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1. Castilho MS, Jacinto AA, Viani GA, Campana A, Carvalho J, Ferrigno R, Novaes PE, Fogaroli RC, Salvajoli JV: Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in the postoperative treatment of an adenocarcinoma of the endometrium complicated by a pelvic kidney. Radiat Oncol; 2006;1:44

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in the postoperative treatment of an adenocarcinoma of the endometrium complicated by a pelvic kidney.
  • BACKGROUND: Pelvic Radiotherapy (RT) as a postoperative treatment for endometrial cancer improves local regional control.
  • Both treatments imply significant side effects that a fine RT technique can help avoiding.
  • Intensity Modulated RT (IMRT) enables the treatment of the target volume while protecting normal tissue.
  • CASE: We report on a 50 year-old patient with a serous-papiliferous adenocarcinoma of the uterus who was submitted to surgical treatment without lymph node sampling followed by Brachytherapy, and Chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy / methods. Female. Humans. Kidney / pathology. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Treatment Outcome. Vagina / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 17116263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1660561
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070809
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2. Chantakru S, Wang WC, van den Heuvel M, Bashar S, Simpson A, Chen Q, Croy BA, Evans SS: Coordinate regulation of lymphocyte-endothelial interactions by pregnancy-associated hormones. J Immunol; 2003 Oct 15;171(8):4011-9
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  • In mouse uterine tissue, pregnancy markedly up-regulates both L-selectin- and alpha(4) integrin-dependent adhesion pathways for circulating human CD56(bright) cells, the phenotype of human uterine NK cells.
  • Based on roles for these adhesion molecules in lymphocyte homing, we examined effects of pregnancy or the steroid hormones 17beta-estradiol or progesterone on lymphocyte-endothelial interactions in secondary lymphoid tissues and in uterus.
  • Squamous endothelium from nonlymphoid tissue was not affected.
  • Pregnancy-equivalent endothelial responses were observed in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches from ovariectomized mice receiving 17beta-estradiol and/or progesterone replacement therapy.
  • Adhesion of human CD56(bright) cells to uteri from pregnant or hormone-treated ovariectomized mice was enhanced through L-selectin- and alpha(4) integrin-dependent mechanisms and involved multiple vascular adhesion molecules including mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, VCAM-1, and peripheral lymph node addressin.

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  • (PMID = 14530321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] None / None / / 67956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA079765; Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 67956; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA79765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ CAMS1491; NLM/ PMC2967521
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3. Klopp AH, Jhingran A, Ramondetta L, Lu K, Gershenson DM, Eifel PJ: Node-positive adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: outcome and patterns of recurrence with and without external beam irradiation. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Oct;115(1):6-11
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  • [Title] Node-positive adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: outcome and patterns of recurrence with and without external beam irradiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment outcomes and patterns of recurrence in patients with node-positive (International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology stage IIIC) adenocarcinoma of the uterus without serous or clear cell differentiation.
  • METHODS: The records of 71 women who were treated for stage IIIC endometrial adenocarcinoma at our institution between 1984 and 2005 were reviewed.
  • Fifty patients received definitive pelvic or extended-field radiotherapy with or without systemic therapy (regional RT group).
  • Eighteen received adjuvant systemic platinum-based chemotherapy or hormonal therapy without external beam RT.
  • Five-year pelvic-relapse-free survival (98% vs 61%, P=0.001), DSS (78% vs 39%, P=0.01), and overall survival (73% vs 40%, P=0.03) were significantly better for the regional RT group than the systemic therapy group.
  • Patients with stage IIIC endometrial adenocarcinoma who underwent surgical staging followed by external beam irradiation had a high rate of cure.
  • Relapses in patients treated with EBRT primarily occurred in patients with grade 3 cancer who may be most likely to benefit from combined-chemoradiation treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19632709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Kaku T, Yoshikawa H, Tsuda H, Sakamoto A, Fukunaga M, Kuwabara Y, Hataeg M, Kodama S, Kuzuya K, Sato S, Nishimura T, Hiura M, Nakano H, Iwasaka T, Miyazaki K, Kamura T: Conservative therapy for adenocarcinoma and atypical endometrial hyperplasia of the endometrium in young women: central pathologic review and treatment outcome. Cancer Lett; 2001 Jun 10;167(1):39-48
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  • [Title] Conservative therapy for adenocarcinoma and atypical endometrial hyperplasia of the endometrium in young women: central pathologic review and treatment outcome.
