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1. Pedersini R, Vattemi E, Lusso MR, Mazzoleni G, Ebner H, Graiff C: Erlotinib in advanced well-differentiated thymic carcinoma with overexpression of EGFR: a case report. Tumori; 2008 Nov-Dec;94(6):849-52
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  • [Title] Erlotinib in advanced well-differentiated thymic carcinoma with overexpression of EGFR: a case report.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Advanced chemorefractory epithelial thymic tumors are still a challenge in clinical oncology.
  • A therapeutic approach targeting a key molecular pathway could be the ideal solution in a neoplasm that can overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the epithelial component.
  • METHODS: A patient with metastatic heavily pretreated thymic carcinoma was evaluated for EGFR expression in the primary tumor.
  • The patient received erlotinib therapy but had obtained no response after four months of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: This preliminary experience suggests that erlotinib may not be a useful therapeutic choice in advanced pretreated thymic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19267104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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2. Liu GH, Li HZ, Wang HJ, Mao QZ, Xia M, Xie Y, Xue C, Wang H, Ji ZG: [Occurrence, types, and therapies of malignant tumors in recipients of renal transplantation]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2009 Jun;31(3):288-91
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  • [Title] [Occurrence, types, and therapies of malignant tumors in recipients of renal transplantation].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the types and therapies of malignancies in renal allograft recipients.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the occurrence, types, and therapies of malignancies in 498 renal allograft recipients who had received operations in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from May 1986 to October 2008.
  • RESULTS: Among 498 renal allograft recipients, 18 patients (3.6% ) were diagnosed with malignancies, which included bladder cancer (n = 5), renal pyloric cancer or ureteric cancer (n = 4), leukemia or lymphoma (n = 3), hepatic cancer (n = 2), skin cancer, rectum carcinoma, pulmonary carcinoma and thymoma (n = 1 each).
  • One hepatic carcinoma patient died of pulmonary metastasis 8 months after operation.
  • One non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patient died 11 months after chemotherapy.
  • Five cases with advanced unresectable malignancies died 8 to 17 months after the diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidences of malignancies, especially urological epithelial carcinoma, are high in renal allograft recipients.

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  • (PMID = 19621511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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3. Ito J, Sekiya M, Miura K, Yoshimi K, Suzuki T, Seyama K, Izumi H, Uekusa T, Takahashi K: Refractory recurrent thymoma successfully treated with long-acting somatostatin analogue and prednisolone. Intern Med; 2009;48(12):1061-4
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  • [Title] Refractory recurrent thymoma successfully treated with long-acting somatostatin analogue and prednisolone.
  • The patient was 54-year-old woman diagnosed as recurrent invasive thymoma (type B3; WHO classification).
  • Although partial response was obtained by systemic chemotherapy (PAC: cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide), the tumor started to become enlarged after cessation of chemotherapy.
  • Combined treatment of octreotide and prednisolone was administrated because various chemotherapies, including PAC, were not effective.
  • The combination of octreotide and prednisolone should be considered as one of the choices of treatment in patients with recurrent thymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19525599.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; CISCA protocol
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4. Liu JM, Wang LS, Huang MH, Hsu WH, Yen SH, Shiau CY, Li AF, Tiu CM, Tseng SW, Huang BS: Topoisomerase 2alpha plays a pivotal role in the tumor biology of stage IV thymic neoplasia. Cancer; 2007 Feb 1;109(3):502-9
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  • [Title] Topoisomerase 2alpha plays a pivotal role in the tumor biology of stage IV thymic neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Microsatellite studies in histologic types B3 and C thymic neoplasia detected gains on chromosome 17q, which contains the Her-2/neu and its juxtaposed topoisomerase 2alpha (T2alpha) genes.
  • The study aimed to evaluate their impact on tumor biology and survival of advanced thymic neoplasia patients.
  • METHODS: From 1991 to 2005, 36 consecutive stage IV thymic carcinoma patients were treated, 18 men and 18 women, aged 11 to 84 years.
  • There were 22 thymic carcinoma, 13 type B3, and 1 type B2 thymoma.
