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1. Kast RE: Evidence that amphotericin B mediates reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's lymphoma allowing cytotoxicity by acyclovir. Yonsei Med J; 2006 Apr 30;47(2):287-90
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  • [Title] Evidence that amphotericin B mediates reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's lymphoma allowing cytotoxicity by acyclovir.
  • This brief communication focuses on aspects of a recent case report (Yonsei Med J 2005;46:425-30) on a full and sustained remission of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) after a single day of chemotherapy.
  • A septic episode required stopping chemotherapy and starting amphotericin B and acyclovir.
  • A review of research supporting the notion that amphotericin B can reactivate latent Epstein-Barr virus and thus allow acyclovir to kill infected HL cells is given.
  • If successful, amphotericin B and acyclovir treatment could be extended to other EBV-driven cancers such as Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and the occasional EBV-related epithelial cancer of the breast, colon, prostate, and others.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Amphotericin B / pharmacology. Drug Synergism. Herpesvirus 4, Human / metabolism. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Hodgkin Disease / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Burkitt Lymphoma / virology. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Humans. Remission Induction. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Virus Activation

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  • (PMID = 16642564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687644
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2. Miyazaki T, Fujimaki K, Shirasugi Y, Yoshiba F, Ohsaka M, Miyazaki K, Yamazaki E, Sakai R, Tamaru J, Kishi K, Kanamori H, Higashihara M, Hotta T, Ishigatsubo Y: Remission of lymphoma after withdrawal of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with type of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection. Am J Hematol; 2007 Dec;82(12):1106-9
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  • [Title] Remission of lymphoma after withdrawal of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with type of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of developing lymphoma.
  • Although the pathogenesis is still unclear, the increased risk appears to be related to the high inflammatory activity of RA, immunosuppressive agents, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection.
  • We investigated the relationship between EBV latent infection and methotrexate (MTX)-associated lymphoma in RA patients.
  • Nine patients were diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) during MTX treatment for RA in a multicenter study.
  • The pathologic findings were consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in 8 patients and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified in 1.
  • EBV infection was detected in 3 patients by in situ hybridization.
  • Both patients who had a CR and 1 who had SD were positive for EBV.
  • Further examination of the latent EBV infection patterns revealed that 2 patients who obtained a CR had latency Type III, and the other with SD had latency Type II.
  • These results demonstrate that immunodeficiency caused by MTX treatment is associated with the development of EBV-related NHL in RA patients.
  • In patients who were treated by MTX for RA and developed NHL, remission can be observed following MTX withdrawal especially in NHL with latency Type III EBV infection.
  • The analysis of EBV infection, including the latency types, is useful to decide the optimum therapeutic strategy.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / chemically induced. Methotrexate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome


3. Flanagan KH, Brennan DC: EBV-associated recurrent Hodgkin's disease after renal transplantation. Transpl Int; 2006 Apr;19(4):338-41
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  • [Title] EBV-associated recurrent Hodgkin's disease after renal transplantation.
  • Hodgkin's disease is recognized as part of the spectrum of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD), although it is still an uncommon de novo malignancy in this population.
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to both post-transplant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease.
  • We report a case of recurrent Hodgkin's disease in a patient who received a renal transplant in childhood and later developed EBV-associated Hodgkin's disease with remission after chemotherapy until subsequent relapse 9 years later that was successfully treated.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of recurrent Hodgkin's disease in a transplant recipient.
  • We briefly discuss the pathogenesis of and risk factors for EBV-related PTLD, utility of EBV load surveillance, and the options for treatment of PTLD including immunosuppression reduction, antiviral therapy, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, cytotoxic T cells, and the possible roles of interferon-alpha and rapamycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / etiology. Hodgkin Disease / etiology. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / etiology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / therapy. Male. Recurrence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16573551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-0874
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transpl. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1448701
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4. Souza EM, Baiocchi OC, Zanichelli MA, Alves AC, Assis MG, Eiras DP, Dobo C, Oliveira JS: Impact of Epstein-Barr virus in the clinical evolution of patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma in Brazil. Hematol Oncol; 2010 Sep;28(3):137-41
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  • [Title] Impact of Epstein-Barr virus in the clinical evolution of patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma in Brazil.
  • INTRODUCTION: Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma (cHL) has been frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which can be found in a latent pattern in Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells.
  • However, the impact of the presence of EBV in RS cells and its prognosis are still controversial.
  • We analysed the presence of EBV in RS cells and its influence in the clinical evolution of patients with cHL treated in two public hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
  • Patients were only included in this study if they had (1) >18 years, (2) negative HIV serology, (3) undergone similar chemotherapy protocols, (4) paraffin blocks available with enough material for systematic review and histological reclassification and for detection of EBV in RS cells by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry and (5) clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial parameters available after a thorough chart review.
