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1. Ando R, Yasui T, Tozawa K, Sasaki S, Hayashi Y, Kohri K: Testicular seminoma occurring 8 years after treatment of a metastatic extragonadal germ cell tumor. Int J Urol; 2007 Jan;14(1):85-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular seminoma occurring 8 years after treatment of a metastatic extragonadal germ cell tumor.
  • A 30-year-old man was admitted with a chief complaint of left-sided scrotal enlargement, and was diagnosed as having testicular seminoma after orchiectomy.
  • Eight years earlier, he had been treated with chemotherapy for an extragonadal germ cell tumor, without orchiectomy, leading to complete remission.
  • His histological diagnosis at that time was a germ cell tumor, composed of choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • Routine pretreatment testicular biopsy in patients with extragonadal germ cell tumor is controversial, but regular long-term follow up and information on the risk of developing a metachronous testicular tumor are needed after treatment of extragonadal germ cell tumors, even when there seems to be a partial or complete clinical response.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Seminoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17199868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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2. Kuroda I, Ueno M, Mitsuhashi T, Nakagawa K, Yanaihara H, Tsukamoto T, Deguchi N: Testicular seminoma after the complete remission of extragonadal yolk sac tumor : a case report. BMC Urol; 2004 Nov 16;4:13
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  • [Title] Testicular seminoma after the complete remission of extragonadal yolk sac tumor : a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Between 2% and 5% of malignant germ-cell tumors in men arise at extragonadal sites.
  • Of extragonadal germ cell tumors, testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) are present in 31-42% of cases, and CIS are reported to have low sensitivity to chemotherapy in spite of the various morphology and to have a high likelihood of developing into testicular tumors.
  • A testicular biopsy may thus be highly advisable when evaluating an extragonadal germ cell tumor.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old man was diagnosed as having an extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumor, that was treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy, leading to a complete remission.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was composed of seminoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We herein report a case of metachronous occurrence of an extragonadal and gonadal germ cell tumor.
  • In the evaluation of an extragonadal germ cell tumor, a histological examination should be included since ultrasonography is not sufficient to detect CIS or minute lesions of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Seminoma / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 15546481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC535804
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3. Ebi H, Nakata M, Tahara M, Igarashi T, Kawada K, Itoh K, Ueda R, Minami H: Extragonadal germ cell tumors in Japan. Cancer Sci; 2003 Dec;94(12):1107-11

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extragonadal germ cell tumors in Japan.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCT) represent only 2-5% of adult germ cell malignancies.
  • Some publications from Asia have reported inferior treatment outcomes compared to data from an international study group.
  • To ascertain whether this is generally the case, here we analyze treatment outcomes for 30 Japanese patients with EGCT.
  • All patients with seminoma achieved long survival except one who died of chemotherapy-related sepsis.
  • Ten and 11 patients with EGCT presented with mediastinal and retroperitoneal primary sites, respectively.
  • The treatment outcome of Japanese patients with EGCT seemed to be comparable to that reported from international studies, suggesting no difference between ethnic groups.
  • Transient tumor marker elevations on day 7 predict poor survival in EGCT patients and may be a useful parameter for identifying patients requiring more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 14662028.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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4. Tovar Rodríguez JM, Bañuelos Avila L, Chávez Zúñiga I, García Rodríguez F, Vargas Hernández VM: [Fertility and testicular function in a patient with germ cell extragonadal tumor. A report of a case]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2007 Jan;75(1):46-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Fertility and testicular function in a patient with germ cell extragonadal tumor. A report of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Fertilidad y función testicular en un paciente con tumor extragonadal de células germinales. Comunicación de un caso.
  • Males are affected from primary extragonadal germ cell tumors with a frequency of 2 to 5%.
  • We communicate the case of a male who had a primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumor with a low title of chorionic gonadotropin, elevated estradiol and normal testosterone, prolactin and seminogram.
  • Before beginning treatment with chemotherapy, his wife became pregnant delivering twins, both males.
  • The pituitary testicle axis was affected by the tumor, but the microenvironment of the testicles did not seem to be damaged only after initiating treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Seminoma / physiopathology. Testis / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Azoospermia / blood. Azoospermia / etiology. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Female. Fertility. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Humans. Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiology. Infant, Newborn. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy, Multiple. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Testosterone / blood. Twins

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  • (PMID = 17542269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Hsu YJ, Pai L, Chen YC, Ho CL, Kao WY, Chao TY: Extragonadal germ cell tumors in Taiwan: an analysis of treatment results of 59 patients. Cancer; 2002 Aug 15;95(4):766-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extragonadal germ cell tumors in Taiwan: an analysis of treatment results of 59 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCT) are rare.
