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1. Katsumata N, Fujiwara Y, Kamura T, Nakanishi T, Hatae M, Aoki D, Tanaka K, Tsuda H, Kamiura S, Takehara K, Sugiyama T, Kigawa J, Fujiwara K, Ochiai K, Ishida R, Inagaki M, Noda K: Phase II clinical trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (JNS002) in Japanese patients with mullerian carcinoma (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, primary carcinoma of fallopian tube, peritoneal carcinoma) having a therapeutic history of platinum-based chemotherapy: a Phase II Study of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 Nov;38(11):777-85
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  • [Title] Phase II clinical trial of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (JNS002) in Japanese patients with mullerian carcinoma (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, primary carcinoma of fallopian tube, peritoneal carcinoma) having a therapeutic history of platinum-based chemotherapy: a Phase II Study of the Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in Japanese patients with Müllerian carcinoma having a therapeutic history of platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with Müllerian carcinoma (epithelial ovarian carcinoma, primary carcinoma of fallopian tube and peritoneal carcinoma) by histological examination and had received the initial platinum-based chemotherapy were included in the study.
  • The study drug was administered to the patients at 50 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks.
  • All patients had received platinum-based chemotherapy as first-line regimen and more than 90% of patients had also received taxanes.
  • The median time to progression was 166 days.
  • CONCLUSION: We confirmed that a 50 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks regimen of PLD was active in Japanese patients with Müllerian carcinoma having a therapeutic history of platinum-based chemotherapy and toxicity was manageable by dose modification of PLD or supportive care.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Japan. Liposomes. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18927230.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Platinum Compounds; 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2572298
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2. Gütgemann I, Lehman NL, Jackson PK, Longacre TA: Emi1 protein accumulation implicates misregulation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome pathway in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Apr;21(4):445-54
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  • [Title] Emi1 protein accumulation implicates misregulation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome pathway in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • Clear cell carcinoma is a clinically and pathologically distinct entity among surface epithelial ovarian neoplasms, recognized for its resistance to standard platinum-based chemotherapy at advanced stage disease and poor prognosis.
  • Despite advances in our understanding of the biology of other surface epithelial ovarian neoplasms, very little is known about the molecular genetic mechanisms that are involved in clear cell tumorigenesis.
  • We investigated Emi1 protein expression in ovarian neoplasms using a tissue microarray constructed from 339 primary ovarian surface epithelial (serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous) and peritoneal (serous) neoplasms, stromal and mesenchymal tumors, germ cell tumors, and normal ovarian tissue.
  • Significant overexpression of Emi1 protein was present in 82% (27/33) clear cell carcinoma, including one borderline tumor in a diffuse, granular cytoplasmic and perinuclear staining pattern, independent of patient age, presence of ovarian and/or pelvic endometriosis, and FIGO stage.
  • In contrast, only 10% (17/177) primary ovarian and primary peritoneal serous carcinomas, 0% (0/10) mucinous carcinomas, and 19% (6/32) endometrioid carcinomas exhibited significant Emi1 protein overexpression.
  • Accumulation of Emi1 protein was not linked to Ki-67 labeling index, but was directly correlated with cyclin E and inversely correlated with ER in clear cell carcinoma (P<0.001).
  • Emi1 protein expression was present in mixed endometrioid/clear cell tumors but absent in tumors with mixed serous/clear cell histology.
  • These findings represent a potentially important insight into the molecular pathway underlying ovarian carcinogenesis and provide a possible cell cycle model for the development and progression of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. F-Box Proteins / biosynthesis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Cyclin E / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18204430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / F-Box Proteins; 0 / FBXO5 protein, human; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; EC 6.3.2.19 / Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
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3. Zhang C, Li XP, Cui H, Shen DH, Wei LH: Advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic factor analyses. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B; 2008 Jun;9(6):435-40
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  • [Title] Advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma: clinicopathological and prognostic factor analyses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors favoring a positive prognosis for advanced primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC).
  • RESULTS: There were 15 cases of primary peritoneal serous papillary carcinoma (PPSPC), 6 cases of mixed epithelial carcinoma (MEC) and 3 cases of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (MMMT).
  • Among those receiving first-line chemotherapy, 13 patients received the TP regimen (paclitaxel-cisplatin or carboplatin) and 7 patients received the PAC regimen (cisplatin-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide).
  • The median overall survival of all patients was 42 months, while the breakdown for survival time for patients with PPSPC, MMT and MEC was 44, 13 and 19 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with PPC should be treated with a comprehensive management plan including appropriate cytoreductive surgery and responsive chemotherapy.