  • Thirty-nine patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EA) and atypical hyperplasia (AH) of the endometrium who received conservative treatment to preserve fertility were collected from member institutions of the Japan Gynecologic Oncology Study Group.
  • Nine of 12 women (75%) with EA and 15 of 18 women (83%) with AH had an initial response to medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) treatment.
  • Two of nine responders with EA later developed relapse, and one of them had metastasis to the left obturator lymph node.
  • One of the responders with AH had a relapse in the endometrium.
  • The young women with endometrial carcinoma localized in the endometrium who wish to preserve fertility may be treated as successfully with MPA as those with AH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endometrial Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fertility. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11323097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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5. Ma SK, Zhang HT, Sun YC, Wu LY: [Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: review of 43 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;30(9):690-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: review of 43 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, treatment methods, and prognosis of synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 43 patients with synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The most common symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding (69.8%) and abdominal or pelvic pain (44.2%).Pelvic masses were found in 39.5% of the patients and enlarged corpus in 27.9% at physical examination, while pelvic masses were found in 67.4% of the 43 patients (29 cases) and thickening or abnormal endometrium in 23.3% (10 cases) during ultrasound examination.
  • All 15 patients who underwent endometrial biopsies were proven to have endometrial carcinomas.
  • FIGO stages of endometrial carcinomas: IA 18 cases, IB 20 cases, IC 2 cases, IIA 3 cases; Stages of ovarian carcinomas: IA 19 cases, IB 4 cases, IC 7 cases, II 4 cases, III C 9 cases.
  • Twenty-four patients (55.8%) were in stage I both endometrial and ovarian carcinomas.
  • Thirty-one patients underwent total hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy, meanwhile, 12 patients had pelvic lymph node dissection.
  • Thirty-eight of the 43 patients (88.4%) had a pathologically proven endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Postoperatively, 26 patients (60.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy alone, 12 had chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, only one patient had radiation alone and the remaining 4 cases received no adjuvant treatment.
  • Recurrence developed in 15 patients (34.9%).
  • It was showed by univariate analysis that lower CA125 level, early FIGO stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy significantly and positively affect the 5-year survival rates, while only early FIGO stage and chemotherapy plus radiotherapy were revealed by multivariate analysis as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary are different from either primary endometrial carcinoma or ovarian cancer, while it can usually be detected in early stage and with a good prognosis.
  • Surgical treatment alone may be enough for early stage patients.
  • Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy may be necessary for advanced stage patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid. Endometrial Neoplasms. Hysterectomy / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Proteins / metabolism. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19173912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NBR1 protein, human; 0 / Proteins
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6. Kong A, Powell M, Blake P: The role of postoperative radiotherapy in carcinoma of the endometrium. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2008 Aug;20(6):457-62
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  • [Title] The role of postoperative radiotherapy in carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • The role of adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial carcinoma after surgery remains controversial.
  • There is a great variation between centres in deciding when to give postoperative external beam radiotherapy and/or vaginal vault brachytherapy for patients with endometrial carcinoma.
  • The role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy as well as the need for postoperative radiotherapy after this type of surgical staging continue to be debated.
  • Furthermore, the role of adjuvant chemotherapy either alone or in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy also remains to be determined.
  • This overview discusses the role of postoperative radiotherapy in the context of surgery and other adjuvant treatments in carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Postoperative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Disease Progression. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18455376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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7. Southcott BM: Carcinoma of the endometrium. Drugs; 2001;61(10):1395-405
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • The incidence of endometrial cancer is highest among relatively affluent Caucasians.
  • Endometrial cancer is uncommon in premenopausal women.
  • The incidence rises with age and is significantly increased when there is exposure to unopposed estrogen, including hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
  • The long term use of tamoxifen for breast cancer is also associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer.
  • Transvaginal ultrasound and pipelle or hysteroscopy endometrial biopsies are tending to replace the traditional dilation and curettage in establishing a diagnosis.
