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1. de Mari K, Maynard L, Sanquer A, Lebreux B, Eun HM: Therapeutic effects of recombinant feline interferon-omega on feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected and FeLV/feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-coinfected symptomatic cats. J Vet Intern Med; 2004 Jul-Aug;18(4):477-82
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  • [Title] Therapeutic effects of recombinant feline interferon-omega on feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected and FeLV/feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-coinfected symptomatic cats.
  • The clinical efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon, rFeIFN-omega, was evaluated for the treatment of cats presented with clinical signs associated with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection and FeLV/feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) coinfection in the field.
  • During the initial 4-month period, interferon (IFN)-treated cats (n = 39) had significantly reduced clinical scores compared with placebo (n = 42), with all cats having received concomitant supportive therapies.
  • Compared with the control, the IFN-treated group showed significantly lower rates of mortality: 39% versus 59% (1.7-fold higher risk of death for controls) at the 9-month time point and 47% versus 59% (1.4-fold higher risk of death for controls) at the 12-month time point.
  • The IFN treatment was associated with minor but consistent improvement in abnormal hematologic parameters (red blood cell count, packed cell volume, and white blood cell count), apparently underlying the positive effects of IFN on clinical parameters.
  • These data demonstrate that rFeIFN-omega initially has statistically significant therapeutic effects on clinical signs and later on survival of cats with clinical signs associated with FeLV infection and FeLV/FIV coinfection.

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  • (PMID = 15320583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / interferon omega 1
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2. Kristal O, Lana SE, Ogilvie GK, Rand WM, Cotter SM, Moore AS: Single agent chemotherapy with doxorubicin for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study of 19 cases (1994-1997). J Vet Intern Med; 2001 Mar-Apr;15(2):125-30
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  • [Title] Single agent chemotherapy with doxorubicin for feline lymphoma: a retrospective study of 19 cases (1994-1997).
  • Medical records of 21 cats with confirmed lymphoma treated with single-agent doxorubicin were reviewed.
  • Doxorubicin was given at a dosage of 25 mg/m2 (n = 8) or 1 mg/kg (n = 11) IV, every 3 weeks for a total of 5 treatments.
  • Four of 16 tested cats were positive for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and all 16 cats tested negative for feline immunodeficiency virus.
  • Cats that achieved CR to doxorubicin and FeLV-negative cats had significantly longer survival times.
  • Therefore, if doxorubicin is used for the treatment of feline lymphoma, it should be combined with other effective chemotherapeutic drugs in a combination protocol.

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  • (PMID = 11300595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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3. Kohn B, Weingart C, Eckmann V, Ottenjann M, Leibold W: Primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in 19 cats: diagnosis, therapy, and outcome (1998-2004). J Vet Intern Med; 2006 Jan-Feb;20(1):159-66
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  • [Title] Primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in 19 cats: diagnosis, therapy, and outcome (1998-2004).
  • The CT was performed in 92 cats; it was negative in 5 healthy, in 9 sick nonanemic, and in 55 cats with different types of anemia.
  • The CT was positive in 18 anemic cats (2 feline leukemia virus (FeLV) positive, 1 with cholangiohepatitis, 15 with no underlying disease).
  • Moreover, agglutination persisted after saline washing in 5 anemic cats (1 lymphoma, 4 pIMHA).
  • Initial treatment consisted of blood transfusions (10), crystalloids (11), prednisolone (19), antibiotics (19), and H2-blockers (11).

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  • (PMID = 16496936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Histamine H2 Antagonists; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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4. Teske E, van Straten G, van Noort R, Rutteman GR: Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (COP) in cats with malignant lymphoma: new results with an old protocol. J Vet Intern Med; 2002 Mar-Apr;16(2):179-86
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (COP) in cats with malignant lymphoma: new results with an old protocol.
  • This retrospective study in 61 cats with malignant lymphomas examined the efficacy of a well-established chemotherapy protocol (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone [COP]) in the Netherlands, a country with a low prevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV).
  • Twenty-two cats (36.1%) had mediastinal lymphoma, 11 (18.0%) had alimentary lymphoma, 7 (11.5%) had peripheral lymphoma, 8 (13.1%) had nasal lymphoma, and 13 (21.3%) had miscellaneous lymphoma (including renal lymphoma in 2 [3.3%]).
  • Of the 54 cats that were tested, only 4 (7.4%) were FeLV positive.
  • The estimated 1- and 2-year disease-free periods (DFPs) in the 46 cats with CR were 51.4 and 37.8%, respectively, whereas the median duration of remission was 251 days.
  • The median survival time and the 1-year survival rate for mediastinal lymphoma were 262 days and 49.4%. respectively.
  • Response to therapy in this study was shown to be a significant prognostic indicator.
  • Young Siamese cats in this study had a greater tendency to develop mediastinal malignant lymphoma at a young age, and all were FeLV negative.
  • In comparison with results reported in other studies with different combination chemotherapy protocols, these are among the highest percentages of remission and the longest survival rates for cats with malignant lymphoma.

