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1. Kim MJ, Oh DY, Lee SH, Kim DW, Im SA, Kim TY, Heo DS, Bang YJ: Gemcitabine-based versus fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy with or without platinum in unresectable biliary tract cancer: a retrospective study. BMC Cancer; 2008;8:374
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gemcitabine-based versus fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy with or without platinum in unresectable biliary tract cancer: a retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: There is no standard palliative chemotherapy regimen in biliary tract cancers (BTC).
  • We conducted this study to clarify the efficacy of palliative chemotherapy in BTC.
  • METHODS: Patients with unresectable BTC treated with palliative chemotherapy between Oct 2001 and Aug 2006 at Seoul National University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Histologically confirmed cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and ampulla of Vater carcinoma were enrolled.
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and ampulla of Vater carcinoma were 92, 72, 58, and 21 cases, respectively.
  • Ninety-nine patients received G-based chemotherapy (94 GP, 5 G alone), and 144 patients received F-based chemotherapy (83 FP, 61 F alone).
  • The response rate (RR), disease control rate (DCR), PFS and OS of G-based chemotherapy versus F-based chemotherapy were 16.7% vs. 19.5% (P=0.591), 52.8% vs. 58.9% (P=0.372), 4.0 months vs. 4.3 months (P=0.816), and 7.8 months vs. 9.1 months (P=0.848), respectively.
  • The RR, DCR, PFS and OS of chemotherapy without P versus chemotherapy including P were 12.7% vs. 20.6% (P=0.169), 46.0% vs. 60.6% (P=0.049), 3.3 months vs. 4.4 months (P=0.887), and 10.6 months vs. 8.1 months (P=0.257), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: In unresectable BTC, F-based and G-based chemotherapy showed similar efficacy in terms of RR, DCR, PFS and OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Pyrimidinones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Capecitabine. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Combinations. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Palliative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Uracil / administration & dosage. Uracil / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19091129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; 1-UFT protocol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2615782
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2. Tsukada K, Takada T, Miyazaki M, Miyakawa S, Nagino M, Kondo S, Furuse J, Saito H, Tsuyuguchi T, Kimura F, Yoshitomi H, Nozawa S, Yoshida M, Wada K, Amano H, Miura F, Japanese Association of Biliary Surgery, Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Japan Society of Clinical Oncology: Diagnosis of biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(1):31-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of biliary tract and ampullary carcinomas.
  • Diagnostic methods for biliary tract carcinoma and the efficacy of these methods are discussed.
  • Neither definite methods for early diagnosis nor specific markers are available in this disease.
  • When this disease is suspected on the basis of clinical symptoms and risk factors, hemato-biochemical examination and abdominal ultrasonography are performed and, where appropriate, enhanced computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is carried out.
  • Diagnoses of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and ampullary carcinoma are often made based on the presence of obstructive jaundice.
  • Although rare, abdominal pain and pyrexia, as well as abnormal findings of the hepatobiliary system detected by hemato-biochemical examination, serve as a clue to making a diagnosis of these diseases.
  • On the other hand, the early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer is scarcely possible on the basis of clinical symptoms, so when this cancer is found with the onset of abdominal pain and jaundice, it is already advanced at the time of detection, thus making a cure difficult.
  • When gallbladder cancer is suspected, enhanced CT is carried out.
  • Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), in particular--one of the methods of enhanced CT--is useful for decision of surgical criteria, because MDCT shows findings such as localization and extension of the tumor, and the presence or absence of remote metastasis.
  • Procedures such as magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasonography, bile duct biopsy, and cholangioscopy should be carried out taking into account indications for these procedures in individual patients.
  • However, direct biliary tract imaging is necessary for making a precise diagnosis of the horizontal extension of bile duct cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Ampulla of Vater. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Endoscopy, Digestive System. Evidence-Based Medicine / methods. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 18274842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2794353
  • [Investigator] Kai M; Kimura Y; Sawada S; Shimizu H; Nakagawara H; Nakachi K; Yoshitome H; Saisyo H; Ryu M; Shikata S; Nimura Y
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3. Morise Z, Sugioka A, Tokoro T, Tanahashi Y, Okabe Y, Kagawa T, Takeura C: Surgery and chemotherapy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. World J Hepatol; 2010 Feb 27;2(2):58-64

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery and chemotherapy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Cholangiocarcinoma, arising from bile duct epithelium, is categorized into intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), including hilarcholangiocarcinoma.
  • However, locoregional extension of these tumors is usually advanced with intrahepatic and lymph-node metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • Median survival time after ICC resection was 12-37.4 mo.
  • Only a small number of ICC cases, accompanied with ECC, gall bladder carcinoma, and ampullary carcinoma, have been reported in the studies of chemotherapy due to the rarity of the disease.
  • However, in some reports, significant anti-cancer effects were achieved with a response rate of up to 40% and a median survival of one year.
  • Several patients in our study had a long-term survival with repeated surgery and chemotherapy.