  • 90% of endometrial tumours are surgically resectable on presentation.
  • The pelvis is a major anatomical site at risk of recurrence, and since cytotoxic chemotherapy and hormone therapies have limited effectiveness, radiotherapy is the adjuvant therapy of choice where adverse prognostic factors are present.
  • A move towards more radical surgery--the addition of lymphadenectomy with a total abdominal hysterectomy and bi-lateral salpingo oophorectomy, may modify the value of adjuvant therapy and has highlighted the need to demonstrate the exact place of post operative radiotherapy in the management of endometrial cancer.
  • The ASTEC trial in the UK, run by the Medical Research Council, has the dual aims of determining the benefit of lymphadenectomy and of post operative adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with endometrial cancer confined to the corpus.
  • Spread outside the pelvis to para-aortic nodes may still be salvaged with local irradiation, but systemic disease is incurable and treatment is largely palliative including consideration of local irradiation, hormone therapy or chemotherapy for symptomatic relief.
  • This, together with the development of new cytotoxic agents and sophisticated radiotherapy techniques to reduce normal tissue morbidity, will require the establishment of further clinical trials to refine optimal management.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / etiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Hysterectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Salvage Therapy. Tamoxifen / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 11558829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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8. Albores-Saavedra J, Martinez-Benitez B, Luevano E: Small cell carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the endometrium and cervix: polypoid tumors and those arising in polyps may have a favorable prognosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):333-9
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the endometrium and cervix: polypoid tumors and those arising in polyps may have a favorable prognosis.
  • We report 5 polypoid high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterus, 2 small cell carcinomas of the endometrium, and 3 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 2 from the cervix and 1 from the endometrium.
  • The 2 small cell carcinomas of the endometrium arose from and were confined to endometrial polyps, one of which also showed foci of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The 3 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 2 from the cervix and 1 from the endometrium, were polypoid but did not originate in polyps.
  • All 5 patients were treated by radical hysterectomy and 4 received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Only 2 patient had pelvic lymph node metastasis.
  • All patients are alive and disease-free from 9 months to 7 years after treatment (mean survival, 47 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18580310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Ramalingam P, Middleton LP, Tamboli P, Troncoso P, Silva EG, Ayala AG: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the urinary bladder and endometrium: diagnostic pitfalls and review of the literature of tumors with micropapillary features. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2003 Apr;7(2):112-9
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  • [Title] Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the urinary bladder and endometrium: diagnostic pitfalls and review of the literature of tumors with micropapillary features.
  • Consequently, these tumors have a high propensity for lymph node metastases and high-stage disease.
  • We present a case of a 59-year-old woman with a history of bilateral breast carcinoma status post-bilateral mastectomy, chemotherapy, and tamoxifen therapy.
  • A biopsy of the endometrium revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) for further treatment recommendations.
  • The urinary bladder and endometrial biopsies both contained carcinomas with micropapillary features.
  • The tumor cells from the breast, endometrium, and urinary bladder were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7 and estrogen receptor and negative for CK20.
  • In view of the morphologic and immunohistochemical profile, the carcinoma in the endometrium and urinary bladder were interpreted as metastatic lesions from the breast primary.
  • Carcinomas with micropapillary features have a propensity for lymph node metastases and advanced stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12715337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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10. Yahata H, Hirakawa T, Fujita T, Ariyoshi K, Sonoda K, Amada S, Kobayashi H, Nakano H: Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and anthracycline (doxorubicin, epirubicin, pirarubicin) for endometrial cancer. Int J Clin Oncol; 2004 Aug;9(4):317-21
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  • [Title] Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and anthracycline (doxorubicin, epirubicin, pirarubicin) for endometrial cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin and cisplatin are the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of endometrial cancer, but their clinical efficacy is still controversial.
  • The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and toxicity of combination chemotherapy using cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, and anthracy-clines in patients with stage III/IV adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • METHODS: Forty patients with advanced endometrial cancer received postoperative adjuvant combination chemotherapy, using cisplatin (50 or 70 mg/m2), cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2), and one of three anthracyclines (10 patients with doxorubicin [50 mg/m2], 18 with epirubicin [50 mg/m2], and 12 with pirarubicin [40 mg/m2]), from 1987 to 1999.