  • More investigations are warranted to define the optimal treatment.
  • Primary tumors occurred in the mediastinum (n = 27), retroperitoneum (n = 6), central nervous system (CNS; n = 24), and other sites (n = 2).
  • Patients received surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of treatment modalities as the primary treatment.
  • Three patients with mediastinal seminoma achieved complete remission (CR) and are alive with no evidence of disease (NED), with a median follow-up of 118 months.
  • Four patients with mediastinal nonsemonimas treated with salvage chemotherapy died.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The treatment results of our patients with seminomatous EGCT are comparable to those of Western countries.
  • However, the treatment results of patients with nonseminomatous EGCT are not as good.
  • The reason for this discrepancy needs to be explored for a better treatment outcome of for patients in Taiwan with EGCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Germinoma / therapy. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Taiwan. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.10738
  • (PMID = 12209720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Bokemeyer C, Droz JP, Horwich A, Gerl A, Fossa SD, Beyer J, Pont J, Schmoll HJ, Kanz L, Einhorn L, Nichols CR, Hartmann JT: Extragonadal seminoma: an international multicenter analysis of prognostic factors and long term treatment outcome. Cancer; 2001 Apr 1;91(7):1394-401
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extragonadal seminoma: an international multicenter analysis of prognostic factors and long term treatment outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long term outcome of patients with extragonadal seminomatous germ cell tumors (GCT) so that prognostic variables for disease recurrence and patient survival could be identified and to access the efficacy of different treatment modalities.
  • METHODS: Six hundred thirty-five patients with extragonadal GCT who were treated consecutively at 11 centers in the United States and Europe during the cisplatin-based chemotherapy era between 1975 and 1996 were evaluated retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two patients with primary retroperitoneal GCT (50%) and 51 patients with primary mediastinal GCT (49%) of pure seminomatous histology were identified (n = 1 patient with a primary cervical lymph node) representing 16.4% of 635 patients with extragonadal GCT who were included in the data base.
  • Treatment consisted of platin-based chemotherapy in 77 patients (74%), radiotherapy in 9 patients (9%), and combined modality in 18 patients (17%).
  • Ninety-two percent of patients (95% confidence interval, 87-97%) achieved a favorable response to primary therapy.
  • After a median follow-up of 61 months (range, 1-211 months), 18 patients (17%) have had recurrent disease: 14% of those who received chemotherapy and 67% of those who received radiation therapy.
  • The 5-year progression free survival rate favored the chemotherapy group, with 87% compared with 33% for irradiated patients (P = 0.006), whereas the overall survival rates were equal (90% vs. 67%; P = 0.13).
  • No differences in overall survival or progression free survival were observed among patients with primary retroperitoneal and mediastinal seminoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with extragonadal seminoma, a survival rate of > 90% at 5 years is achieved with adequate cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Compared with patients with nonseminomatous extragonadal GCT, no difference in long term survival exists between patients with primary retroperitoneal or mediastinal seminoma location.
  • Primary radiotherapy seems to be associated with a significantly higher rate of disease recurrence, although most patients will be salvaged by subsequent chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Seminoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 11283942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Yamada Y, Tomita K, Fujimura T, Nishimatsu H, Takeuchi T, Kitamura T: Metachronous testicular tumor developing eight years after retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor. Int J Urol; 2008 Mar;15(3):267-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metachronous testicular tumor developing eight years after retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor.
  • Computed tomography revealed a retroperitoneal tumor.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having a retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor (EGCT) considering the elevated markers.
  • Resection of the tumor, two cycles of neoadjuvant and one cycle of adjuvant chemotherapy (cisplatin and etoposide) were performed.
  • The surgical specimen showed total necrotic tissue.
  • Neither distant metastasis nor lymph node metastasis was present according to computed tomography.
  • Left high orchiectomy was performed and histology revealed seminoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18304228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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8. Hartmann JT, Nichols CR, Droz JP, Horwich A, Gerl A, Fossa SD, Beyer J, Pont J, Kanz L, Einhorn L, Bokemeyer C: Prognostic variables for response and outcome in patients with extragonadal germ-cell tumors. Ann Oncol; 2002 Jul;13(7):1017-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic variables for response and outcome in patients with extragonadal germ-cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: This investigation evaluates prognostic variables in patients with seminomatous and non-seminomatous extragonadal germ-cell tumors (EGCT) in order to identify relevant factors for long-term outcome following cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Uni- and multivariate analyses of prognostic variables for survival and for response to chemotherapy were performed.
