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1. Peces R, Vega-Cabrera C, Peces C, Pobes A, Fresno MF: [MALT B cell lymphoma with kidney damage and monoclonal gammopathy: a case study and literature review]. Nefrologia; 2010;30(6):681-6
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  • [Title] [MALT B cell lymphoma with kidney damage and monoclonal gammopathy: a case study and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfoma de células B tipo MALT con afectación renal y gammapatía monoclonal: presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • We report a case of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) involving the left kidney and simultaneous onset of a monoclonal gammopathy IgM kappa.
  • Despite chemotherapy and rituximab treatment, clinical follow-up showed right kidney extension with high-grade transformation, and finally systemic dissemination.
  • This case illustrates that the kidney is among the sites that may be involved by MALT B-cell lymphomas in a primary or secondary fashion, and the need for expanded investigation of the possible dissemination.
  • We review the literature on this unusual extranodal lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoglobulin M / blood. Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains / blood. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Paraproteinemias / etiology. Paraproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology. Nephrectomy. Nephrosclerosis / complications. Nephrosclerosis / pathology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Rituximab. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21113219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Immunoglobulin M; 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 0 / Paraproteins; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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2. Arcaini L, Paulli M, Boveri E, Magrini U, Lazzarino M: Marginal zone-related neoplasms of splenic and nodal origin. Haematologica; 2003 Jan;88(1):80-93

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Marginal zone-related neoplasms of splenic and nodal origin.
  • BACKGROUND: The marginal zone is an anatomically distinct B-cell compartment of lymphoid tissue with an abundant antigenic influx.
  • Among marginal zone-derived lymphomas the WHO classification listed, in addition to extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT type, two other marginal zone B-cell neoplasms: splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (+/- villous lymphocytes) and nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (+/- monocytoid B cells).
  • Treatment options are heterogeneous, including a watch-and-wait policy, surgery with or without chemotherapy, purine analogs, and interferon.
  • STATE OF THE ART: Splenic and nodal marginal zone lymphomas are typical low-grade lymphomas with an indolent course.
  • The role played by hepatitis C virus (HCV) in marginal zone lymphomas is not fully elucidated, but there is demonstration that eradication of HCV infection in splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes causes regression of the lymphoma.
  • The optimal treatment has not yet been identified.
  • The optimal therapeutic approach and the role of new treatments need to be assessed in prospective clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Prognosis. Spleen / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12551831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6078
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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3. Jee SR, Seol SY: [Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2005 May;45(5):312-20
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  • [Title] [Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach].
  • Stomach is the most common site of primary extranodal lymphoma.
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a unique type of extranodal lymphoma which is associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori).
  • The development of low-grade MALT lymphoma of stomach is dependent on H. pylori.
  • And inactivation of the tumor suppressor genes, p53 can lead to high-grade transformation.
  • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is essential to document the extent of disease and is superior to CT scan in the detection of spread to perigastric lymph nodes and follow-up EUS may determine the response to therapy and detect the relapse in early phase.
  • Those low-grade MALT lymphomas that are not H. pylori positive or do not respond to antibiotic therapy can be treated with surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone. Stomach Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15908763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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4. Tsang RW, Gospodarowicz MK: Radiation therapy for localized low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;23(1):10-7
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy for localized low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • The most common low grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are follicular lymphomas, and extranodal marginal zone lymphomas, also known as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas.
  • Localized presentations of follicular lymphoma occur in 20-30% of cases, while for MALT lymphomas, stage I-II disease presentations occur in 70-90%.
  • These are radiation-sensitive lymphomas.
  • Following moderate dose local radiation treatment (30-35 Gy) for these stage I and II low grade lymphomas, the clinical results indicate long-term local control and possible cure.
  • While local control is achieved with minimal morbidity with involved-field radiation therapy, a significant proportion of patients relapse with systemic disease outside of radiation fields.
  • Although patients with relapsed systemic disease are not curable with chemotherapy, the disease often behaves in an indolent fashion and prolonged survival is observed.