  • All patients underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with pelvic lymph node dissection in 36 patients and paraaortic lymph node biopsy in 38 patients.
  • Patients were considered eligible if they had adnexal metastasis, paraaortic lymph node metastasis, positive peritoneal cytology, or distant metastasis.
  • In group 2, 6 of the 13 (46%) showed response to chemotherapy (complete response [CR], 31%; partial response [PR], 15%).
  • CONCLUSION: In group 1, the survival of patients receiving chemotherapy was considered favorable, but patients with recurrent lesions had poor prognosis.
  • On the other hand, in group 2, the efficacy of the chemotherapy was almost equal to that reported in the literature; however, this regimen did not contribute to an improvement in the survival rate.
  • In conclusion, a new effective regimen of postoperative adjuvant therapy is highly desirable in patients with measurable residual lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15375709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Komiyama S, Asai S, Dokoh J, Tsuji H, Ishikawa M, Mikami M: Papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum with paraaortic lymph node metastasis despite minimal intraperitoneal involvement: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 May-Jun;50(3):323-6
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  • [Title] Papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum with paraaortic lymph node metastasis despite minimal intraperitoneal involvement: a case report.
  • CASE: A 46-year-old woman with PSCP had no detectable ascites and minimal intraperitoneal involvement at the time of the diagnosis, but a paraaortic lymph node metastasis was present.
  • Preoperative endometrial cytology was positive (suspicion of adenocarcinoma).
  • Cytology of the peritoneal washings demonstrated positive findings, similar to those of endometrial cytology.
  • After cytoreductive surgery, including lymph node dissection and platinum-based chemotherapy, the patient achieved long-term survival.
  • CONCLUSION: PSCP can present with an early paraaortic lymph node metastasis.
  • Endometrial cytology can be valuable in the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adnexa Uteri / pathology. Aorta, Abdominal / radiography. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16780029.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Huguet F, Cojocariu OM, Levy P, Lefranc JP, Darai E, Jannet D, Ansquer Y, Lhuillier PE, Benifla JL, Seince N, Touboul E: Preoperative concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy for bulky stage IB2, IIA, and IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix with proximal parametrial invasion. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Dec 1;72(5):1508-15
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  • [Title] Preoperative concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy for bulky stage IB2, IIA, and IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix with proximal parametrial invasion.
  • Treatment consisted of preoperative external beam pelvic radiation therapy (EBRT) and concomitant chemotherapy (CT) during the first and fourth weeks of radiation combining 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.
  • The pelvic radiation dose was 40.5 Gy over 4.5 weeks.
  • EBRT was followed by low-dose rate uterovaginal brachytherapy with a total dose of 20 Gy in 62 patients.
  • Thirty patients who had not received preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy underwent postoperative low-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy at a dose of 20 Gy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant chemoradiation followed by surgery for operable bulky stage I-II cervical carcinoma without clinical lymph node involvement can be used with acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Hysterectomy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18676093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Varras M, Akrivis Ch, Demou A, Hadjopoulos G, Stefanaki S, Antoniou N: Primary small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: clinicopathological study of a case and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2002;23(6):577-81

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  • [Title] Primary small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: clinicopathological study of a case and review of the literature.
  • However, primary small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium is extremely rare with very few cases reported in the English literature.
  • CASE: A 55-year-old postmenopausal woman with primary small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium, FIGO stage Ib, underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and sampling node biopsies of the parametrial spaces, followed by adjuvant combined chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: A case of small-cell carcinoma of the endometrium, is reported and its clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12556112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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14. Terada T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with sarcomatous changes of the endometrium: a case report with immunohistochemical studies and molecular genetic study of KIT and PDGFRA. Pathol Res Pract; 2010 Jun 15;206(6):420-5
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with sarcomatous changes of the endometrium: a case report with immunohistochemical studies and molecular genetic study of KIT and PDGFRA.
  • The author herein reports a very rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) with sarcomatous changes of the endometrium.