  • For non-seminomatous EGCT the following independent adverse factors were identified: presence of either liver, lung or central nervous system metastases, primary mediastinal tumor or elevation of pretreatment beta-human gonadotropin; for extragonadal seminoma (only univariate) adverse factors were: presence of liver metastases, two or greater metastatic sites or International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) grouping (intermediate versus good).
  • Classification and regression tree (CART) modeling confirmed histology and location of primary tumor as the major prognosticators.
  • For the subgroup of patients with mediastinal non-seminoma, the 2-year survival rate ranged from 34 to 84%.
  • Multivariate testing for the probability to respond to chemotherapy revealed non-seminomatous histology, primary mediastinal tumor site, and the presence of liver, lung or CNS metastases as independent adverse factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In EGCT, prognostic variables for the outcome and for the response to chemotherapy could be identified, which in part differ from gonadal GCT.
  • The proposed model might help to better understand the specific prognosis of EGCT and to tailor risk-adapted treatment strategies.
  • In addition, CART analysis demonstrated the heterogenous prognosis of patients with mediastinal non-seminoma.

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  • (PMID = 12176779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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9. Dvorák J, Kubín S, Hlavatý T: [Primary retroperitoneal seminoma]. Rozhl Chir; 2001 Jul;80(7):367-70
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  • [Title] [Primary retroperitoneal seminoma].
  • The case-history presents a case of a rare retroperitoneal tumour--primary retroperitoneal classical seminoma.
  • This type of tumour accounts for half the extragonadal germinal tumours.
  • From the clinical aspect this group is important as in addition to surgery it can be successfully treated by chemotherapy and radiation.
  • A more aggressive surgical procedure implies radical removal of the tumour, and treatment was, based on the final histological diagnosis, supplemented by chemotherapy.
  • Despite the favourable diagnosis of seminomas, we have to foresee in case of a primary tumour in the retroperitoneum a poorer prognosis (sometimes by as much as 50%) and despite all conclusions attention should be devoted to a possible late development a testicular tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms. Seminoma

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  • (PMID = 11505692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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10. Bakhshi S, Singh D, Karak AK, Thulkar S: Childhood primary mesenteric seminoma. Indian J Pediatr; 2006 Mar;73(3):241-3
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  • [Title] Childhood primary mesenteric seminoma.
  • We report an 11-year-old child who presented with an abdominal lump and was diagnosed as having an extragonal primary mesenteric seminoma.
  • Patient was treated with 4 cycles of combination chemotherapy cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin; he is now disease free for 2 years.
  • We discuss and review extragonadal germ cell tumors arising from the mesentery and their management.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesentery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Seminoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Child. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Male

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  • [Cites] J Urol. 1993 Aug;150(2 Pt 2):583-92 [8326603.001]
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  • (PMID = 16567922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7693
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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11. Giannis M, Aristotelis B, Vassiliki K, Ioannis A, Konstantinos S, Nikolaos A, Georgios P, Georgios P, Pantelis P, Meletios-Athanasios D: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced seminoma: report of 52 cases treated in two institutions. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2009 Nov;135(11):1495-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced seminoma: report of 52 cases treated in two institutions.
  • INTRODUCTION: We evaluated an intensified therapeutic strategy in order to optimize treatment outcomes while maintaining acceptable toxicity in patients with advanced seminoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients with advanced pure seminoma were retrospectively evaluated.
  • Patients with low-risk advanced seminoma, according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group Consensus Classification criteria, had received four cycles of the BEP regimen either in the 5-day or the alternative 3-day schedule, while patients with intermediate-risk advanced seminoma had received four cycles of the IBEP regimen.
  • RESULTS: Forty-two patients (80.7%) had testicular seminoma while ten patients (19.3%) presented with primary extragonadal (mediastinal or retroperitoneal) tumor.
  • Treatment-related toxicity was moderate, with febrile neutropenia being the most prevalent (13.5%).
  • Twenty patients (38.5%) achieved a complete response to chemotherapy.
  • After 69 months of follow-up there were three recurrences that were successfully treated with high-dose or salvage chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intensified cisplatin-based chemotherapy for patients with advanced seminoma does not confer evidence of superiority over radiotherapy alone or the standard BEP regimen.
  • Patients with low-volume abdominal disease (clinical stage IIA and IIB) can be cured by four cycles of BEP instead of radiotherapy at the cost of a substantial increase in chemotherapy exposure and the resulting toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19437039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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12. Bokemeyer C, Hartmann JT, Fossa SD, Droz JP, Schmol HJ, Horwich A, Gerl A, Beyer J, Pont J, Kanz L, Nichols CR, Einhorn L: Extragonadal germ cell tumors: relation to testicular neoplasia and management options. APMIS; 2003 Jan;111(1):49-59; discussion 59-63
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  • [Title] Extragonadal germ cell tumors: relation to testicular neoplasia and management options.