  • The pathologic subtype, chemotherapy regimen and p53 overexpression were significant prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. China / epidemiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / mortality. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Survival Rate. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18543395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-1581
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2408695
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4. Gibbs DD, Pyle L, Allen M, Vaughan M, Webb A, Johnston SR, Gore ME: A phase I dose-finding study of a combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), carboplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer. Br J Cancer; 2002 May 6;86(9):1379-84
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  • [Title] A phase I dose-finding study of a combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), carboplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer.
  • Standard chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is a combination of platinum-paclitaxel.
  • One strategy to improve the outcome for patients is to add other agents to standard therapy.
  • A dose finding study of doxil-carboplatin-paclitaxel was therefore undertaken in women receiving first-line therapy.
  • Thirty-one women with epithelial ovarian cancer or mixed Mullerian tumours of the ovary were enrolled.
  • Schedules examined included treatment cycles of 21 and 28 days, and an alternating schedule of carboplatin-paclitaxel (q 21) with doxil being administered every other course (q 42).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / pharmacokinetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liposomes. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Paclitaxel / pharmacokinetics. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
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  • (PMID = 11986767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2375380
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5. Chew I, Soslow RA, Park KJ: Morphologic changes in ovarian carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: report of a case showing extensive clear cell changes mimicking clear cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Sep;28(5):442-6
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  • [Title] Morphologic changes in ovarian carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: report of a case showing extensive clear cell changes mimicking clear cell carcinoma.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking has become an alternative treatment option for patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer.
  • The effects of chemotherapy on the histologic features of the tumor have not been well described for ovarian carcinoma, especially related to changes that significantly alter the appearance of the tumor.
  • In this study, we describe a case of ovarian serous carcinoma status-post neoadjuvant chemotherapy that showed exuberant clear cell/foamy change.
  • This unusual morphology raised the possibility of a mixed epithelial carcinoma or a secondary malignancy.
  • Immunohistochemical stains were performed to help distinguish whether the tumor was a serous carcinoma with chemotherapy-induced clear cell change or a distinct clear cell carcinoma of ovarian or extraovarian origin.
  • Although there was a slight discrepancy in the staining patterns, given the lack of other typical histologic features of clear cell carcinoma, the unusual clear cell morphology was most likely the result of chemotherapy-induced changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19696613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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6. Muller M, Dupre PF, Lucas B, Simon H, Malhaire JP, Guillemet C, Dessogne P, Pradier O: [Carcinosarcoma of the ovary]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2007 Jun;36(4):399-402
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  • Ovarian carcinosarcoma, also called malignant mixed mesodermal tumour, is a rare ovarian tumour representing less than two per cent of ovarian cancers.
  • Carcinosarcoma is an aggressive tumour, which associates some epithelial elements (carcinoma) with a stromal component (sarcoma).
  • There is no existing consensus concerning treatment.
  • Nevertheless, surgical treatment is paramount for the survival of patients.
  • Response rates to chemotherapy are about 20%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17408876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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7. Topuz E, Eralp Y, Aydiner A, Saip P, Taş F, Yavuz E, Salihoğlu Y: The role of chemotherapy in malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the female genital tract. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(6):469-72
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  • [Title] The role of chemotherapy in malignant mixed mullerian tumors of the female genital tract.
  • Thirteen patients with malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the female genital tract, treated and followed in our clinic from 1989 to 1999 were retrospectively evaluated.
  • Seven patients (53.8%) with advanced disease or postoperative residual tumor were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient with endometrial carcinosarcoma had a simultaneous second primary ovarian epithelial carcinoma.
  • Six patients received cisplatinum-based chemotherapy (4 had doxorubicin including combinations), while one patient was treated with a doxorubicin+ifosphamide combination.
  • Five patients (71.4%) had a complete response (CR) to chemotherapy.
  • After a median follow-up period of 20 months (3-115 months), six patients have died, five are being followed-up with no evidence of disease, one is alive with metastatic disease and one patient is under treatment.
  • Malignant mixed mullerian tumor of the female genital tract is highly responsive to multimodality treatment strategies.
