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1. Fouladi M, Hunt DL, Pollack IF, Dueckers G, Burger PC, Becker LE, Yates AJ, Gilles FH, Davis RL, Boyett JM, Finlay JL: Outcome of children with centrally reviewed low-grade gliomas treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy on Children's Cancer Group high-grade glioma study CCG-945. Cancer; 2003 Sep 15;98(6):1243-52
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  • [Title] Outcome of children with centrally reviewed low-grade gliomas treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy on Children's Cancer Group high-grade glioma study CCG-945.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of the current study were to determine the outcome of children who were treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) high-grade glioma protocol (CCG-945) who were diagnosed with low-grade gliomas on post hoc central pathologic review and to identify clinical and biologic features associated with prognosis.
  • Patients older than 24 months with intracranial lesions were assigned randomly to receive either lomustine, vincristine, and prednisone (control regimen) or the 8-drugs-in-1-day regimen (experimental regimen); younger patients and those with primary spinal cord tumors were assigned nonrandomly to the experimental regimen.
  • Significantly poorer 5-year PFS was seen in children younger than 24 months, those with fibrillary astrocytoma, and those with posterior fossa tumors.
  • Patients demonstrated a modest improvement in PFS but no improvement in OS compared with children with low-grade gliomas who were treated with contemporary chemotherapy-alone approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Male. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11637
  • (PMID = 12973849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS01810; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS37704
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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2. Tyagi D, Sharma BS, Gupta SK, Kaul D, Vasishta RK, Khosla VK: Expression of Bcl2 proto-oncogene in primary tumors of the central nervous system. Neurol India; 2002 Sep;50(3):290-4
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  • The present study was addressed to find out the expression of Bcl2 proto-oncogene in tumor tissues derived from 25 patients with primary central nervous system tumors.
  • Brain parenchyma in 8 cases, with deeply located tumor, was also examined for Bcl2 expression which served as control.
  • However, no correlation was found between the histopathological types of tumor, glial fibrillary acidic protein positivity and degree of Bcl2 expression.
  • Based on this study, we propose that the overexpression of Bcl2 gene product found in primary CNS tumors may be an important molecular event which is known to make the various types of tumor resistant to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 12391455.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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3. Middeldorp J, Kamphuis W, Sluijs JA, Achoui D, Leenaars CH, Feenstra MG, van Tijn P, Fischer DF, Berkers C, Ovaa H, Quinlan RA, Hol EM: Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition. FASEB J; 2009 Aug;23(8):2710-26
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  • Increased expression of the astrocytic intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a characteristic of astrogliosis.
  • This process occurs in the brain during aging and neurodegeneration and coincides with impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system.
  • We investigated the effect of proteasome inhibitors on GFAP expression and other intermediate filament proteins in human astrocytoma cells and in a rat brain model for astrogliosis.
  • Therefore, proteasome inhibitors could serve as a potential therapy to modulate astrogliosis associated with CNS injuries and disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Brain / cytology. Brain / drug effects. Brain / metabolism. Cell Line. Cell Survival. Down-Regulation. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. HeLa Cells. Humans. Intermediate Filament Proteins / genetics. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Male. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. Oligopeptides / pharmacology. Protease Inhibitors / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Stress, Physiological. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic. Vimentin / genetics. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19332645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-6860
  • [Journal-full-title] FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FASEB J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / P01 NS042803
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, rat; 0 / Nestin; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Proteasome Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; 134381-21-8 / epoxomicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3221645
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4. McLendon RE, Halperin EC: Is the long-term survival of patients with intracranial glioblastoma multiforme overstated? Cancer; 2003 Oct 15;98(8):1745-8
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  • METHODS: The authors reviewed all patients with the diagnosis of intracranial GBM recorded in the Duke University Medical Center Tumor Registry from the registry's inception in 1976 through 1996.
  • The most common reason for miscoding was the presence of a low-grade astrocytoma that subsequently dedifferentiated into GBM.
  • Their mean age at diagnosis was 40.2 years.
  • Therapy consisted of a macroscopic total resection in 4 patients (22%), a biopsy in 1 patient (6%), a subtotal resection in 10 patients (56%), and unknown extent of resection in 2 patients (11%).
  • All patients received partial brain irradiation (mean dose, 62.6 Gy) and chemotherapy.
  • Thirteen different single-agent or combination chemotherapy programs were used.
