diagnosis of all enhancing brainstem tumors with adjuvant therapy reserved for recurrent or unresectable cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Neurosurg. 2004 Mar-Apr;40(2):99; author reply 100 [15292646.001]
  • (PMID = 14734866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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19. Hammond RR, Duggal N, Woulfe JM, Girvin JP: Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2000 Apr;92(4):722-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 29-year-old man presented in 1984 with a recent onset of partial seizures marked by speech arrest.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scanning revealed a superficial hypodense nonenhancing lesion in the midleft frontal convexity, with some remodeling of the overlying skull.
  • The patient was transferred to the London Health Sciences Centre for subtotal resection of what was diagnosed as a "fibrillary astrocytoma (microcystic)."
  • He received no chemotherapy or radiation therapy and remained well for 11 years.
  • A Grade IV astrocytoma was resected, and within the malignant tumor was a superficial area reminiscent of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Electroencephalography. Epilepsies, Partial / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neuroglia / pathology. Neurons / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10761668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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