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  • (PMID = 11899035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0891-6640
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of veterinary internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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5. Kyle KN, Wright Z: Apparent feline leukemia virus-induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia and response to treatment. J Feline Med Surg; 2010 Apr;12(4):341-4
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  • [Title] Apparent feline leukemia virus-induced chronic lymphocytic leukemia and response to treatment.
  • Chylothorax secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed in a feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-positive 8-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair feline.
  • The leukemia resolved following therapy with chlorambucil, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and lomustine.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CLL in an FeLV-positive cat.
  • Although a causative relationship cannot be proven, patients diagnosed with either disease may benefit from diagnostics to rule out the presence of the other concurrent condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Cat Diseases / virology. Chylothorax / veterinary. Leukemia Virus, Feline. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / administration & dosage. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cats. Leukemia, Feline / complications. Leukemia, Feline / drug therapy. Leukemia, Feline / virology. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Feline Med Surg. 2010 Dec;12(12):995; author reply 996 [21126679.001]
  • (PMID = 19945894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2750
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents
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6. Stein TJ, Pellin M, Steinberg H, Chun R: Treatment of feline gastrointestinal small-cell lymphoma with chlorambucil and glucocorticoids. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2010 Nov-Dec;46(6):413-7
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  • [Title] Treatment of feline gastrointestinal small-cell lymphoma with chlorambucil and glucocorticoids.
  • Gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma is the most frequently diagnosed form of lymphoma in the cat and is categorized into two distinct forms based on the size of neoplastic lymphocytes.
  • Treatments for both large- and small-cell GI lymphoma have been described previously; however, multiple chemotherapy protocols were used, a minimal amount of histopathological characterization was provided, and, in most studies, the majority of diagnoses were obtained via endoscopic pinch biopsies.
  • Twenty-eight cats (24 with full-thickness intestinal biopsies) were diagnosed with small-cell GI lymphoma and treated with a combination of chlorambucil and glucocorticoids.
  • Follow-up identified seven cats with relapsed disease-all of which were treated with a rescue protocol of cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids; the response rate was 100%, and four of the 28 cats were diagnosed with a second malignancy.

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  • (PMID = 21041334.001).
  • [ISSN] 1547-3317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / UL1 RR025011-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025011-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025011-01; None / None / / UL1 RR025011-05; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025011; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025011-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025011-05; None / None / / UL1 RR025011-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025011-04; None / None / / UL1 RR025011-04; None / None / / UL1 RR025011-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS290341; NLM/ PMC3092124
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7. McCaw DL, Boon GD, Jergens AE, Kern MR, Bowles MH, Johnson JC: Immunomodulation therapy for feline leukemia virus infection. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc; 2001 Jul-Aug;37(4):356-63
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  • [Title] Immunomodulation therapy for feline leukemia virus infection.
  • Clinically ill feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected cats, treated with Staphylococcus protein A (SPA) or oral interferon alpha (IFN), or both, were compared with cats treated with saline (SAL).
  • Twelve cats survived and completed the 100-week therapy.
  • Significantly more owners of cats treated with SPA/SAL thought their cat's health improved during treatment compared to owners of cats treated with SAL/SAL (P=0.05, pair-wise comparison) or SPA/IFN (P=0.05, pair-wise comparison).
  • No significant differences in body weight, temperature, hematocrit, red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, reticulocyte counts, white blood cell or neutrophil numbers, lymphocyte concentrations, bone-marrow cytopathology, FeLV status, survival time, activity, or appetite scores were observed.
  • No significant differences in the owners' subjective assessment of their cat's health following treatment with SAL/IFN, SPA/IFN, or SAL/SAL were seen.
  • Therapy with SPA as a single agent results in the owners' subjective impression of improved health of their FeLV-infected cats.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Viral / blood. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Leukemia Virus, Feline / immunology. Leukemia, Feline / therapy. Staphylococcal Protein A / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Administration, Oral. Animals. Cats. Drug Administration Schedule. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / veterinary. Female. Immunotherapy / veterinary. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11450836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0587-2871
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Anim Hosp Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Staphylococcal Protein A
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8. Rao S, Cunningham D, Hawkins RE, Hill ME, Smith D, Daniel F, Ross PJ, Oates J, Norman AR: Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer. Br J Cancer; 2005 May 9;92(9):1650-4
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  • [Title] Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU (ECF) improves overall survival (OS) compared to 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) in patients with previously untreated advanced biliary cancer in a prospective randomised study.
  • Patients were randomly assigned to receive epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU ECF or bolus 5FU etoposide and leucovorin (FELV).
  • The median OS for ECF was 9.02 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.46-11.51) and FELV 12.03 months (95% CI: 9.3-14.7), P=0.2059.
  • Objective response rates were similar for both arms: ECF 19.2% (95% CI: 6.55-39.3); FELV 15% (95% CI: 3.2-37.9), P=0.72.
  • There was significantly increased grade 3/4 neutropenia with FELV vs ECF (53.8 vs 29.5%, respectively, P=0.020).
  • ECF did not improve OS compared to FELV, but was associated with less acute toxicity.
  • These data suggest that chemotherapy can prolong OS and achieve good symptomatic relief in advanced biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15856037.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2362051
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9. Richter KP: Feline gastrointestinal lymphoma. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract; 2003 Sep;33(5):1083-98, vii
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  • [Title] Feline gastrointestinal lymphoma.
  • Gastrointestinal lymphoma is a common cause of anorexia and weight loss in older cats, with or without vomiting or diarrhea.
  • Most cats are feline leukemia virus-negative and feline immunodeficiency virus-negative.
  • Low-grade gastrointestinal lymphoma may be more common than previously thought, and these cats respond better to chemotherapy agents than cats with high-grade lymphoma.
  • The most significant prognostic indicator is initial response to chemotherapy, with cats that survive the initial induction period generally achieving long-term remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / therapy. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / veterinary. Lymphoma / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 14552162.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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10. Ettinger SN: Principles of treatment for feline lymphoma. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract; 2003 May;18(2):98-102
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  • [Title] Principles of treatment for feline lymphoma.
  • Lymphoma is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in cats.
  • As feline leukemia virus antigenemia has decreased over the past 15 years, there has been a profound shift in the presence, signalment, and frequency of sites of feline lymphoma in North America.
  • There is variation in anatomic classification systems, but most studies have divided lymphoma into four groups: alimentary, mediastinal, multicentric, or extranodal.
  • Staging allows for evaluation of the extent of disease.
  • As in the dog, lymphoma is a systemic disease in the cat, and chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for most forms.
  • In contrast to canine lymphoma, feline lymphoma is generally more challenging and frustrating to treat than canine lymphoma.
  • Fortunately, cats treated with chemotherapy tend to have less toxicity than dogs.
  • Positive prognostic factors are feline leukemia virus-negative, clinically well at time of diagnosis, and response to therapy.
  • Unfortunately, response cannot be predicted before treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Lymphoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Combined Modality Therapy / veterinary. Neoplasm Staging / veterinary. Veterinary Medicine

