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1. Nunes LF, Fiod NJ, Vasconcelos RA, Meohas W, Rezende JF: [Epithelioid sarcoma: clinical behavior, prognostic factors and survival]. Rev Col Bras Cir; 2010 Aug;37(4):251-5
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  • [Title] [Epithelioid sarcoma: clinical behavior, prognostic factors and survival].
  • [Transliterated title] Sarcoma epitelióide: aspectos clínicos, fatores prognósticos e sobrevida.
  • OBJECTIVE: To relate the clinical characteristics and evaluations of patients with epithelioid sarcomas.
  • METHODS: Careful analysis of 25 epithelioid sarcoma cases registered in Instituto Nacional do Cancer between june 1987 and july 2005.
  • RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 33 years old, ranged from 10 to 70.
  • Six received any type of chemotherapy and 14 received treatment with radiotherapy with mean dose of 46,5 Gy.
  • Six patients underwent cancer treatment in its entirety at the National Institute of Cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare subset of soft tissue sarcoma with high rate of local recurrence, regional node and distant metastases.
  • Surgical treatment of epithelioid sarcoma consists of early wide local resection to negative microscopic margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / mortality. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 21085839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1809-4546
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Col Bras Cir
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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2. Weisskopf M, Münker R, Hermanns-Sachweh B, Ohnsorge JA, Siebert C: Epithelioid sarcoma in the thoracic spine. Eur Spine J; 2006 Oct;15 Suppl 5:604-9
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  • [Title] Epithelioid sarcoma in the thoracic spine.
  • Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare and highly malignant soft tissue tumor that is commonly found in the extremities and rarely in the trunk area.
  • This malignant tumor often mimics granuloma or nodular fasciitis, which causes a delay in establishing the diagnosis.
  • This type of cancer has a high recurrence rate.
  • Surgical treatment requires wide radical resection.
  • The objective of this case report is to highlight the unique location of a rare neoplasm and to illustrate the relentless course of epithelioid sarcoma despite initial radical resection.
  • A 14-year-old boy was admitted to our facility with a soft tissue mass on the right lower thoracic spine.
  • Immunohistological study of the biopsy was highly consistent with an epithelioid sarcoma.
  • The patient received chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • However, further progression of the sarcoma had to be recognized.
  • Initial wide excision of the neoplasm and adjuvant therapy including chemotherapy and irradiation seem to slow down the relentless course of epithelioid sarcoma in the trunk.
  • [MeSH-major] Orthopedic Procedures. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thoracic Vertebrae
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Orthopedic Fixation Devices. Positron-Emission Tomography. Postoperative Period. Radiography, Thoracic. Spinal Fusion

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  • (PMID = 16474944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1602205
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3. Grunewald TG, von Luettichau I, Weirich G, Wawer A, Behrends U, Prodinger PM, Jundt G, Bielack SS, Gradinger R, Burdach S: Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the bone: a case report of high resistance to chemotherapy and a survey of the literature. Sarcoma; 2010;2010:431627
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  • [Title] Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the bone: a case report of high resistance to chemotherapy and a survey of the literature.
  • Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma mostly occurring in extraosseous sites.
  • SEF represents a clinically challenging entity especially because no standardized treatment regimens are available.
  • The patient underwent standardized neoadjuvant chemotherapy analogous to the EURAMOS-1 protocol for the treatment of osteosarcoma followed by tumor resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction.
  • Histopathological analysis of the resected tumor showed >90% vital tumor cells suggesting no response to chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, therapy was reassigned to the CWS 2002 High-Risk protocol for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma.
  • To date (22 months after diagnosis), there is no evidence of relapse or metastasis.
  • Our data suggest that SEF may be resistant to a chemotherapy regimen containing Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, and Methotrexate, which should be considered in planning treatment for patients with SEF.

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  • (PMID = 20396630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1369-1643
  • [Journal-full-title] Sarcoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sarcoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2853979
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4. Downes KA, Goldblum JR, Montgomery EA, Fisher C: Pleomorphic liposarcoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of 19 cases. Mod Pathol; 2001 Mar;14(3):179-84
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  • In each case, the following features were noted: tumor site; tumor size; tumor depth; predominant histologic pattern (epithelioid or malignant fibrous histiocytoma [MFH]-like); extent of necrosis (absent, less than 15%, or at least 15%); mitotic counts; treatment and clinical follow-up.