  • RESULTS: EBV was identified in 52.5% of the cases.
  • Mixed cellularity (MC) subtype was more common in EBV-related tumours (25.5%) (p=0.005).
  • The presence of EBV did not influence event free survival (EFS) (p=0.38) or overall survival (OS) (p=0.80) with a median follow-up of 80 months.
  • CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that the prevalence of EBV-related cHL in this Brazilian population is 52.5% and, that, the presence of EBV does not change the clinical evolution and OS of patients treated with similar chemotherapy protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / pathology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / isolation & purification. Hodgkin Disease / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20128016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1069
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Lei KI, Chan LY, Chan WY, Johnson PJ, Lo YM: Quantitative analysis of circulating cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels in patients with EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies. Br J Haematol; 2000 Oct;111(1):239-46
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  • [Title] Quantitative analysis of circulating cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels in patients with EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies.
  • Cell-free Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA has recently been detected in the plasma and serum of patients with Hodgkin's disease, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma.
  • However, no data are available on the temporal variation of plasma/serum EBV DNA levels in patients with EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies during the course of therapy.
  • Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we studied the plasma EBV DNA levels in 13 patients with EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies (six patients with Hodgkin's disease, four with nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, two cases of PTLD and one patient with Burkitt's lymphoma) at presentation and during therapy.
  • Plasma EBV DNA was detected in 12 of the 13 patients (median 2,266 copies/ml; interquartile range 181-8,379 copies/ml), but not in any of 35 healthy control subjects (P < 0.0001).
  • The EBV status in tumour cells was also examined in 12 of these patients using in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs).
  • EBER positivity was observed in 11 patients, all of whom had EBV DNA detectable in plasma.
  • The one patient who had no detectable plasma EBV DNA was also negative for EBERs in tumour tissue.
  • Serial measurements of plasma EBV DNA levels were performed in nine of the patients during the course of therapy.
  • All patients who responded to therapy demonstrated a significant reduction of plasma EBV DNA to low or undetectable levels, whereas in two patients with ineffective therapy, disease progression was associated with a rapid increase in plasma EBV DNA levels.
  • We concluded that plasma EBV DNA is detectable in a wide range of EBV-associated lymphoid malignancies.
  • As plasma EBV DNA levels correlate well with the therapeutic response, such analysis may be a valuable tool for monitoring clinical progress.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / blood. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Hodgkin Disease / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / virology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 11091207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / DNA, Viral
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6. Comito MA, Sun Q, Lucas KG: Immunotherapy for Epstein-Barr virus-associated tumors. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Oct;45(10):1981-7
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  • [Title] Immunotherapy for Epstein-Barr virus-associated tumors.
  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with a number of tumors, including lymphomas in solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Burkitt's lymphoma, as well as a subset of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and Hodgkin's disease (HD).
  • The types of latent EBV infections vary in these tumors, which influences the EBV antigens expressed and ultimately the immunogenicity of tumor cells.
  • Not all EBV associated malignancies are directly related to altered cellular immunity, as is the case with EBV induced lymphoproliferations in immunocompromised patients.
  • Treatment strategies have ranged from restoration of normal cellular immunity, which is generally successful in SOT and HSCT patients, anti-B cell monoclonal antibodies, and conventional chemotherapy and radiation.
  • The fact that these tumors express EBV antigens for which many individuals have high circulating levels of protective cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) has lead to investigation into the applicability of adoptive transfer of EBV specific T cells.
  • Initial success with adoptive immunotherapy for HSCT and SOT patients has lead to current studies examining the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for other EBV associated tumors, such as NPC and HD.
  • We will review the pathogenesis of these disorders, current therapies, and future investigations aimed at targeting EBV antigen expression on these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesvirus 4, Human / immunology. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Viral / immunology. Antigens, Viral / therapeutic use. Humans. Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms / virology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / transplantation. Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 15370241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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7. Juffermans NP, Jager A, Kersten MJ, van Oers MH, Hommes DW: [Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphomas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2005 Aug 13;149(33):1859-63
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  • [Title] [Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphomas in patients with inflammatory bowel disease].
  • [Transliterated title] Epstein-Barr-virus-gerelateerde lymfomen bij patiënten met inflammatoire darmziekte.
  • During treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 2 men with ulcerative colitis, aged 52 and 38 years, and a 37-year-old man with Crohn's disease developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma.
  • The first 2 patients underwent proctocolectomy and the use of immunosuppressive agents was discontinued, after which the lymphoma disappeared.
  • Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are first choice therapy in the treatment of steroid-refractory IBD.
  • These immunomodulating agents are associated with the development of EBV-positive lymphomas in the setting of solid organ transplantation.
  • This type of lymphoma is a rare complication in IBD, although the incidence in referral centres appears to be increasing.
  • Since azathioprine is an important drug in IBD, there is a need for identification of IBD patients at risk of developing a lymphoma.