  • Further prospective studies are required to identify distinct prognostic groups that may benefit from various treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11874086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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8. Brown E, Stewart M, Rye T, Al-Nafussi A, Williams AR, Bradburn M, Smyth J, Gabra H: Carcinosarcoma of the ovary: 19 years of prospective data from a single center. Cancer; 2004 May 15;100(10):2148-53
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  • BACKGROUND: A review of clinicopathologic features and outcome in women with carcinosarcoma of the ovary (also known as malignant mixed mesodermal tumor [MMMT]) compared with a group of women with serous adenocarcinoma (SAC) of the ovary was conducted.
  • METHODS: Between 1984 and 2002, 1568 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma and 70 patients with ovarian carcinosarcoma underwent treatment at the Edinburgh Cancer Centre.
  • Baseline variables were recorded prospectively and response to chemotherapy and progression-free and cause-specific survival between the groups were compared.
  • The objective response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy was found to be significantly lower in patients with carcinosarcoma (25% vs. 60%; P = 0.02).
  • Achieving optimal debulking at the time of initial surgery was found to be a highly significant factor in patients with carcinosarcoma with regard to determining outcome (median survival of 14.8 months for patients with optimally debulked International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III disease vs. 3.1 months for patients with suboptimally/nondebulked Stage III disease; P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian carcinosarcoma is a distinct entity with a poor prognosis.
  • Patients with carcinosarcoma differ from those with SAC with regard to having an older mean age of onset, an inferior response to platinum-based chemotherapy, and worse progression-free and cause-specific survival.
  • The extent of benefit from chemotherapy is unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cystadenoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenoma, Serous / mortality. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15139057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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9. Pothuri B, Chi DS, Reid T, Aghajanian C, Venkatraman E, Alektiar K, Bilsky M, Barakat RR: Craniotomy for central nervous system metastases in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Oct;87(1):133-7
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  • [Title] Craniotomy for central nervous system metastases in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Although central nervous system (CNS) metastases from epithelial ovarian carcinoma are rare, recent studies indicate that the incidence may be increasing.
  • Numerous series have reported various modalities for treatment with median survivals of 3 to 5 months, but the role of craniotomy has not been specifically addressed.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent craniotomy between 1989 and 2001 for pathologically confirmed recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer metastatic to the CNS.
  • Histologic distribution was as follows: papillary serous, 9; endometrioid, 2; mixed papillary serous and endometrioid, 1; carcinosarcoma, 1; and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, 1.
  • All patients received initial platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The median time from initial diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma to CNS relapse was 3.5 years (range, 1.3 to 8.2).
  • Eight patients (57%) had extracranial disease at the time of craniotomy.
  • The mean operative time for craniotomy was 178 min (range, 70 to 305).
  • The only major operative complications were deep vein thromboses that developed in two patients.
  • No patient developed a neurologic deficit as a result of craniotomy.
  • Postoperative treatment included whole-brain radiation in 11 patients, chemotherapy in 4, and hormonal therapy in 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite optimal cytoreduction, platinum-based chemotherapy, and negative second-look surgical assessment, patients with ovarian cancer can fail distantly with CNS metastases.
  • Craniotomy with adjuvant radiation therapy can provide control of brain metastases in the majority of these patients and may result in improved survival over radiation therapy alone in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12468354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Le T, Adolph A, Krepart GV, Lotocki R, Heywood MS: The benefits of comprehensive surgical staging in the management of early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 May;85(2):351-5
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  • [Title] The benefits of comprehensive surgical staging in the management of early-stage epithelial ovarian carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The management of understaged patients with apparent clinically early ovarian cancer is difficult.
  • Options include offering chemotherapy based on histopathologic factors or reoperation to obtain the necessary information needed to assign an accurate surgical stage.
  • Patients not having surgical staging procedures were offered platinum-based chemotherapy based on high tumor grades, dense adhesions, and presence of surface excrescences or large necrotic areas.
  • Patients with surgically proven stage I disease were treated with no further therapy regardless of histopathologic factors.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-eight patients presented with tumor macroscopically confined to the ovary at the time of laparotomy.
  • The histology distribution was serous tumor in 28.3%, mucinous in 26.1%, endometrioid in 23.2%, clear cell in 14.5%, anaplastic in 2.2%, and mixed types in 5.8%.
  • Sixty-eight percent of the patients had a comprehensive surgical staging procedure initially.
  • Thirty-six percent of these patients were found to have extraovarian metastases and were subsequently treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Forty-three percent of those not having staging laparotomy were offered chemotherapy based on high risk factors only.
  • CONCLUSION: Absence of surgical pathologic high-risk factors is inferior to comprehensive staging laparotomy findings in guiding recommendations for subsequent adjuvant therapy.