  • Patients received treatment consisting of surgical resection, combination chemotherapy with the CAP (cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, cisplatin) regimen, or radiation therapy potentiated by high-dose weekly 5-fluorouracil infusion.
  • Permutations of these 3 treatment modalities were prescribed as necessary.
  • RESULTS: T2alpha gene amplification was detected in 4 of 14 thymic carcinoma and 1 of 15 type B3 thymoma.
  • Three thymic carcinoma patients had Her-2/neu coamplification and these 3 patients had rapidly growing tumor and extensive disease at initial diagnosis.
  • Overall survival was significantly prolonged if the tumor was resectable (P = .001), of type B3 histology (P = .0039), and had no Her-2 gene amplification (P = .0081).
  • CONCLUSION: T2alpha and Her-2/neu genes play a pivotal role in the tumor biology, CAP response, and survival of advanced thymic neoplasia patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / physiology. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / physiology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Thymus Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-2 / physiology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17154178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Baran JL, Magro CM, King MA, Williams TE Jr, Ross P Jr: Atypical thymoma: a report of seven patients. Ann Thorac Surg; 2004 Aug;78(2):411-6
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  • [Title] Atypical thymoma: a report of seven patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Most thymic neoplasms fall under the designation of thymoma, consisting of well-differentiated epithelial cells, resembling normal thymus.
  • At the opposite spectrum are thymic carcinomas; the cell of origin while similar is malignant.
  • Recently a third category of thymic neoplasms, atypical thymomas, has been recognized representing thymic neoplasms manifesting atypia although without overt cytomorphologic criteria of malignancy.
  • METHODS: Seven patients with a diagnosis of atypical thymoma were encountered over a 6-year period from the patient files of the cardiothoracic division of The Ohio State Medical Center.
  • Surgical extirpation/de-bulking along with radiation therapy in six and chemotherapy in one led to complete disease regression.
  • Intrathoracic recurrences developed in 4 involving lung, pleura, chest wall and diaphragm.
  • All patients are well.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Atypical thymomas are locally aggressive tumors with a high incidence of intrathoracic recurrence; extrathoracic spread is not seen.
  • Our study corroborates other reports that death attributable to atypical thymoma is uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood Vessels / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diaphragm / pathology. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Lung / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pericardium / pathology. Phrenic Nerve / pathology. Pleura / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Thoracic Wall / pathology. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15276487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-6259
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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6. Valente M, Schinzari G, Ricciotti A, Barone C: Role of chemotherapy in malignant thymoma. Ann Ital Chir; 2007 Sep-Oct;78(5):377-80
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  • [Title] Role of chemotherapy in malignant thymoma.
  • Thymomas and thymic carcinomas, which are rare epithelial tumors arising from the thymus gland, are the most common tumors of the anterior mediastinum.
  • Surgery is the principal treatment and is curative in early stage disease.
  • Radiation therapy, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, may be an option both in not completely and completely resected disease.
  • Chemotherapy is offered to patients with locally advanced or metastatic thymoma and induces excellent responses race and prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18338542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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7. Giaccone G: Treatment of malignant thymoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2005 Mar;17(2):140-6
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  • [Title] Treatment of malignant thymoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review reports findings in the field of epithelial tumors originating from the thymus from the past year and discusses these findings in the context of the literature.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Epithelial tumors of the thymus are relatively common tumors of the anterior superior mediastinum.
  • Thymomas are usually slowly growing tumors, and their prognosis depends on the macroscopic and microscopic invasion of surrounding tissues.
  • Thymic carcinomas are more aggressive and less common tumors than thymomas and have been increasing in frequency in recent years.
  • Surgery is the mainstay treatment of thymic malignancies, and complete resection represents the best prognostic factor in this disease.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy may be indicated in tumors with invasion of surrounding tissues, but it is controversial in early-stage thymomas.
  • Combination chemotherapy has been employed in several small studies and in advanced disease has been demonstrated to produce a 50-80% objective response rate.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or external beam radiotherapy have been used with success in patients with tumors that are not readily resectable.