  • Repeated surgery, combined with new effective regimens of chemotherapy, could benefit the survival of ICC patients.

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  • (PMID = 21160974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2998957
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemotherapy / Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma / Surgery
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4. Kamisawa T, Tu Y, Egawa N, Karasawa K, Matsuda T, Tsuruta K, Okamoto A: Thermo-chemo-radiotherapy for advanced bile duct carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jul 21;11(27):4206-9
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  • [Title] Thermo-chemo-radiotherapy for advanced bile duct carcinoma.
  • AIM: Complete resection of the bile duct carcinoma is sometimes difficult by subepithelial spread in the duct wall or direct invasion of adjacent blood vessels.
  • Nonresected extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma has a dismal prognosis, with a life expectancy of about 6 mo to 1 year.
  • To improve the treatment results of locally advanced bile duct carcinoma, we have been conducting a clinical trial using regional hyperthermia in combination with chemoradiation therapy.
  • METHODS: Eight patients complaining of obstructive jaundice with advanced extrahepatic bile duct underwent thermo-chemo-radiotherapy (TCRT).
  • All tumors were located in the upper bile duct and involved hepatic bifurcation, and obstructed the bile duct completely.
  • Radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia was administered simultaneously with chemotherapeutic agents once weekly immediately following radiotherapy at 2 Gy.
  • Number of heat treatments ranged from 2 to 8 sessions.
  • The bile duct at autopsy was histologically examined in three patients treated with TCRT.
  • RESULTS: In respect to resolution of the bile duct, there were three complete regression (CR), two partial regression (PR), and three no change (NC).
  • Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube could be removed in placement of self-expandable metallic stent into the patency-restored bile duct after TCRT.
  • At autopsy, marked hyalinization or fibrosis with necrosis replaced extensively bile duct tumor and wall, in which suppressed cohesiveness of carcinoma cells and degenerative cells were sparsely observed.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the number of cases is rather small, TCRT in the treatment of locally advanced bile duct carcinoma is promising in raising local control and thus, long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hyperthermia, Induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16015690.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4615443
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5. Park JY, Park SW, Chung JB, Seong J, Kim KS, Lee WJ, Song SY: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with doxifluridine and paclitaxel for extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Am J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jun;29(3):240-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLOXURIDINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with doxifluridine and paclitaxel for extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Bile duct cancer is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis.
  • We sought to determine the efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy with doxifluridine and paclitaxel for extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • METHODS: Nineteen patients with unresectable extrahepatic bile duct cancer received doxifluridine (600 mg/m2) daily, intravenous paclitaxel (50 mg/m) weekly (before radiotherapy), and radiotherapy of 4500 cGy for approximately 5 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Local response rate which reflected the reopening of occluded bile duct was 89.5% (17 out of 19).
  • In 6 cases (31.6%), overall response, which measured the change of tumor size, was achieved with this treatment.
  • The longest survival time was 52 months, and median survival time was 14 months.
  • One case of gastrointestinal bleeding and 1 case of grade III leukopenia occurred during the treatment.
  • One patient could not finish the treatment because of poor general condition.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with doxifluridine and paclitaxel seemed to produce a good clinical response without severe toxicity and improve survival rates in patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Floxuridine / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16755176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 039LU44I5M / Floxuridine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; V1JK16Y2JP / doxifluridine
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6. Ishige K, Shoda J, Kawamoto T, Matsuda S, Ueda T, Hyodo I, Ohkohchi N, Puri RK, Kawakami K: Potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of interleukin-4-conjugated Pseudomonas exotoxin against human biliary tract carcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2008 Dec 15;123(12):2915-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of interleukin-4-conjugated Pseudomonas exotoxin against human biliary tract carcinoma.
  • Targeting cytotoxins or immunotoxins to tumor cell surface receptors represents a new approach for the treatment of cancers.
  • We tested the antitumor activity of a cytotoxin (IL-4-PE) composed of an interleukin-4 (IL-4) targeting moiety and a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A against human biliary tract carcinoma (BTC).
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that cultured BTC cell lines and cancerous epithelia in BTC tissue (e.g., gallbladder carcinoma, extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma) expressed receptors for IL-4 in situ at high densities.
  • However, normal epithelial cells in gallbladder and bile duct tissues did not express these IL-4 receptors.
  • These results indicate that IL-4 receptor-targeted cytotoxin is a potent agent that may provide a new therapeutic option for BTC.
  • [MeSH-major] ADP Ribose Transferases / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Bacterial Toxins / pharmacology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Exotoxins / pharmacology. Interleukin-4 / pharmacology. Receptors, Interleukin-4 / analysis. Virulence Factors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Animals. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cell Line, Tumor. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Up-Regulation. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18798553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Exotoxins; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-4; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Virulence Factors; 0 / interleukin-4-Pseudomonas exotoxin; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; EC 2.4.2.- / ADP Ribose Transferases; EC 2.4.2.31 / toxA protein, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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7. Lee EY, Kim C, Kim MJ, Park JY, Park SW, Song SY, Chung JB, Kim H, Bang S: Signet ring cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct. Gut Liver; 2010 Sep;4(3):402-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Signet ring cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct.
