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1. Uehara T, Nakaseko C, Hara S, Harima A, Ejiri M, Yokota A, Saito Y, Nishimura M: Successful control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells by allogeneic nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation in a patient with the lethal form of chronic active EBV infection. Am J Hematol; 2004 Aug;76(4):368-72
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  • [Title] Successful control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells by allogeneic nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation in a patient with the lethal form of chronic active EBV infection.
  • Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a heterogeneous EBV-related disorder, ranging from mild/moderate forms to rapidly lethal disorders.
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is considered as the only potentially curative treatment for the lethal form of CAEBV, but it is not always desirable because of the high incidence of regimen-related toxicities.
  • A 17-year-old female with CAEBV, who was refractory to conventional therapies and considered to be unable to receive a myeloablative regimen because of multiple organ dysfunction, underwent allogeneic nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (allo-NST) before developing a hematological malignancy.
  • She has been well without any signs of CAEBV for 27 months after allo-NST, and we confirmed that specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against EBV was reconstituted.
  • This outcome suggests that allo-NST can control CAEBV by reconstituting the host immunity against EBV.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. B-Lymphocytes / virology. Cell Line, Transformed / immunology. Cell Transformation, Viral. Chronic Disease. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. DNA, Viral / blood. Drug Resistance. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Hepatitis, Viral, Human / etiology. Hepatitis, Viral, Human / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / immunology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. Tacrolimus / therapeutic use. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15282671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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2. Flanagan KH, Brennan DC: EBV-associated recurrent Hodgkin's disease after renal transplantation. Transpl Int; 2006 Apr;19(4):338-41
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  • [Title] EBV-associated recurrent Hodgkin's disease after renal transplantation.
  • Hodgkin's disease is recognized as part of the spectrum of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), although it is still an uncommon de novo malignancy in this population.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to both post-transplant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease.
  • We report a case of recurrent Hodgkin's disease in a patient who received a renal transplant in childhood and later developed EBV-associated Hodgkin's disease with remission after chemotherapy until subsequent relapse 9 years later that was successfully treated.
  • We briefly discuss the pathogenesis of and risk factors for EBV-related PTLD, utility of EBV load surveillance, and the options for treatment of PTLD including immunosuppression reduction, antiviral therapy, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, cytotoxic T cells, and the possible roles of interferon-alpha and rapamycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / etiology. Hodgkin Disease / etiology. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / etiology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / therapy. Male. Recurrence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16573551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1448701
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3. Toomey NL, Deyev VV, Wood C, Boise LH, Scott D, Liu LH, Cabral L, Podack ER, Barber GN, Harrington WJ Jr: Induction of a TRAIL-mediated suicide program by interferon alpha in primary effusion lymphoma. Oncogene; 2001 Oct 25;20(48):7029-40
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  • We have found that Azidothymidine (AZT) alone induces apoptosis in Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells but requires interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) to induce apoptosis in Human Herpes Virus Type 8 (HHV-8) positive Primary Effusion Lymphomas (PEL).
  • Our analysis of a series of AIDS lymphomas revealed that IFN-alpha selectively induced very high levels of the Death Receptor (DR) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HHV-8 positive PEL lines and primary tumor cells whereas little or no induction was observed in primary EBV+ AIDS lymphomas and EBV-Burkitt's lines.
  • This is the first demonstration that IFN-alpha induces functional TRAIL in a malignancy that can be exploited to effect a suicide program.