  • EBV-DNA in plasma or in faeces may be a candidate tumour marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Crohn Disease / complications. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Adult. Azathioprine / adverse effects. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16128185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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8. Seinturier C, Péoch M, Morand P, Jacob MC, Gressin R, Brion JP: [Malignant non-Hodgkins B lymphoma related to Epstein-Barr virus and chronic natural killer lymphocytosis in a immunocompromised patient]. Rev Med Interne; 2000 Mar;21(3):290-4
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  • [Title] [Malignant non-Hodgkins B lymphoma related to Epstein-Barr virus and chronic natural killer lymphocytosis in a immunocompromised patient].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome malin non Hodgkinien B associé au virus d'Epstein-Barr et lymphocytose chronique à cellules natural killer chez une patiente immunodéprimée.
  • INTRODUCTION: Immunocompromised patients are at high risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related lymphoproliferative disorders.
  • She developed an opportunistic pneumonia while immunodepressed during long-term corticotherapy aimed at curing her auto-immune disease.
  • Chronic lymphocytosis was also diagnosed at this time.
  • Several months later, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was diagnosed.
  • Genomic amplification of the Epstein-Barr virus in the patient's blood and positive EBV latent membrane protein 1 on the lymph nodes provided evidence for a strong correlation between EBV reactivation and lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Two distinct lymphoid diseases occurred during the immunosuppressive therapy for the auto-immune disease.
  • PCR monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus allows for early screening of lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients, leading to earlier and more efficient treatment.

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  • (PMID = 10763192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0248-8663
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue de medecine interne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Interne
  • [Language] FRE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Steroids
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9. Kersten MJ, Van Oers RH: Management of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Drugs; 2001;61(9):1301-15
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  • [Title] Management of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.
  • The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in individuals infected with HIV is approximately 60- to 100-fold increased over the general population.
  • The majority of patients with AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) present with stage III-IV disease and with B-symptoms.
  • Several factors, such as disrupted immune surveillance, Epstein-Barr virus infection, chronic antigenic stimulation, cytokine dysregulation and the acquisition of genetic lesions, are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis.
  • Results of treatment with polychemotherapy compare unfavourably to results in patients without HIV infection.
  • Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there appears to be a decrease in the incidence of ARL.
  • In addition, the use of HAART in combination with chemotherapy and the use of new treatment modalities may improve the outcome of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors / therapeutic use. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11511024.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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10. Corti M, Villafañe Fioti MF, Lewi D, Schtirbu R, Narbaitz M, de Dios Soler M: [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the digestive tract and anexal glands in AIDS patients]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2006 Dec;36(4):190-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of the digestive tract and anexal glands in AIDS patients].
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the second most common neoplasm among patients with AIDS.
  • All patients were staged by computed tomography scanning and bone marrow examination, in addition to the endoscopic evaluation.
  • RESULTS: All patients were males; 4 were heterosexual, 2 homosexual, and 1 were a hemophilic and an intravenous drug abuser.
  • The median age was 42 years and the median CD4 T cell count was 87 cells/uL at the time of the diagnosis of neoplasm.
  • No patient was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at lymphoma diagnosis.
  • The global incidence of AIDS-associated lymphomas (central nervous system lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and Hodgkin lymphoma) during the time of study was 2,9% (54 cases); 17 patients (32%) had diagnosis of systemic NHL; 10 (58,8%) of them were extranodal at the onset of clinical symptoms and 8 (80%) involvement the digestive tract and anexal glands (parotid gland, cavum, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, the right colon in 2 patients and the liver), as primary NHL of high grade and "B" phenotype.
  • All patients presented "B" symptoms at the time of diagnosis.
  • Primary duodenal lymphoma was the only Burkitt lymphoma of this serie and we detected the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the biopsy smears of this tumor and in the hepatic lymphoma.
  • Four patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with granulocitic growth factor support plus highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); 2 of them (cavum and one of the colon) had a prolonged survival with immune reconstitution during 5 and 6 years, respectively, after the diagnosis.
  • The median survival of the patients, which received HAART plus chemotherapy, was 33 months.
  • Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus HAART are necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17225446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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11. Hentrich M, Gerl A, Lutz L, Karthaus M, Schiel X: Unexpected toxicity (UT) and opportunistic infections (OI) after rituximab-containing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e19546

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unexpected toxicity (UT) and opportunistic infections (OI) after rituximab-containing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • : e19546 Background: Rituximab (R) is increasingly used for the treatment of B-NHL.
  • METHODS: The records of consecutive pts treated at 2 institutions from 01/06 to 12/08 with R-containing chemotherapy or R-maintenance therapy (R-M) for NHL were analyzed for severe UT and OI.
  • UT was considered as related to R if it could not be explained otherwise.