  • An unselected population of 635 consecutive extragonadal GCT patients (EGCT) treated between 1975 through 1996 at 11 cancer centers was retrospectively evaluated for clinical prognosis and biological features of this disease.
  • Five hundred twenty-four patients (83%) had a nonseminomatous GCT, and 104 patients (16%) a seminomatous histology; 341 (54%) patients had a primary mediastinal EGCT, and 283 patients (45%) a retroperitoneal EGCT.
  • Following platinum based induction chemotherapy+/-secondary surgery, 141 patients (49%) with mediastinal nonseminomas (median follow up period: 19 months) and 144 patients (63%) with retroperitoneal nonseminoma (median follow up period: 29 months) are alive [p=0.0006].
  • Multivariate analysis revealed nonseminomatous histology, the presence of non-pulmonary visceral metastases, primary mediastinal GCT location, and elevated beta-HCG as independent prognostic factors for shorter survival.
  • Sixteen patients (4.1%) developed a metachronous testicular cancer despite the use of platinum based chemotherapy.
  • Patients with pure seminomatous EGCT histology have a long term chance of cure of almost 90% irrespective of the primary tumor site.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Germinoma / secondary. Germinoma / therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Hematologic Diseases / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Retrospective Studies. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12752235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Bokemeyer C, Nichols CR, Droz JP, Schmoll HJ, Horwich A, Gerl A, Fossa SD, Beyer J, Pont J, Kanz L, Einhorn L, Hartmann JT: Extragonadal germ cell tumors of the mediastinum and retroperitoneum: results from an international analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Apr 1;20(7):1864-73
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  • [Title] Extragonadal germ cell tumors of the mediastinum and retroperitoneum: results from an international analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical and biologic features of extragonadal germ cell tumor (EGCT) and to determine the overall outcome with currently available treatment strategies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of an unselected population of 635 consecutive patients treated from 1975 through 1996 at 11 cancer centers, 341 patients (54%) had primary mediastinal EGCT, and 283 patients (45%) had retroperitoneal EGCT.
  • RESULTS: After platinum-based induction chemotherapy with or without secondary surgery, 141 patients (49%) with mediastinal nonseminomas (median follow-up, 19 months; range, 1 to 178 months) and 144 patients (63%) with retroperitoneal nonseminoma (median follow-up, 29 months; range, 1 to 203 months) are alive (P =.0006).
  • A significantly lower progression-free survival rate was found in seminoma patients treated with initial radiotherapy alone compared with chemotherapy.
  • Nonseminomatous histology, presence of nonpulmonary visceral metastases, primary mediastinal GCT location, and elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotropin were independent prognostic factors for shorter survival.
  • Hematologic malignancies (n = 17) occurred without exception in patients with primary mediastinal nonseminoma.
  • Sixteen patients developed a metachronous testicular cancer despite the use of platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Whereas patients with pure seminomatous EGCT histology have a long-term chance of cure of almost 90% irrespective of the primary tumor site, 45% of patients with mediastinal nonseminomas are alive at 5 years.
  • This outcome is clearly inferior compared with patients with nonseminomatous retroperitoneal primary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Europe. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Salvage Therapy. Seminoma / diagnosis. Seminoma / therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • (PMID = 11919246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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14. Berthold P, Brönnimann M, Wegmüller E: [Primary retroperitoneal seminoma--a rare germ cell neoplasm]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2000 Feb 10;89(7):291-6
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  • [Title] [Primary retroperitoneal seminoma--a rare germ cell neoplasm].
  • By biopsy of the retroperitoneal tumor the diagnosis of a seminoma was made, but neither in the orchidectomy specimen of the right side nor in the testicular biopsy of the left side a primary tumor or a scar could be identified.
  • Thus, the diagnosis of a extragonadal primary retroperitoneal seminoma was made.
  • The patient responded well to the combined chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, bleomycin and etoposide.
  • For distinction from an occult and/or burned-out seminoma testicular biopsy or surgical exploration of the testes with histology are mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Seminoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 10705802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
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15. Kawamura N, Yamamoto K, Yoshioka I, Kiuchi H, Momohara S, Matsuoka Y, Ichimaru N, Nonomura N, Okuyama A, Kinoshita T: [A case of metachronous testicular tumor developing seven years after complete remission of retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Oct;55(10):635-8
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  • [Title] [A case of metachronous testicular tumor developing seven years after complete remission of retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor].