  • Two patients also received I-131 monoclonal antibody therapy.
  • Analysis of the nine histopathologic factors studied showed that intermediate fibrillary elements were more common and small anaplastic elements were less common in the long-term survivors than in the control population.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / mortality. Glioblastoma / mortality

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 14534892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Hukin J, Siffert J, Velasquez L, Zagzag D, Allen J: Leptomeningeal dissemination in children with progressive low-grade neuroepithelial tumors. Neuro Oncol; 2002 10;4(4):253-60
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  • Satisfactorily followed data were obtained on 427 of the 588 patients with localized LGN at diagnosis between 1986 and 1998, 177 (42%) of whom developed progressive or recurrent disease.
  • The median age at initial diagnosis was 5 years and at LM diagnosis was 8.5 years.
  • The histologies were pilocytic astrocytoma (4), ganglioglioma (4), fibrillary astrocytoma (3), mixed glioma (1), and glioneurofibroma (1).
  • Management included chemotherapy (2) or radiotherapy (3) or both (7); 1 patient received only radical resections of symptomatic lesions.
  • We strongly urge that for optimum treatment planning all patients with recurrent LGN be staged with an enhanced spine and brain MRI before adjuvant therapy is initiated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12356355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1920666
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6. Lebrun C, Fontaine D, Vandenbos F, Chanalet S, Bourg V, Frénay M, Alchaar H, Bleuse A, Bondiau PY, Brunetto JL, Chatel M, Courdi A, Darcourt J, Fauchon F, Guibert F, Grellier P, Lanteri-Minet M, Lonjon M, Michiels JF, Paquis P, Paquis V, Ramaioli A, Rasendrarijao D, Groupe de Neuro-Oncologie de Nice: [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for symptomatic non operable grade II fibrillary astrocytoma in adults]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2004 May;160(5 Pt 1):533-7
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  • [Title] [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for symptomatic non operable grade II fibrillary astrocytoma in adults].
  • We collected 6 case-reports of symptomatric non removable low grade fibrillary astrocytoma of adults treated with a procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine chemotherapy regimen.
  • All patients had drug-resistant epilepsy but brain imaging was stable.
  • After 4 to 7 cycles of chemotherapy, 2 patients had partial response and one minor response on brain MRI.
  • Up-front chemotherapy for low-grade astrocytomas may be useful and has to be prospectively evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance. Epilepsy / complications. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / adverse effects. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] Rev Neurol (Paris). 2004 May;160(5 Pt 1):507-9 [15269667.001]
  • (PMID = 15269670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine
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7. Mazurek U, Bierzyńska-Macyszyn G, Gola J, Orchel J, Słowiński J, Wilczok T: BCL2 and BAX mRNA concentration profile in fibrillary astrocytoma. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2001;39 Suppl 2:179-80
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  • [Title] BCL2 and BAX mRNA concentration profile in fibrillary astrocytoma.
  • A high level of the BCL2 protein and the lack of apoptosis promoting protein BAX are beginning to be treated as markers of cellular resistance to anti-neoplastic drugs.
  • The object of the study were specimens from stereotactic biopsy of Astrocytoma fibrillare in the central brain area, inaccessible to conventional surgery.
  • The molecular analysis conducted in order to determine the sensitivity of the tumour to radio- or chemotherapy included the determination of the number of mRNA BCL2 alpha and beta molecules and of BAX in 1 microg total RNA obtained from microscope slides.
  • A trace number of mRNA BCL2-beta molecules and a smaller number of mRNA BCL2-alpha molecules than mRNA BAX is a good prognosis for therapy.

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  • (PMID = 11820596.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 2.7.7.- / Taq Polymerase
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8. Shi Y, Morgenstern N: Granular cell astrocytoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Dec;132(12):1946-50
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  • [Title] Granular cell astrocytoma.
  • Granular cell astrocytoma (GCA) is a rare type of malignant brain tumor with distinct morphologic features and aggressive clinical behavior.
  • The tumor cells are usually positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100, CD68, and epithelial membrane antigen.
  • Surgical excision plus postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy is the choice for most patients with GCA.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Granular Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Astrocytes / metabolism. Astrocytes / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Middle Aged. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19061297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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9. Frenay MP, Fontaine D, Vandenbos F, Lebrun C: First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas. Eur J Neurol; 2005 Sep;12(9):685-90
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  • [Title] First-line nitrosourea-based chemotherapy in symptomatic non-resectable supratentorial pure low-grade astrocytomas.