  • Predominant pattern was epithelioid in 7 and MFH-like in 12.
  • All patients were treated surgically; 10 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
  • On follow-up of 18 patients (range, 2--129 mo; mean, 35.4 mo; median, 23 mo) nine (50%) were dead of disease (range, 2--48 mo; mean, 20.1 mo; median, 12 mo), one died of other causes 2 months after diagnosis, two were alive with disease, five were disease free, and one was alive at 129 months (tumor status unknown).
  • Metastases developed in eight patients (range, 4--48 mo; mean, 19.5 mo; median, 11.5 mo), most commonly to the lungs.
  • In conclusion, pleomorphic liposarcoma is a rare tumor of adulthood that occurs most commonly in the deep, soft tissues of the extremities.
  • It behaves as a high-grade sarcoma that frequently metastasizes, most commonly to the lungs.
  • [MeSH-major] Liposarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11266523.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Cecchetto G, Alaggio R, Dall'Igna P, Bisogno G, Ferrari A, Gigante C, Casanova M, Sotti G, Zanetti I, Carli M: Localized unresectable non-rhabdo soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities in pediatric age: results from the Italian studies. Cancer; 2005 Nov 1;104(9):2006-12
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  • [Title] Localized unresectable non-rhabdo soft tissue sarcomas of the extremities in pediatric age: results from the Italian studies.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of initially unresectable nonrhabdo soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) in pediatric age is debated, due to their different chemosensitivity.
  • The authors objective was to evaluate clinical features and treatment results observed in a series of Italian patients over a 24-year period.
  • Therapeutic guidelines recommended an initial biopsy plus neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Chemosensitive (CTs) sarcomas, 21: synovial sarcoma, 11; extraosseous Ewing sarcomas, 5; primitive peripheral neuroectodermic tumors, 5.
  • Nonchemosensitive (CTns) sarcomas, 31: fibrosarcoma, 11; malignant peripheral nerve sheet tumors, 10; liposarcoma, 2; hemangiopericitoma adult type, 2; epithelioid sarcoma, 2; and alveolar soft part sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, clear cell sarcoma, and sarcoma NOS, each 1.
  • Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was complete or partial in 10 of 20 evaluable CTs and in 8 of 26 evaluable CTns tumors.
  • Tumor size < 5 cm, distal site, and tumor grading for CTns sarcomas were often linked to a favorable outcome; no conclusive results were detected concerning age of the patients or T status of the tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multidisciplinary treatment without mutilating procedures allowed the cure of most patients with CTs and CTns-NRSTS.
  • [MeSH-major] Extremities. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Italy. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16161038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Fleshman R, Mayerson J, Wakely PE Jr: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of high-grade sarcoma: a report of 107 cases. Cancer; 2007 Dec 25;111(6):491-8
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of high-grade sarcoma: a report of 107 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, few studies exist demonstrating the reliability of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy for high-grade sarcoma (HGS).
  • They also searched their tissue database for all HGS cases that had prior FNA biopsy findings.
  • RESULTS: A total of 107 FNA samples from 98 patients (age range, 13-90 years, with a male:female ratio of 1:1) had an FNA diagnosis of HGS, or had HGS and a prior FNA diagnosis of another entity.
  • The positive predictive value of an FNA diagnosis of HGS was 97% (88 of 91 cases).
  • Fifty-four cases were diagnosed as HGS, not otherwise specified, 8 as myxofibrosarcoma, 8 as osteosarcoma, 5 as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, 5 as leiomyosarcoma, 4 as Ewing sarcoma, 4 as liposarcoma, 2 as epithelioid sarcoma, and 1 as angiosarcoma.
  • FNA diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 88% of cases, clinically in 7% of cases, and cytogenetically in 1% of cases; 3% of cases had false-positive results and 1 patient was lost to follow-up.
  • Sixteen of 19 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the FNA diagnosis alone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A cytopathologic diagnosis of HGS was found to be accurate in 88 of 97 cases (91%) with follow-up.