  • He was diagnosed as having seminoma by needle biopsy.
  • Computed tomography revealed an aorto-caval retroperitoneal tumor.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having a retroperitoneal extragonadal germ cell tumor (EGCT).
  • Three courses of chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) and another course of chemotherapy (etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin) were performed.
  • Neither distant metastasis nor lymph node metastasis was detected by computed tomography.
  • Right radical orchiectomy was performed and histology revealed seminoma with yolk sac tumor components.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19926951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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16. Young A, Madi A, Treanor D, Millson C, Selby P, Chester J: Fulminant hepatic failure in a patient with advanced extragonadal germ cell tumour. BMJ Case Rep; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Fulminant hepatic failure in a patient with advanced extragonadal germ cell tumour.
  • This report concerns a case of FHF in a 36-year-old man with advanced germ cell tumour arising from an extragonadal (retroperitoneal) primary.
  • Liver function and encephalopathy improved following chemotherapy, suggesting prompt diagnosis and treatment may have cured the patient.
  • Following completion of chemotherapy, he developed spontaneous bacterial endocarditis, requiring aortic valve replacement, a rare complication of curative chemotherapy.
  • At 44 months post completion of chemotherapy, he has regained his premorbid performance status and has returned to work.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Failure, Acute / etiology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications. Seminoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 22778367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-790X
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3027936
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17. Bompas E, Fléchon A, Biron P, Droz JP: [Management of advanced seminoma: retrospective study of 96 patients]. Bull Cancer; 2002 Oct;89(10):877-85
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  • [Title] [Management of advanced seminoma: retrospective study of 96 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge des séminomes de stade avancé: étude rétrospective de 96 cas.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: We report the results of a retrospective study in 96 patients with advanced seminoma, who received first line chemotherapy at the centre Léon-Bérard from 1980 to 2000.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The primary site of disease was gonadonal in 88 patients and extragonadal in 8 others.
  • Among the 96 patients, 8 patients had an atypic seminoma and 88 a classical seminoma.
  • RESULTS: After first line chemotherapy, 18 patients achieved a complete response (CR) and 73 a marker negative partial response (PR-).
  • One toxic death occurred after first cycle of chemotherapy.
  • After chemotherapy and additional treatment as surgery or radiotherapy, a residual mass was still present in 55 patients but disappeared spontaneously for 23 of them.
  • Relapse occurred in 18 patients, 16 of whom received salvage chemotherapy.
  • Despite this treatment, 14 patients eventually died.
  • No adverse prognostic factor such as primary extragonodal site, prior radiotherapy, number of metastastic sites, international classification, serum markers levels (hCG, LDH) was found.
  • CONCLUSION: This study show the poor outcome of patients with advanced seminoma after relapse.
  • Renewed efforts are required to identify specific markers in seminoma in order to optimize treatment at initial presentation.
  • Spontaneous regression of residual mass is frequent, thus an observation can be proposed without indication of immediate additional treatment, as surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chlorambucil / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12441279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4551
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; VAB-IV protocol
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18. Perimenis P, Athanasopoulos A, Geraghty J, Macdonagh R: Retroperitoneal seminoma with 'burned out' phenomenon in the testis. Int J Urol; 2005 Jan;12(1):115-6
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal seminoma with 'burned out' phenomenon in the testis.
  • The rare 'burned out' phenomenon in germ cell tumors is known as the presence of an extragonadal germ cell tumor without traces of neoplasm in the testis.
  • This condition is different and less common from the primary extragonadal germ cell malignancies.
  • These malignancies are treated surgically with or without adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy and their prognosis is better than that of other types of primary extragonadal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Seminoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15661068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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19. Geldart TR, Simmonds PD, Mead GM: Orchidectomy after chemotherapy for patients with metastatic testicular germ cell cancer. BJU Int; 2002 Sep;90(4):451-5
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  • [Title] Orchidectomy after chemotherapy for patients with metastatic testicular germ cell cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of routine orchidectomy in the management of patients who present with advanced, metastatic, testicular germ cell cancer and who are treated with initial chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients presenting with metastatic testicular germ cell cancer and treated with initial chemotherapy followed by orchidectomy were identified.
  • The pathological findings at orchidectomy were compared with the pathological findings from metastatic masses resected after chemotherapy, and are reviewed with the clinical outcome.
  • RESULTS: Of the 60 orchidectomy specimens after chemotherapy, 24 (40%) contained significant histological abnormalities comprising residual invasive germ cell cancer, intratubular germ cell neoplasia and/or mature teratoma.