  • Patients who have not been properly staged stand a significant risk of recurrent disease despite more frequent use of chemotherapy.
  • All clinically early-stage ovarian cancer patients should be considered for comprehensive staging surgery prior to further treatment recommendations.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Laparotomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
  • (PMID = 11972399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Lee KR, Nucci MR: Ovarian mucinous and mixed epithelial carcinomas of mullerian (endocervical-like) type: a clinicopathologic analysis of four cases of an uncommon variant associated with endometriosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2003 Jan;22(1):42-51
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  • [Title] Ovarian mucinous and mixed epithelial carcinomas of mullerian (endocervical-like) type: a clinicopathologic analysis of four cases of an uncommon variant associated with endometriosis.
  • The epithelial cells of ovarian mucinous carcinomas may sometimes appear similar to those of gastrointestinal or endocervical mucinous carcinomas, but most are composed of cells that do not suggest any particular derivation.
  • We report four cases of mucinous ovarian carcinoma in which the cells were entirely or almost entirely endocervical-like.
  • Two patients had bilateral tumors confined to the ovaries at initial staging; both also had synchronous endometrial carcinomas of the mucinous type.
  • In one of the latter cases a mullerian (endocervical-like) mucinous borderline tumor (MMBT) of the opposite ovary had been removed 5 years earlier, and in this case and two other cases the ovarian carcinomas had foci resembling MMBT, suggesting that they may be an invasive counterpart to these tumors.
  • The epithelial cells were well differentiated with infrequent mitoses and most were tall with mucinous cytoplasm resembling normal endocervical glandular cells.
  • Endometriosis was present in residual ovarian tissue adjacent to four tumors in three patients and had marked epithelial proliferation in three.
  • All patients were treated postoperatively with chemotherapy and were without clinical recurrence with follow-up intervals of 8 months, 1.2 years, 2.9 years, and 3.8 years.
  • By immunohistochemical analysis the neoplastic epithelium was positive for estrogen and progesterone receptor proteins, vimentin, and cytokeratin 7, and negative or only focally positive for carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 20, a profile that differs from that of the usual mucinous ovarian carcinoma and is supportive of a mullerian derivation.
  • To better understand their clinicopathologic features and pathogenesis, this uncommon variant should be separated from the usual type in future studies of mucinous carcinomas of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12496697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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12. Merideth MA, Cliby WA, Keeney GL, Lesnick TG, Nagorney DM, Podratz KC: Hepatic resection for metachronous metastases from ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Apr;89(1):16-21
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  • [Title] Hepatic resection for metachronous metastases from ovarian carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Hepatic resection for recurrent ovarian carcinoma is controversial because of the paucity of relevant published data.
  • The principles of cytoreduction before chemotherapy suggest that resection of measurable liver lesions in properly selected patients would be beneficial.
  • To determine the effect of resection of metachronous liver metastases on morbidity and survival, we reviewed our experience with this treatment.
  • METHODS: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for all patients who had anatomic hepatic resection for metachronous parenchymal liver metastases from ovarian carcinoma (epithelial or malignant mixed Müllerian tumors) at Mayo Clinic from 1976 to 1999.
  • RESULTS: We identified 26 patients (median age at hepatic resection, 62 years; range, 39-75 years) who had hepatic resection requiring complete segmentectomies or more extensive hepatic surgery for recurrent ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / secondary. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12694649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Wei CF, Hwang SH, Ho CM, Shih BY, Chien TY: Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei); 2000 Apr;63(4):344-8
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumors of the ovary.
  • Malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (MMMT) of the ovary is very rare, and to the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature from Taiwan.
  • We report two recent cases of ovarian MMMT at our hospital.
  • The carcinomatous component was composed of a high-grade epithelial malignancy including serous, endometrioid, clear cell and undifferentiated carcinoma elements.
  • Case 2 was a 42-year-old female with ovarian stage IIC MMMT.
  • The carcinomatous component was composed of grade II-III clear cell carcinoma and the sarcomatous component was composed of high-grade non-specific spindle cell sarcoma, which was positive for vimentin, but negative for cytokeratin, desmin and S-100 protein on immunostaining.
  • These two patients both underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy and both received platinum-based chemotherapy after debulking surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10820916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi = Chinese medical journal; Free China ed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] CHINA
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14. Camci C, Sevinc A, Aslan Y, Kalender ME, Buyukberber S: Complete remission of platinium refractory ovarian cancer with second line tegafur with uracil monotherapy: a case report. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2009 Mar;63(4):745-8
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  • [Title] Complete remission of platinium refractory ovarian cancer with second line tegafur with uracil monotherapy: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer remains one of the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies, accounting for more deaths than cervical and uterine cancer combined.