  • Simple hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy, extensive lymph node dissection, and omentectomy were performed.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having FIGO stage Ib (T1N0M0) carcinoma, and adjuvant chemotherapy was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Stem Cell Factor / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20189318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Stem Cell Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha
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15. Ng JS, Han AC, Edelson MI, Rosenblum NG: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma presenting as distant lymph node metastasis. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Mar;80(3):417-20
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  • [Title] Uterine papillary serous carcinoma presenting as distant lymph node metastasis.
  • One case was found incidentally at the time of axillary dissection for breast cancer and the second case in the workup of a neck mass.
  • Sampling of the endometrium in these patients confirmed primary uterine papillary serous carcinoma.
  • Patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Axilla. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neck

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11263944.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Mehta N, Yamada SD, Rotmensch J, Mundt AJ: Outcome and pattern of failure in pathologic stage I-II papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Nov 15;57(4):1004-9
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  • [Title] Outcome and pattern of failure in pathologic stage I-II papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and patterns of failure in women with pathologic Stage I-II papillary serous carcinoma of the uterus and to discuss the implications for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT).
  • Pelvic and para-aortic lymph node sampling was performed in 12 and 8 patients, respectively.
  • Adjuvant therapies included the following: 9 none, 10 RT (6 pelvic, 1 vaginal brachytherapy, 3 both), 4 chemotherapy, and 1 hormonal therapy.
  • No patient received whole abdominal radiation therapy or para-aortic RT.
  • Nine patients developed recurrent disease.
  • However, neither developed an isolated abdominal recurrence.
  • Contrary to traditional assumptions, however, abdominal recurrence was uncommon in our patients, despite the lack of whole abdominal radiation therapy.
  • Future studies should investigate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 14575831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Murphy KT, Rotmensch J, Yamada SD, Mundt AJ: Outcome and patterns of failure in pathologic stages I-IV clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Apr 1;55(5):1272-6
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  • [Title] Outcome and patterns of failure in pathologic stages I-IV clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and patterns of failure in women with uterine clear-cell carcinoma and discuss implications for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT).
  • METHODS: Between 1980 and 2000, 686 endometrial carcinoma patients underwent primary surgery at our institution.
  • Pelvic and para-aortic node samplings were performed in 26 and 17 patients, respectively.
  • Adjuvant therapies included the following: 5 none, 22 RT (13 pelvic RT, 2 vaginal brachytherapy, 7 both), 11 chemotherapy (8 alone, 3 after pelvic RT), and 3 hormones.
  • Only 1 (2%) patient developed an isolated abdominal failure (This patient had a mixed clear-cell/papillary serous tumor).
  • CONCLUSION: Clear-cell carcinoma comprises a small percentage of endometrial cancers, frequently presents as a mixed histology, and has a poor overall outcome.
  • Future protocols should focus instead on combinations of locoregional RT and chemotherapy to reduce the risk of local and systemic recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Life Tables. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12654437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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18. Sutton G, Axelrod JH, Bundy BN, Roy T, Homesley H, Lee RB, Gehrig PA, Zaino R: Adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation in clinical stages I and II papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Feb;100(2):349-54
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  • [Title] Adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation in clinical stages I and II papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcome in patients with clinical stage I/II papillary serous (PS) or clear cell (CC) endometrial carcinoma treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: After total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic/para-aortic lymph node sampling, and peritoneal washings, eligible patients received radiotherapy (RT) to the abdomen (3000 cGy at 150 cGy/day) with a pelvic boost (1980 cGy at 180 cGy/day).
  • RESULTS: Among 21 PS patients (median age: 68 years), one refused therapy, and another received a non-protocol vaginal boost.
  • Five others died due to protocol treatment (1), toxicity from subsequent chemotherapy (1), intercurrent disease (1), and unknown cause (2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Over half of the treatment failures were within the radiation field.
  • Systemic chemotherapy, radiosensitizing chemotherapy, or sequential radiation and chemotherapy should be considered in future adjuvant trials for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16213007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12477; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12482; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12484; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12534; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13633; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 15975; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16386; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16938; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23073; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23501; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 28160; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 34477; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 35640; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37535; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37569; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40296
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Ben-Shachar I, Pavelka J, Cohn DE, Copeland LJ, Ramirez N, Manolitsas T, Fowler JM: Surgical staging for patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Mar;105(3):487-93
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  • [Title] Surgical staging for patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of surgical staging of patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: The charts of all patients who presented for surgery for endometrial cancer between March 1997 and July 2003 were analyzed for demographic data, final tumor histology, grade, stage, and complications.