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  • (PMID = 12831069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-2867
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical techniques in small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Tech Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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11. Abramo F, Bastelli F, Nardoni S, Mancianti F: Feline cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladophyalophora bantiana. J Feline Med Surg; 2002 Sep;4(3):157-63
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  • [Title] Feline cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladophyalophora bantiana.
  • A case of feline cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis due to Cladophyalophora bantiana is described.
  • Pigmented, yeast-like fungus cells and hyphal elements were easily identified in haematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections.
  • Cladophyalophora bantiana was isolated from a tissue specimen.
  • This organism, primarily known to cause cerebral infection in humans and cats, only rarely causes cutaneous infection.
  • Despite anti-fungal chemotherapy two relapses occurred.
  • The cat was feline immunodeficiency virus- and feline leukemia virus-negative and even if the owner was unaware of trauma, the hypothesis of wound contamination is the most likely.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Fluconazole / administration & dosage. Fluconazole / therapeutic use. Male. Nose

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 ESFM and AAFP
  • (PMID = 12360955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-612X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 8VZV102JFY / Fluconazole
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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12. Milner RJ, Peyton J, Cooke K, Fox LE, Gallagher A, Gordon P, Hester J: Response rates and survival times for cats with lymphoma treated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol: 38 cases (1996-2003). J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2005 Oct 1;227(7):1118-22
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  • [Title] Response rates and survival times for cats with lymphoma treated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol: 38 cases (1996-2003).
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine response rates and survival times for cats with lymphoma treated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol.
  • ANIMALS: 38 cats with lymphoma.
  • PROCEDURE: Medical records were reviewed, and information on age, sex, breed, FeLV and FIV infection status, anatomic form, clinical stage, and survival time was obtained.
  • Overall median survival time was 210 days (interquartile range, 90 to 657 days), and overall duration of first remission was 156 days (interquartile range, 87 to 316 days).
  • Age, sex, anatomic form, and clinical stage were not significantly associated with duration of first remission or survival time.
  • Median survival time for cats with complete remission (654 days) was significantly longer than median survival time for cats with partial remission (122 days) and for cats with no response (11 days).
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that a high percentage of cats with lymphoma will respond to treatment with the University of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol.
  • Age, sex, anatomic form, and clinical stage were not significantly associated with duration of first response or survival time, but initial response to treatment was.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Cat Diseases / mortality. Lymphoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Female. Male. Neoplasm Staging / veterinary. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Wisconsin

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  • (PMID = 16220673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Williams LE, Pruitt AF, Thrall DE: Chemotherapy followed by abdominal cavity irradiation for feline lymphoblastic lymphoma. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2010 Nov-Dec;51(6):681-7
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy followed by abdominal cavity irradiation for feline lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Combination chemotherapy is standard care for feline lymphoma, although clinically relevant improvements in remission duration are unlikely to result from manipulations of chemotherapy agents alone.
  • Lymphopoietic tissues generally are sensitive to radiation, and support for chemoradiotherapy as a treatment for lymphoma is found in both humans and dogs.
  • The goal of this prospective pilot study was to determine the normal tissue tolerance to 15 Gy total abdomen fractionated radiation therapy following induction chemotherapy in cats with lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • Eight cats with lymphoblastic gastrointestinal or multicentric lymphoma confined to the abdominal cavity were treated with a 6-week combination chemotherapy protocol followed 2 weeks later by whole-abdomen radiation therapy consisting of 10 daily fractions of 1.5 Gy.
  • Treatment was well tolerated; renal insufficiency documented in one cat at the start of radiation therapy progressed to stable chronic renal failure.
  • One cat not in complete remission at the time of radiation therapy relapsed 2 weeks later, one cat with multicentric lymphoma relapsed with hepatic large granular lymphoma, and one cat was euthanatized 3 weeks following completion of radiation therapy for other reasons; no evidence of lymphoma or radiation toxicoses was identified on post mortem evaluation.
  • The remaining five cats remain in remission at least 266 days after starting therapy; median remission duration has not been reached (range, > 266 to > 1332 days).
  • Results of this study suggest that 15 Gy total abdomen fractionated radiation therapy after induction chemotherapy is tolerated satisfactorily.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / veterinary. Cat Diseases / radiotherapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cats. Combined Modality Therapy / veterinary. Pilot Projects. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21158247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Collado VM, Gómez-Lucía E, Tejerizo G, Miró G, Escolar E, Martín S, Doménech A: Effect of type I interferons on the expression of feline leukaemia virus. Vet Microbiol; 2007 Jul 20;123(1-3):180-6