  • Most tumors affecting the extrahepatic bile duct are adenocarcinomas; the other histologic types occur only rarely.
  • We herein report the extremely rare case of signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) originating from the extrahepatic bile duct.
  • Computed tomography and positron emission tomography suggested the presence of distal extrahepatic bile-duct cancer.
  • A histologic study confirmed a signet ring cell neoplasm of the distal common bile duct.
  • Because the upper resection margin was invaded by the tumor, he received postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy and four cycles of chemotherapy.
  • This is the second case of primary SRCC of the distal extrahepatic bile duct reported in the literature; further reports of cases are warranted to determine the nature of SRCC in the extrahepatic bile duct.

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  • (PMID = 20981222.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-1212
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut and liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut Liver
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2956357
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extrahepatic bile duct / Signet ring cell carcinoma
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8. Shimoda M, Kubota K: Multi-disciplinary treatment for cholangiocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2007 Mar 14;13(10):1500-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bile Duct Cancer.

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  • [Title] Multi-disciplinary treatment for cholangiocellular carcinoma.
  • Traditionally, CC is divided into intrahepatic and extrahepatic disease according to its location within the biliary tree.
  • Intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (IH-CCC) or peripheral cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) appears within the second bifurcation of hepatic bile duct, and is the second most common primary liver cancer following hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), IH-CCC or peripheral CCC often presents with advanced clinical features, and the cause for this cancer rise is still unclear.
  • Liver transplantation could offer long-term survival in selected patients when combined with chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy, radiation therapy or combination therapies remain as the only treatment for inoperable patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy. Hepatectomy. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Liver Transplantation. Radiotherapy. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17461440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 37
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4146890
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9. Kim S, Kim SW, Bang YJ, Heo DS, Ha SW: Role of postoperative radiotherapy in the management of extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2002 Oct 1;54(2):414-9
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  • [Title] Role of postoperative radiotherapy in the management of extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the outcome of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiation for patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who had undergone either curative or palliative surgery, and to identify the prognostic factors for these patients.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between March 1982 and December 1994, 91 patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer underwent RT at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital.
  • All the patients received >40 Gy of external beam RT after surgery.
  • Concurrent 5-fluorouracil was administered during external beam RT in 71 patients, and maintenance chemotherapy was performed in 61 patients after RT completion.
  • On univariate analysis using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method, the use of chemotherapy, performance status, N stage, size of residual tumor, stage, and tumor location were significant prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term survival can be expected in patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who undergo radical surgery and postoperative chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Period. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 12243816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Schoppmeyer K, Miethe S, Wiedmann M, Liebmann A, Hauss J, Mossner J, Caca K, Witzigmann H, Hildebrandt G: Radiochemotherapy followed by gemcitabine and capecitabine in extrahepatic bile duct cancer: a phase I/II trial. Am J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec;29(6):576-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiochemotherapy followed by gemcitabine and capecitabine in extrahepatic bile duct cancer: a phase I/II trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: Both radiotherapy and chemotherapy with gemcitabine and capecitabine have efficacy in biliary cancer.
  • Our aim was to determine the toxicity and efficacy of a postoperative regimen combining both treatment modalities in extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • METHODS: Patients were eligible after surgery for extrahepatic bile duct adenocarcinoma.
  • Surgery included resection of lymph node positive cancer, incomplete resections and diagnostic laparotomy in unresectable tumors.
  • Patients received a fractionated radiotherapy of 49.6 Gy accompanied by gemcitabine once a week.
  • The treatment continued for 6 cycles in nonmeasurable disease or until disease progression or intolerable toxicity.
  • Radiotherapy was completed in all patients and a total of 66 cycles of chemotherapy was applied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiochemotherapy using gemcitabine followed by gemcitabine and capecitabine is an active regimen with manageable toxicity after resection of extrahepatic bile duct cancer but has significant toxicity in unresectable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Combined Modality Therapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17148994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Ueno H, Ikeda M: [Two cases of advanced extrahepatic bile duct cancer successfully treated by S-1 monotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Aug;34(8):1311-4
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  • [Title] [Two cases of advanced extrahepatic bile duct cancer successfully treated by S-1 monotherapy].
  • Biliary tract cancers, including extrahepatic bile duct cancer, are often diagnosed at an advanced stage; however,no standard therapies have been established as yet for this disease,and new,effective chemotherapeutic agents are being sought.
  • Recently, a late phase II study of S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, in 40 patients with advanced biliary tract cancer yielded a good response rate of 35.0%.