  • At the present time, there are no proven beneficial effects of chemotherapy (CT) for the treatment of pure low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Brain radiotherapy (RT) still remains the standard treatment in order to reduce or delay tumor progression or symptoms, despite possible long-term neurologic complications.
  • We report 10 patients, with histologically proven pure low-grade fibrillary astrocytomas, to which we administered a first-line nitrosourea-based CT.
  • All patients were symptomatic with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy or neurologic symptoms, and had been rejected for neurosurgical resection.
  • CT was well tolerated; all patients developed myelosuppression with 40% of grade III/IV hematotoxicity.
  • Seven were alive at the time of writing with a mean follow-up of 6.5 years (3.5-12) from first recorded symptoms.
  • These results demonstrate that some patients with symptomatic non-resectable fibrillary low-grade astrocytomas can be treated with up-front CT to improve their neurologic status.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Nitrosourea Compounds / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Epilepsy / complications. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16128869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-5101
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrosourea Compounds
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10. Temel SG, Kahveci Z: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in astrocytes and microglia in human oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma. J Mol Histol; 2009 Oct;40(5-6):369-77
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in astrocytes and microglia in human oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma.
  • Cox-2 is cytokine-inducible in inflammatory cells and enhanced cox-2 expression has been attributed a key role in the development of edema and immunomodulation in pathologically altered brain tissues.
  • In this study we aimed to assess the phenotypes (astrocyte, microglia) of the cox-2-expressing glial cells in various types of human gliomas and to compare their expression patterns.
  • For this purpose we employed dual immunohistochemistry for cox-2 and GFAP (astrocyte) or LCA-MAC (microglia-macrophage) in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded human tissue diagnosed as oligodendroglioma and/or astrocytoma.
  • The detection of cox-2 in astrocytes surrounding the necrotic areas might be important to develop new strategies, such as the usage of cox-2 inhibitors combine with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of glioma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytes / enzymology. Astrocytoma / enzymology. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Microglia / enzymology. Oligodendroglioma / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD45 / metabolism. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 20052522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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11. Nozaki M, Ohnishi A, Fujimaki T, Nagashima K, Cho K, Sawamura Y: Congenital gemistocytic astrocytoma in a fetus. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Feb;22(2):168-71
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  • [Title] Congenital gemistocytic astrocytoma in a fetus.
  • INTRODUCTION: Congenital brain tumors, especially tumors diagnosed before birth, are very rare.
  • This report presents a case of a congenital gemistocytic astrocytoma diagnosed by antenatal intrauterine ultrasound.
  • The histological study revealed gemistocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade II).
  • Neither adjuvant chemotherapy nor radiation was given after the first surgery.
  • The second total excision of the recurrent tumor and chemotherapy using cisplatin and vincristine were performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fetus
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pregnancy. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 15864706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Synaptophysin
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12. Wei LC, Shi M, Cao R, Chen LW, Chan YS: Nestin small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduces cell growth in cultured astrocytoma cells. Brain Res; 2008 Feb 27;1196:103-12
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  • [Title] Nestin small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduces cell growth in cultured astrocytoma cells.
  • In the present study, we have investigated the possible role of nestin expression in cell growth or survival of CNS tumor cells by using novel small interfering RNA (siRNA) method in cell culture of rat astrocytoma C6 cell line.
  • The nestin expression and cell growth of the cultured astrocytoma cells were examined after nestin siRNA duplex was delivered by cell transfection for 6 h and cell culture was maintained for 48 h.
  • It revealed an effective suppression influence of nestin siRNA on cell growth of cultured astrocytoma cells in a dose-dependent manner.
  • The nestin siRNA also suppressed expression of cellular glial fibrillary acid protein but showed no obvious influence on expression level of Ki-67 protein (a cell proliferation marker).