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  • [Title] Effect of type I interferons on the expression of feline leukaemia virus.
  • Ten-fold serial dilutions of three recombinant IFNs available for therapy, human IFNalpha(2a), IFNalpha(A/D) and feline IFNomega were added to the chronically FeLV-infected cell line FL74.
  • However, reverse transcriptase activity (RT), directly proportional to the amount of infectious free virions, decreased with increasing concentrations of IFN and longer treatment times.
  • Results of its evaluation by annexin V-Fluos staining showed that IFNs decreased the viability of treated FeLV-infected cells, and increased apoptosis, but not of non-infected cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / drug effects. Interferon Type I / pharmacology. Leukemia Virus, Feline / drug effects. Leukemia Virus, Feline / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. Cats. Cell Line. Humans. RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 17507184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-1135
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
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15. Malik R, Gabor LJ, Foster SF, McCorkell BE, Canfield PJ: Therapy for Australian cats with lymphosarcoma. Aust Vet J; 2001 Dec;79(12):808-17
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  • [Title] Therapy for Australian cats with lymphosarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the response of Australian cats with lymphosarcoma to chemotherapy and/or surgery in relation to patient and tumour characteristics, haematological and serum biochemical values and retroviral status.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 61 client-owned cats with naturally-occurring lymphosarcoma subjected to multi-agent chemotherapy and/or surgery.
  • PROCEDURE: An accepted chemotherapy protocol utilising l-asparaginase, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methotrexate and prednisolone was modified and used to treat 60 cats with lymphosarcoma.
  • Clinical findings were recorded before and during therapy.
  • Owner satisfaction with the results of chemotherapy was determined using a questionnaire sent after the completion of chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: One cat, with lymphosarcoma limited to a single mandibular lymph node, was treated using surgery alone and was cured.
  • The other 60 cats were treated using multi-agent chemotherapy, although seven cats with localised intestinal, ocular and subcutaneous lesions had these lesions partially (2 intestinal lesions) or completely (2 eyes, 2 intestinal lesions and a cluster of regional lymph nodes) resected prior to starting chemotherapy.
  • The median survival time for these 60 cats was 116 days.
  • Three cats were censored from further analysis as their long-term survival data were uninterpretable because they died of causes unrelated to lymphosarcoma or were prematurely lost to follow-up.
  • Twenty cats were classed as 'long-term survivors' based on survival time in excess of one year and at least 14 were 'cured' based on the absence of physical evidence of lymphosarcoma 2-years after initiating treatment.
  • Excluding the one FeLV ELISA-positive cat with mediastinal LSA, 7 of 9 cats less than 4 years-of-age were long-term survivors (median survival time >1271 days).
  • On the basis of 27 replies to a questionnaire, owners were generally very satisfied with the response to chemotherapy, irrespective of the survival time of the individual patient.
  • Eighty five percent of owners expressed complete satisfaction with their decision to pursue chemotherapy and 70% believed their cat's health status improved during the first 2-weeks of treatment.
  • Importantly, 78% of owners considered that chemotherapy required a very substantial time commitment on their part.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to cure approximately one quarter of cats with lymphosarcoma using sequential multi-agent chemotherapy and/or surgery.
  • FeLV-negative cats younger than 4 years (typically with mediastinal lymphosarcoma) had a particularly favourable prognosis.
  • The decision to embark on chemotherapy should be based on the results of induction chemotherapy with l-asparaginase, vincristine and prednisolone, as the response to this was a good predictor of long-term survival.
  • Cats surviving the first 16 weeks of chemotherapy generally enjoyed robust remissions (in excess of 1 year) or were cured of their malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Cat Diseases / surgery. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Cats. Cohort Studies. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Leukemia Virus, Feline. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. New South Wales. Patient Satisfaction. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Surveys and Questionnaires. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11837901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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16. Langston CE, Reine NJ, Kittrell D: The use of erythropoietin. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract; 2003 Nov;33(6):1245-60
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  • Other uses that are poorly characterized in veterinary medicine include treatment of cancer patients on chemotherapy, hematologic disorders, and anemic FeLV-infected cats as well as preoperative conditioning for elective surgeries that may involve significant blood loss.
  • Careful monitoring of therapy is necessary for optimal results.
  • Several complications are associated with rHuEPO therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / veterinary. Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dogs. Recombinant Proteins

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  • (PMID = 14664197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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17. Kano R, Sato E, Okamura T, Watanabe S, Hasegawa A: Expression of Bcl-2 in feline lymphoma cell lines. Vet Clin Pathol; 2008 Mar;37(1):57-60
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  • [Title] Expression of Bcl-2 in feline lymphoma cell lines.
  • Bcl-2 has been shown to repress cell death triggered by a diverse array of stimuli, including chemotherapy and gamma irradiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine feline Bcl-2 expression level in feline lymphoma cells using an immunoblot assay with anti-human and anti-canine Bcl-2 monoclonal antibodies.
  • METHODS: About 708 base pairs containing the coding sequence of the feline Bcl-2 gene were transformed into Escherichia coli.
  • An immunoblot assay using the monoclonal antibodies was carried out to determine the level of feline Bcl-2 expression in lymphoma and lymphocytic leukemia cell lines.
  • RESULTS: The recombinant feline Bcl-2 protein produced in E. coli had a molecular weight of about 26 kDa and was detected by immunoblot assay by using anti-human Bcl-2 mouse monoclonal antibody.
  • Feline Bcl-2 expression was high in lymphoma cell lines (FL-74-UDC-1 and FT-1) and low in the cell line from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy cat (FeTJ-1) but not low in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy cat.
  • The anti-human Bcl-2 mouse monoclonal antibody was found to cross-react with feline Bcl-2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the expression of Bcl-2 in T-cell lymphoma cell lines and indicate that it is suitable to detect feline Bcl-2 using an immunoblot assay.
  • Pending further evaluation, Bcl-2 expression might be useful in the differential diagnosis of feline tumors.