  • SUMMARY: A better understanding of the clinical behavior of thymomas versus thymic carcinomas and systemic therapies targeted to biologically validated targets in these diseases will help improve efficacy of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Myasthenia Gravis / complications

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  • (PMID = 15725919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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8. Fujii Y: [Thymoma--clinical aspects and its biological function]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(11):1547-52
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  • [Title] [Thymoma--clinical aspects and its biological function].
  • Thymoma is a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells.
  • However, therapy for advanced thymoma has not been established, and the effect of modern chemotherapy is being evaluated.
  • Thymoma is unique in that 25-30% of the patients have associated myasthenia gravis with autoantibodies to acetycholine receptor.
  • The malignant epithelial cells maintain the function of cortical epithelial cells and harbor non-neoplastic immature T cells of CD 3(low) CD 4(+)CD 8(+) phenotype.
  • Also, the presence of CD 3(low) CD 4(+)CD 8(+) T cells is diagnostic of thymoma and can be utilized for rapid diagnosis using needle biopsy specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymectomy. Thymoma. Thymus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / biosynthesis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Myasthenia Gravis / complications. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptors, Cholinergic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17108716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Cholinergic
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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9. Venuta F, Rendina EA, Longo F, De Giacomo T, Anile M, Mercadante E, Ventura L, Osti MF, Francioni F, Coloni GF: Long-term outcome after multimodality treatment for stage III thymic tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2003 Dec;76(6):1866-72; discussion 1872
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  • [Title] Long-term outcome after multimodality treatment for stage III thymic tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgery remains the cornerstone of therapy for thymic tumors, but the optimal treatment for advanced, infiltrative lesions is still controversial.
  • We reviewed our 13-year prospective experience with multimodality treatment of stage III thymoma and thymic carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Since 1989 we have prospectively used a multimodality approach in 45 stage III thymic tumors.
  • Twenty-three patients (51%) had pure or predominantly cortical thymoma (group 1), 11 (24.5%) had well-differentiated thymic carcinoma (group 2), and 11 (24.5%) had thymic carcinoma (group 3).
  • Tumors that were not considered radically resectable at preoperative workup underwent biopsy and induction chemotherapy (15 patients, 33%) followed by surgical resection; all patients were referred for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: No operative mortality was recorded; 1 treatment-related death during adjuvant chemotherapy was observed in group 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multimodality treatment with induction chemotherapy (when required) and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy offers encouraging results for stage III thymic tumors; the outcome is more favorable for cortical thymoma and well-differentiated thymic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14667602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4975
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Kurup A, Loehrer PJ Sr: Thymoma and thymic carcinoma: therapeutic approaches. Clin Lung Cancer; 2004 Jul;6(1):28-32
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  • [Title] Thymoma and thymic carcinoma: therapeutic approaches.
  • Thymomas and thymic carcinomas, which are rare epithelial tumors arising from the thymus gland, are the most common tumors of the anterior mediastinum.
  • Thymic carcinomas possess more overtly malignant histologic features than thymomas and are more likely to present as invasive or disseminated disease.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice for localized thymic tumors, with complete resection being the most important prognostic factor.
  • Complete resection also improves survival in locally invasive thymic tumors.
  • Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy may improve the outcome in patients with invasive disease, although the data are conflicting.
  • Multimodal regimens, including neoadjuvant combination chemotherapy, surgery, and/or postoperative radiation therapy, are recommended for patients with advanced thymomas and thymic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15310414.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-7304
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 R 35 CA 39844-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P 30 CA 82709-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R 10 CA 28171-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U 10 CA 21115
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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11. Stachowicz-Stencel T, Bień E, Balcerska A, Godziński J, Madziara W, Perek-Polnik M, Peregud-Pogorzelski J, Pietras W, Pobudejska A, Kurylak A, Mańkowski P: [Thymoma and thymic carcinoma--review of literature and clinical characteristics based on the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group experience]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3 Pt 2):313-8
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  • [Title] [Thymoma and thymic carcinoma--review of literature and clinical characteristics based on the Polish Paediatric Solid Tumours Study Group experience].
  • Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are rare neoplasms derived from the epithelial tissue of thymus, very infrequently developing in young adults and children.