  • UT consisted of interstitial pneumonitis (IP) in 2 pts after 8 and 6 cycles of R-CHOP for diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL), a case of congestive heart failure (NYHA III°) after 6x R-CHOP + 2x R-M for follicular lymphoma (FL) and a case of grade 4 pancytopenia lasting for 22 days following 2x R-FC for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  • IP completely resolved after initiation of prednisone (n=1) or under empiric antimicrobial therapy (n=1).
  • Congestive heart failure improved under appropriate therapy and the pt received 2 more cycles of R-M.
  • Pancytopenia slowly recovered under therapy with G-CSF, R was terminated.
  • OI consisted of pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia after 5x R-CHOP-14 for DLCL, Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-associated hepatitis after 5x R-CHOP-21 for relapsed FL and generalized herpes zoster following 6x R-bendamustine (RB) + 1x R-M for recurrent BALT-lymphoma.
  • Infections resolved under antimicrobial therapy.
  • EBV-hepatitis improved spontaneously.
  • Moreover, 2 pts were transferred to us for therapy of enterovirus-induced encephalitis after 6x R-CHOP-21 + 2x R-M for FL (n=1) and cerebral toxoplasmosis in a pt heavily pretreated with R-containing therapy for relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (n=1).
  • Awareness of UT/OI, rapid diagnostic proceedings and, whenever possible, initiation of therapy are essential.

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  • (PMID = 27960975.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Terasaki Y, Kondo Y, Uotani C, Kanno M, Yamazaki M, Okumura H, Nakamura S, Nakao S: [Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in two married couples]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2000 Aug;41(8):641-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in two married couples].
  • Couple 1: A 74-year-old woman was diagnosed as having diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) by left axillary lymph node biopsy.
  • Although the wife achieved partial remission with chemotherapy, she died due to disease progression.
  • The husband's disease was chemotherapy-resistant, and he died of renal failure.
  • Both the husband and the wife received chemotherapy.
  • In both of these couples, it was considered unlikely that Epstein-Barr virus or human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I was related to the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and no environmental factors were confirmed to be involved.
  • It is postulated that other unknown factors or agents may be associated with the development of lymphoma in married couples.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse. Spouses

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  • (PMID = 11020991.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
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13. Foschi D, Rizzi A, Corsi F, Trabucchi E, Corbellino M: Chylous ascites secondary to B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Dig Liver Dis; 2008 Jun;40(6):481-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chylous ascites secondary to B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • In the present article we describe a patient with AIDS and chylous ascites secondary to B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • All blood tests and analysis of the peritoneal fluid with polymerase chain reaction for DNA sequence of broad-range bacterial Post Voiding Residual volume, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Kaposi Sarcoma associated Herpes virus and Epstein Barr Virus were negative.
  • The final pathology report was of diffuse, CD20-positive, CD3-negative, Epstein Barr Virus-negative, large B-Cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Subsequently, he underwent five cycles of CHOP (cyclofosfamide, doxorubicin, vincristin, prednison) chemotherapy with further partial regression of the abdominal tumour.
  • Five months after the initial diagnosis of lymphoma, the patient relapsed and was treated with high-dose BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytosine, arabinoside, melphalan) chemotherapy followed by CD34 stem-cell transplantations salvage therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Chylous Ascites / etiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. HIV-1. Humans. Male. Paracentesis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17997372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. Rafaniello Raviele P, Pruneri G, Maiorano E: Plasmablastic lymphoma: a review. Oral Dis; 2009 Jan;15(1):38-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Plasmablastic lymphoma: a review.
  • Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) has been recently characterised as an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, most frequently arising in the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients.
  • Similar to other types of AIDS-related lymphomas, there is evidence that Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi-sarcoma associated Human Herpes Virus 8 may play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of PBL.
  • PBL patients have been treated heterogeneously, with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery, and their prognosis is usually poor, with a death rate of approximately 60% at 1 year.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / virology. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain / genetics. Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain / genetics. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Humans. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Syndecan-1 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18939960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1601-0825
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDC1 protein, human; 0 / Syndecan-1
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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15. Gerstner E, Batchelor T: Primary CNS lymphoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2007 May;7(5):689-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary CNS lymphoma.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma, an uncommon form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, has increased in incidence and occurs in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts.
  • Primary CNS lymphoma in immunocompetent patients is associated with unique diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues and the management of this malignancy is different from other forms of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • Since primary CNS lymphoma may involve the brain, cerebrospinal fluid and eyes, diagnostic evaluation should include assessment of all of these regions as well as screening for the possibility of occult systemic disease.
  • Resection provides no therapeutic benefit and should be reserved for the rare patient with neurological deterioration due to brain herniation.
  • Whole-brain radiation therapy alone is insufficient for durable tumor control and is associated with a high risk of neurotoxicity in patients over 60 years of age.