  • A FNA biopsy diagnosis of HGS appears to be clinically reliable in a high percentage of cases when used in close conjunction with the orthopedic team.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17941014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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7. Kato K, Arai K, Tanaka Y, Ijiri R, Kato Y, Kigasawa H, Toyoda Y, Aida N, Ohama Y: Epithelioid leiomyosarcoma in a non-immunocompromised infant: additional differential diagnosis of pediatric "round cell tumors". Mod Pathol; 2000 Oct;13(10):1156-60
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  • [Title] Epithelioid leiomyosarcoma in a non-immunocompromised infant: additional differential diagnosis of pediatric "round cell tumors".
  • We report an 18-month-old Japanese girl with purely epithelioid leiomyosarcoma presenting as a huge intraabdominal mass.
  • The age, clinical presentation, and histologic findings mostly favored Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • Silver stain, however, demonstrated well-developed reticulin fibers often outlining individual tumor cells.
  • The diagnosis of epithelioid leiomyosarcoma was made.
  • Following reduction in tumor size by chemotherapy, the serum NSE level was normalized.
  • Although extremely rare, epithelioid leiomyosarcoma should be added in the list of differential diagnoses of pediatric "round cell tumors. "
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / pathology. Immunocompromised Host. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 11048812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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8. Moore RG, Steinhoff MM, Granai CO, DeMars LR: Vulvar epithelioid sarcoma in pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Apr;85(1):218-22
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  • [Title] Vulvar epithelioid sarcoma in pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Epithelioid sarcoma is a soft tissue tumor rarely found centrally and even less commonly on the vulva.
  • Vulvar sarcoma in pregnancy is also exceedingly rare with only five cases reported to date, none of which have been an epithelioid sarcoma.
  • CASE: We report a case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with a vulvar epithelioid sarcoma at 36 weeks of gestation.
  • The patient underwent a radical resection 6 weeks postpartum followed by chemotherapy.
  • Despite a radical hemivulvectomy and doxorubicin and ifosfamide chemotherapy, she developed pulmonary metastasis and died of tumor-related pulmonary failure secondary to her disease 612 months after diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge this is the first case of a vulvar epithelioid sarcoma presenting during pregnancy.
  • The English literature is reviewed and a total of 18 previous cases of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma have been reported outside of pregnancy.
  • Insight into the biological behavior and therapeutic management of this disease is discussed.
  • CONCLUSION: The optimal management of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma remains to be determined.
  • The role of radiation and/or chemotherapy remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology


9. Sun L, Wu LY, Li XG, Bai P, Zhang HT: [Clinical characterization of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Dec;32(12):935-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical characterization of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: Vulvar epithelioid sarcoma is a rare, undifferentiated soft-tissue sarcoma, with a high rate of local relapse, regional nodal spread and distant metastases.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this malignancy.
  • METHODS: We studied the clinicopathologic features of 20 cases of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma, of which 4 cases were admitted to our hospital from 1999 to 2009.
  • Seven patients were treated without adjuvant therapy.
  • Seven patients received postoperative radiotherapy only and three underwent chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy were given postoperatively in three.
  • 2 patients developed lymph node metastases but alive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the relatively frequent misdiagnosis, a differential diagnosis combined with immunohistochemistry is needed to determine an early and accurate diagnosis.
  • Radical local excision with adequate margin (at least 2 cm) and bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy is effective for the treatment of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma.
  • The role of adjuvant therapy, chemotherapy and radiation remains unclear but merits consideration.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vimentin / metabolism. Vulva / surgery. Young Adult


10. Jeney H, Heller DS, Hameed M, Sama J, Cracchiolo B: Epithelioid sarcoma of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Jun;89(3):536-9
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  • [Title] Epithelioid sarcoma of the uterine cervix.
  • BACKGROUND: Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare, yet aggressive soft tissue neoplasm that has not previously been reported to originate in the cervix.
  • CASE: A 29-year-old woman was seen in consultation at our institution after having been diagnosed with a poorly differentiated carcinoma of the cervix, which was treated with radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Examination of the original biopsy material with additional studies led to a diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma of the cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: Epithelioid sarcoma can occur in the cervix and should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical neoplasms.