  • This novel antiviral approach to Primary Effusion lymphomas is targeted and may represent a highly effective and relatively non-toxic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Arabidopsis Proteins. Immunologic Factors / pharmacology. Interferon-alpha / pharmacology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins. Biopolymers. Cysteine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Drug Synergism. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Etoposide / pharmacology. Fatty Acid Desaturases / biosynthesis. Fatty Acid Desaturases / genetics. Fatty Acid Desaturases / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Genes, bcl-2. HIV Infections / complications. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / biosynthesis. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / genetics. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / physiology. TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand. Thymidine / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / metabolism. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Zidovudine / pharmacology. Zidovudine / therapeutic use. bcl-X Protein

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  • (PMID = 11704827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA39201; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77837; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80228; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA82274
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Arabidopsis Proteins; 0 / BCL2L1 protein, human; 0 / Biopolymers; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFRSF10A protein, human; 0 / TNFRSF10B protein, human; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 1.14.19.- / Fatty Acid Desaturases; EC 1.14.99.- / Fad7 protein, Arabidopsis; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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4. Paulino AF, Singh B, Carew J, Shah JP, Huvos AG: Epstein-Barr virus in squamous carcinoma of the anterior nasal cavity. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2000 Feb;4(1):7-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus in squamous carcinoma of the anterior nasal cavity.
  • Squamous carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the head and neck, but it rarely occurs in the nasal vestibule.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been detected in and is causally linked to various head and neck tumors, particularly nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  • The possible role of EBV in squamous carcinoma of the anterior nasal cavity, particularly of the nasal vestibule, has not been previously investigated.
  • Material for EBV detection by immunohistochemistry and by in situ hybridization was available in 15 of the 17 cases.
  • Treatment modalities included surgical resection, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combined approach.
  • Three patients developed metastases, one of whom died of disease after 1 year.
  • Epstein-Barr virus was not detected in any of the 15 of 17 cases tested by either immunohistochemistry or by in situ hybridization.
  • Squamous carcinoma of the nasal vestibule is an uncommon cancer that is not causally related to EBV.

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  • (PMID = 10684374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / EBV-associated membrane antigen, Epstein-Barr virus; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Matrix Proteins
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5. Comoli P, Pedrazzoli P, Maccario R, Basso S, Carminati O, Labirio M, Schiavo R, Secondino S, Frasson C, Perotti C, Moroni M, Locatelli F, Siena S: Cell therapy of stage IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma with autologous Epstein-Barr virus-targeted cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 10;23(35):8942-9
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  • [Title] Cell therapy of stage IV nasopharyngeal carcinoma with autologous Epstein-Barr virus-targeted cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
  • PURPOSE: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related malignancy expressing EBV antigens that are possible targets of cell therapy, including latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2).
  • We conducted a clinical trial of EBV-targeted cell therapy with autologous virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) for NPC refractory to conventional treatments.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients with EBV-related stage IV NPC in progression after conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy received intravenously autologous EBV-specific CTLs reactivated and expanded ex vivo from peripheral blood lymphocytes through stimulation with EBV-transformed autologous B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL).
  • RESULTS: EBV-specific CTLs could be generated in all patients and were predominantly CD3+/CD8+ T lymphocytes displaying specific killing of autologous EBV-LCL, autologous NPC cells as well as autologous targets bearing the EBV antigen LMP2.
  • Patients received two to 23 infusions of EBV-specific CTLs that were well tolerated with the exception of grade 1 to 2 inflammatory reactions at the tumor site in two cases.
  • Analysis of interferon-gamma-producing cells demonstrated an increased frequency of EBV-specific immunity, with appearance of LMP2-specific responses in four patients, of whom three had clinical benefit.
  • CONCLUSION: Cell therapy with EBV-targeted autologous CTLs is safe, induces LMP-2-specific immunologic responses, and is associated with objective responses and control of disease progression in patients with stage IV NPC resistant to conventional treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Viral / immunology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / immunology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Disease Progression. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Immunotherapy, Adoptive. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome. Viral Matrix Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16204009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / EBV-associated membrane antigen, Epstein-Barr virus; 0 / Viral Matrix Proteins
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6. Wagner-Johnston ND, Ambinder RF: Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disorders. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2007 Oct;2(4):249-54
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • Esptein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that persists in carriers as a lifelong, mostly asymptomatic infection.