  • In this article,we report two patients with advanced extrahepatic bile duct cancer enrolled in the study who showed a partial response to S-1 monotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Oxonic Acid / administration & dosage. Tegafur / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 17687221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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12. Yu JB, Decker RH, Knisely JP: The role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in the treatment of extrahepatic bile duct cancer: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) population-based investigation. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2008;39(1-4):11-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in the treatment of extrahepatic bile duct cancer: a surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) population-based investigation.
  • PURPOSE: Extrahepatic bile duct cancers (EBDC) are aggressive cancers for which the importance of the use of postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in potentially curative cases remains the subject of clinical investigation.
  • METHODS: The 1973-2004 National Cancer Institute Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was analyzed for patients with EBDC who had undergone cancer-directed surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on analysis of the SEER database, there was no definitive evidence for improved survival with the addition of PORT to radical surgery.
  • In addition, it should be remembered that the SEER database lacks information on the use of chemotherapy, radiation technique, and the completeness of resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. SEER Program

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  • (PMID = 19156542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-6628
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Kaiho T, Tanaka T, Tsuchiya S, Yanagisawa S, Takeuchi O, Miura M, Saigusa N, Hayasaka A, Matsuzaki O, Miyazaki M: A case of small cell carcinoma of the common bile duct. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Mar-Apr;52(62):363-7
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  • [Title] A case of small cell carcinoma of the common bile duct.
  • Small cell carcinoma occasionally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, but rarely in the biliary tract.
  • We report a case of small cell carcinoma which occurred in the common bile duct.
  • Computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a mass near the pancreas head and dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts.
  • Endoscopic nasobiliary drainage was undertaken, and it revealed obstruction of the common bile duct.
  • The patient was diagnosed preoperatively as having extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • Upon laparotomy, a tumor was found to be located in the middle common bile duct.
  • The main trunk of the portal vein and the right hepatic artery were resected concomitantly because of tumor involvement.
  • Postoperative pathological examination revealed well-differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma on the surface of the bile duct lumen, but a large part of the extraductal component was small cell carcinoma.
  • Upon immunohistochemical examination, synaptophysin and chromogranin A were found to be focally positive in small cell carcinoma, but negative for L-26 and CEA.
  • The patient then underwent two postoperative courses of systemic chemotherapy.
  • Nevertheless, she died of cancer recurrence eight months after the operation, which showed that the tumor had a highly lethal nature, with rapid and widespread dissemination.
  • Further therapeutic trials are needed to improve survival in such cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15816436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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14. Sakurai N, Okada T, Iizawa H: [A case of recurrent cholangiocarcinoma responding to weekly paclitaxel]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Jul;37(7):1333-5
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  • A 72-year-old male underwent right hepatic lobectomy and pancreatoduodenectomy due to extrahepatic bile duct cancer in October 2007, and multiple lung metastases were later detected by CT three months after surgery.
  • We started treatment with administration of S-1 at 100 mg/body.
  • We then changed the chemotherapy menu to weekly PTX at 130 mg/body.
  • Three courses after the chemotherapy of PTX, CT showed remarkable regression of multiple lung metastases, and the serum levels of tumor marker CA19-9 were also reduced to within the normal range.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Salvage Therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20647721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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15. Harder J, Blum HE: [Cholangiocarcinoma]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2002 Aug 21;91(34):1352-6
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  • They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasias that include the most common perihilar or Klatskin tumor (60%), the intrahepatic (peripheral) CCC, the extrahepatic bile duct cancer, the gallbladder cancer and the cancer of the ampulla of Vater.
  • At the time of diagnosis only 20% of patients can be treated by surgery, that offers the only chance for cure.
  • Patients with advanced unresectable carcinoma have a dismal prognosis with an overall survival rate of only 6-8 months.
  • Neither chemotherapy nor radiation therapy improves survival.
  • In patients not eligible for curative surgery prevention or treatment of cholestatis is the main objective.
  • Palliative chemotherapy results in response rates up to 20%.
  • By combining different treatment modalities significant survival can be achieved in some patients.
  • Evidence Based Medicine studies are needed before treatment strategies can be recommended for clinical practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Hepatic Duct, Common / pathology. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / diagnosis. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 12233266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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16. Furuse J, Okusaka T, Miyazaki M, Taniai H, Nimura Y, BT22 Study Group: A randomized study of gemcitabine/cisplatin versus single-agent gemcitabine in patients with biliary tract cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4579

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A randomized study of gemcitabine/cisplatin versus single-agent gemcitabine in patients with biliary tract cancer.
  • Gemcitabine (G) and cisplatin (C) are now deemed as key drugs based on the accumulated literature.
  • METHODS: 84 Japanese pts, aged ≥ 20 years, with histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced BTC, Performance Status 0 - 1, with adequate bone-marrow, hepatic and renal function were randomized.
  • Treatments were repeated up to a maximum of 16 cycles of GC or 12 of G until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred.
  • RESULTS: A total of 83 pts (19 extrahepatic bile duct cancer, 28 intrahepatic bile duct cancer, 32 gallbladder cancer and 4 ampullary carcinoma) were eligible for the study protocol defined analysis set (Full Analysis Set, FAS); GC-arm n=41 and G-arm n=42.