  • Chemotherapy and whole-brain radiation therapy together improve tumor response rates and survival compared with whole-brain radiation therapy alone.
  • Methotrexate-based multiagent chemotherapy without whole-brain radiation therapy is associated with similar tumor response rates and survival compared with regimens that include whole-brain radiation therapy, although controlled trials have not been performed.
  • The risk of neurotoxicity is lower in patients treated with chemotherapy alone.
  • The incidence of HIV-related primary CNS lymphoma has decreased in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Patients with HIV-associated primary CNS lymphoma have a worse prognosis but may respond to highly active antiretroviral therapy, whole-brain radiation therapy or therapies directed against the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Combined Modality Therapy. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17492932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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16. Fong IW, Ho J, Toy C, Lo B, Fong MW: Value of long-term administration of acyclovir and similar agents for protecting against AIDS-related lymphoma: case-control and historical cohort studies. Clin Infect Dis; 2000 May;30(5):757-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Value of long-term administration of acyclovir and similar agents for protecting against AIDS-related lymphoma: case-control and historical cohort studies.
  • Acyclovir or similar agents with activity against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) theoretically may prevent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in AIDS.
  • A case-control study of 29 patients with AIDS-related NHL and 58 matched control subjects assessed the frequency with which daily acyclovir (>/=800 mg/d) or similar agents were used for > or =1 year.
  • In a historical cohort of 304 patients with AIDS for > or =2 years, the prevalence of NHL was assessed among 3 groups of patients: those who received long-term treatment with high-dose acyclovir (or similar agents) or low-dose or intermittent acyclovir; those treated with ganciclovir/foscarnet for <1 year; and those who had not previously been treated with acyclovir, ganciclovir, or foscarnet.
  • In the case-control study, 22 patients (72.4%) with NHL never received acyclovir or similar drugs versus 19 control subjects (32.8%; P=.
  • In the cohort study, 6 (6.8%) of 88 patients who received acyclovir (> or =800 mg/d) for > or =1 year developed NHL versus 15 (15.5%) of 97 patients who received intermittent or lower-dose acyclovir and 30 (25.2%) of 119 patients who never received these agents (P=.002).
  • Long-term administration (>1 year) of high-dose acyclovir or similar agents with anti-EBV activity may prevent NHL in patients with AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Case-Control Studies. Cohort Studies. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / drug therapy. Female. Foscarnet / therapeutic use. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 15;32(6):989-90 [11247725.001]
  • [CommentIn] Clin Infect Dis. 2000 May;30(5):762-3 [10816145.001]
  • (PMID = 10816144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-4838
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 364P9RVW4X / Foscarnet; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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17. Cheung TW: AIDS-related cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a model of the interplay of the immune system, virus, and cancer. "On the offensive--the Trojan Horse is being destroyed"--Part B: Malignant lymphoma. Cancer Invest; 2004;22(5):787-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a model of the interplay of the immune system, virus, and cancer. "On the offensive--the Trojan Horse is being destroyed"--Part B: Malignant lymphoma.
  • The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was less obvious initially, although primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has dropped precipitously since the introduction of HAART.
  • The pathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma is multifactorial.
  • Epstein-Barr virus plays a significant role in these diseases, especially Burkitt lymphoma and PCNSL.
  • Data regarding the effect of HAART on the natural history and treatment outcomes of these malignancies are emerging.
  • The possibility of direct and indirect roles of human immunodeficiency virus in the carcinogenesis suggests that antiretroviral therapy may be an important component of the treatment for these malignancies.
  • The simultaneous administration of HAART and chemotherapy does not appear to significantly alter the toxicity profile, although the information with respect to the interaction of HAART and chemotherapy is limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Lymphoma / immunology. Lymphoma / virology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / immunology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / virology


18. Nakatsuka S, Yao M, Hoshida Y, Yamamoto S, Iuchi K, Aozasa K: Pyothorax-associated lymphoma: a review of 106 cases. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Oct 15;20(20):4255-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pyothorax-associated lymphoma: a review of 106 cases.
  • PURPOSE: Pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL) is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developing in the pleural cavity after a long-standing history of pyothorax.
  • All patients had a 20- to 64-year (median, 37-year) history of pyothorax resulting from artificial pneumothorax for treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (80%) or tuberculous pleuritis (17%).
  • Histologically, PAL usually showed a diffuse proliferation of large cells of B-cell type (88%).
  • In situ hybridization study showed that PAL in 70% of the patients was Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive.
  • PAL was responsive to chemotherapy, but the overall prognosis was poor, with a 5-year survival of 21.6%.
  • PAL is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of exclusively B-cell phenotype in the pleural cavity of patients with long-standing history of pyothorax, and is strongly associated with EBV infection.