  • EBV is associated with a variety of lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • In this review we provide an update of the relevant literature on EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, with particular emphasis on epidemiology, pathogenesis, and novel treatment approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections. Lymphoma / virology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adoptive Transfer. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Brain Neoplasms / virology. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 4, Human / pathogenicity. Humans. Immunocompromised Host. Immunologic Factors / administration & dosage. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunotherapy. Lymphocyte Subsets / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Organ Transplantation. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / virology. RNA, Viral / analysis. Rituximab. Viral Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20425377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Proteins; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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7. Tepes B: Can gastric cancer be prevented? J Physiol Pharmacol; 2009 Dec;60 Suppl 7:71-7
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  • Gastric adenocarcinoma is the fourth most common malignancy worldwide and is globally the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths each year.
  • Among the risk factors are genetic factors (genetic diffuse gastric cancer - E-cadherin mutation (CDH1), pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes and innate immune response gene polymorphisms), environmental factors (infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Epstein-Barr virus, nutrition: nitroso compounds, salt and antioxidants intake) and other factors (pernicious anemia, gastric polyps, gastric surgery, reproductive hormones, smoking).
  • In the Asian Pacific Gastric Cancer Consensus, it was suggested for the first time that it is time for population-based screening and treatment of H. pylori infection in regions with gastric cancer incidence above 20/100000 per year.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Early Detection of Cancer. Helicobacter Infections / complications. Helicobacter Infections / drug therapy. Helicobacter Infections / physiopathology. Helicobacter pylori. Humans. Mass Screening. Patient Education as Topic. Risk Factors. Stomach Diseases / physiopathology. Stomach Diseases / prevention & control. Stomach Diseases / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20388948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1899-1505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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8. Penn I: Post-transplant malignancy: the role of immunosuppression. Drug Saf; 2000 Aug;23(2):101-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Post-transplant malignancy: the role of immunosuppression.
  • Salient features of PTLD are the high frequency of Epstein-Barr virus-related lesions, frequent involvement of extranodal sites, a marked predilection for the brain and frequent allograft involvement.
  • As the immunosuppressed state per se and various potentially oncogenic viruses play a major role in causing these cancers, preventative measures include reducing immunosuppression to the lowest level compatible with good allograft function and prophylactic measures against certain virus infections.
  • In addition to conventional treatments (resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy) patients may receive antiviral drugs, interferon-alpha and various other manipulations of the immune system.
  • A significant percentage of cases of PTLD and KS respond to reduction or cessation of immunosuppressive therapy.

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  • (PMID = 10945373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0114-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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9. Waddington TW, Aboulafia DM: Failure to eradicate AIDS-associated primary effusion lymphoma with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell reinfusion: case report and literature review. AIDS Patient Care STDS; 2004 Feb;18(2):67-73
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  • [Title] Failure to eradicate AIDS-associated primary effusion lymphoma with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell reinfusion: case report and literature review.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), also known as body cavity-based lymphoma, is a newly recognized AIDS-related malignancy that is etiopathologically linked to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8).
  • Tumor cells have high-grade morphologic features, an indeterminate immunophenotype, B-lineage genotype, and contain HHV-8 and often Epstein-Barr virus.
  • PEL rarely responds to systemic chemotherapy.
  • Herein, we describe what we believe is the first patient with AIDS-associated PEL to be treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell reinfusion.
  • Treatment was well tolerated but the patient succumbed to progressive cancer.
  • Our experience with this patient serves to underscore the high mortality rate associated with this unique neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation, Autologous
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Salvage Therapy / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Treatment Failure. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 15006181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2914
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS patient care and STDs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Patient Care STDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; EPOCH protocol
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10. Porcu P, Caligiuri MA: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: future directions. Semin Oncol; 2000 Aug;27(4):454-62
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  • [Title] Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: future directions.
  • Despite some exciting new leads, human immunodeficiency virus-I (HIV-I)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HIV-NHL) remains a fatal malignancy for the vast majority of patients.
  • The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not produced a fall in the incidence of HIV-NHL and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is associated with a negligible cure rate.
  • New treatment options are needed.
  • Future therapeutic directions in HIV-NHL should be based on a better understanding of three fundamental aspects of lymphomagenesis in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency. (I) New information on the molecular and pathological heterogeneity of HIV-NHL should be applied to the development of risk-adapted therapy.