  • For gastric MALT lymphomas, radiation therapy is indicated in patients whose lymphoma did not respond to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy, or in gastric lymphoma not related to this microorganism.
  • The subject of causative agents responsible for non-gastric MALT lymphomas is under active study and the identification of putative microorganisms will lead to improved treatment strategies for these unusual lymphomas, similar to the success in gastric lymphomas over the last decade.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Follicular / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Radiotherapy Dosage. Recurrence. Stomach Neoplasms / microbiology. Stomach Neoplasms / mortality. Stomach Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 16158458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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5. Alpen B, Thiede C, Wündisch T, Bayerdörffer E, Stolte M, Neubauer A: Molecular diagnostics in low-grade gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Clin Lymphoma; 2001 Sep;2(2):103-8
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  • [Title] Molecular diagnostics in low-grade gastric marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.
  • The primary gastric lymphomas are extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that likely originate from the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).
  • Data suggest that chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is significantly associated with the pathogenesis of low-grade gastric MALT lymphomas.
  • This is in keeping with the observation that many patients with early low-grade MALT lymphomas have complete remissions after H pylori eradication therapy.
  • This assay can be used to distinguish the clonality of B lymphocytes and has been investigated as a test for differential diagnosis of MALT lymphomas.
  • As many as 50% of patients who have complete histologic remissions of MALT lymphoma after H pylori eradication therapy have persisting monoclonal bands in follow-up PCR monitoring.
  • The PCR assay for rearrangements of the variable region of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene appears to be of low value in the diagnosis of B-cell malignancies but could provide a useful tool in the follow-up of patients who achieve remissions after H pylori eradication.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / genetics. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Gastric Mucosa / metabolism. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori / metabolism. Humans. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / metabolism. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / microbiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 11707850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-9655
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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6. Ghesquières H, Berger F, Felman P, Callet-Bauchu E, Bryon PA, Traverse-Glehen A, Thieblemont C, Baseggio L, Michallet AS, Coiffier B, Salles G: Clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas presenting with an associated low-grade component at diagnosis. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Nov 20;24(33):5234-41
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas presenting with an associated low-grade component at diagnosis.
  • PURPOSE: Some diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) present at diagnosis with associated morphologic features of small B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and may arise from the transformation of a previously unknown indolent low-grade lymphoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The strict morphologic review of consecutive DLBCL patients diagnosed over 12 years in our department (Hematology Department, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, Lyon, France) allowed to retrieve 60 DLBCL that could be have occurred from the transformation of marginal zone B-cell NHL (32 patients), follicular NHL (22 patients), and small lymphocytic NHL (6 patients).
  • We compared them to 180 matched patients of de novo DLBCL.
  • RESULTS: Patients median age was 55 years and presented the following clinical characteristics: poor performance status in 33%, disseminated disease in 97%, more than one extranodal site in 50%, and increased lactate dehydrogenase level in 55%.
  • Complete remission with multidrug chemotherapy regimens was achieved in 60% of the patients, but 48% relapsed: 28% with aggressive and 20% with indolent histology, respectively.
  • The matched-control analysis showed that patients with transformed NHL at diagnosis had lower complete response to chemotherapy (P = .004) and higher progression rate (P = .03), whereas no difference was observed in OS (P = .21).
  • CONCLUSION: Compared to de novo DLBCL, transformed NHL at diagnosis have similar overall survival but lower complete response to initial treatment and higher risk of indolent relapses.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / genetics. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / genetics. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cytogenetic Analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17043351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Cohen VM: Treatment options for ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL). Clin Ophthalmol; 2009;3:689-92

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment options for ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL).
  • Most lymphomas that involve the ocular adnexal structure are low grade, B cell, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • The treatment depends upon the grade and stage of the disease.
  • High grade lymhoma requires treatment with systemic chemotherapy whereas the localized low grade (extranodal marginal zone lymphoma) can be successfully managed with local radiotherapy.
  • Chlamydia psittaci infection is associated with low grade ocular lymphoma; however there is wide geographic variation in the strength of this association.