18. Krick EL, Little L, Patel R, Shofer FS, Sorenmo K, Clifford CA, Baez JL: Description of clinical and pathological findings, treatment and outcome of feline large granular lymphocyte lymphoma (1996-2004). Vet Comp Oncol; 2008 Jun;6(2):102-10
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  • [Title] Description of clinical and pathological findings, treatment and outcome of feline large granular lymphocyte lymphoma (1996-2004).
  • Feline large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphoma is an uncommon, morphologically distinct variant of feline lymphoma.
  • Limited information exists in the literature regarding pathological and immunohistochemical descriptions, clinical findings, treatment and survival times.
  • The purpose of this study was to describe clinical features, treatment and outcome in feline LGL lymphoma.
  • Medical records of 45 cats with LGL lymphoma were retrospectively evaluated.
  • All cats tested for feline leukaemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infection were negative.
  • One complete response and six partial responses were noted in the 23 cats that received chemotherapy as their initial treatment.
  • Median survival time for cats that were treated was 57 days.
  • Based on these results, feline LGL lymphoma appears to be minimally responsive to chemotherapy and is associated with a grave prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cat Diseases / pathology. Lymphoma / veterinary. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Female. Immunohistochemistry / veterinary. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19178669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5829
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary and comparative oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Comp Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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19. Mancianti F: [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?]. Parassitologia; 2004 Jun;46(1-2):203-6
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  • [Title] [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].
  • [Transliterated title] Leishmaniosi felina: quale ruolo epidemiologico?
  • Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature.
  • Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin.
  • A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions.
  • PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens.
  • Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account.
  • Visceral leishmaniasis is not common in cats: this form shows visceral involvement: liver and spleen are interested, with lymph nodes and kidney.
  • The cat probably has to considerate to play an active role in the disease, in contrast to goats, calves and horses who could act as accidental reservoirs of leishmania, while sheep appears to be not susceptible to experimental infection.
  • Equine leishmaniasis appears as a self-healing skin-dwelling disease, with a massive accumulation of parasites.
  • The animals do not often show detectable specific antibodies and recover without any chemotherapy.
  • Untreated affected cats can frequently die and we also observed lymph nodes and blood involvement indicating a spread of leishmania in feline hosts.
  • This species is believed to have a high degree of natural resistance, as observed following experimental infection.
  • Some of the affected cats were FIV and/or FeLV positive and these viroses such as stress may induce an impaired cellular immune response, even if leishmania infected cat was not submitted to CD4+, CD8+ lymphocyte counts nor other immunological test.
  • However the resistance of the cat to leishmania infection probably depends on genetic factors, not strictly related to cell mediated immunity, taking into account the high seroprevalence of FIV infections (30%) in our country versus the number of clinical cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats / parasitology. Comorbidity. Disease Reservoirs. Disease Transmission, Infectious. Dog Diseases / epidemiology. Dog Diseases / parasitology. Dog Diseases / transmission. Dogs / parasitology. Global Health. Horse Diseases / epidemiology. Horse Diseases / parasitology. Horse Diseases / transmission. Horses / parasitology. Humans. Immunity, Innate. Immunocompromised Host. Ruminants / parasitology. Seroepidemiologic Studies. Zoonoses