  • The identification of patient subsets with different susceptibility to cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunomodulation, or antiviral strategies is essential for the design of clinical trials of investigational new agents in HIV-NHL. (2) Known viral pathogens need to be better understood.
  • Key biological interactions between virus and host, mediated by oncogenic, immunomodulatory, and antiapoptotic viral proteins, should become the main target for new drug development. (3) Immune reconstitution with HAART and immunostimulatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12, combined with drugs that downregulate the replication or gene expression of tumor-associated viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8), possibly in combination, should remain a primary goal in the treatment of HIV-NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV / physiology. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans


11. Fardet L, Blanche S, Brousse N, Bodemer C, Fraitag S: Cutaneous EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorder in a 15-year-old boy with AIDS: an unusual clinical presentation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Nov;24(8):666-9
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  • [Title] Cutaneous EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorder in a 15-year-old boy with AIDS: an unusual clinical presentation.
  • Lymphomas are a well-known malignancy in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection.
  • The authors report here the extremely rare case of a large-cell cutaneous lymphoproliferation of T-cell lineage expressing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens in a 15-year-old boy with AIDS and his uncommon clinical presentation.
  • The atypical clinical evolution with a nonaggressive treatment emphasizes that for immunosuppressed patients, the diagnosis of immunosuppression-related lymphoproliferative disorder should be considered before giving the diagnosis of malignant lymphoma when tumoral lymphoid cells express EBV antigens.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Adolescent. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Blood Transfusion / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte. HIV Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Indinavir / therapeutic use. Lamivudine / therapeutic use. Male. RNA, Viral / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Stavudine / therapeutic use. Viral Matrix Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12439041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / EBV-associated membrane antigen, Epstein-Barr virus; 0 / Epstein-Barr virus encoded RNA 1; 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Viral; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 0 / Viral Matrix Proteins; 2T8Q726O95 / Lamivudine; 5W6YA9PKKH / Indinavir; BO9LE4QFZF / Stavudine
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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12. Yarchoan R, Tosato G, Little RF: Therapy insight: AIDS-related malignancies--the influence of antiviral therapy on pathogenesis and management. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2005 Aug;2(8):406-15; quiz 423
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  • [Title] Therapy insight: AIDS-related malignancies--the influence of antiviral therapy on pathogenesis and management.
  • Most of these tumors are caused by oncogenic DNA viruses, including KS-associated herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus.
  • The development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the incidence of many HIV-associated tumors and has generally improved their responsiveness to therapy.
  • The goal of KS therapy is long-term tumor control with minimal toxicity.
  • HAART is an important component of this therapy, and some patients do not require other KS-specific therapies.
  • By contrast, the goal of AIDS-related lymphoma therapy in most cases is the attainment of a complete response with curative intent, and the benefits of administering HAART during therapy must be weighed against possible disadvantages.
  • The past decade has seen substantial improvements in the treatment of AIDS-related lymphoma, which is attributed partially to a shift in tumor type and more effective regimens.
  • There is currently an interest in developing new therapies for HIV-associated malignancies, based on viral, vascular or other pathogenesis-based targets.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / physiopathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / physiopathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


13. Little RF, Yarchoan R: Treatment of gammaherpesvirus-related neoplastic disorders in the immunosuppressed host. Semin Hematol; 2003 Apr;40(2):163-71
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  • [Title] Treatment of gammaherpesvirus-related neoplastic disorders in the immunosuppressed host.
  • Many such neoplasms are caused by either Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV).
  • The treatment of such patients can be challenging.
  • At the same time, the viral origin of these tumors offers targets to develop pathogenesis-based therapies.
  • Standard therapies for these diseases involve such approaches as treating the underlying immunodeficiency, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and immunologic antitumor therapy.
  • Novel therapy approaches include specific immune therapy and anti-angiogenesis approaches, now under development.