  • All pts completed at least one cycle of therapy, yielding a total of 247 cycles (median 6) in GC vs 203 (median 4) in G.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination therapy of GC would be an effective and well-tolerated chemotherapy regimen for Japanese pts with advanced BTC.

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  • (PMID = 27963070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Nomura M, Yamakado K, Nomoto Y, Nakatsuka A, Ii N, Shoji K, Takeda K: Clinical efficacy of brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy and repeated arterial infusion chemotherapy in patients with unresectable extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Int J Oncol; 2002 Feb;20(2):325-31
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  • [Title] Clinical efficacy of brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy and repeated arterial infusion chemotherapy in patients with unresectable extrahepatic bile duct cancer.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy and repeated arterial infusion chemotherapy in improving stent patency and prognosis in patients with unresectable bile duct cancer as compared with brachytherapy alone.
  • Twelve patients received brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy (n=5), repeated hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy using an implanted catheter and port (n=1), or both (n=6).
  • Mean survival was significantly improved in the group that received combined therapy as compared with the group that received brachytherapy alone (16.2 months vs. 4.6 months, p<0.01).
  • Although stent occlusion rates were similar in the two groups (42% vs. 40%), there was a trend towards longer stent patency in the combined therapy group than in the brachytherapy group (22 months vs. 3.6 months, p<0.2).
  • Radiation gastritis necessitating gastrectomy developed in 1 patient who received external-beam radiotherapy at more than 50 Gy.
  • Brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy and repeated hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy increases survival compared with brachytherapy alone in patients with unresectable bile duct cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Brachytherapy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Portal Vein / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Stents. Survival Rate. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 11788896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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18. Zheng SS, Qin YS, Liang TB, Huang DS, Zhang M, Wang WL, Shen Y, Wang JH: [Long-term results of 84 surgically treated patients with extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;27(9):554-6
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of 84 surgically treated patients with extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: Extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is a rare but dismal malignacy.
  • This study is conducted to show retrospective review and analysis of the correlation between the prognosis and different treatment modalities.
  • RESULTS: Of the 84 patients, 33 had complete resection, 19 palliative resection, 12 exploration alone, and the remaining 20 were treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • The mean follow-up time was 592 days.
  • The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rate following complete resection was 76.8%, 52.6% and 30.5% respectively, which was significantly higher than those of palliative surgery or chemotherapy/radiotherapy (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma remains poor even after complete resection as shown to have a 5-year survival of 30.5%.
  • More effective adjuvant therapy is needed.
  • Early diagnosis and early treatment is still the key to improve the long-term survival of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / methods. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures / mortality. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16438856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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19. Lo SS, Wu CW, Chi KH, Tseng HS, Shen KH, Hsieh MC, Lui WY: Concomitant chemoradiation treatment in the management of patients with extrahepatic biliary tract recurrence of gastric carcinoma. Cancer; 2000 Jul 1;89(1):29-34
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  • [Title] Concomitant chemoradiation treatment in the management of patients with extrahepatic biliary tract recurrence of gastric carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the role of concomitant chemoradiation in the alleviation of obstructive jaundice in patients with extrahepatic biliary tract metastases from gastric carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Thirteen patients with good performance status who had obstructive jaundice resulting from extrahepatic biliary metastases after gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma were treated with palliative intent.
  • Treatment consisted of insertion of a percutaneous transhepatic choledochal drainage (PTCD) catheter followed by external radiation up to a total dose of 40-60 grays in combination with chemotherapy (cisplatin 20 mg/m(2)/day, 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2)/day, and leucovorin 90 mg/m(2)/day for 96 hours during the first and fifth weeks) on an outpatient basis.
  • Hyperbilirubinemia continued to improve after treatment, patients' clay-colored stool resolved within an average of 4 weeks (range, 2-6 weeks), and bilirubin levels returned to normal.
  • The PTCD catheter could be removed after treatment was completed (the seventh week); the mean duration of PTCD placement was 2 months.
  • The entire treatment course was performed on an outpatient basis; hospital admission was necessary only for PTCD insertion and chemotherapy.
  • Ten patients died of their disease, with an average survival of 14.4 months (range, 4-31 months) from the time of PTCD insertion.
  • No serious treatment-related complications occurred, and no endoprothesis or intraluminal brachytherapy was needed in this study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Satisfactory palliation can be achieved by concomitant chemoradiation for patients with obstructive jaundice resulting from extrahepatic biliary metastases from gastric carcinoma, providing an alternative treatment choice for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brachytherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 10896997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; PFL protocol
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20. Heron DE, Stein DE, Eschelman DJ, Topham AK, Waterman FM, Rosato EL, Alden M, Anne PR: Cholangiocarcinoma: the impact of tumor location and treatment strategy on outcome. Am J Clin Oncol; 2003 Aug;26(4):422-8
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  • [Title] Cholangiocarcinoma: the impact of tumor location and treatment strategy on outcome.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the outcome of patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHBC) may have been influenced by tumor location and treatment selection.