  • Advanced ovarian cancer is a chemosensitive tumor and most patients initially respond to platinum-based combination chemotherapy with response rates of about 70%, including a high proportion of complete responses.
  • However, despite aggressive surgery and chemotherapy, more than 80% of patients will relapse and will then be treated with second line chemotherapy with objective responses in about 20% of patients and even lower percentages of complete responses.
  • CASE: We observed a 42-months of complete response with administration of 1-[2-tetrahydrofuryl]-5-fluorouracil mixed with uracil (UFT) in patient with platinium refractory ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a complete remission of platinium refractory epithelial ovarian cancer with UFT monotherapy that was not reported previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Salvage Therapy. Tegafur / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Uracil / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18504578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0843
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil
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15. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • A single case was associated with a benign ovarian cyst.
  • NSCNEC represented anywhere from 10% to 90% of the ovarian tumor.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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16. Hu YJ, Ip PP, Chan KK, Tam KF, Ngan HY: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation: report of a rare and aggressive tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Nov;29(6):539-45
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  • [Title] Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation: report of a rare and aggressive tumor.
  • Ovarian epithelial tumors of nongerm cell origin with true choriocarcinomatous differentiation are rare.
  • In the reported cases, the epithelial component was of mixed cell types or of mucinous differentiation.
  • To the best of our knowledge, an ovarian carcinoma exclusively of clear cell differentiation coexisting with a pure choriocarcinoma has not been reported earlier.
  • Trucut biopsy of the mass showed a poorly differentiated carcinoma that was immunoreactive for CK7 and hCG.
  • She received 6 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy that included 3 cycles of etoposide/cisplatin and 3 cycles of paclitaxel/etoposide-paclitaxel/carboplatin (TE/TP) with partial response.
  • Pathologic examination showed an ovarian clear cell carcinoma with a second component of choriocarcinoma in which the bilaminar growth pattern of cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblasts was striking.
  • Despite additional therapy, which included 2 cycles of TE/TP and 2 cycles of gemcitabine/taxotere, the disease progressed and the patient died 11 months postoperatively.
  • This report showed that ovarian clear cell carcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation is a highly aggressive tumor and has a very poor prognosis.
  • Nonetheless, there may be a role for neoadjuvant chemotherapy that targets both the clear cell and the choriocarcinoma components to reduce the volume of the disease before debulking surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20881859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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17. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Eichhorn J, Schmidt D: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):209-14
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features].
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence.
  • Histologically, TCC-O resembles urothelial carcinoma of the urinary system, and by definition does not contain a Brenner tumor component.
  • TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile.
  • Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O.
  • A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17447068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Chura JC, Ryu HS, Simard M, Poirier D, Tremblay Y, Brooker DC, Blomquist CH, Argenta PA: Steroid-converting enzymes in human ovarian carcinomas. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2009 Mar 25;301(1-2):51-8
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  • [Title] Steroid-converting enzymes in human ovarian carcinomas.
  • Anti-estrogen therapies for treating ovarian carcinoma have had mixed outcomes suggesting some tumors may be estrogen-dependent.
  • We assayed the activity levels of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD/3-KSR) and estrone sulfatase in a series of ovarian epithelial carcinomas.
  • A 17beta-HSD type 1 inhibition pattern was observed in 23% of the samples and a type 2 pattern in 25%.
  • 17beta-HSD type 1, type 2 and type 5 mRNA was detected in matched primary tumor and metastases.
  • Evaluation of 17beta-HSD and sulfatase activity levels, activity ratios and inhibition patterns may help predict tumor response to endocrine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology. Sulfatases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Estradiol / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Substrate Specificity / drug effects. Testosterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18723074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / estrogen receptor alpha, human; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 1.1.- / 17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.51 / 3 (or 17)-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; EC 3.1.6.- / Sulfatases; EC 3.1.6.- / estrone sulfatase
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19. Abe A, Furumoto H, Yoshida K, Nishimura M, Irahara M, Kudo E, Sano T: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor component. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):168-72
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a yolk sac tumor component.
  • This unusual mixed tumor is thought to be a rare variant of endometrioid ovarian carcinoma because of its aggressive behavior, lack of response to chemotherapy, and unfavorable prognosis.