  • Six (10%) orchidectomy specimens contained residual invasive germ cell cancer, three nonseminomatous germ cell cancer (NSGCT) and three seminoma.
  • The patients with residual invasive NSGCT present within the testis had evidence of residual invasive NSGCT within extragonadal masses resected after chemotherapy; all three have relapsed and died from chemorefractory progressive disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Orchidectomy after chemotherapy is recommended in all patients undergoing primary chemotherapy, as a significant proportion (40%) are left with histological abnormalities that predispose to subsequent relapse.
  • Persistence of invasive NSGCT at the site of the primary tumour after chemotherapy is associated with persistence of invasive disease at other metastatic sites and is a poor prognostic finding.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / secondary. Seminoma / surgery


20. Koshida K, Kato H, Mizokami A, Morishita H, Seto C, Komatsu K, Kou E, Uchibayashi T, Shiobara S, Namiki M: High-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for advanced testicular cancer. Int J Urol; 2002 Mar;9(3):146-53
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for advanced testicular cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) for the treatment of patients with advanced testicular cancer.
  • The treatment was used for two refractory cases, a second relapse, and for consolidation after the first relapse in one case each.
  • It was also used for nine cases as part of the first-line treatment following primary conventional-dose chemotherapy, and for one case as the first salvage for a late recurrent tumor of teratoma with malignant transformation.
  • RESULTS: The first two patients who received intensive pretreatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy did not respond to HDCT.
  • The two patients who were treated with HDCT as the first or second salvage therapy achieved successful outcomes.
  • The results for the subsequent nine patients (consisting of two with stage IIIC, five with IIIB2, one with IIB, and one extragonadal seminoma) were two progressive disease, three no change and four partial remission.
  • Because treatment for relapse after HDCT is extremely difficult, new HDCT regimens consisting of drugs that are not used in induction chemotherapy need to be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12010324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; CEC protocol
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21. Fizazi K, Prow DM, Do KA, Wang X, Finn L, Kim J, Daliani D, Papandreou CN, Tu SM, Millikan RE, Pagliaro LC, Logothetis CJ, Amato RJ: Alternating dose-dense chemotherapy in patients with high volume disseminated non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 May 20;86(10):1555-60
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  • [Title] Alternating dose-dense chemotherapy in patients with high volume disseminated non-seminomatous germ cell tumours.
  • The aim of this phase II study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of a dose-dense alternating chemotherapy regimen in this subset of patients.
  • High volume non-seminomatous germ-cell tumours was defined as follows: at least two sites of non pulmonary metastases, an extragonadal primary tumour, a serum human chorionic gonadotropin level higher than 10 000 mIU x ml(-1), or a alpha-foetoprotein level higher than 2000 mIU ml(-1).
  • Forty-two patients (72.4%) had a complete response to therapy.
  • With a median follow-up time of 31 months, the 3-year progression-free survival rate was 71% (95% confidence interval, 60 to 84%) and the 3-year overall survival rate was 73% (95% confidence interval: 62 to 86%).
  • Because outcomes with this regimen compare favourably with outcome after standard therapy, dose-dense chemotherapy should be further investigated in this subset of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / chemically induced. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] comCopyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
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  • (PMID = 12085204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; BOP-CISCA-POMB-ACE regimen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2746595
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22. Sato S, Tanaka T, Takahashi A, Sasai M, Kitamura H, Masumori N, Tsukamoto T: Late recurrence and second primary malignancy among 139 patients with germ cell tumors: long-term outcome of the disease in a single-center experience. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;40(2):157-62
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  • [Title] Late recurrence and second primary malignancy among 139 patients with germ cell tumors: long-term outcome of the disease in a single-center experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively evaluated long-term oncological outcomes in patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily treated at our institution and assessed late recurrence and second primary malignancies.
  • METHODS: This study included a total of 139 males with newly diagnosed GCTs of the testis or extragonadal origin who received treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, at our hospital between 1980 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: In patients with seminoma, 5-year progression-free survival and cause-specific survival rates were 87.2% and 100% for Stage I, 88.9% and 100% for Stage II, and 50.0% and 50.0% for Stage III, respectively, whereas in those with non-seminomatous GCTs, they were 79.1% and 96.3% for Stage I, 89.5% and 89.4% for Stage II, and 85.7% and 78.4% for Stage III, respectively.
  • Late recurrence was found in five (3.6%) patients and all of them responded to salvage treatment and achieved disease-free status.
  • Second primary hematological neoplasms occurred in three (2.2%), although they had a long-term free of the primary disease.
  • All died of the second primary disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Late recurrence was successfully managed with appropriate treatments, although its incidence was not negligible.