  • RESULTS: A total of 349 patients underwent surgical management for endometrial cancer.
  • Surgical staging (pelvic +/- para-aortic lymphadenectomy) was performed in 82% of cases and was omitted only in cases when disease was apparently confined to the endometrium and surgical risk was high.
  • Lymph node metastases were found in 3.9% of patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial cancer, and 10.5% had extrauterine spread (> IIb).
  • No patients with stage Ia-IIb endometrioid cancer received adjuvant teletherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Twelve percent of patients received adjuvant therapy, and 17% avoided teletherapy and/or chemotherapy based on surgical staging.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical staging in patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial cancer significantly impacted postoperative treatment decisions in 29% of patients.
  • Omitting lymphadenectomy in patients presenting with grade 1 endometrial cancer may lead to inappropriate postoperative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aorta. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis

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  • (PMID = 15738013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Barillot I, Maingon P: [Endometrial carcinoma: which radiotherapy for which patient?]. Cancer Radiother; 2003 Nov;7 Suppl 1:1s-7s
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  • [Title] [Endometrial carcinoma: which radiotherapy for which patient?].
  • The endometrial carcinoma is the third most common cancer in women.
  • The endometrioid adenocarcinomas represent 75% to 80% of the pathologic sub-types, and 90% of the lesions are stages I or II at diagnosis.
  • The treatment strategies are based upon surgery and radiotherapy, but the respective place of external irradiation and vaginal cuff brachytherapy is not strictly established.
  • The role of the pelvic lymphadenectomy and the role of chemotherapy for aggressive histologies or locally advanced diseases remain also controversial issues.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Preoperative Care. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15124538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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21. Mundhenke C, Bauerschlag D, Fischer D, Friedrich M, Maass N: [Malignant tumors of the uterus]. Ther Umsch; 2007 Jul;64(7):381-8
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  • [Transliterated title] Maligne Tumoren des Uterus.
  • The three important uterine cancers are endometrial cancers, uterine sarcomas and cervical cancers.
  • Endometrial cancers are typically found in elderly women and are > 70% hormone sensitive (type I), type II is often less differentiated and not hormone sensitive.
  • Therapy of choice is the stage related radical hysterectomy (incl. lymphnode dissection).
  • Postoperatively and at progressive stages endocrine and radiation therapies can be useful.
  • Chemotherapy is only useful in not hormone sensitive and in progressive tumors.
  • These often aggressive tumors are hardly responding to systemic and radiation therapy.
  • Therefore radical tumor surgery plays the main therapeutic role.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Hysteroscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Uterus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17948755.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-5930
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutische Umschau. Revue thérapeutique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Umsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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22. Decavalas G, Adonakis G, Androutsopoulos G, Gkogkos P, Koumoundourou D, Ravazoula P, Kourounis G: Synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(4):434-6
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  • [Title] Synchronous primary endometrial and ovarian cancers: a case report.
  • Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary are relatively uncommon in the general population.
  • She underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, total omentectomy, appendectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection.
  • The histopathology revealed synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and right ovary.
  • She underwent postoperative chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17009647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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23. Hanf V, Günthert AR, Emons G: Endometrial cancer. Onkologie; 2003 Oct;26(5):429-36
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  • [Title] Endometrial cancer.
  • Radical surgery including complete pelvic and para-arortic lymph node dissection (LND) is both the main therapeutic effort and the decisive staging procedure in patients with invasive endometrial cancer (EC) and should be performed in specialized institutions.
  • External irradiation treatment no longer has a routine indication in primary therapy.
  • Hormonal and cytotoxic therapy is experimental in the adjuvant setting.
  • The first step in palliative systemic treatment should be the administration of endocrine therapy when the tumor expresses progesterone receptors and tumor manifestations are not acutely life-threatening.
  • In other cases or when endocrine treatment fails chemotherapy may be considered, which is often limited due to its toxicity.