  • Additional cases are needed to develop optimum treatment strategies and predict prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


11. Xu LB, Yu SJ, Shao YF, Zhang HT, Zhao ZG: [Clinical analysis of 14 cases of epithelioid sarcoma]. Ai Zheng; 2007 Jul;26(7):782-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 14 cases of epithelioid sarcoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma with a high propensity for aggressiveness, regional nodal spread, and distant metastases.
  • This study was to investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of epithelioid sarcoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 14 patients with epithelioid sarcoma, admitted to our hospital from 1990 to 2005, were analyzed.
  • Nine patients received adjuvant radiotherapy and 3 of them also received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: All diagnoses of epithelioid sarcoma were confirmed by pathology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of epithelioid sarcoma is poor because of a high propensity for local recurrence, node metastases, and distant metastases.
  • Extensive excision or radical excision combined local lymph node dissection is effective for epithelioid sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Extremities / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amputation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17626760.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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12. Murray PM: Soft tissue sarcoma of the upper extremity. Hand Clin; 2004 Aug;20(3):325-33, vii
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  • [Title] Soft tissue sarcoma of the upper extremity.
  • Soft tissue sarcomas of the upper extremities are rare and hand surgeons typically encounter only one or two undiagnosed soft tissue sarcomas during their careers.
  • It is incumbent on the physician to review repeatedly the characteristics of these tumors and remain suspicious, because these lesions typically are misdiagnosed and treatment is delayed.
  • The most common soft tissue sarcomas of the upper extremity are the epithelioid sarcoma, synovial cell sarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • Limb salvage surgery is the treatment of choice for soft tissue sarcomas to preserve upper extremity function.
  • Following wide tumor resection, adjuvant therapies such as chemotherapy, external beam radiation therapy, and brachytherapy may lessen local recurrence rates, but their effect on overall survival remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma. Soft Tissue Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Arm. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / surgery. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / therapy. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / mortality. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / pathology. Humans. Liposarcoma / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy. Sarcoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Synovial / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15275691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0749-0712
  • [Journal-full-title] Hand clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hand Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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13. Matsushita Y, Ahmed AR, Kawaguchi N, Matsumoto S, Manabe J: Epithelioid sarcoma of the extremities: a dismal long-term outcome. J Orthop Sci; 2002;7(4):462-6
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  • [Title] Epithelioid sarcoma of the extremities: a dismal long-term outcome.
  • Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare histologic subtype of sarcoma.
  • A review of clinicopathologic features of patients with epithelioid sarcoma prospectively followed between September 1981 and April 2001 at the Cancer Institute Hospital was performed.
  • All patients were followed for at least 10 years from the time of diagnosis or until death.
  • During the course of the disease, metastases to regional lymph nodes developed in 50% of patients and metastases to the lungs in 62.5%.
  • A delay in diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma is common.
  • Epithelioid sarcoma differs from other sarcoma subtypes in its propensity for nodal spread and local recurrence.
  • Chemotherapy and radiotherapy have an insignificant effect on the course of epithelioid sarcoma.
  • The long-term outcome of epithelioid sarcoma is dismal.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Sarcoma / mortality. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / mortality. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amputation / methods. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Lower Extremity. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Registries. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Upper Extremity

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  • (PMID = 12181660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2658
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Del Frari B, Zelger BG, Piza-Katzer H: [Epithelioid sarcoma of the hand, a seldomly recognized tumor]. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir; 2004 Oct;36(5):313-7
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  • [Title] [Epithelioid sarcoma of the hand, a seldomly recognized tumor].
  • BACKGROUND: The epithelioid sarcoma of the hand is often misdiagnosed.
  • The characteristic histopathology is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis.
  • Differential diagnosis includes synovialoma, fibromatosis and Dupuytren's contracture.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Three young patients (one male and two female) were operated on the hand for treatment of Dupuytren's contracture, synovialoma and fibromas, respectively.
  • The original diagnosis having been found to be incorrect, the correct diagnosis was established namely, epithelioid sarcoma.
  • None of the patients underwent adjuvant radio- or chemotherapy.
  • Adequate treatment requires early radical excision; amputation may be required if the primary tumor is located in the fingers or treatment of recurrent growth.