  • Periodic follow-up may be necessary for >5 years in patients with GCTs for early detection of late recurrence.
  • In addition, care should be taken to watch for the development of life-threatening second primary malignant disease during long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19906660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2813544
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23. Kosmas C, Tsavaris NB, Vadiaka M, Chiras T, Boletis J, Kostakis A: Extragonadal seminoma after renal transplantation and immunosuppression; treatment in the presence of renal dysfunction: a case report and literature review. Med Oncol; 2001;18(3):221-5
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  • [Title] Extragonadal seminoma after renal transplantation and immunosuppression; treatment in the presence of renal dysfunction: a case report and literature review.
  • Initially, this was diagnosed as an anaplastic tumor while he had been on immunosuppressive treatment for kidney allograft rejection after transplantation.
  • Despite difficulties of classic histopathology to reveal the origin of his tumor, FISH analysis revealed the presence of chromosome 12p abnormalities, strongly indicative of a germ-cell tumor-more likely seminoma-with extragonadal presentation.
  • The case adds further to the existing small list of seminoma/GCTs developing in transplant recipients, points to the unusual presentation patterns and diagnostic histopathology challenges, and presents the difficulty in therapeutic options, as a result of frequent renal dysfunction and intercurrent immunosuppressive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / etiology. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11917946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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24. Mola Arizo MJ, Gonzalvo Pérez V, Torregrosa Maicas MD, Navarro Antón JA, Gómez-Ferrer Lozano A, Estany Pérez A, Polo Peris AC: [Burn out bilateral testicular tumor]. Actas Urol Esp; 2005 Mar;29(3):318-21
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  • Differentiating a primary retroperitoneal seminoma from a metastatic testicular tumor with an occult testicular primary or a burned out testicular cancer remains difficult.
  • The patient had a retroperitoneal seminoma with ultrasonically and pathologically demonstrated abnormalities in both testes, but without evidence of tumor.
  • The patient received chemotherapy and underwent surgery of the residual retroperitoneal mass and bilateral orchiectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary extragonadal germ cell tumors in the retroperitoneum are a rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms. Seminoma. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15945261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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25. Khan FY, Al Ani A, Allaithy MS, Al-Bozom IA: A young male with shortness of breath. Ann Thorac Med; 2008 Jan;3(1):28-30

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  • We report a case of primary mediastinal seminoma, which presented initially with shortness of breath and a swelling in upper part of anterior chest wall.
  • The diagnosis of primary mediastinal seminoma was established on the basis of histologic findings and was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.
  • Chemotherapy was initiated with B.E.P. protocol (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum); the patient received four cycles of chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19561881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1817-1737
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of thoracic medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Thorac Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2700432
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Extragonadal seminoma / mediastinal seminoma
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26. Gilligan TD, Seidenfeld J, Basch EM, Einhorn LH, Fancher T, Smith DC, Stephenson AJ, Vaughn DJ, Cosby R, Hayes DF, American Society of Clinical Oncology: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline on uses of serum tumor markers in adult males with germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jul 10;28(20):3388-404
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  • Primary outcomes included marker accuracy to predict the impact of decisions on outcomes.
  • An expert panel developed consensus guidelines based on data from 82 reports.
  • Lacking data on primary outcomes, most Panel recommendations are based on secondary outcomes (relapse rates and time to relapse).
  • RECOMMENDATIONS: The Panel recommended against using markers to screen for GCTs, to decide whether orchiectomy is indicated, or to select treatment for patients with cancer of unknown primary.
  • To stage patients with testicular nonseminomas, the Panel recommended measuring three markers (alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG], and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) before and after orchiectomy and before chemotherapy for those with extragonadal nonseminomas.
  • They also recommended measuring AFP and hCG shortly before retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and at the start of each chemotherapy cycle for nonseminoma, and periodically to monitor for relapse.
  • The Panel recommended measuring postorchiectomy hCG and LDH for patients with seminoma and preorchiectomy elevations.
  • They recommended against using markers to guide or monitor treatment for seminoma or to detect relapse in those treated for stage I.
  • However, they recommended measuring hCG and AFP to monitor for relapse in patients treated for advanced seminoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Decision Making. Humans. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / blood. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / blood. Orchiectomy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / blood. Seminoma / blood. Testicular Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 20530278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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27. de Bono JS, Fraser JA, Lee F, Simpson A, Lim C, Naik S, Soukop M, Dunlop DJ: Metastatic extragonadal seminoma associated with cardiac transplantation. Ann Oncol; 2000 Jun;11(6):749-52
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  • [Title] Metastatic extragonadal seminoma associated with cardiac transplantation.