  • Blanket antibiotic therapy is not advised unless there is proof of an infective agent.
  • The monoclonal antibody, rituximab, may be successful for CD20 positive lymphoma, although it is likely that rituximab will have better long-term results when used in combination with systemic chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20054418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-5483
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2801639
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chlamydia psittaci / chemotherapy / extranodal marginal zone lymphoma / mucosa associated lymphoid tissue / ocular adnexal lymphoma / radiotherapy / rituximab
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8. Tsang RW, Gospodarowicz MK: Low-grade non-hodgkin lymphomas. Semin Radiat Oncol; 2007 Jul;17(3):198-205
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  • [Title] Low-grade non-hodgkin lymphomas.
  • The most common low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas are of B-cell origin.
  • This review will focus on follicular lymphomas and extranodal marginal zone lymphomas, also known as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas.
  • These are radiation-sensitive lymphomas.
  • Moderate doses (30-35 Gy) for these stage I and II low-grade lymphomas result in long-term local control and possible cure.
  • Involved-field radiation therapy is the standard approach and produces minimal morbidity.
  • Patients with relapsed disease are not curable with chemotherapy, but the disease often remains indolent and prolonged survival is observed.
  • For gastric MALT lymphomas associated with Helicobacter pylori but which did not respond to antibiotic therapy, radiation treatment is indicated and almost always curative.
  • For localized MALT lymphomas not related to microorganisms, radiation therapy is the initial standard therapy regardless of anatomic location.
  • Patients with stage III and IV low-grade lymphoma and local symptoms are often successfully palliated with a low dose regimen of 2 x 2 Gy (total dose 4 Gy).
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Helicobacter Infections / radiotherapy. Helicobacter pylori / radiation effects. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / microbiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Stomach Neoplasms / microbiology. Stomach Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17591567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-4296
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in radiation oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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9. Martinelli G, Ryan G, Seymour JF, Nassi L, Steffanoni S, Alietti A, Calabrese L, Pruneri G, Santoro L, Kuper-Hommel M, Tsang R, Zinzani PL, Taghian A, Zucca E, Cavalli F: Primary follicular and marginal-zone lymphoma of the breast: clinical features, prognostic factors and outcome: a study by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group. Ann Oncol; 2009 Dec;20(12):1993-9
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  • [Title] Primary follicular and marginal-zone lymphoma of the breast: clinical features, prognostic factors and outcome: a study by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) of low-grade histology is a rare disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically proven, previously untreated follicular or marginal-zone PBL (MZL PBL) diagnosed from 1980 to 2003 were included in the study.
  • RESULTS: We collected data on 60 cases of PBL [36 follicular and 24 marginal-zone lymphoma (MZL)].
  • Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT), alone or in combination, were used as first-line treatments in 67%, 42% and 52% of patients, respectively.
  • Overall response rate was 98%, with a 93% complete response rate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed an indolent behaviour of MZL PBL, comparable to other primary extranodal MZL.
  • Conversely, patients with follicular PBL had inferior PFS and OS when compared with limited-stage nodal follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, suggesting an adverse prognostic role of primary breast localisation in this histological subgroup.

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  • (PMID = 19570964.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Zinzani PL, Tani M, Gabriele A, Poletti V, Stefoni V, Alinari L, Musuraca G, Bonifazi F, Pileri S, Tura S, Baccarani M: Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT-type of the lung: single-center experience with 12 patients. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 May;44(5):821-4
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  • [Title] Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT-type of the lung: single-center experience with 12 patients.
  • The lung is a relatively rare site for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas: we report the largest available single-center series of patients with this presentation.
  • From August 1992 to October 2000, 12 patients with untreated primary low-grade MALT lymphoma of the lung were submitted either to chemotherapy alone (n = 8), surgery alone (n = 2) or surgery plus chemotherapy (n = 2).
  • The global 6-year survival rate was 100% with a relapse-free survival rate of 50%.