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  • (PMID = 15305717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-2951
  • [Journal-full-title] Parassitologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parassitologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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20. Penzhorn BL, Schoeman T, Jacobson LS: Feline babesiosis in South Africa: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2004 Oct;1026:183-6
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  • [Title] Feline babesiosis in South Africa: a review.
  • Babesia felis, originally identified in wild cats in the Sudan, was subsequently found to cause clinical disease in domestic cats.
  • Although babesiosis in domestic cats has been reported sporadically from various countries, as a significant disease it appears to be a distinctly South African phenomenon.
  • Apart from an inland focus, feline babesiosis is reported regularly only from coastal regions.
  • The infection is assumed to be tick-borne, but the vector has not been identified.
  • Feline babesiosis tends to be an afebrile, chronic, low-grade disease.
  • Concurrent infections (e.g., Mycoplasma haemofelis, FeLV, FIV) may contribute to the clinical picture.
  • Drugs effective against other Babesia species give variable and questionable results.
  • The drug of choice is primaquine phosphate, which effects a clinical cure but does not sterilize the infection.
  • Repeated or chronic therapy may be required.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anemia, Hemolytic / etiology. Anemia, Hemolytic / veterinary. Animals. Cats. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Vectors. South Africa / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15604490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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21. Sinkovics JG: Antileukemia and antitumor effects of the graft-versus-host disease: a new immunovirological approach. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung; 2010 Dec;57(4):253-347
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  • [Title] Antileukemia and antitumor effects of the graft-versus-host disease: a new immunovirological approach.
  • In leukemic mice, the native host's explicit and well-defined immune reactions to the leukemia virus (a strong exogenous antigen) and to leukemia cells (pretending in their native hosts to be protected "self" elements) are extinguished and replaced in GvHD (graft-versus-host disease) by those of the immunocompetent donor cells.
  • In many cases, the GvHD-inducer donors display genetically encoded resistance to the leukemia virus.
  • In human patients only antileukemia and anti-tumor cell immune reactions are mobilized; thus, patients are deprived of immune reactions to a strong exogenous antigen (the elusive human leukemia-sarcoma retroviruses).
  • The innate and adaptive immune systems of mice have to sustain the immunosuppressive effects of leukemia-inducing retroviruses.
  • After studying leukemogenic retroviruses in murine and feline (and other mammalian) hosts, it is very difficult to dismiss retroviral etiology for human leukemias and sarcomas.
  • Since no characterized and thus recognized leukemogenic-sarcomagenic retroviral agents are being isolated from the vast majority of human leukemias-sarcomas, the treatment for these conditions in mice and in human patients vastly differ.
  • It is immunological and biological modalities (alpha interferons; vaccines; adoptive lymphocyte therapy) that dominate the treatment of murine leukemias, whereas combination chemotherapy remains the main remission-inducing agent in human leukemias-lymphomas and sarcomas (as humanized monoclonal antibodies and immunotoxins move in).
  • Yet, in this apparently different backgrounds in Mus and Homo, GvHD, as a treatment modality, appears to work well in both hosts, by replacing the hosts' anti-leukemia and anti-tumor immune faculties with those of the donor.
  • The clinical application of GvHD in the treatment of human leukemias-lymphomas and malignant solid tumors remains a force worthy of pursuit, refinement and strengthening.
  • Graft engineering and modifications of the inner immunological environment of the recipient host by the activation or administration of tumor memory T cells, selected Treg cells and natural killer (NKT) cell classes and cytokines, and the improved pharmacotherapy of GvHD without reducing its antitumor efficacy, will raise the value of GvHD to the higher ranks of the effective antitumor immunotherapeutical measures.
  • Clinical interventions of HCT/HSCT (hematopoietic cell/stem cell transplants) are now applicable to an extended spectrum of malignant diseases in human patients, being available to elderly patients, who receive non-myeloablative conditioning, are re-enforced by post-transplant donor lymphocyte (NK cell and immune T cell) infusions and post-transplant vaccinations, and the donor cells may derive from engineered grafts, or from cord blood with reduced GvHD, but increased GvL/GvT-inducing capabilities (graft-versus leukemia/tumor).
  • Post-transplant T cell transfusions are possible only if selected leukemia antigen-specific T cell clones are available.
  • In verbatim quotation: "Ultimately, advances in separation of GvT from GvHD will further enhance the potential of allogeneic HCT as a curative treatment for hematological malignancies" (Rezvani, A.R. and Storb, R.F., Journal of Autoimmunity 30:172-179, 2008 (see in the text)).
  • It may be added: for cure, a combination of the GvL/T effects with new targeted therapeutic modalities, as elaborated on in this article, will be necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft vs Host Disease. Graft vs Leukemia Effect. Immunotherapy / methods. Leukemia / immunology. Leukemia / therapy. Leukemia Virus, Murine / immunology. Neoplasms / immunology. Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21183421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1217-8950
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
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22. Sano J, Nagafuchi S, Yamazaki J, Oguma K, Kano R, Hasegawa A: Effect of antineoplastic drugs on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL genes in the feline T-cell leukemia cell line. Res Vet Sci; 2005 Dec;79(3):197-201
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  • [Title] Effect of antineoplastic drugs on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL genes in the feline T-cell leukemia cell line.
  • Bcl-2 has been shown to repress cell death triggered by a diverse array of stimuli including chemotherapy and gamma-irradiation.
  • Chemotherapy of feline lymphoma is generally carried out with antineoplastic drugs, which are reported to induce apoptosis in tumor cells.
  • However, the precise apoptotic signals, induced by chemotherapeutic drugs against feline tumors have not been fully characterized.
  • Therefore, we have evaluated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in FT-1 upon in vitro treatment with these drugs.
  • In the present study, full length of feline Bcl-xL gene was sequenced, and the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL mRNAs in feline lymphoma cell line (FT-1) cultured with doxorubicin, prednisolone or vincristine were investigated.
  • Feline Bcl-xL clone was 1163 base pairs in length and encoded 233 amino acids.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Leukemia, T-Cell / genetics. Leukemia, T-Cell / veterinary. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. bcl-X Protein / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cats. Cell Line, Tumor. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Molecular Sequence Data. Prednisolone / pharmacology. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Vincristine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15893350.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-5288
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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23. Mylonakis ME, Petanides TA, Valli VE, Vernau W, Koytinas AF, Michael RS: Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia with short-term spontaneous remission in a cat. Aust Vet J; 2008 Jun;86(6):224-8
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  • [Title] Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia with short-term spontaneous remission in a cat.
  • A complete blood count (CBC) and a biochemistry profile showed leukocytosis, numerous blast cells in the peripheral blood, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinaemia and a positive test for feline leukaemia virus antigen.
  • A diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukaemia was made on the basis of the results of bone marrow cytology, histopathology, and immunochemistry (CD3, CD79a, lysozyme, and myeloperoxidase) tests.
  • Following an unexpected 1-month period of clinical and clinicopathological remission without chemotherapy, the cat relapsed and died 1 week later.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / veterinary. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 18498558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0005-0423
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian veterinary journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust. Vet. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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24. Luttge BG, Freed EO: FIV Gag: virus assembly and host-cell interactions. Vet Immunol Immunopathol; 2010 Mar 15;134(1-2):3-13
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  • [Title] FIV Gag: virus assembly and host-cell interactions.
  • Infection of domestic cats with virulent strains of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) leads to an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), similar to the pathogenesis induced in humans by infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).
  • Thus, FIV is a highly relevant model for anti-HIV therapy and vaccine development.
  • FIV is not infectious in humans, so it is also a potentially effective non-toxic gene therapy vector.
  • To make better use of this model, it is important to define the cellular machinery utilized by each virus to produce virus particles so that relevant similarities can be identified.
  • It is well understood that all replication-competent retroviruses encode gag, pol, and env genes, which provide core elements for virus replication.
  • As a result, most antiretroviral therapy targets pol-derived enzymes (protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase) orenv-derived glycoproteins that mediate virus attachment and entry.
  • However, resistance to drugs against these targets is a persistent problem, and novel targets must be identified to produce more effective drugs that can either substitute or be combined with current therapy.
  • Elements of the gag gene (matrix, capsid, nucleocapsid, and "late" domains) have yet to be exploited as antiviral targets, even though the Gag precursor polyprotein is self-sufficient for the assembly and release of virus particles from cells.
  • However, there has been significant progress in recent years in defining how FIV Gag is targeted to the cellular plasma membrane, assembles into virions, incorporates FIV Env glycoproteins, and utilizes host cell machinery to complete virus release.
  • Recent discoveries of intracellular restriction factors that target HIV-1 and FIV capsids after virus entry have also opened exciting new areas of research.
  • This review summarizes currently known interactions involving HIV-1 and FIV Gag that affect virus release, infectivity, and replication.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Products, gag / physiology. Host-Pathogen Interactions / physiology. Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline / physiology. Virus Assembly / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats / virology. Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Virus Release / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19910057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2534
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary immunology and immunopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 BC010776-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gene Products, gag
  • [Number-of-references] 143
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS158676; NLM/ PMC2822131
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25. Zoia A, Hughes D, Connolly DJ: Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a cat with extranodal lymphoma. J Small Anim Pract; 2004 Sep;45(9):467-71
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  • [Title] Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in a cat with extranodal lymphoma.
  • Serum analysis for feline leukaemia virus antigen was positive.
  • Cytological evaluation of the pleural and pericardial effusions showed lymphoblastic cells indicative of disseminated lymphoma.
  • Following thoracocentesis and pericardiocentesis, the cat was treated for lymphoma using the University of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol.
  • The cat was sent home after three days and, at the time of writing (six months after initial presentation), was still symptom free.
  • To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report confirming pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in the cat as a direct result of an extranodal lymphoma with cytological evidence of neoplastic cells in the pericardial fluid.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiac Tamponade / veterinary. Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Heart Neoplasms / veterinary. Lymphoma / veterinary. Pericardial Effusion / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Echocardiography / veterinary. Male. Pleural Effusion / etiology. Pleural Effusion / pathology. Pleural Effusion / veterinary. Radiography, Thoracic / veterinary. Treatment Outcome