  • It is believed that histological structure is the most important prognostic factor in thymic carcinomas while in less aggressive types of thymomas the clinical stages influence the outcome.
  • Thus the term 'malignant thymoma' has been replaced by 'invasive thymoma' in clinical practice.
  • The treatment strategy depends on the clinical stages of thymoma.
  • Complete resection of the tumour is the treatment of choice with supplementing radiotherapy in more advanced clinical stages.
  • Chemotherapy in invasive thymomas has been reported to play an increasingly important role as induction, supplementing and palliative therapy.
  • It has been proved that combined treatment improves the outcome in invasive thymomas, especially in thymic carcinomas.
  • This paper reviews the literature data concerning the histology, clinical issues and treatment of thymomas and thymic carcinomas.
  • The clinical data on nine children with thymic carcinomas treated between 1992 and 2006 in the Polish oncological and surgical centres were also analysed and presented.
  • Thymic carcinomas in children are very rare and that is why early diagnosis is often difficult.
  • 2. At diagnosis most cases are already inoperable, which results in poorer prognosis.
  • 3. Complex adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy in childhood thymic carcinomas seem to prolong overall survival.
  • 4. Further detailed analysis in all the cases of thymic carcinomas in children is recommended in order to estimate the optimal strategy of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18663273.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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12. Kahraman A, Miller M, Maldonado-Lopez E, Baba HA, Treichel U, Gerken G: [A 55-year-old woman with thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia (Good syndrome), ulcerative colitis, and cytomegalovirus infection]. Med Klin (Munich); 2009 Feb 15;104(2):150-4
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  • [Title] [A 55-year-old woman with thymoma and hypogammaglobulinemia (Good syndrome), ulcerative colitis, and cytomegalovirus infection].
  • [Transliterated title] 55-jährige Patientin mit Thymom und Hypogammaglobulinämie (Good-Syndrom), Colitis ulcerosa sowie CMV-Infektion.
  • CASE REPORT: The authors report on a 55-year-old female patient after R1 resection of a malignant thymoma with spindle type epithelial cells (WHO type A, Masaoka stage III) referred for further therapy of an ulcerative colitis.
  • At that time, both adjuvant radiation and cytostatic therapy were not applicable due to severe activity of the ulcerative colitis.
  • Under immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine and steroids, the patient developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis which was triggered by therapy-induced leukopenia.
  • After a switch from azathioprine to mycophenolatmofetil (MMF) treatment and administration of cidofovir because of nonresponse to ganciclovir and incompatibility of foscarnet sodium (Foscavir), the patient clinically improved.
  • At present, 3.5 years after R1 resection, the patient still has no clues of a remaining tumor mass under current immunosuppressive therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case indicates the very rare features of a syndrome with thymoma and antibody deficiency which was first described by Robert Good.
  • Furthermore, the impact of immunosuppressive therapy and management of opportunistic infections on the course of this disease is obvious.
  • [MeSH-major] Agammaglobulinemia / diagnosis. Colitis, Ulcerative / diagnosis. Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnosis. Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Thymectomy. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Azathioprine / adverse effects. Azathioprine / therapeutic use. Cytosine / analogs & derivatives. Cytosine / therapeutic use. Enteritis / chemically induced. Enteritis / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Immunization, Passive. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / diagnosis. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Leukopenia / diagnosis. Leukopenia / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Organophosphonates / therapeutic use. Syndrome


13. Jacot W, Quantin X, Valette S, Khial F, Pujol JL: Multimodality treatment program in invasive thymic epithelial tumor. Am J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb;28(1):5-7
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  • [Title] Multimodality treatment program in invasive thymic epithelial tumor.
  • Little is known regarding malignant thymoma and thymic carcinoma optimal therapy, and a multimodality approach could therefore be proposed in an attempt to improve the survival of patients.
  • We report our experience with 8 cases of malignant thymoma or thymic carcinoma.
  • These patients took part in a multimodality treatment program including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and postoperative radiotherapy in our center between December 1995 and June 2001.
  • The induction chemotherapy consisted of 4 courses of the CAP regimen (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 day 1, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, and cisplatin 80 mg/m2 day 2), every 3 weeks.