  • In conclusion, these data underline the diagnostic utility of BAL and the therapeutic efficacy of a chemotherapeutic strategy based on regimens such as N-CVP in the context of localized MALT lymphoma of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bronchoalveolar Lavage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / radiography. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12802920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Sasai K, Yamabe H, Kokubo M, Shibata T, Oya N, Nagata Y, Hiraoka M: Head-and-neck stages I and II extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: real classification and selection for treatment modality. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Aug 1;48(1):153-60
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  • [Title] Head-and-neck stages I and II extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: real classification and selection for treatment modality.
  • PURPOSE: We re-evaluated histopathological specimens of head and neck early-stage extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using the revised European and American lymphoma (REAL) classification, and also investigated the relationship between the clinical characteristics and histopathological classification in an attempt to evaluate the usefulness of this new classification system in selecting treatment modalities.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1979 and 1995, 117 patients with histologically confirmed stages I and II NHL of head-and-neck extranodal regions were treated.
  • All but 3 had received radiation therapy, and 59 patients were also treated with intensive combination chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: There were 32 extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas, 57 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 11 peripheral T/NK-cell lymphomas, and 10 others.
  • Patients with extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma or other low-grade B-cell lymphomas demonstrated higher survival rates than patients with other lymphomas.
  • Patients with peripheral T/NK lymphomas showed the lowest survival rate.
  • These results suggest that appropriate treatment modalities can be selected using this classification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / classification. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / classification. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / classification. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 10924985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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12. Hsi ED, Singleton TP, Swinnen L, Dunphy CH, Alkan S: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas occurring in post-transplantation patients. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Jan;24(1):100-6
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  • [Title] Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type lymphomas occurring in post-transplantation patients.
  • Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are usually Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that vary in their morphologic spectrum.
  • Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type (MALT-type) have not been considered to be part of this spectrum.
  • There were three men and two women with a mean age of 51.2 years (range, 48-63 years).
  • Mean time to the lymphoma was 84 months after transplantation.
  • All patients had morphologic features of low-grade extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of the MALT-type, and Helicobacter pylori was present in all three gastric cases.
  • All patients exhibited the B-cell immunophenotype and were negative for EBV by in situ hybridization.
  • These lymphomas were treated with a variety of modalities, including reduction of immunosuppression, antibiotics, surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • At last follow-up, one patient had developed signet ring adenocarcinoma at 27 months but had no evidence of PTLD, one patient relapsed at 17 months but is alive with stable disease at 24 months, and the remaining patients were alive without disease at 11, 12, and 14 months.
  • Extranodal low-grade MALT-type lymphomas can occur in the post-transplantation setting and generally develop years after transplant.
  • As seen in immunocompetent patients, EBV appears to play no role in the pathogenesis of these lymphomas.
  • These lymphomas appear to have more in common with MALT-type lymphomas in nonimmunocompromised patients than conventional PTLDs, although they occur in "at-risk" patients due to their immunosuppressive therapy.
  • These lymphomas do not appear to be clinically aggressive.
  • Recognition of MALT-type lymphomas in the post-transplantation setting as an indolent disease avoids unnecessary treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / etiology. Parotid Neoplasms / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / etiology. Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Flow Cytometry. Follow-Up Studies. Heart Transplantation / adverse effects. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. In Situ Hybridization. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Parotid Gland / pathology. RNA, Viral / analysis. Recurrence. Stomach / pathology. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10632493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral
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13. Yoshino T, Ichimura K, Mannami T, Takase S, Ohara N, Okada H, Akagi T: Multiple organ mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas often involve the intestine. Cancer; 2001 Jan 15;91(2):346-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple organ mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas often involve the intestine.
  • BACKGROUND: Low grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas usually are confined to single extranodal organs.
  • Although some case reports have been published, clinicopathologic characteristics of multiorgan MALT lymphomas remain unclear.
  • In this period, they experienced 304 cases of MALT lymphomas.
  • Although intestinal primary lymphomas are rather rare, six of the seven cases showed large intestinal involvement.