  • This study has provided in vitro evidence that nestin siRNA can effectively block nestin expression and reduce cell growth of the cultured C6 astrocytoma cells, strongly suggesting that nestin siRNA-induced suppression of tumor cell growth may provide a potential novel clinical therapy against CNS astroglioma events.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / metabolism. Astrocytoma / physiopathology. Intermediate Filament Proteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. RNA, Small Interfering / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Cell Count. Cell Line, Tumor. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Nestin. Rats

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  • (PMID = 18234160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nes protein, rat; 0 / Nestin; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
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13. Langlois A, Lee S, Kim DS, Dirks PB, Rutka JT: p16(ink4a) and retinoic acid modulate rhoA and GFAP expression during induction of a stellate phenotype in U343 MG-A astrocytoma cells. Glia; 2002 Oct;40(1):85-94
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  • [Title] p16(ink4a) and retinoic acid modulate rhoA and GFAP expression during induction of a stellate phenotype in U343 MG-A astrocytoma cells.
  • We previously showed that the expression of p16(ink4a) (p16), in conjunction with retinoic acid (RA) treatment in the p16-deficient astrocytoma cell line, U343 MG-A, induced a potent cell cycle arrest in G(1) associated with changes in morphology.
  • In this study, we investigated the effects of p16 expression and RA treatment on the expression and distribution of actin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and vimentin within the U343 MG-A astrocytoma cytoskeleton.
  • Changes in expression and location of the small GTPase, rhoA, were also examined after p16 expression and RA treatment.
  • We showed that p16 expression and RA treatment led to an increase in the expression of GFAP, as well as its reorganization but that it did not significantly affect actin or vimentin expression. p16 induction in combination with RA treatment resulted in a decreased expression and activation of rhoA as determined by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis of soluble and insoluble fractions of cell lysates.
  • Endogenous levels of rhoA expression varied among samples in a panel of astrocytoma cell lines as determined by Western blot analysis.
  • Introduction of a dominant active rhoA mutant into p16-induced, RA-treated U343 MG-A astrocytoma cells was associated with the loss of long astrocytic processes and stellate morphology.
  • These data are among the first to report the pattern of rhoA expression in human astrocytoma cell lines.
  • They furthermore suggest that the stellate cell phenotype observed in U343 MG-A astrocytoma cells after cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) induction and RA treatment is accompanied by an inhibition and inactivation of rhoA in this cell system.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / drug effects. Tretinoin / pharmacology. rhoA GTP-Binding Protein / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Actin Cytoskeleton / drug effects. Actin Cytoskeleton / metabolism. Cell Compartmentation / drug effects. Cell Compartmentation / physiology. Cell Membrane / drug effects. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Movement / physiology. Cell Size / drug effects. Cell Size / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Phenotype. Protein Transport / drug effects. Protein Transport / physiology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12237846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-1491
  • [Journal-full-title] Glia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Glia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 3.6.5.2 / rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
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14. Bachetti T, Di Zanni E, Balbi P, Bocca P, Prigione I, Deiana GA, Rezzani A, Ceccherini I, Sechi G: In vitro treatments with ceftriaxone promote elimination of mutant glial fibrillary acidic protein and transcription down-regulation. Exp Cell Res; 2010 Aug 1;316(13):2152-65
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  • [Title] In vitro treatments with ceftriaxone promote elimination of mutant glial fibrillary acidic protein and transcription down-regulation.
  • Alexander disease is a rare, untreatable and usually fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by heterozygous mutations of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene which ultimately lead to formation of aggregates, containing also alphaB-Crystallin, HSP27, ubiquitin and proteasome components.
  • These mechanisms provide previously unknown neuroprotective targets of ceftriaxone and confirm its potential therapeutic role in patients with Alexander disease and other neurodegenerative disorders with astrocyte involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Ceftriaxone / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / genetics. HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins / genetics. alpha-Crystallin B Chain / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / metabolism. Autophagy. Blotting, Western. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Luciferases / metabolism. Mutant Proteins / genetics. Mutant Proteins / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex / drug effects. Protein Multimerization. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism. Ubiquitin / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20471977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2422
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Ubiquitin; 0 / alpha-Crystallin B Chain; 75J73V1629 / Ceftriaxone; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
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15. Walter AW, Gajjar A, Reardon DA, Thompson SJ, Langston JW, Jones-Wallace D, Kun LE, Heideman RL: Tamoxifen and carboplatin for children with low-grade gliomas: a pilot study at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 May-Jun;22(3):247-51
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  • PURPOSE: The authors conducted a single-arm, prospective study using tamoxifen and carboplatin for the treatment of children with progressive or symptomatic low-grade gliomas.