  • [MeSH-minor] Gammaherpesvirinae. Humans. Tumor Virus Infections / chemically induced. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 12704593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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14. Storm HH, Klint A, Tryggvadóttir L, Gislum M, Engholm G, Bray F, Hakulinen T: Trends in the survival of patients diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, and related tissue in the Nordic countries 1964-2003 followed up to the end of 2006. Acta Oncol; 2010 Jun;49(5):694-712
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  • [Title] Trends in the survival of patients diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, and related tissue in the Nordic countries 1964-2003 followed up to the end of 2006.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the recent trends and absolute levels of incidence, mortality and survival for the lympho-haematopoietic malignancies are similar, the consistently lower survival of Danish patients--irrespective of type of malignancy--points to an impact of co-morbidity related lifestyle factors, which may negatively affect the chemotherapy and radiation offered as standard treatments for these diseases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Denmark / epidemiology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Female. Finland / epidemiology. Follow-Up Studies. Hodgkin Disease / mortality. Hodgkin Disease / virology. Humans. Iceland / epidemiology. Incidence. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Male. Mass Screening. Middle Aged. Mortality / trends. Multiple Myeloma / mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Norway / epidemiology. Registries. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate / trends. Sweden / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20491526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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15. Bernstein WB, Little RF, Wilson WH, Yarchoan R: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Hematol; 2006 Jul;84(1):3-11
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  • [Title] Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Several cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), certain aggressive B-cell lymphomas, and cervical cancer, are considered AIDS-defining when they occur in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • Most AIDS-defining tumors are associated with one of 3 DNA viruses: KS-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or human papillomavirus.
  • With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS and certain lymphomas has decreased, whereas that of other tumors, such as cervical cancer, has undergone little change.
  • Several new drugs and therapies have been developed for KS and AIDS-related lymphomas, and these treatments, plus the development of HAART, have contributed to improvements in morbidity and mortality.
  • At the same time, the improved overall survival of patients with HAART has contributed to an increase in the number of patients living with AIDS in developed countries such as the United States.
  • With the development of HAART and improved prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, an increasing percentage of the deaths in AIDS patients have been from malignancies.
  • Strategies for prevention, screening, and therapy remain important areas of research in this developing field.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16867895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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16. Gerstner E, Batchelor T: Primary CNS lymphoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 May;7(5):689-700
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  • Primary CNS lymphoma in immunocompetent patients is associated with unique diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues and the management of this malignancy is different from other forms of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Resection provides no therapeutic benefit and should be reserved for the rare patient with neurological deterioration due to brain herniation.
  • Whole-brain radiation therapy alone is insufficient for durable tumor control and is associated with a high risk of neurotoxicity in patients over 60 years of age.
  • Chemotherapy and whole-brain radiation therapy together improve tumor response rates and survival compared with whole-brain radiation therapy alone.
  • Methotrexate-based multiagent chemotherapy without whole-brain radiation therapy is associated with similar tumor response rates and survival compared with regimens that include whole-brain radiation therapy, although controlled trials have not been performed.
  • The risk of neurotoxicity is lower in patients treated with chemotherapy alone.
  • The incidence of HIV-related primary CNS lymphoma has decreased in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Patients with HIV-associated primary CNS lymphoma have a worse prognosis but may respond to highly active antiretroviral therapy, whole-brain radiation therapy or therapies directed against the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Combined Modality Therapy. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17492932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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17. Angulo-Pernett F, Smythe WR: Primary lymphoepithelioma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg; 2003 Aug;76(2):603-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This very rare Epstein-Barr virus infection-related malignancy has previously been reported only in patients from Japan.
  • The tumor exhibited classic histologic and immunohistochemical features of lymphoepithelioma, and was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation followed by surgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagectomy / methods. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12902114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4975
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Flaitz CM, Nichols CM, Walling DM, Hicks MJ: Plasmablastic lymphoma: an HIV-associated entity with primary oral manifestations. Oral Oncol; 2002 Jan;38(1):96-102
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We present a 50 year-old HIV-positive, bisexual, white male with a CD4 count 300/mm(3) and a viral HIV-RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) load of 237 copies/ml, who developed a painful, purple-red mass in the edentulous area of the maxillary right first molar.