  • Development of PAL is closely related to antecedent chronic inflammatory condition; therefore, PAL should be defined as malignant lymphoma developing in chronic inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Empyema, Pleural / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Pleural Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chronic Disease. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pneumothorax, Artificial / adverse effects. Survival Analysis. Tuberculosis, Pleural / complications

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  • (PMID = 12377970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Stern JI, Raizer JJ: Primary central nervous system lymphoma. Expert Rev Neurother; 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):S63-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary central nervous system lymphoma.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma is a stage 1E non-Hodgkin's lymphoma confined to the nervous system.
  • It is seen in immunocompetent and immunodeficient populations, the latter group associated with the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Primary central nervous system lymphoma can affect the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord or eyes.
  • The institution of high-dose methotrexate-based regimens and whole-brain radiation therapy has significantly increased survival, but neurotoxicity is high in patients over 60 years of age.
  • Recent investigations include the use of rituximab (immunotherapy) and stem-cell transplantation, as well as regimens without whole-brain radiation therapy in the elderly.
  • The optimal treatment regimen is yet to been determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / therapy. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Drug Therapy / methods. Expert Testimony. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / methods. Salvage Therapy / methods. Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Steroids / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Expert Rev Neurother. 2005 Nov;5(6 Suppl):1-2 [16274264.001]
  • (PMID = 16274272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8360
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of neurotherapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Neurother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Steroids
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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20. Porcu P, Caligiuri MA: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: future directions. Semin Oncol; 2000 Aug;27(4):454-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphomas: future directions.
  • Despite some exciting new leads, human immunodeficiency virus-I (HIV-I)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (HIV-NHL) remains a fatal malignancy for the vast majority of patients.
  • The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not produced a fall in the incidence of HIV-NHL and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is associated with a negligible cure rate.
  • New treatment options are needed.
  • Future therapeutic directions in HIV-NHL should be based on a better understanding of three fundamental aspects of lymphomagenesis in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency. (I) New information on the molecular and pathological heterogeneity of HIV-NHL should be applied to the development of risk-adapted therapy.
  • The identification of patient subsets with different susceptibility to cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunomodulation, or antiviral strategies is essential for the design of clinical trials of investigational new agents in HIV-NHL. (2) Known viral pathogens need to be better understood.
  • Key biological interactions between virus and host, mediated by oncogenic, immunomodulatory, and antiapoptotic viral proteins, should become the main target for new drug development. (3) Immune reconstitution with HAART and immunostimulatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12, combined with drugs that downregulate the replication or gene expression of tumor-associated viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8), possibly in combination, should remain a primary goal in the treatment of HIV-NHL.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. HIV / physiology. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans


21. Unholzer A, Starz H, Hirschsteiner O, Balda BR: [Gingival Burkitt lymphoma in a hepatitis C-positive renal transplant patient]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2005 Jan;3(1):46-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Gingival Burkitt lymphoma in a hepatitis C-positive renal transplant patient].
  • Compared to the general population, the organ transplant patients have a 30-60 fold increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • A 55-year-old, hepatitis C-positive man developed an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)- negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) first appearing on the gingiva under immunosuppressive therapy nine years after allogenic renal transplantation.
  • In 70% of BL occurring after organ transplantation, genes or gene products related to EBV can be demonstrated within the tumor cells.
  • The EBV status of the tumor is of important prognostic significance: EBV-positive BL occurring in organ transplant patients usually responds well to reduction or cessation of immunosuppressive therapy; in some cases permanent complete remissions can be achieved even without chemotherapy.
  • In contrast, patients with EBV-negative BL have a very poor prognosis and hardly respond, even to aggressive chemotherapy protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / etiology. Gingival Neoplasms / etiology. Hepatitis C / complications. Immunocompromised Host. Kidney Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Gingiva / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16353750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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22. Romero-Guadarrama MB, Aguilar-Martínez E: Extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma with dissemination to the central nervous system: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):993-7
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  • [Title] Extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma with dissemination to the central nervous system: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Lymphomas that infiltrate the nervous system in children correspond to those of precursor B cells, such as lymphoblastic and Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • In adults, infiltration occurs in mature B-cell lymphomas, such as mantle cell lymphoma, and, rarely, in Hodgkin's lymphoma or peripheral NK/T-cell lymphomas.
  • CASE: We report the case of a 48-year-old man, who two years before death was diagnosed with extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma nasal in the left nostril.
  • He also presented infiltration to the bone marrow and underwent chemotherapy.
  • Infiltration to the central nervous system was revealed by computed axial tomography, and cytologic study of cerebrospinal fluid revealed malignant lymphoid cells; he then received intrathecal chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In Mexico, extranodal nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma occurs frequently.