  • One patient was excluded after induction chemotherapy because of the diagnosis of a nonmalignant condition.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 5.3 years, the median age at initiation of chemotherapy was 8.3 years.
  • Eight patients had tumors of the hypothalamus/optic pathway, two patients had thalamic tumors, and one patient each had tumors in the temporal lobe, tectum, and brain stem.
  • Tumor histologic findings included fibrillary astrocytoma (n = 2), juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 6), and oligodendroglioma (n = 1).
  • The best response to therapy was a partial response in two patients, stable disease in nine patients, and progressive disease in two patients.
  • Tamoxifen and carboplatin chemotherapy did not result in a significant number of objective responses in children with low-grade gliomas.
  • Nonmyelosuppressive agents such as tamoxifen deserve additional evaluation in the treatment of children with low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Life Tables. Male. Prospective Studies. Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10864056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-20180; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-23099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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16. Akay KM, Izci Y, Baysefer A, Atabey C, Kismet E, Timurkaynak E: Surgical outcomes of cerebellar tumors in children. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2004 Sep-Oct;40(5):220-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histopathological diagnoses were as follows: pilocytic astrocytoma (48.2%); medulloblastoma (22.2%); ependymoma (18.5%); fibrillary astrocytoma grade III (3.7%); cystic oligodendroglioma (3.7%), and hemangioblastoma (3.7%).
  • The total removal of pediatric cerebellar tumors without neurological deficit is possible with appropriate microsurgical techniques excluding brain stem invasion.
  • The follow-up periods must be shorter if brain stem invasion exists.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the adjuvant therapies according to the pathological diagnosis and the patient's age.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Ependymoma / surgery. Medulloblastoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 15687736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Kano T, Ikota H, Wada H, Iwasa S, Kurosaki S: A case of an anaplastic ependymoma with gliosarcomatous components. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2009;26(1):11-7
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  • Computed tomography revealed a large cystic lesion with a mural nodule-like mass homogeneously enhanced with contrast medium in the right cerebellum.
  • The tumor was removed, and pathological studies revealed a cerebellar astrocytoma corresponding to World Health Organization grade II.
  • Chemotherapy (Paraplatin and VePeside-S) and focal radiation therapy at 60 Gy were administered following surgery.
  • Thereafter, at 39 years of age, or 4 years after radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging again revealed a recurrence of the tumor, which was heterogeneously enhanced with gadoliniumdiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid in the right cerebellum.
  • Immunohistochemical findings showed some parts of the sarcomatous components to stain positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein and, as a result, these sarcomatous components were diagnosed to be gliosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Headache / etiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Paraffin Embedding. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19408092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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18. Fortin D, Macdonald DR, Stitt L, Cairncross JG: PCV for oligodendroglial tumors: in search of prognostic factors for response and survival. Can J Neurol Sci; 2001 Aug;28(3):215-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: We report survival and pretreatment prognostic factors for survival and chemosensitivity in 53 oligodendrogliomas treated with PCV (procarbazine, lomustine and vincristine) chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: A total of 53 patients with histologically proven oligodendroglioma, anaplastic oligodendroglioma or oligo-astrocytoma and treated with PCV were extracted from the London Regional Cancer Center database.
  • RESULTS: The median survival time from diagnosis was 123.6 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Overall survival is significantly longer in oligodendroglial lesions than in fibrillary astrocytic tumors.
  • No clinical, radiological or pathological factor could be identified to reliably predict chemotherapy response.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Can J Neurol Sci. 2001 Aug;28(3):187-8 [11513335.001]
  • (PMID = 11513339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0317-1671
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurol Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVC protocol
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19. Allen JC: Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 Mar;32(3):154-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Optic pathway/hypothalamus gliomas (OPG) arise primarily from a slower-growing juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, and thalamic gliomas arise primarily from a fibrillary astrocytoma which can become clinically and histologically more aggressive.
  • The major therapeutic challenge for these patients is to maximize their quality of life by preserving visual and endocrine function while minimizing treatment-related morbidity.
  • Treatment is often initiated at diagnosis in infants and toddlers who have a major visual impairment or the diencephalic syndrome.
  • The judicious application of chemotherapy may serve to forestall the need for radiotherapy or surgery.
  • However, over 90% of children with OPG without NF-1 will require some form of therapy.