  • Patients must be monitored with yearly lung X-rays since recurrence or metastasis may occur many years after the initial diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Hand / surgery. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amputation. Biopsy. Child. Connective Tissue / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15503263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-1819
  • [Journal-full-title] Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, plastische Chirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Handchirurgie : Organ der Deutschsprachigen Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Mikrochirurgie der Peripheren Nerven und Gefässe : Organ der Vereinigung der Deutschen Plastischen Chirurgen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Li L, Cen S, Huang F: [Clinical research on 11 cases of epithelioid sarcoma]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Dec;21(12):1315-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical research on 11 cases of epithelioid sarcoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with localized epithelioid sarcoma (ES).
  • Seven patients underwent an expanding resection surgery, and the tumors with the surrounding normal tissues 3 cm above were removed.
  • All the patients underwent routine radiotherapy and chemotherapy after operation.
  • They did not have a further surgical treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: An early expanding resection surgery combined with postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the therapy of choice for treating ES.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / surgery. Surgical Flaps. Upper Extremity / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amputation. Bone Transplantation. Female. Hand / pathology. Hand / surgery. Humans. Lower Extremity / pathology. Lower Extremity / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Soft Tissue Injuries / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18277674.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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16. Onol FF, Tanidir Y, Kotiloğlu E, Bayramiçli M, Turhal S, Türkeri LN: Proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the scrotum: a source of diagnostic confusion that needs immediate attention. Eur Urol; 2006 Feb;49(2):406-7
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  • [Title] Proximal type epithelioid sarcoma of the scrotum: a source of diagnostic confusion that needs immediate attention.
  • Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma which classically presents as a subcutaneous or deep dermal mass in distal extremities of adolescents and young adults.
  • A more aggressive "proximal" or "large-cell" type has been described in rare cases to occur as a deep soft-tissue mass at proximal body sites which tends to recur and metastasize earlier than the conventional epithelioid sarcoma.
  • The correct diagnosis of this type is essential since these lesions can easily be misdiagnosed as other epithelioid lesions.
  • We herein report a case of metastatic proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma arising from the scrotum of a 50-year-old man managed by radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Scrotum / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16343734.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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17. Kikuchi E, Kinoshita I, Yamazaki K, Itoh T, Shimizu T, Shimizu H, Nishimura M: Epithelioid sarcoma presenting as pulmonary cysts with cancer antigen 125 expression. Respirology; 2006 Nov;11(6):826-9
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  • [Title] Epithelioid sarcoma presenting as pulmonary cysts with cancer antigen 125 expression.
  • However, chemotherapy proved ineffective, and the skin biopsy was repeated.
  • A final diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma (ES) was made.
  • These findings suggested that pulmonary cysts, a rare form of pulmonary metastases from soft tissue sarcomas, had developed through a ball-valve effect of metastatic tumour in small airways.
  • However, presence of cancer antigen 125 hindered obtaining a correct diagnosis of ES.
  • [MeSH-major] Bronchogenic Cyst / diagnosis. Bronchogenic Cyst / immunology. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17052316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1323-7799
  • [Journal-full-title] Respirology (Carlton, Vic.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Respirology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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18. Lee HI, Kang KH, Cho YM, Lee OJ, Ro JY: Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma with elevated serum CA 125: report of a case with CA 125 immunoreactivity. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jun;130(6):871-4
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  • [Title] Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma with elevated serum CA 125: report of a case with CA 125 immunoreactivity.
  • Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma is a recently described rare soft tissue neoplasm.
  • It is commonly found in the pelvic, perineal, and genital areas in middle-aged or older adults, as compared with the classic type of epithelioid sarcoma, which arises in the distal portion of the extremities in adolescents and young adults.
  • Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma has a more aggressive clinical behavior than the classic type of epithelioid sarcoma.
  • Proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma is histologically characterized by a diffuse proliferation of epithelioid cells with prominent rhabdoid feature.
  • Recently, a few cases have been reported of epithelioid sarcoma with elevated serum CA 125 level and CA 125 immunoreactivity in neoplastic cells.
  • These cases raise the possibility that serum CA 125 and CA 125 immunoreactivity could be a useful tumor marker for diagnosing and monitoring epithelioid sarcoma.
  • We describe a case of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma with elevated serum CA 125 level (up to 3395 U/mL [reference range, <35 U/mL]) in a 12-year-old girl who presented with a huge pelvic mass measuring 12 cm in greatest dimension.