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lymphoma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pericardial Disorders.
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  • (PMID = 15460206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4510
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of small animal practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Small Anim Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. D'Cruz OJ, Waurzyniak B, Uckun FM: Antiretroviral spermicide WHI-07 prevents vaginal and rectal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus in domestic cats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2004 Apr;48(4):1082-8
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  • [Title] Antiretroviral spermicide WHI-07 prevents vaginal and rectal transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus in domestic cats.
  • WHI-07 [5-bromo-6-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl)-methoxy alaninyl phosphate] is a novel dual-function aryl phosphate derivative of zidovudine with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and spermicidal activities.
  • WHI-07 was active against the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).
  • This study evaluated whether topical application of WHI-07 as a single agent and in combination with an organometallic vanadium complex, vanadocene dithiocarbamate (VDDTC), via a nontoxic gel microemulsion can block vaginal as well as rectal transmission of feline AIDS (FAIDS) by chronically FIV-infected feline T cells in the natural host model.
  • Genital transmission of FIV was monitored in recipient cats by the appearance of viral antibodies to FIV Gag proteins and by virus isolation of blood leukocytes as measured by FIV reverse transcriptase activity and FIV-specific PCR.
  • Microbicidal activity was considered effective when the treated cats did not show evidence of FIV infection for up to 18 weeks postchallenge.
  • An aggregate analysis of 46 specific-pathogen-free cats revealed that a single dose of the infected cell inoculum efficiently transmitted FIV infection when delivered into the vagina (100%) or rectum (66%).
  • Pretreatment of the vagina or rectum with 2% WHI-07 alone or in combination with 0.25% VDDTC significantly (P = 0.004) protected cats from genital transmission by the highly infectious inoculum (7 million FIV(Bangston)-infected feline T cells).

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  • (PMID = 15047505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 37357; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 42889; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R43 AI054352; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R44 HD042884; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R43 HD042884; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R43 HD042889; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 54352; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R44 HD042889; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD42884
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-bromo-6-methoxy-5, 6-dihydro-3'-azidothymidine-5'-(p-bromophenyl) methoxyalaninyl phosphate; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Dideoxynucleotides; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Gels; 0 / Spermatocidal Agents; 0 / Vanadium Compounds; 0 / bis(cyclopentadienyl)-N,N-diethyldithiocarbamato triflate salt; 365-07-1 / Thymidine Monophosphate; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC375320
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27. Hanazono Y, Terao K, Ozawa K: Gene transfer into nonhuman primate hematopoietic stem cells: implications for gene therapy. Stem Cells; 2001;19(1):12-23
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene transfer into nonhuman primate hematopoietic stem cells: implications for gene therapy.
  • Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are desirable targets for gene therapy because of their self-renewal and multilineage differentiation abilities.
  • Retroviral vectors are extensively used for HSC gene therapy.
  • However, the initial human trials of HSC gene marking and therapy showed that the gene transfer efficiency into human HSCs with retroviral vectors was very low in contrast to the much higher efficiency observed in murine experiments.
  • This has been made possible by improving ex vivo transduction conditions such as introduction of Flt-3 ligand and specific fibronectin fragment (CH-296) into ex vivo culture during transduction, and the use of retroviral vectors pseudotyped with the gibbon ape leukemia virus or feline endogenous retrovirus envelope.
  • Other strategies including the use of lentiviral vectors and in vivo selective expansion of gene-modified cells with the drug resistance gene or selective amplifier gene (also designated the molecular growth switch) are now being tested to further increase the fraction of gene-modified cells using nonhuman primate models.
  • In addition to the high gene transfer efficiency, high-level and long-term expression of transgenes in human HSCs and their progeny is also required for effective HSC gene therapy.
  • For this purpose, other backbones of retroviral vectors such as the murine stem cell virus and cis-DNA elements, such as the ss-globin locus control region and the chromatin insulator, also need to be tested in nonhuman primate models.
  • Nonhuman primate studies will continue to provide an important framework for human HSC gene therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Transfer Techniques. Genetic Therapy / methods. Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Macaca fascicularis