  • Patients underwent surgical resection after complete hematological recovery pending sufficient tumor response with a postchemotherapy resectable status.
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy up to 60 Gy in 30 fractions was attempted postsurgically or after best chemotherapeutic response in nonsurgical patients.
  • Among the 8 patients, 3 had a thymic carcinoma and 5 a malignant thymoma; 5 had a stage IV and 3 a stage III disease (Masaoka).
  • Six patients partially responded to the chemotherapy regimen.
  • Four patients are still alive without evidence of tumor activity (23-77 months from the diagnosis) and 1 patient is alive with relapse at 56 months.
  • The high proportion of thymic carcinoma and advanced disease in our limited series might be an explanation for this unsatisfactory result.
  • Optimal multimodality treatment of epithelial thymic tumor remains to be defined in multicenter trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dose Fractionation. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thymectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15685027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; CISCA protocol
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14. Sousa B, Araújo A, Amaro T, Azevedo I, Soares M, Sousa O: Malignant thymomas--the experience of the Portuguese Oncological Institute, Porto, and literature review. Rev Port Pneumol; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):553-85
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  • [Title] Malignant thymomas--the experience of the Portuguese Oncological Institute, Porto, and literature review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Epithelial thymic tumours (ETT), which comprise the majority of thymomas, are neoplasias developed from the epithelial cells of the thymus and constitute around 30% of anterior mediastinal masses in adults.
  • Thymomas consist of cells with no cytological characteristics of malignity; malignant behaviour is determined by invasion of the capsule and adjacent structures.
  • These tumours present a broad spectrum of clinical and morphological characteristics and the small series of known patients makes establishing a standard treatment difficult.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study was made into thymoma diagnosed patients admitted to the Portuguese Oncology Institute in Porto (IPO-Porto) from 1983 to 2004.
  • Clinical characteristics were analysed and a histological classification made in accordance with World Health Organization criteria, Masaoka staging, and their relation to treatment methods.
  • A review of the clinical records of these patients was then made, as well as a review of histological material for classification in line with 1999 WHO criteria.
  • Eleven subjects were male and 10 female, with a median age of 55 years (24-79 years).
  • The WHO histological classification was as follows: 2 patients (9.5%) type A, 6 (28.6%) type AB, 4 (19%) type B1, 2 (9.5%) type B2, 7 (33.4%) type B3.
  • The 6 patients who were given complete surgical resection only showed no evidence of disease recurrence (2 type A-II, 2 type AB-II, 1 type B1-II, 1 type B2- IVa), with follow-up from 8-144 months.
  • Ten patients with complete resection received adjuvant treatment; 6 radiotherapy (4 B3-II patients, 2 B3-III patients), 2 chemotherapy (AB-IVa) and 2 chemo and radiotherapy (B1-IVa, B2-III).
  • Only the 2 patients who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy relapsed, at 168 and 46 months, dying at 168 and 49 months, respectively.
  • The remaining patients who were given adjuvant treatment did not present signs of disease.
  • Of the 5 subjects having incomplete resection followed by complementary treatment (2 AB-III patients, 2 B1-IVa patients, 1 B3-III patient), 3 died, at 11 months (B3-III), 12 months (B1-IVa) and 241 months (AB-III), the latter with MG.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Predictive factors of bad prognosis here were incomplete resection, advanced staging and B3 histological subtype, the smallness of this series notwithstanding.
  • It is necessary to investigate the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment in a group of subjects with advanced disease of the B3 histological subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17898913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0873-2159
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista portuguesa de pneumologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Port Pneumol
  • [Language] eng; por
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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15. Geffen DB, Benharroch D, Yellin A, Ariad S, Or R, Cohen Y: Multimodal treatment of metastatic thymic carcinoma including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation: report of a case with more than 4-year disease-free survival. Am J Clin Oncol; 2001 Dec;24(6):566-9
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  • [Title] Multimodal treatment of metastatic thymic carcinoma including high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation: report of a case with more than 4-year disease-free survival.
  • Thymic carcinoma is a rare epithelial malignancy differentiated from thymoma by the presence of cytologically malignant cells.