  • She received one cycle of chemotherapy and died of the disease 2 months after diagnosis.
  • This case represented a rare example of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma with elevated serum CA 125 and immunoreactivity for CA 125 in the tumor cells.
  • Based on the previous reported cases and the current case, serum CA 125 as well as immunohistochemical stain for CA 125 may be a useful tumor marker of proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16740043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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19. Bilsky MH, Schefler AC, Sandberg DI, Dunkel IJ, Rosenblum MK: Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcomas involving the neuraxis: report of three cases. Neurosurgery; 2000 Oct;47(4):956-9; discussion 959-60
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  • [Title] Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcomas involving the neuraxis: report of three cases.
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm composed of rounded, vimentin-immunoreactive tumor cells disposed in nests and cords within a hyalinized collagenous matrix.
  • Accordingly, SEF has been regarded as a low-grade sarcoma.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Two tumors had intracranial, calvarial and extracalvarial, soft-tissue components, whereas the third tumor manifested as a paraspinal mass with extension into the T12-L1 neural foramen and invasion of the T12 nerve root.
  • In no case was there a response to adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Sclerosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11014436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-396X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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20. Hornick JL, Jaffe ES, Fletcher CD: Extranodal histiocytic sarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases of a rare epithelioid malignancy. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Sep;28(9):1133-44
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  • [Title] Extranodal histiocytic sarcoma: clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases of a rare epithelioid malignancy.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in lymph nodes, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Seven tumors arose in soft tissue (6 lower limb; 1 upper limb), 5 in the gastrointestinal tract (1 involving both stomach and colon, 1 ileum, 2 rectum, 1 anus), 1 in the nasal cavity, and 1 in the lung.
  • The tumors were generally composed of sheets of large epithelioid cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, oval to irregular nuclei, vesicular chromatin, and large nucleoli.
  • Six patients were treated with postoperative radiation and 7 with chemotherapy (CHOP or ProMACE-MOPP).
  • Two tumors recurred locally, and 5 patients developed distant spread: 3 to lymph nodes, 1 to lung, and 1 to bone.
  • At the last follow-up, 2 patients have died of disseminated disease, 4 and 5 months following initial diagnosis.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma may arise primarily in soft tissue and shows reproducible histologic features, including abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma has the potential for an aggressive clinical course, most often with lymph node involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15316312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Liu M, Ba E, Zhao P, Li X: [A clinicopathological study of fifteen epithelioid angiosarcoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2002 Oct;31(5):407-10
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  • [Title] [A clinicopathological study of fifteen epithelioid angiosarcoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathological features of epithelioid angiosarcoma (EA) and to propose its differential diagnosis.
  • The tumors were located in the retroperitoneum (n = 3), extremities (n = 3), femur (n = 4), thyroid (n = 2), supraobit (n = 1), soft tissue of thorax (n = 1), soft tissue of neck (n = 1).
  • Histologically, the epithelioid cells were arranged diffusely or in nests with hemorrhage and focal necrosis.
  • Surgical resection was the treatment of choice, occasionally with adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up.
  • Two patients are presently alive 19 months and 7 years following diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EA is a high-grade sarcoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of EA includes metastatic carcinoma, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, melanoma, epithelioid sarcoma etc.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 12485481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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22. Miettinen M: From morphological to molecular diagnosis of soft tissue tumors. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2006;587:99-113
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  • [Title] From morphological to molecular diagnosis of soft tissue tumors.
  • Cytogenetic discoveries of balanced translocations in soft tissue tumors have opened the way to molecular genetic definition of these translocations as gene fusions from the late 1980s.
  • Many sarcomas are known to have such fusions, and the demonstration of the fusion transcripts in tumor tissue is of great value in specific diagnosis of synovial sarcoma (SYT-SSX), Ewing sarcoma (EWS-Fli1), clear cell sarcoma (EWS-ATF1), myxoid liposarcoma (FUS-CHOP), and other sarcomas.
  • Demonstration of SYT-SSX and EWS-ATF1 fusion assists in the diagnosis of synovial and clear cell sarcomas in unusual locations, such as the gastrointestinal tract, where these tumors occur with low frequency.