28. Sekis I, Ramstead K, Rishniw M, Schwark WS, McDonough SP, Goldstein RE, Papich M, Simpson KW: Single-dose pharmacokinetics and genotoxicity of metronidazole in cats. J Feline Med Surg; 2009 Feb;11(2):60-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METRONIDAZOLE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Genotoxicity was assessed in vitro in feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and a feline T-cell lymphoma line incubated with metronidazole, and in vivo in PBMC collected before, during and 7 days after oral metronidazole, by use of the COMET assay.
  • Genotoxicity was detected at all concentrations of metronidazole in feline PBMC and the T-cell lymphoma line in vitro.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Analysis of Variance. Animals. Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / veterinary. Comet Assay / veterinary. DNA / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Infusions, Intravenous / veterinary. Leukemia Virus, Feline / drug effects. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / drug effects. Mutagenicity Tests / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19155181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-612X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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29. Keckesova Z, Ylinen LM, Towers GJ: Cyclophilin A renders human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sensitive to Old World monkey but not human TRIM5 alpha antiviral activity. J Virol; 2006 May;80(10):4683-90
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYCLOSPORIN A .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cyclophilin A renders human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sensitive to Old World monkey but not human TRIM5 alpha antiviral activity.
  • Cyclophilin A is recruited into nascent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions as well as incoming HIV-1 capsids, where it isomerizes an exposed proline residue.
  • The effect of cyclosporine A on HIV-1 infectivity is dependent on TRIM5alpha expression, and expression of simian TRIM5alpha in permissive feline cells renders them able to restrict HIV-1 in a cyclosporine A-sensitive way.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Carrier Proteins / pharmacology. Cyclophilin A / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Viral. HIV-1 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Cell Line. Cercopithecidae. Cyclosporine / pharmacology. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Leukemia Virus, Murine / metabolism. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16641261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 076608
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / TRIM5 protein, human; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; EC 5.2.1.- / Cyclophilin A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1472055
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30. Uckun FM, Chen CL, Samuel P, Pendergrass S, Venkatachalam TK, Waurzyniak B, Qazi S: In vivo antiretroviral activity of stampidine in chronically feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2003 Apr;47(4):1233-40
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. STAVUDINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo antiretroviral activity of stampidine in chronically feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats.
  • Here we report the antiretroviral activity of the experimental nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) compound stampidine in cats chronically infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV).
  • A 4-week stampidine treatment course with twice-daily administration of hard gelatin capsules containing 25 to 100 mg of stampidine per kg was also very well tolerated by cats at cumulative dose levels as high as 8.4 g/kg and exhibited a dose-dependent antiretroviral effect.
  • One of three cats treated at the 25-mg/kg dose level, three of three cats treated at the 50-mg/kg dose level, and three of three cats treated at the 100-mg/kg dose level (but none of three control cats treated with placebo pills) showed a therapeutic response, as evidenced by a >/=1-log reduction in the FIV load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells within 2 weeks.
  • The previously documented in vitro and in vivo antiretroviral activity of stampidine against primary clinical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates with genotypic and/or phenotypic NRTI resistance, together with its favorable animal toxicity profile, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo antiretroviral activity in FIV-infected cats, warrants further development of this promising new NRTI compound.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Stavudine / therapeutic use. Thymidine Monophosphate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Chronic Disease. Dideoxynucleotides. Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12654652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0066-4804
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Dideoxynucleotides; 0 / stampidine; 365-07-1 / Thymidine Monophosphate; BO9LE4QFZF / Stavudine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC152500
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31. Wang L, Martin DR, Baker HJ, Zinn KR, Kappes JC, Ding H, Gentry AS, Harper S, Snyder EY, Cox NR: Neural progenitor cell transplantation and imaging in a large animal model. Neurosci Res; 2007 Nov;59(3):327-40
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • To evaluate neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) transplantation therapy in cat models of neurodegenerative diseases, we have isolated, expanded and characterized feline NPCs (fNPCs) from normal fetal cat brain.
  • Feline NPCs responsive to both human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) and human fibroblast growth factor 2 (hFGF2) proliferated as neurospheres, which were able to differentiate to neurons and glial cells.
  • In contrast to the effect on human NPCs, human leukemia inhibitory factor (hLIF) enhanced differentiation of fNPCs.
  • The survival of transplanted fNPCs over time was monitored using non-invasive bioluminescent imaging technology.
  • This study provided the first evidence of allotransplantation of fNPCs into feline CNS.
  • The characterization of fNPCs and exploration of non-invasive bioluminescent imaging to track transplanted cells in this study will allow evaluation of NPC transplantation therapy using feline models of human neurological diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Tissue Transplantation / methods. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Separation / methods. Neurons / physiology. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Stem Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers. Brain / cytology. Brain / physiology. Brain / surgery. Brain Diseases / therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Graft Survival / physiology. Humans. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor / pharmacology. Luminescent Proteins. Models, Animal. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neuroglia / drug effects. Neuroglia / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17897743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0168-0102
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS57098
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Leukemia Inhibitory Factor; 0 / Luminescent Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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32. Riondato F, Gianella P, Guglielmino R, Cagnasso A, Bo S: Effects of interferon alpha (INF-alpha) therapy on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets from FIV and FeLV naturally infected cats. Vet Res Commun; 2003 Sep;27 Suppl 1:429-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of interferon alpha (INF-alpha) therapy on peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets from FIV and FeLV naturally infected cats.
  • [MeSH-major] Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Feline Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Leukemia, Feline / drug therapy. Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 14535446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-7380
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
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33. Guillermo Couto C: What is new on feline lymphoma? J Feline Med Surg; 2001 Dec;3(4):171-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lymphoma.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What is new on feline lymphoma?
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cat Diseases / diagnosis. Cat Diseases / drug therapy. Lymphoma / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cats. Leukemia Virus, Feline

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  • (PMID = 11795953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-612X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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