  • The extent of disease was assessed by computed tomography, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of either intravenous 5-fluorouracil alone or in combination with doxorubicin, mitomycin C, or paclitaxel.
  • PS consisted of metal bile duct stent placement.
  • Median follow-up time for the entire group was 102 months and 43 months for patients who were still alive at the conclusion of the study period.
  • Patients with proximal tumors underwent resection (n = 5), surgery and RT (n = 23), RT only (n = 31), chemotherapy only (n = 6), or PS (n = 12).
  • Patients with distal tumors were treated with surgical resection (n = 17) or a combination of surgery and RT (n = 13), RT only (n = 6), or PS (n = 4).
  • Median survival time (MST) for all 118 patients was 22 months.
  • The MST for patients with distal tumors was 47 months versus 17 months for those with proximal tumors.
  • The MST has not been reached for patients with distal EHBC treated with surgical resection and postoperative RT, whereas the median survival for those treated with surgery alone is 62.5 months.
  • However, 4 of 17 of these patients had in situ carcinoma.
  • Six patients had distal tumors treated with RT only with a MST of 6 months.
  • There is no discernable influence of chemotherapy on outcome in patients with proximal EHBC.
  • In patients with distal EHBC, the addition of resection and RT appears to offer an advantage, which is increasingly apparent with longer follow-up time.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Surgical Procedures. Brachytherapy. Humans. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Stents. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12902899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Teramoto K, Kawamura T, Okamoto H, Hara Y, Takamatsu S, Iwai T, Arii S: Percutaneous transhepatic lymphography method to image and treat intra-abdominal lymph node metastasis in patients with unresectable hepatobiliary pancreatic cancer. Surgery; 2002 May;131(5):529-33
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  • [Title] Percutaneous transhepatic lymphography method to image and treat intra-abdominal lymph node metastasis in patients with unresectable hepatobiliary pancreatic cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: There have been no effective treatments for intra-abdominal lymph node metastasis.
  • We evaluated percutaneous transhepatic lymphography (PTL) as a drug delivery system.
  • METHODS: PTL was performed 16 times in 13 patients.
  • RESULTS: In 10 of 13 patients, intrahepatic and extrahepatic lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were visualized by PTL.
  • Computed tomography after PTL showed retention of lipiodol in the lymphatic system around the portal vein and in the enlarged metastatic lymph nodes located in the pancreatic and celiac lymph nodes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that PTL can be used as a drug delivery system specific for intra-abdominal lymph nodes as well as for identification of the lymph tracts.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphography / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Delivery Systems. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12019406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Hori H, Ajiki T, Mita Y, Horiuchi H, Hirata K, Matsumoto T, Morimoto H, Fujita T, Ku Y, Kuroda Y: Frequent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase relative to Akt in extrahepatic biliary tract cancer. J Gastroenterol; 2007 Jul;42(7):567-72
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  • [Title] Frequent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase relative to Akt in extrahepatic biliary tract cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Lack of effective adjuvant therapy against advanced extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) requires that new therapeutic methods, such as molecular targeted therapy, be developed.
  • The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt signaling pathways, which activate cell proliferation and suppress apoptosis, respectively, may function as important targets for such therapies.
  • METHODS: Expression of p-MAPK and p-Akt proteins in four human BTC cell lines and in frozen sections of 20 advanced extrahepatic BTC specimens was analyzed by Western blotting.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that MAPK is activated more frequently than Akt in extrahepatic biliary tract carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Delivery Systems. Enzyme Activation. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 17653653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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23. Nanashima A, Yamaguchi H, Shibasaki S, Ide N, Sawai T, Tsuji T, Hidaka S, Sumida Y, Nakagoe T, Nagayasu T: Adjuvant photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma after surgery: a preliminary study. J Gastroenterol; 2004 Nov;39(11):1095-101
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  • [Title] Adjuvant photodynamic therapy for bile duct carcinoma after surgery: a preliminary study.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new palliative option in patients with non-resectable bile duct carcinoma (BDC).
  • Here, we assessed the efficacy of adjuvant photodynamic therapy in eight patients with BDC who underwent surgical resection.
  • METHODS: Five patients had extrahepatic BDC, two had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and one had ampullary carcinoma.
  • Cancer cells were microscopically detected in the stump of the hepatic duct in six patients, and biliary stenosis caused by remnant tumor was observed in one patient.
  • One patient had tumor recurrence with occlusion of the bile duct.
  • A pulse laser by an eximer dye laser (50-100 J/cm2) with a wavelength of 630 microm was applied through an endoscope to the hepatic stump or tumor lesion.
  • After PDT, four patients developed mild dermatitis, but no severe morbidity or mortality was noted.