  • Current multimodality therapy is relatively ineffective.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Neurofibromatosis 1 / surgery. Thalamic Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Glioma / surgery. Thalamus / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10867564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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20. Hammond RR, Duggal N, Woulfe JM, Girvin JP: Malignant transformation of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. Case report. J Neurosurg; 2000 Apr;92(4):722-5
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  • Computerized tomography (CT) scanning revealed a superficial hypodense nonenhancing lesion in the midleft frontal convexity, with some remodeling of the overlying skull.
  • The patient was transferred to the London Health Sciences Centre for subtotal resection of what was diagnosed as a "fibrillary astrocytoma (microcystic)."
  • He received no chemotherapy or radiation therapy and remained well for 11 years.
  • A Grade IV astrocytoma was resected, and within the malignant tumor was a superficial area reminiscent of a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Astrocytoma / pathology. Electroencephalography. Epilepsies, Partial / diagnosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neuroglia / pathology. Neurons / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10761668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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21. Varlet P, Soni D, Miquel C, Roux FX, Meder JF, Chneiweiss H, Daumas-Duport C: New variants of malignant glioneuronal tumors: a clinicopathological study of 40 cases. Neurosurgery; 2004 Dec;55(6):1377-91: discussion 1391-2
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  • Immunostaining using neuronal markers (NFP, NeuN, synaptophysin, and chromogranin) and glial fibrillary acidic protein was done on paraffin sections after antigen retrieval.
  • RESULTS: All tumors coexpressed glial fibrillary acidic protein and NFP.
  • Twelve patients (33.3%) developed intra-axial and/or systemic metastases, and 4 were free of disease at 39 to 184 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiography. Astrocytoma / surgery. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / immunology. Glioblastoma / diagnosis. Glioblastoma / drug therapy. Glioblastoma / radiography. Glioblastoma / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / radiography. Neurofilament Proteins / immunology. Oligodendroglioma / diagnosis. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / radiography. Oligodendroglioma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15574220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins
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22. Fan X, Larson TC, Jennings MT, Tulipan NB, Toms SA, Johnson MD: December 2000: 6 month old boy with 2 week history of progressive lethargy. Brain Pathol; 2001 Apr;11(2):265-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • He underwent craniotomy initially for a partial tumor resection with an intraoperative diagnosis of desmoplastic astrocytoma.
  • With immunohistochemistry and special stains the diagnosis of desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma (DIG) was made.
  • A near total resection was performed a week after initial resection.The patient then was treated with chemotherapy.
  • Following additional aggressive chemotherapy, an MRI at 5 months post-resection indicated further tumor progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] European Continental Ancestry Group. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / analysis. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neuroglia / pathology. Sleep Stages. Tennessee

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  • (PMID = 11303803.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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23. Cohen KJ, Broniscer A, Glod J: Pediatric glial tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Dec;2(6):529-36
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  • Glial neoplasms in children comprise many heterogeneous tumors that include pilocytic and fibrillary astrocytomas, ependymomas, and the diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.
  • In contrast to adults, most of whom present with high-grade fibrillary neoplasms, alternate histologies represent most cases seen in the pediatric setting.
  • In addition, although most adult gliomas are supratentorial in location, in pediatrics infratentorial tumors (posterior fossa and brain stem) predominate.
  • Maximal surgical resection is the mainstay of therapy for both pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas.
  • Failure to achieve an optimal resection often results in progression and the need for further therapy for patients with pilocytic astrocytomas, and is ultimately fatal in most children with subtotally resected ependymomas.
  • Surgical resection has no role in the treatment of pontine gliomas.
  • Focal radiation therapy is included routinely in the treatment of ependymomas, and it has been shown to improve event-free survival.
  • This therapy also is used in the treatment of pontine gliomas because radiation treatment appears to slow inevitable tumor progression.
  • Radiation therapy in pilocytic astrocytomas is generally reserved for patients who progress after an initial surgical resection or for those patients with midline tumors; these patients are poor candidates for aggressive surgical resection.
  • The role of chemotherapy in these tumors is in evolution.
  • Chemotherapy for pilocytic astrocytomas, particularly in young children (for whom radiation therapy is avoided), appears to be effective in the treatment of a subset of patients.
  • Up-front chemotherapy is generally reserved for the youngest children who present with ependymoma.
  • In the recurrence setting, chemotherapy has shown some activity, although this approach is never curative.