  • The patients were rather resistant to the various therapeutic approaches.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multiorgan MALT lymphomas are rather rare.
  • Because multiorgan MALT lymphomas rarely achieve complete remission by treatment with combination chemotherapy or irradiation, MALT lymphomatous lesions should be checked carefully, especially in the large intestine.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Base Sequence. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / genetics. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11180081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Sciumè C, Geraci G, Pisello F, Li Volsi F, Facella T, Modica G: [Regression of primary low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoma by eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection: case report]. Ann Ital Chir; 2004 Jan-Feb;75(1):63-8; discussion 69
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  • [Title] [Regression of primary low-grade gastric mucosa-associated lymphoma by eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection: case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Regressione di un maltoma gastrico primitivo attraverso l'eradicazione della infezione da HP: report di un caso.
  • OBJECTIVE: The Authors report their experience in diagnosis and treatment of one case of primary low-grade gastric lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT); recent international literature review.
  • Diagnostic, clinical and prognostic indication, evaluation of effectiveness of eradication therapy and short follow-up.
  • INTERVENTION: Treatment of H.
  • Disappearance and total regression of the lymphomatous tissue was observed.
  • Pylori and indicates that the growth of these extranodal lymphomas may depend on H. Pylori.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Ulcer Agents / therapeutic use. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / microbiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / microbiology. Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives. Stomach Neoplasms / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles. Aged. Amoxicillin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Lansoprazole. Metronidazole / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15283390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Ulcer Agents; 0K5C5T2QPG / Lansoprazole; 140QMO216E / Metronidazole; 804826J2HU / Amoxicillin; KG60484QX9 / Omeprazole
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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15. Jezersek Novaković B, Vovk M, Juznic Setina T: A single-center study of treatment outcomes and survival in patients with primary gastric lymphomas between 1990 and 2003. Ann Hematol; 2006 Dec;85(12):849-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single-center study of treatment outcomes and survival in patients with primary gastric lymphomas between 1990 and 2003.
  • Primary gastric lymphomas are the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are divided into indolent (low grade) and aggressive (high grade) types.
  • They are mainly the disease of middle age, with a male predominance reported by most of the studies.
  • For several years, surgery played a central role in diagnosis, staging, and treatment of this entity, yet recently there has been a move away from a surgical approach to conservative treatment.
  • To determine the role of surgery as the initial treatment modality, we performed this retrospective single-center research on 245 patients with primary gastric lymphoma who were treated according to our protocol between 1990 and 2003.
  • The patients' characteristics, distribution of histological types, treatment results, and disease-specific survival were followed.
  • According to the histology, 59.2% had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL), 26.1% MALT lymphoma, 9.8% mixed lymphoma (indolent and aggressive at the same time), while other types were infrequent.
  • In total, 161 patients (65.7%) were treated with surgical resection as the initial treatment, which was then followed or not by additional therapy (chemotherapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, radiotherapy) depending on the histological type of lymphoma and the extent of residual disease after surgery.
  • In 84 patients (34.3%), the treatment approach was conservative.
  • The selection of treatment (chemotherapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, radiotherapy or Helicobacter pylori eradication only) was based on the histological type of lymphoma, considering also the patients' physical condition.
  • However, the results were biased, as the patients who were treated conservatively were either in a worse performance status or presented with a more extensive disease.
  • Similarly, in the DLCL type the disease-specific survival was better in the surgically treated group (97.2%) than in the conservatively treated patients (89.2%).
  • The difference was barely significant (p=0.046) and again the results have to be considered with caution due to the selection of patients in a worse performance status or with a more extensive disease for conservative treatment.
  • In the MALT lymphoma and mixed lymphoma types, there were no differences in the disease-specific survival between both treatment groups.
  • Regarding the statement that for conservative treatment patients were selected who were unsuitable for the resection on account of concomitant diseases or due to the fact that the process was inoperable, we believe that the conservative approach gives comparable outcomes to the approach including initial surgery.