  • There are few reports of the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic thymic carcinoma.
  • We describe a patient who sought treatment for thymic carcinoma metastatic to pleura, pericardium, retroperitoneum, and neck nodes.
  • We then administered high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support, followed by radiation therapy.
  • The patient remains in complete remission more than 4 years after diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of metastatic thymic carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant therapy and postoperative high-dose chemotherapy.
  • Metastatic thymic carcinoma may be curable by aggressive combined therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / therapy. Thoracic Neoplasms / secondary. Thoracic Neoplasms / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11801755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Stéphan JL, Galambrun C, Boucheron S, Varlet F, Delabesse E, MacIntyre E: Epstein-Barr virus--positive undifferentiated thymic carcinoma in a 12-year-old white girl. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Mar-Apr;22(2):162-6
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus--positive undifferentiated thymic carcinoma in a 12-year-old white girl.
  • Thymic epithelial malignant diseases are extremely rare in children.
  • Tumor proliferation was typical of an undifferentiated thymic carcinoma.
  • The patient died despite resection, irradiation, and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Thymoma / virology. Thymus Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 10779032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral
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17. Yaris N, Nas Y, Cobanoglu U, Yavuz MN: Thymic carcinoma in children. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Aug;47(2):224-7
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  • [Title] Thymic carcinoma in children.
  • Thymic epithelial neoplasms consist of thymomas, thymic carcinoids, and thymic carcinomas.
  • Carcinomas are malignant tumors of the thymus characterized by obvious cytological anaplasia.
  • They constitute only 4%-14% of thymic epithelial neoplams.
  • Thymic carcinoma rarely occurs in children.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical studies confirmed lymphoepithelioma-like thymic carcinoma.
  • She received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma. Thymus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16007580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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18. Ströbel P, Bauer A, Puppe B, Kraushaar T, Krein A, Toyka K, Gold R, Semik M, Kiefer R, Nix W, Schalke B, Müller-Hermelink HK, Marx A: Tumor recurrence and survival in patients treated for thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Apr 15;22(8):1501-9
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  • [Title] Tumor recurrence and survival in patients treated for thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare epithelial neoplasms of the thymus with considerable histologic heterogeneity.
  • This retrospective study focused on the correlation of WHO-defined TET histotypes with survival and tumor recurrence in a large cohort of patients receiving different modes of treatment.
  • Forty-two patients received adjuvant radiotherapy (mean dose, 53 Gy), and 33 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-six (88%) of 86 patients with WHO type A, AB, and B1 thymomas were treated by surgery alone, with three tumor relapses after 3 to 10 years (median, 3.4 years).
  • Twelve of 67 patients with WHO type B2 and B3 thymomas in Masaoka stages I and II were treated by adjuvant radiotherapy without evidence of tumor recurrence after 1 to 12 years (median, 4 years).
  • Among 75 patients with B2 and B3 thymomas with incomplete resection or a tumor stage III or higher, the recurrence rate was 34% (n = 23) after 0.5 to 17 years (median, 5 years) in patients receiving adjuvant radiochemotherapy, compared to 78% (seven of nine patients) in patients without adjuvant radiochemotherapy.
  • Incomplete tumor resection was associated with a high recurrence rate (65%) and a poor prognosis (P <.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The long-term outcome of TET patients is related to tumor stage, WHO histotype, completeness of surgical removal, and type of treatment.
  • Prospective trials are warranted to formally address the efficacy of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of localized and advanced malignant TETs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15084623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Winder T, Schuster A, Becherer A, Gasser K, De Vries A, Gruber-Moesenbacher U, Muendlein A, Drexel H, Lang A: Advanced inoperable type B3 thymoma: monitoring of a novel therapeutic approach with radio-chemotherapy and sorafenib by FDG-PET and CT. Nuklearmedizin; 2010;49(5):N41-3
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  • [Title] Advanced inoperable type B3 thymoma: monitoring of a novel therapeutic approach with radio-chemotherapy and sorafenib by FDG-PET and CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymoma / radiography. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20931150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-5566
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nuklearmedizin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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