  • In two patients with occlusion caused by tumor growth, resolution of bile duct stenosis was noted on day 7.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Dihematoporphyrin Ether / therapeutic use. Photochemotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm, Residual. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15580404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 97067-70-4 / Dihematoporphyrin Ether
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24. Katsinelos P, Kountouras J, Germanidis G, Paroutoglou G, Paikos D, Lazaraki G, Pilpilidis I, Chatzimavroudis G, Fasoulas K, Zavos C: Sequential or simultaneous placement of self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic head carcinoma. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech; 2010 Dec;20(6):410-5
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  • [Title] Sequential or simultaneous placement of self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic head carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is generally not amenable to curative resection, and self-expanding metallic stents have been used to relieve obstruction of bile duct and duodenum in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to present our experience on the effectiveness of this form of endoscopic treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing sequential or simultaneous biliary and duodenal stent placement for biliary and symptomatic duodenal obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic head carcinomas in 4 tertiary endoscopic centers.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients with unresectable pancreatic head cancer were included.
  • Twenty-one patients (65.6%) received at least first-line chemotherapy.
  • No major complications or death occurred in relation to endoscopic treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Placement of self-expandable metal stents is a safe and efficacious palliation method for biliary and duodenal obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic head carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / therapy. Duodenal Obstruction / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Stents
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Catheterization. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Endoscopy, Digestive System. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21150420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4908
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical laparoscopy, endoscopy & percutaneous techniques
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Arakura N, Muraki T, Komatsu K, Ozaki Y, Hamano H, Tanaka E, Kawa S: Small cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct diagnosed with EUS-FNA and effectively treated with chemoradiation. Intern Med; 2008;47(7):621-5
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct diagnosed with EUS-FNA and effectively treated with chemoradiation.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the bile duct system is extremely rare, and surgical procedures have been complicated by early hematogenous dissemination.
  • In this study, we report a patient with small cell carcinoma of the bile duct system presenting with jaundice.
  • The diagnosis was made early by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA).
  • We performed radiation therapy of a total of 30 Gy, resulting in a marked decrease of serum neuron specific enolase levels and amelioration of jaundice, which had been resistant to drainage procedures.
  • The patient was then treated with combined chemotherapy of cisplatin and CPT-11, which resulted in the disappearance of the tumor mass by image tests.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Endosonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18379148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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26. Ogo Y, Nio Y, Yano S, Toga T, Koike M, Hashimoto K, Itakura M, Maruyama R: Immunohistochemical expression of HER-1 and HER-2 in extrahepatic biliary carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1B):763-70
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of HER-1 and HER-2 in extrahepatic biliary carcinoma.
  • The clinicopathological significance of HER-1- and HER-2-overexpressions (OE) (HercepTest score 2+ or 3+) in biliary cancer and their relationship to the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) were assessed.
  • In 72 biliary cancer (28 gallbladder and 44 bile duct cancer), HER-1 and HER-2 were stained immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens.
  • Out of the 72 cancer, OE was observed in 31 specimens (43%) for HER-1 and 47 (65%) for HER-2.
  • In conclusion, neither HER-1-OE or HER-2-OE were prognostic factors of the biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / metabolism. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16739351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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27. Wiedmann M, Schoppmeyer K, Witzigmann H, Hauss J, Mössner J, Caca K: [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder]. Z Gastroenterol; 2005 Mar;43(3):305-15
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  • [Title] [Current diagnostics and therapy for carcinomas of the biliary tree and gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie von Gallengangs- und Gallenblasenkarzinomen.
  • Carcinoma of the biliary tree are rare tumours of the gastrointestinal tract with a rising incidence during the last years.
  • Biliary neoplasms are classified into intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumour, middle and distal extrahepatic tumours), gallbladder cancer, and ampullary carcinoma.
  • Transformation of normal into malignant bile duct tissue requires a chain of consecutive gene mutations, similar to the adenoma-dysplasia-carcinoma-sequence in colon cancer.
  • Abdominal ultrasound, combined non-invasive magnetic resonance cholangiography/tomography (MRC/MRT), and facultatively endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) for unclear diagnosis, represent the gold standard for primary diagnosis.
  • For ampullary carcinoma, endosonography and endoscopic biopsy are the diagnostic tools of choice.
  • In contrast, there has been no clinical benefit for adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies.
  • For palliation, bile duct stenting and photodynamic therapy are established methods.
  • Radio- and chemotherapy should be reserved for clinical studies.
  • New therapeutic approaches include brachytherapy, the use of modern chemotherapeutics, COX-2- and tyrosine kinase-receptor-inhibitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms. Gallbladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Ampulla of Vater. Bile Ducts / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy. Brachytherapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholangiocarcinoma / therapy. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Gallbladder / pathology. Hepatectomy. Hepatic Duct, Common. Humans. Klatskin Tumor / diagnosis. Klatskin Tumor / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Stents. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Z Gastroenterol. 2005 May;43(5):473-5 [15871071.001]
  • (PMID = 15765304.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • [Number-of-references] 153
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28. Okamura Y, Maeda A, Matsunaga K, Kanemoto H, Boku N, Furukawa H, Sasaki K, Uesaka K: Small-cell carcinoma in the common bile duct treated with multidisciplinary management. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2009;16(4):575-8

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  • [Title] Small-cell carcinoma in the common bile duct treated with multidisciplinary management.