  • Despite the application of various chemotherapeutics and other biologic agents, none of these therapies has improved the prognosis for patients with the uniformly lethal pontine glioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Glioma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / mortality. Astrocytoma / therapy. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Ependymoma / mortality. Ependymoma / therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Infant. Infratentorial Neoplasms / mortality. Infratentorial Neoplasms / therapy. Palliative Care. Pons. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12057098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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24. Prayson RA, Abramovich CM: Glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands. Hum Pathol; 2000 Nov;31(11):1435-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The patient underwent partial resection of the tumor, which histologically resembled anaplastic astrocytoma, and received a course of radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • The second resection was marked by islands of tissue resembling gray matter with slightly atypical neuronal and glial cells situated in the white matter.
  • These islands stained positively with synaptophysin and did not stain with glial fibrillary acid protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / pathology. Neuropil / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, Nuclear. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Reoperation. Synaptophysin / analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company
  • (PMID = 11112223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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25. Hadjipanayis CG, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2003 May 15;14(5):e15
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  • METHODS: During a 13-year interval, 49 patients underwent stereotactic radiosurgery as part of multimodal treatment of their recurrent or unresectable low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Thirty-seven of these patients (median age 14 years) harbored pilocytic astrocytomas and 12 patients harbored World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II fibrillary astrocytomas (median age 25 years).
  • Each diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of stereotactic biopsy sampling in 17 patients, open biopsy sampling in five, partial resection in 13, and near-total resection in 14.
  • Multimodal treatment included fractionated radiotherapy in 14 patients, stereotactic intracavitary irradiation in five, chemotherapy in two, cyst drainage in eight, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in five, and additional cytoreductive surgery in five.
  • The median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 9.6-22.5 Gy).
  • No procedure-related death was encountered.
  • Forty-five of 49 patients are alive at a median follow-up period of 32 months after radiosurgery and 63 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a potential alternative or adjunctive intervention in the management of selected patients with pilocytic or WHO Grade II fibrillary astrocytomas, usually performed for small-volume tumors in an attempt to avoid larger-field fractionated radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 15669811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Adachi J, Nishikawa R, Hirose T, Matsutani M: Mixed neuronal-glial tumor of the fourth ventricle and successful treatment of postoperative mutism with bromocriptine: case report. Surg Neurol; 2005 Apr;63(4):375-9
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  • [Title] Mixed neuronal-glial tumor of the fourth ventricle and successful treatment of postoperative mutism with bromocriptine: case report.
  • We describe the clinicopathologic features of a very rare rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and propose bromocriptine as a useful therapeutic agent for cerebellar mutism after posterior fossa surgery.
  • Histologically, 2 components were identified, synaptophysin-positive neurocytic cells forming perivascular pseudorosettes and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytic cells with Rosenthal fibers.
  • Bromocriptine therapy may promote recovery from mutism after posterior fossa surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Cerebral Ventricles / pathology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Mutism / drug therapy. Mutism / etiology. Neurocytoma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15808729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine
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27. Engelhard HH, Stelea A, Cochran EJ: Oligodendroglioma: pathology and molecular biology. Surg Neurol; 2002 Aug;58(2):111-7; discussion 117
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  • RESULTS: On histologic examination, oligodendrogliomas must be differentiated from tumors including the fibrillary astrocytoma, clear cell ependymoma, central neurocytoma, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT).
  • New molecular and genetic markers may aid in grading oligodendrogliomas and identifying patients with a better prognosis or response to chemotherapy.
  • The combination of allelic losses on chromosomes 1p and 19q has been statistically associated with a longer recurrence-free survival after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A patient with an oligodendroglioma may at times still present a diagnostic challenge for the neuropathologist.
  • Yet making an accurate diagnosis is essential, since the clinical course and optimal therapeutic approach differs from that of other gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / genetics. Oligodendroglioma / pathology


28. Massimino M, Spreafico F, Riva D, Biassoni V, Poggi G, Solero C, Gandola L, Genitori L, Modena P, Simonetti F, Potepan P, Casanova M, Meazza C, Clerici CA, Catania S, Sardi I, Giangaspero F: A lower-dose, lower-toxicity cisplatin-etoposide regimen for childhood progressive low-grade glioma. J Neurooncol; 2010 Oct;100(1):65-71
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  • Diagnoses were clinical in 13 cases and histological in 24, and comprised: pilocytic astrocytoma (17), ganglioglioma (3), pilomyxoid astrocytoma (2), and fibrillary astrocytoma (2).