  • We report a case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a YST component in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Cytokeratin7 and epithelial membrane antigen were negative in YST, but positive in endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bridged Compounds / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Platinum / administration & dosage. Taxoids / administration & dosage. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17466041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 1605-68-1 / taxane; 49DFR088MY / Platinum; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. Hafezi-Bakhtiari S, Morava-Protzner I, Burnell MJ, Reardon E, Colgan TJ: Choriocarcinoma arising in a serous carcinoma of ovary: an example of histopathology driving treatment. J Obstet Gynaecol Can; 2010 Jul;32(7):698-702
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  • [Title] Choriocarcinoma arising in a serous carcinoma of ovary: an example of histopathology driving treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Choriocarcinoma within an ovarian carcinoma is exceptionally rare.
  • Nevertheless, recognition of this mixed tumour is important for administration of appropriate chemotherapy.
  • CASE: A 65-year-old woman underwent resection of an ovarian mass after presenting with a pelvic mass and breast tenderness.
  • On pathologic examination the mass showed a choriocarcinoma in association with a serous carcinoma.
  • This pathologic diagnosis led to a specific chemotherapy regimen with cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin, suitable for both types of malignancy.
  • CONCLUSION: Both gynaecologists and pathologists should be aware that the histopathologic classification of ovarian epithelial carcinoma and its variants, such as this one, may have an increasing role in the management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20707961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1701-2163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstétrique et gynécologie du Canada : JOGC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol Can
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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21. Gregory RK, Hill ME, Moore J, A'Hern RP, Johnston SR, Blake P, Shephard J, Barton D, Gore ME: Combining platinum, paclitaxel and anthracycline in patients with advanced gynaecological malignancy. Eur J Cancer; 2000 Mar;36(4):503-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Two meta-analyses have suggested that the addition of an anthracycline to platinum-based chemotherapy may improve survival in advanced ovarian cancer, and two randomised trials have demonstrated superiority of paclitaxel over cyclophosphamide in platinum combinations.
  • A combination of platinum, anthracycline and paclitaxel would, therefore, be a reasonable experimental arm of any future randomised trial in patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC).
  • Patients who required chemotherapy for EOC but were ineligible for standard trials or had other gynaecological tumours that required similar platinum-based chemotherapy were considered for this pilot.
  • 26 patients entered the study, 13 with EOC and 13 with other gynaecological cancers (peritoneal, fallopian tube, mixed Mullerian).
  • A total of 135 cycles of chemotherapy were delivered, with a median of 6 cycles per patient (range: 2-6).
  • All patients experienced grade 4 neutropenia and 13 (50%) patients developed grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (12 of whom had received carboplatin).
  • Grade 1/2 cardiotoxicity, as assessed pre- and post-treatment by left ventricular ejection fraction, was observed in 6/13 (46%) patients who had received doxorubicin and 2/7 (29%) epirubicin-treated patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Feasibility Studies. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Pilot Projects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10717527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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22. Mikuz G: [WHO classification of testicular tumors]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2002;86:67-75
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  • Such atypical cells appear in the tubules adjacent to the germ cell tumors, in some few cases (6%) also in the contra lateral healthy gonad and rarely in infertile men (1%).
  • The precursor lesion can progress to franc germ cell tumor starting probably with seminoma, which still maintain the capability of differentiation (pluripotente cells) in all other types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • This is a harmless name for an extremely dangerous tumor in which one tissue overgrows the other and gives rise to somatic type sarcomas or carcinomas.
  • Such tumors do not respond like germ cell tumors to the usual chemotherapy.
  • Treatment should be tailored according to that used in standard management of the respective sarcoma or carcinoma.
  • In the comments it is mentioned that the testis carcinoid could be a part of teratoma, but the diagnosis is listed in the group of "miscellaneous" tumors together with tumors of ovarian epithelial type.
  • This is a very questionable decision because the normal testis does not contain neuroendocrine cells from which carcinoids would have to be able to develop.
  • The patients have cardiac myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, hormone active nodular hyperplasia of the adrenals and soft tissue myxomas.
  • The newly appearing "mixed germ cell--sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours, unclassified" has a histology similar to the well known gonadoblastomas.
  • For the therapy of germ cell tumor an assessment of risk factors found by the pathologists is extremely important.
  • The most important independent predictors of relapse are tumor invasion of blood or lymph-vessels, absence of yolk sac elements and the presence of an embryonal carcinoma component.
  • In the absence of such predictors a surveillance policy allows some patients to forgo chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12647353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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