  • Small-cell carcinoma occasionally occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, with rare reports of it in the biliary system.
  • When it does occur in the biliary system, it is mainly within the gallbladder, and those arising in the extrahepatic bile duct are extremely rare with only seven reported cases to date.
  • The patient was preoperatively diagnosed as having small-cell carcinoma on the basis of a biopsy specimen and was treated with multidisciplinary management, which consisted of preoperative chemotherapy, a curative resection, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
  • The patient died 23 months after the initial diagnosis (20 months after surgery).
  • To the best of our knowledge, the survival time of this case was the longest among reported cases, and multidisciplinary management might contribute to a prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19288048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-0691
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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29. Karakolios A, Kasapis C, Kallinikidis T, Kalpidis P, Grigoriadis N: Cholestatic jaundice as a paraneoplastic manifestation of prostate adenocarcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2003 Nov;1(6):480-3
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  • Malignancies may cause cholestatic jaundice through well-recognized mechanisms (e.g., bile duct obstruction or widespread hepatic infiltration).
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with malignancy, particularly with renal cell carcinoma (Stauffer's syndrome) and malignant lymphoproliferative diseases, can induce a reversible form of cholestasis through an unclear pathogenetic mechanism.
  • Prostate cancer presenting initially with cholestatic jaundice without any obvious cause (i.e., obstruction or infiltration) has been reported in 2 cases in the medical literature.
  • During the diagnostic work-up, prostate cancer was diagnosed.
  • The results of appropriate investigations performed during the patient's hospitalizations indicated no evidence of hepatic metastases or extrahepatic biliary obstruction.
  • After treatment with flutamide and leuprolide, the patient's symptoms and the laboratory abnormalities reversed rapidly.
  • Patients with unexplained cholestasis should be investigated for malignancies, including prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Jaundice, Obstructive / diagnosis. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bilirubin / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Diagnosis, Differential. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Humans. Leuprolide / therapeutic use. Male. Pruritus / diagnosis. Pruritus / drug therapy. Pruritus / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Transaminases / metabolism. gamma-Glutamyltransferase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15017648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-3565
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; EC 2.3.2.2 / gamma-Glutamyltransferase; EC 2.6.1.- / Transaminases; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide; RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
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30. Kruth J, Nissen J, Ernst T, Kripp M, Lukan N, Merx K, Hofmann WK, Hochhaus A, Hofheinz RD: Efficacy and safety of capecitabine in combination with docetaxel and mitomycin C in patients with pre-treated pancreatic, gallbladder, and bile duct carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;136(12):1845-51
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of capecitabine in combination with docetaxel and mitomycin C in patients with pre-treated pancreatic, gallbladder, and bile duct carcinoma.
  • Therefore, we have established a combination regimen of these drugs (DocMitoCape), which demonstrated preliminary activity especially in bile duct and pancreatic carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Here we report the safety and efficacy of the DocMitoCape regimen in pre-treated patients with gallbladder, bile duct, or pancreatic carcinoma.
  • Treatment consisted of capecitabine (2,000 mg/m(2) days 1-14) in combination with docetaxel (40 mg/m(2) day 1) and mitomycin C (4 mg/m(2) day 1).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight pre-treated patients with a median age of 59 suffering from pancreatic, gallbladder, intra- (IHCCC) or extrahepatic (EHCCC) bile duct carcinoma were included.
  • Eleven patients had received ≥2 lines of prior chemotherapy.
  • Median progression-free and overall survival was 4.5 (range 1.0-44.9) and 6.8 months (range 1.5-44.9), respectively, calculated from the start of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: In all, the DocMitoCape regimen exhibited a favorable safety profile and a high rate of tumor stabilizations in patients with pre-treated gallbladder, bile duct and pancreatic carcinoma.
  • It might be considered after failure of standard regimens in these types of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anemia / chemically induced. Capecitabine. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / adverse effects. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Taxoids / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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31. Moazzam N, Mir A, Potti A: Pancreatic metastasis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction in squamous cell lung carcinoma. Med Oncol; 2002;19(4):273-6
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  • [Title] Pancreatic metastasis and extrahepatic biliary obstruction in squamous cell lung carcinoma.
  • Primary lung cancer frequently metastasizes to distant organs.
  • As a result, extrahepatic bile duct obstruction (EHBDO) resulting from pancreatic metastasis from lung cancer is extremely rare and occurs mostly with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).
  • We report an unusual case in which a patient presented with jaundice and, after extensive workup, was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung with metastasis to the pancreas causing EHBDO.
  • The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel) with a good clinical and radiographic response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12512922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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