  • Demonstration of sarcoma translocations and their fusion by different assays is well established; use of in situ hybridization is limited by availability of specific probes.
  • Activating mutations in two related receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), KIT, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) is central to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and countering the mutational activation by specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as Imatinib mesylate, is now standard treatment for metastatic GISTs.
  • In contrast, PDGFRA mutations are nearly specific for gastric GISTs, especially those with epithelioid morphology.
  • Mutation type influences therapy responsiveness, but fortunately very few GISTs carry primarily Imatinib-resistant mutations.
  • Secondary drug resistance acquired during Imatinib treatment based on new, Imatinib-resistant mutations is a major problem limiting treatment success.
  • Schwannoma types may differ in their pathogenesis: gastrointestinal schwannomas lack NF2 changes suggesting a different pathogenesis.
  • Specific viral sequences of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) are diagnostic markers for Kaposi sarcoma (KS), and are absent in angiosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Testing. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / genetics. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17163160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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23. Nascimento AF, Bertoni F, Fletcher CD: Epithelioid variant of myxofibrosarcoma: expanding the clinicomorphologic spectrum of myxofibrosarcoma in a series of 17 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jan;31(1):99-105
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  • [Title] Epithelioid variant of myxofibrosarcoma: expanding the clinicomorphologic spectrum of myxofibrosarcoma in a series of 17 cases.
  • Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas of elderly patients and has a predilection for the limbs.
  • Herein, we report a previously undescribed variant of MFS showing epithelioid morphology.
  • Seventeen cases diagnosed as epithelioid MFS were retrieved from the authors' files from among 570 cases of MFS.
  • In 10 cases, the tumor was located in subcutaneous tissue and in 6 cases it was subfascial.
  • Twelve patients were treated by surgery followed by chemotherapy and/or radiation (8 cases).
  • One patient received chemotherapy after an incisional biopsy and 1 patient was treated by surgery alone.
  • Ten patients (71.4%) developed local recurrences.
  • Seven patients (50%) developed metastases to lungs or retroperitoneum.
  • Neoplastic cells were arranged singly and in small clusters in the myxoid areas or formed sheets in the hypercellular areas, where they showed epithelioid morphology with round nuclei, vesicular chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and moderate amounts of eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • The epithelioid areas were generally multifocal with admixed areas of conventional MFS.
  • Differential diagnosis included carcinoma, melanoma, myoepithelial carcinoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma, and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • In conclusion, epithelioid MFS is a rare variant of MFS, accounting for <3% of MFS in consultation material.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / secondary. Sarcoma / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Extremities. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Liposarcoma / diagnosis. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Myoepithelioma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17197925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. Gebhard S, Coindre JM, Michels JJ, Terrier P, Bertrand G, Trassard M, Taylor S, Château MC, Marquès B, Picot V, Guillou L: Pleomorphic liposarcoma: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and follow-up analysis of 63 cases: a study from the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group. Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 May;26(5):601-16
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  • [Title] Pleomorphic liposarcoma: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and follow-up analysis of 63 cases: a study from the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group.
  • Histologically, lesions show a varying combination of lipogenic and nonlipogenic areas characterized by malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like, round cell liposarcoma-like, and/or epithelioid/carcinoma-like features.
  • Epithelioid areas showed epithelial membrane antigen (4 of 11; 36%) but not cytokeratin (0 of 11) reactivity.
  • Treatment procedures in 51 patients consisted of simple tumorectomy (16) and wide excision (33).
  • Five and 31 patients received neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, respectively.
  • Seventeen patients (35%) died of disease, of whom none was metastatic at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Liposarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11979090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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26. Hardaway CA, Graham BS, Barnette DJ, Feldman BD: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma presenting in an adult: a case report and discussion of immunohistochemical staining. Am J Dermatopathol; 2003 Feb;25(1):45-52
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  • Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood but is rarely seen in adults.
  • The patient failed to respond to one cycle of chemotherapy after initial diagnosis and workup for metastatic disease.
  • Subsequent immunohistochemical staining revealed a poorly differentiated spindled and epithelioid cell tumor, which stained diffusely positive for vimentin, S-100, and MyoD1.
  • The patient subsequently underwent radiation therapy for a total of 6,000 cGy, followed by two cycles of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Proteins / chemistry. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 12544100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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