  • Overall the pathology suggested a diagnosis of metastatic seminoma.
  • In the absence of testicular or retroperitoneal disease, it is very likely that this unusual case of metastatic seminoma was related to the patient's immunosuppressive therapy, which at diagnosis included cyclosporin and prednisolone.
  • The patient was successfully treated with cisplatin based chemotherapy and decreased immunosuppression and remains in complete remission one year after completion of chemotherapy.
  • Seminoma is an uncommon complication of prolonged immunosuppression with very few cases being described in the literature post-organ transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 10942066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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28. Archie PH, Beasley MB, Ross HJ: Biphasic pulmonary blastoma with germ cell differentiation in a 36-year-old man. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Oct;3(10):1185-7
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  • We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a young man with a heterogeneous mediastinal tumor metastatic to both lungs, and containing a predominant pattern of classic biphasic pulmonary blastoma with elements of immature teratoma, seminoma, and embryonal carcinoma.
  • Surgery is the primary treatment, but prognosis is poor and chemotherapy and radiation have been used for unresectable disease.
  • A discussion of pulmonary blastoma and extragonadal germ cell tumors is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pulmonary Blastoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cell Differentiation. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18827617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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29. Bhutani M, Kumar L, Seth A, Thulkar S, Vijayaraghavan M, Kochupillai V: Germ cell tumours of the testis: clinical features, treatment outcome and prognostic factors. Natl Med J India; 2002 Jan-Feb;15(1):18-21
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the testis: clinical features, treatment outcome and prognostic factors.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with germ cell tumours of the testis has Improved over the past two decades following cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Currently, staging and risk assessment of the disease is crucial in order to provide curative therapy for patients with poor risk features and not over-treat good risk patients.
  • Their clinical characteristics, staging, treatment outcome and prognostic factors for response and survival were analysed.
  • Sixty-one patients (86%) had a primary testicular tumour while in 10 (14%) the tumour was extragonadal.
  • Histopathologically, 53 patients (75%) had non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and 15 (21%) had a seminoma.
  • Twenty-seven patients (62%) had evidence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • All patients with a seminoma were in the good prognostic subgroup.
  • The predictors for decreased overall and progression-free survival were age >35 years, presence of poor risk features and mediastinal primary disease.
  • Tailoring of chemotherapy In good risk patients to minimize toxicity and Improving results in poor risk patients are areas that need further work.

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  • [CommentIn] Natl Med J India. 2002 Jan-Feb;15(1):4-6 [11859860.001]
  • (PMID = 11855586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-258X
  • [Journal-full-title] The National medical journal of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Natl Med J India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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30. Mickisch GH: Prognostic parameters for the management of advanced testis tumours. Curr Opin Urol; 2000 Sep;10(5):465-71
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  • However, the trend for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis amenable to curative treatment as well as the high effectiveness of standard Cisplatinum containing chemotherapy has masked the continuing need for intensifying therapy in patients with adverse risk factors.
  • This intense treatment is often associated with worrysome morbidity and the assessment of prognostic factors, stage by stage, is warranted on which patient at risk can be identified and treated accordingly.
  • Traditional prognostic factors, on which most classification systems are based, include large tumour volume, the presence of liver, bone or brain metastasis, grossly elevated tumour markers and an extragonadal primary site, particularly in the mediastinum.
  • Clearly, the infrastructure and the experience of the treating uro-oncology unit (see 1) is decisive for treatment outcomes, and -at least-'difficult to treat' patients should be referred to properly resourced cancer centres.
  • Finally, biologic factors (see 3) such as beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin or MAGE epitopes in seminoma or the percentage of embryonal carcinoma components orvascular invasion mayor may not inversely influence the prognosis and need further assessment in prospective trials.
  • However, the search for even better (molecular) biologic factors is speeding up because more complex treatment decisions such as in advanced testicular cancers rely on a more precise determination of prognosis, enabling a more tailored selection of individualized therapeutic options.

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  • (PMID = 11005453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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31. Malagón HD, Valdez AM, Moran CA, Suster S: Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1356-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The clinicopathologic features of 46 patients with germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components (GCTSC) involving either the primary site or their metastases were studied.
  • The germ cell component consisted of pure mature or immature teratoma (23 cases), teratoma mixed with other seminomatous or nonseminomatous components (17), pure seminoma (2), intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1), and yolk sac tumor (1).
  • All patients were treated by cisplatinum-based chemotherapy plus other agents followed by surgery.
  • On the basis of our findings, the presence of SC appears to represent a poor prognostic sign for GCTs of gonadal and extragonadal origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Ovariectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17721191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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