  • Treatment was prompted by radiological evidence of progression and/or clinical deterioration a median 18 months after the first diagnosis.
  • After initial MRI staging, neurological and clinical examinations were performed before each chemotherapy cycle, with MRI after the first three courses and every three months thereafter.
  • After a median 48 months, a volume reduction was appreciable in 24 cases (65%) and response was maximum 12 months after starting treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Electroencephalography. Evoked Potentials, Visual / drug effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Longitudinal Studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male

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  • (PMID = 20151174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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29. Akhyani N, Fotheringham J, Yao K, Rashti F, Jacobson S: Efficacy of antiviral compounds in human herpesvirus-6-infected glial cells. J Neurovirol; 2006 Aug;12(4):284-93
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Foscarnet .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The development of HHV-6 encephalitis can be a fatal complication, the frequency of which is increasing likely due to improved diagnosis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid.
  • The authors compared the antiviral efficacy of four drugs currently used for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, a beta-herpesvirus sharing homology with HHV-6.
  • In pathological brain sections from patients with neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy, HHV-6 has been localized to glial cells.
  • Determination of antiviral activity in human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes of currently used antiviral compounds is essential for potential treatment of HHV-6 and neurological disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Herpesvirus 6, Human / drug effects. Neuroglia / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytes / drug effects. Astrocytes / virology. Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / virology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Foscarnet / pharmacology. Humans. Roseolovirus Infections / drug therapy. Roseolovirus Infections / pathology. Roseolovirus Infections / virology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16966219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-0284
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurovirology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurovirol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 364P9RVW4X / Foscarnet
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30. Akimoto J, Namatame H, Haraoka J, Kudo M: Epithelioid glioblastoma: a case report. Brain Tumor Pathol; 2005;22(1):21-7
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  • Her brain computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously enhanced tumor in the right thalamus.
  • Histological examination revealed a moderate number of tumor cells with fine bipolar processes in a mucoid matrix, which suggested pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin in the area resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, but in the epithelioid area they were negative for GFAP and vimentin as well as for breast cancer markers, including AE1/AE3.
  • The proliferating potential, represented by the MIB-1 labeling index, was high (82.5%) in the area of epithelioid appearance, compared to only 3% in the area of pilocytic astrocytoma-like appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18095100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1861-387X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain tumor pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Tumor Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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31. Lesniak MS, Klem JM, Weingart J, Carson BS Sr: Surgical outcome following resection of contrast-enhanced pediatric brainstem gliomas. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2003 Dec;39(6):314-22
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  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pediatric patients admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital with a diagnosis of a brainstem tumor between January 1985 and December 2000.
  • Fifty-seven patients (64.0%) underwent surgical resection while 32 (36%) were treated with radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • The pathology was consistent with juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in 30 patients (52.6%) and glioblastoma multiforme in 12 patients (21.1%).
  • The remaining cases consisted of 10 patients (17.5%) with fibrillary astrocytomas, 3 (5.3%) with gangliogliomas, 1 (1.8%) with an oligodendroglioma and 1 (1.8%) with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • Consequently, we recommend surgical resection and pathological diagnosis of all enhancing brainstem tumors with adjuvant therapy reserved for recurrent or unresectable cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / pathology. Glioma / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Neurosurg. 2004 Mar-Apr;40(2):99; author reply 100 [15292646.001]
  • (PMID = 14734866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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32. Gururangan S, Fisher MJ, Allen JC, Herndon JE 2nd, Quinn JA, Reardon DA, Vredenburgh JJ, Desjardins A, Phillips PC, Watral MA, Krauser JM, Friedman AH, Friedman HS: Temozolomide in children with progressive low-grade glioma. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(2):161-8
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  • Patients received a median of nine cycles (range, 2-12 cycles) of treatment.
  • Best responses in the 26 patients (86%) with optic pathway glioma (OPG)/pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) included partial response in 3 patients (11%), minor response in 1 (4%), stable disease in 10 (38%), and progressive disease in 12 (46%).
  • Only one of four patients with fibrillary astrocytoma had stable disease for 29 months after TMZ.
  • Seventeen of 26 patients had progressive disease either on or off therapy, and three have died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Survivors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17347491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1871667
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