  • It is highly destructive and tightly related with the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System / pathology. Lymphoma, Extranodal NK-T-Cell / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD3
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23. Pinkerton CR, Hann I, Weston CL, Mapp T, Wotherspoon A, Hobson R, Kelly DA, Vergani D, Hadzic D, Rees L, Burke M, Alero Thomas J: Immunodeficiency-related lymphoproliferative disorders: prospective data from the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group Registry. Br J Haematol; 2002 Aug;118(2):456-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunodeficiency-related lymphoproliferative disorders: prospective data from the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group Registry.
  • Clinical data and biological samples were prospectively collected in 42 children with lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) secondary to organ/bone marrow transplant-related immunosuppression (30: 11 liver, 10 heart/lung, 8 kidney and 1 bone marrow), other drug-induced immunosuppression (2), congenital immunodeficiency (8) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immune dysfunction (2).
  • Pathology was centrally reviewed and showed polymorphic features in 5 cases, monomorphic in 23, mixed pattern in 5 patients and 9 other types.
  • Using the Pittsburgh classification, 9 were lymphadenopathic, 10 were systemic, 25 were lymphomatous and, with the Murphy grouping for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 10 were localized and 32 non-localized.
  • Twenty-four out of 38 evaluable cases were Epstein-Barr virus positive.
  • Nineteen patients received chemotherapy, 14/18 evaluable responded, which was sustained in 8 cases.
  • In the transplant group close monitoring of response during reduction in immunosuppression is essential and the early use of B NHL chemotherapy may be effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation / methods. Bone Marrow Transplantation / mortality. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Great Britain / epidemiology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infant. Liver Transplantation / methods. Liver Transplantation / mortality. Prospective Studies. Registries

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  • (PMID = 12139732.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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24. Hachem RR, Chakinala MM, Yusen RD, Lynch JP, Aloush AA, Patterson GA, Trulock EP: Abdominal-pelvic lymphoproliferative disease after lung transplantation: presentation and outcome. Transplantation; 2004 Feb 15;77(3):431-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The median time from transplantation to the onset of LPD was 5.8 years.
  • The time to diagnosis of LPD was significantly shorter for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-seronegative than for EBV-seropositive recipients (median, 175 vs. 2255 days; log-rank, P<0.001).
  • Seventeen cases were non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, one was a Burkitt's lymphoma, and one was an atypical lymphoid proliferation.
  • Immunosuppressive therapy was decreased in all patients.
  • Eleven underwent surgical resection, and nine received chemotherapy.
  • The median time from the diagnosis of LPD to death was 68 days.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal-pelvic LPD is typically a late complication after lung transplantation; however, when it occurs early, it may be related to a primary EBV infection.
  • This form of LPD is most frequently a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and despite aggressive therapy, the prognosis is poor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Burkitt Lymphoma / etiology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / etiology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 14966421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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25. Vila L, Moreno L, Andrés MM, Fernández JM, Verdeguer A, Pérez-Valle S, Sangüesa C, Berbel O, Castel V: Could other viruses cause pediatric posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder? Clin Transl Oncol; 2008 Jul;10(7):422-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We summarize the experience of our hospital, one of Spain's largest series of renal (294), liver (47) and allogeneic stem cell transplants (67), where four cases of PTLD have developed related to complex viral infections.
  • He was seropositive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and developed an aggressive Bcell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) related to EBV reactivation and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection.
  • Cases 2, 3, and 4 developed after kidney transplantation and were all EBV seronegative.
  • Case 2 had associated cytomegalovirus (CMV) and EBV infection.
  • Cases 3 and 4 only revealed EBV viral load.
  • Although EBV plays a clear role in its pathogenesis, other associated viral infections could trigger this situation.
  • Current therapies include rituximab, decreasing immunosuppressive drugs. and conventional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoproliferative Disorders / virology. Postoperative Complications / virology. Tumor Virus Infections / virology. Virus Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Cytomegalovirus. Cytomegalovirus Infections / complications. Cytomegalovirus Infections / epidemiology. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Male. Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Viral Load

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  • [Cites] Pediatr Transplant. 2001 Aug;5(4):250-7 [11472603.001]
  • [Cites] Herpes. 2003 Dec;10(3):60-5 [14759337.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Transplant. 2004 Feb;4(2):222-30 [14974943.001]
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  • [Cites] J Infect Dis. 1997 Dec;176(6):1462-7 [9395355.001]
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  • [Cites] Transpl Infect Dis. 2001 Jun;3(2):70-8 [11395972.001]
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  • [Cites] Transplantation. 2002 Jan 15;73(1):100-4 [11792987.001]
  • (PMID = 18628071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Gandemer V, Verkarre V, Quartier P, Brousse N, Blanche S: [Lymphomas in children infected with HIV-1]. Arch Pediatr; 2000 Jul;7(7):738-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphomes chez l'enfant infecté par le VIH-1.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the features of lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children, their treatments and the outcome of patients.
  • RESULTS: We analyzed seven HIV-infected children (four by mother-to-child transmission and three by transfusion) (25 months to 18.5 years old) with lymphoma (one Hodgkin's disease and six non-Hodgkin's lymphomas).