  • In addition, the patient was being managed with antiretroviral therapy and liposomal doxorubicin for recurrent cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • Although oral KS was suspected, the gingival lesions were biopsied because they were refractory to chemotherapy and a lymphoma could not be excluded.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed a lymphoid malignant neoplasm, consistent with a plasmablastic lymphoma.
  • EBV was detected in the tumor by Southern hybridization, PCR amplification, in situ hybridization for EBER-1 DNA, and immunohistochemistry for latent membrane protein-1.
  • Recognition of plasmablastic lymphoma is important, because it represents an HIV-associated malignancy that predominantly involves the oral cavity, may mimic KS and has a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Fatal Outcome. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis


19. Dales JP, Harket A, Bagnères D, Andrac-Meyer L, Xerri L, Frances Y, Taranger-Charpin C: [Plasmablastic lymphoma in a patient with HIV infection: an unusual case located in the skin]. Ann Pathol; 2005 Feb;25(1):45-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome plasmoblastique du sujet infecté par le VIH: a propos d'un cas très inhabituel de localisation cutanée.
  • In situ hybridization with EBER probe revealed detection of Epstein Barr virus in about 15 % of tumor cells.
  • Despite one cycle chemotherapy the patient died four months after presentation.
  • HIV-associated plasmablastic lymphoma is a poor prognosis malignancy that may resist typing due to the lack of expression of commonly used lymphoid markers.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Seropositivity / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Plasma Cells. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15981931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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20. Alexopoulou A, Deutsch M, Ageletopoulou J, Delladetsima JK, Marinos E, Kapranos N, Dourakis SP: A fatal case of postinfantile giant cell hepatitis in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2003 May;15(5):551-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hepatitis.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Postinfantile giant cell hepatitis has been associated with various aetiologies, including drug taking, autoimmune diseases and viral infections.
  • The patient was treated with corticosteroids and aciclovir for suspected autoimmune hepatitis and reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in the context of his haematological malignancy.
  • Post-mortem liver biopsy showed severe giant cell hepatitis while the study of liver tissue by electron microscopy revealed paramyxo-like viral particles in the cytoplasm of the affected hepatocytes similar to those observed in previous reports of giant cell hepatitis.
  • The identification of the causative agent is essential before commencing any kind of therapy.
  • A few sporadic case reports of paramyxo-like virus related, postinfantile giant cell hepatitis have shown that ribavirin was quite effective treatment but further clinical evaluation is needed.

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  • (PMID = 12702915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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21. de Bono JS, Fraser JA, Lee F, Simpson A, Lim C, Naik S, Soukop M, Dunlop DJ: Metastatic extragonadal seminoma associated with cardiac transplantation. Ann Oncol; 2000 Jun;11(6):749-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical examination revealed the presence of bony tenderness over these sites, but there was no other clinical evidence of malignancy.
  • Analyses by in situ hybridisation of these cells revealed no evidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection.
  • In the absence of testicular or retroperitoneal disease, it is very likely that this unusual case of metastatic seminoma was related to the patient's immunosuppressive therapy, which at diagnosis included cyclosporin and prednisolone.
  • The patient was successfully treated with cisplatin based chemotherapy and decreased immunosuppression and remains in complete remission one year after completion of chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 10942066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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22. Fridell JA, Jain A, Reyes J, Biederman R, Green M, Sindhi R, Mazariegos GV: Causes of mortality beyond 1 year after primary pediatric liver transplant under tacrolimus. Transplantation; 2002 Dec 27;74(12):1721-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Most posttransplant deaths occur early and are related to surgical complications or recipient status at the time of transplantation.
  • Two patients had recurrent malignancy.
  • The most common cause of death was infection (60%), including PTLD-related disease (20%).
  • However, in the recent cohort of patients who underwent transplantation after September 1995, there were no fatal cases of Epstein-Barr virus or PTLD or late mortality thus far, suggesting a benefit from improved infectious disease surveillance using currently available modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft Rejection / drug therapy. Graft Rejection / mortality. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Liver Transplantation / mortality. Tacrolimus / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12499888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; WM0HAQ4WNM / Tacrolimus
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