  • The existing evidence thus no longer justifies surgery as the standard initial treatment and preference should be given to conservative treatment approaches.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Helicobacter Infections / epidemiology. Helicobacter pylori / pathogenicity. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / mortality. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / surgery. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / mortality. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / surgery. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16944146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Papaxoinis G, Fountzilas G, Rontogianni D, Dimopoulos MA, Pavlidis N, Tsatalas C, Pectasides D, Xiros N, Economopoulos T: Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 97 patients by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG). Ann Oncol; 2008 Apr;19(4):780-6

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  • [Title] Low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 97 patients by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG).
  • BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine characteristics and treatment results of patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • Comparisons were made between patients with gastric and nongastric sites of primary lymphoma and between different therapeutic modalities.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-five patients presented with gastric and 32 with nongastric lymphomas.
  • The most frequent locations of nongastric lymphomas were the bowel, lung and parotid.
  • Gastric lymphomas occurred more frequently in males and younger patients compared with nongastric lymphomas.
  • Of the patients treated with chemotherapy only, 87% achieved an objective response and 71% complete response.
  • Surgery did not offer survival benefit compared with chemotherapy in localised gastric lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSION: MALT lymphomas represent a distinct disease entity with widespread extranodal origin, indolent clinical course and high chemosensitivity.

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  • (PMID = 18156143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Nückel H, Meller D, Steuhl KP, Dührsen U: Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy in relapsed MALT lymphoma of the conjunctiva. Eur J Haematol; 2004 Oct;73(4):258-62
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  • [Title] Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody therapy in relapsed MALT lymphoma of the conjunctiva.
  • Low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the conjunctiva may be cured by radiotherapy, but complications are frequent and relapses may occur.
  • Other treatment modalities including resection, cryotherapy, injection of interferon-alpha or systemic chemotherapy have been used with varying success.
  • We treated two patients with relapsed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (ENMZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the conjunctiva with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (375 mg/m2 intravenously once weekly for 4 wk) which has previously been shown to be effective in a variety of other B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • Treatment was well tolerated and resulted in one partial and one complete remission.
  • With a follow-up of 32 or 30 months, respectively, further recurrences have not been observed.
  • Rituximab is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment of conjunctival MALT lymphoma, which may not only be of value in relapse, but also in cases of contraindication to radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Conjunctival Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard 2004.
  • (PMID = 15347312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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18. Zaucha R, Jassem J: [Pancoast tumor-like primary lung lymphoma]. Pneumonol Alergol Pol; 2007;75(2):197-9
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  • Apical lung location of lymphomas is extremely rare and may pose diagnostic problems.
  • Histopathological examination of the excised specimen was consistent with B-cell low-grade marginal zone extranodal NHL (BALTL); CD20+, CD3-.
  • Treatment combined of 9 cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy of the residual mass allowed to achieve a long-term complete remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17973229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0867-7077
  • [Journal-full-title] Pneumonologia i alergologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pneumonol Alergol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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19. Raparia K, Chang CC, Chévez-Barrios P: Intraocular lymphoma: diagnostic approach and immunophenotypic findings in vitrectomy specimens. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Aug;133(8):1233-7
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  • All cases were adequately diagnosed and classified according to the WHO classification by using combination of cytologic preparations and 4-color flow cytometry with a limited panel of antibodies to CD19, CD20, CD5, CD10, and kappa and lambda light chains.
  • The cases included 9 primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS type; 2 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified; 1 extranodal, low-grade, marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT); 1 precursor B-lymphoblastic lymphoma; and 3 peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified.
  • Of note, all 11 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were CD10-.
  • All the patients received systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, CD10- and most likely of non-germinal center B-cell-like subgroup, is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in this site, in contrast to ocular adnexal lymphoma for which MALT lymphoma is the most common subtype.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / classification. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / surgery. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / classification. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Texas / epidemiology. World Health Organization. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19653716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Laskar S, Mohindra P, Gupta S, Shet T, Muckaden MA: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring: clinicopathologic and therapeutic issues. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Dec;49(12):2263-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the Waldeyer's ring: clinicopathologic and therapeutic issues.
  • Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in head and neck region is most commonly seen in the Waldeyer's ring.
  • Waldeyer's ring is a unique subtype of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), which shows rarity of low-grade or MALT-type lymphomas and a high incidence of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
  • As compared with T-cell subtypes, B-cell phenotypes are less likely to present with mucosal ulceration, epitheliotropism and angioinvasion.
  • Stage of disease, histology and use of combined modality treatment have been proposed as significant prognostic factors.
  • Treatment has evolved from the use of extended field radiotherapy (RT) alone to the use of combined chemotherapy and RT leading to almost doubling of survival.
  • Advances in pathology and further risk stratification of patients into prognostic groups could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19052973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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21. Firat Y, Kizilay A, Sogutlu G, Mizrak B: Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of hypopharynx. J Craniofac Surg; 2007 Sep;18(5):1189-93

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  • [Title] Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of hypopharynx.
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are low-grade B-cell lymphomas that arise from a number of extranodal sites, including both nonmucosal and mucosal organs such as the hypopharynx.
  • We reported a patient with a primary hypopharynx mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma presenting with a swallowing dysfunction and severe throat pain.
  • The patient was followed up for 5 years and treated with nonspecific antibiotics, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
  • Because of prevertebral fascia invasion at the initial presentation, surgical treatment was not preferred.
  • Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma involving the hypopharynx is rare and there is no consensus on its treatment.
  • The treatment protocol is presented and the relevant literature is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17912113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-2275
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Benfatto G, Militello C, Zanghì G, Biondi A, Licari V, Fancello R, Furci M: [Bleeding gastric lymphoma: report of two cases]. Ann Ital Chir; 2004 May-Jun;75(3):353-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Linfoma gastrico sanguinante: descrizione di due casi clinici.
  • The stomach is the most common site of primary extranodal Non-Hodgkins Lymphomas.
  • The best treatment for primary gastric lymphoma has not yet been defined.
  • For many years the treatment of choice has been the gastric resection.
  • Eradication of H. pylori is now considered essential for the treatment of this pathology, and usually consists of antibiotic therapy, combined with acid suppression by a proton pump inhibitor.
  • This simple treatment in patients with low grade histology and tumor confined to the stomach can often obviate the need for surgical intervention.
  • Surgery is a necessary treatment, independently of the grading and the staging of lymphoma, in the bleeding complication as the cases we showed.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrectomy. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / diagnosis. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Melena / etiology. Proton Pump Inhibitors. Stomach / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15605526.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Proton Pump Inhibitors
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23. Papaxoinis G, Papageorgiou S, Rontogianni D, Kaloutsi V, Fountzilas G, Pavlidis N, Dimopoulos M, Tsatalas C, Xiros N, Economopoulos T: Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 128 cases in Greece. A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group study (HeCOG). Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Oct;47(10):2140-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to illustrate the clinicopathologic data and the treatment results in patients with primary gastrointestinal tract non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (GI NHL).
  • Simultaneous involvement of the GI tract and other extranodal sites was observed in 26 patients (20%).
  • Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBL) (i.e., low-grade lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type) accounted for 48.4% of lymphomas.
  • Aggressive lymphomas (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [DLBL]) accounted for 44.5%.
  • Eighty-three patients (67.5%) achieved complete response (CR), either by surgery (43/43 patients, 17 with DLBL and 25 with MZBL) or by primary chemotherapy (40/64 patients, 22 with DLBL and 17 with MZBL).
  • Sixty-two patients remain in CR; 33/43 after surgical resection (13/17 with DLBL and 20/25 patients with MZBL), and 29/40 after only chemotherapy (18/22 with DLBL and 10/17 with MZBL).
  • The International Prognostic Index (IPI) for patients with aggressive lymphomas was prognostic only for DFS (79% for low-risk patients [IPI score 0 - 1] vs 49% for higher risk groups [IPI score >1] at 3-year, P = 0.0131).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Greece. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17071488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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