  • Five of six were high grade-B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of large-cell histologies (immunoblastic or centroblastic).
  • Epstein-Barr virus was detected in four tumors.
  • Five of seven received a multiagent chemotherapy.
  • Treatment for the skin T lymphoma consisted of radiation therapy.
  • Five children were complete responders (with survival three years, 2.5 years, 12, 18 and 18 months) and two died of progression of lymphoma (four and five months later).
  • CONCLUSION: Incidence of lymphoma is increased in HIV-infected children.
  • Anticancer chemotherapy regimens that include aggressive supportive care and concomitant antiretroviral therapy or immunotherapy may yield high survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. HIV-1. Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis


27. Snanoudj R, Durrbach A, Leblond V, Caillard S, Hurault De Ligny B, Noel C, Rondeau E, Moulin B, Mamzer-Bruneel MF, Lacroix C, Charpentier B: Primary brain lymphomas after kidney transplantation: presentation and outcome. Transplantation; 2003 Sep 27;76(6):930-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the second most frequent neoplasia following solid-organ transplantation.
  • Median overall delay between transplantation and lymphoma was 18 months (4-264).
  • Six of 10 patients with late posttransplantation brain lymphomas (PTBL) occurrence (>3 years) had been recently switched from azathioprine to mycophenolate mofetil (median switch lymphoma delay 14 months).
  • Cerebral computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal lesions (n=18), with a ring contrast enhancement (n=20) similar to cerebral abscesses, as observed in HIV-related brain lymphomas.
  • Histology showed large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 87.5% of cases; Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in 95%.
  • After lymphoma diagnosis, immunosuppressive treatment was reduced in all patients, and all but one received complementary treatment by surgery (n=2), anti-CD21 antibodies (n=2), chemotherapy including high-dose intravenous methotrexate (n=7), encephalic radiotherapy (n=5), or chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (n=8).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that PTBL are EBV-induced large B-cell lymphomas, which mimic cerebral abscesses on imaging and whose occurrence may be influenced by immunosuppression modifications.
  • Treatment by radiotherapy is associated with better survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antilymphocyte Serum / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Intracranial Hypertension / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Diseases / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14508356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antilymphocyte Serum; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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28. Thapar N, Shah N, Ramsay AD, Lindley KJ, Milla PJ: Long-term outcome of intractable ulcerating enterocolitis of infancy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr; 2005 May;40(5):582-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of presenting features, treatment and long-term outcome in a series of 8 children with typical IE.
  • Three children developed a generalised lymphadenopathy due to uncontrolled EBV-related lymphoid proliferations (ages 4, 12, 18).
  • These comprised a monomorphous B-lymphoycte lympho-proliferative disorder, a large pleomorphic follicular lymphoma, and a high grade pleomorphic B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Infants with IE have a high risk of developing lymphomatous proliferations that appears to be related to the underlying immunodysregulation.
  • Use of aggressive immunosuppression and acquisition of EBV infection appears to accelerate this process; hence we advocate early colectomy in confirmed cases.
  • In children with IE screening for EBV and vigilance for abnormal lymphoid proliferations is paramount.
  • [MeSH-major] Colectomy. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Colitis, Ulcerative / surgery. Enterocolitis / drug therapy. Enterocolitis / surgery. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chronic Disease. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / epidemiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoglobulins / therapeutic use. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / epidemiology. Male. Steroids / therapeutic use. Thalidomide / therapeutic use. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15861020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Steroids; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; MRK240IY2L / Azathioprine
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29. Sevmis S, Pehlivan S, Shabazov R, Karakayali H, Ozcay F, Haberal M: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Transplant Proc; 2009 Sep;41(7):2881-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Transplantation.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease encompasses a range of abnormalities from benign infectious mononucleosis-like illnesses to non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with nodal and extranodal site involvement.
  • Five children (4.6%), including three girls and two boys of overall mean age, 3.9 year, developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative diseases.
  • The results of in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus were negative in one recipient and positive in four.
  • Four recipients were treated with chemotherapy; the remaining recipient was treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies.
  • The one recipient who had a large mediastinal mass died at 2 months after receiving the diagnosis of chemotherapy-related sepsis; the remaining four children are alive at 9, 11, 18, and 34 months after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Transplantation / adverse effects. Lymphoma, B-Cell / epidemiology. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Male. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Survivors. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19765463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Rabkin CS: The need for investigations of prophylactic regimens to prevent AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Clin Infect Dis; 2000 May;30(5):762-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The need for investigations of prophylactic regimens to prevent AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / drug therapy. Humans

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  • [CommentOn] Clin Infect Dis. 2000 May;30(5):757-61 [10816144.001]
  • (PMID = 10816145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-4838
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents
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