  • Preferably, palliative hormonal and/or chemotherapy should be administered in controlled clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 14605458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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24. Androutsopoulos G, Adonakis G, Tsamantas A, Liosis S, Antonopoulos A, Kourounis G: Synchronous primary cancers in a woman with scleroderma: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):548-50
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  • She underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, total omentectomy, appendectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection.
  • The histopathology revealed synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and left ovary.
  • She underwent postoperative chemotherapy and remains well without evidence of disease 25 months after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary are relatively uncommon in the general population.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Scleroderma, Systemic / complications. Scleroderma, Systemic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19051834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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25. Levine DA, Hoskins WJ: Update in the management of endometrial cancer. Cancer J; 2002 May-Jun;8 Suppl 1:S31-40
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  • [Title] Update in the management of endometrial cancer.
  • Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract and the fourth most common malignancy in women.
  • Standard treatment for early-stage disease involves surgical staging with adjuvant therapy based on pathologic findings.
  • Controversial issues include the role of laparoscopy and the indications for lymph node sampling.
  • Advanced and recurrent disease can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy based on the individual pattern of spread and prior treatment regimens.
  • This review will begin by discussing the surgical treatment of early-stage endometrial cancer and the role of adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • The role of surgery and chemotherapy in advanced disease will also be covered.
  • The standard treatment of endometrial cancer has been the subject of many reviews in the literature.
  • This paper will focus on areas of controversy in the management of endometrial cancer as well as new developments in the treatment of this disease.
  • The reviewwill be limited to epithelial adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12075700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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26. Kirk CM, Naumann RW, Hartmann CJ, Brown CA, Banks PM: Primary endometrial T-cell lymphoma. A case report. Am J Clin Pathol; 2001 Apr;115(4):561-6
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  • [Title] Primary endometrial T-cell lymphoma. A case report.
  • All of those previously reported have been B-cell lymphomas, with the exception of 1 case report of an endometrial T-cell lymphoma in a Japanese woman.
  • We report the case of a white woman from the United States with a diffuse large cell lymphoma of the endometrium, characterized as a peripheral T-cell type on the basis of immunophenotypic and molecular probe studies.
  • Staging evaluation revealed tumor limited to the endometrium (stage IE).
  • The patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and lymph node dissection and received 6 cycles of combination chemotherapy, after which she remained free of disease at last follow-up of 36 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11293904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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27. Sakuragi N, Hareyama H, Todo Y, Yamada H, Yamamoto R, Fujino T, Sagawa T, Fujimoto S: Prognostic significance of serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma in surgically staged endometrial carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2000 Apr;79(4):311-6
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma in surgically staged endometrial carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The serous adenocarcinoma (SA) and clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of endometrium have been shown to be associated with high relapse rate and poor survival.
  • It is not clear whether prognostic significance of these specific cell types of tumor is independent of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and other histopathologic prognostic factors in endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We examined 240 consecutive patients with clinical stage I to stage III endometrial carcinoma who were treated prospectively with radical surgery and/or platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Surgery included extended hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and systematic pelvic and paraaortic lymph node dissection.
  • RESULTS: SA/CCA were more frequently associated with deep myometrial invasion, high nuclear grade (G3), lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI), and pelvic lymph node metastasis when compared to endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EMA).
  • A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that cell type, grade, LVSI, and paraaortic node metastasis (PANM) were independent prognosticators.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of patients with endometrial carcinoma depends on cell type, grade, LVSI, and PANM.
  • Poor prognosis for patients with SA/CCA is independent of lymph node metastasis and other histopathologic prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 10746848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6349
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
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28. Irvin WP, Rice LW, Berkowitz RS: Advances in the management of endometrial adenocarcinoma. A review. J Reprod Med; 2002 Mar;47(3):173-89; discussion 189-90

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  • [Title] Advances in the management of endometrial adenocarcinoma. A review.
  • Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common and curable gynecologic neoplasm; the five-year survival for women with surgical stage I disease ranges from 83% to 93%; stage II, 73%; stage III, 52%; and stage IV, 27%.
  • The absence of an asymptomatic latency phase amenable to detection through screening and the already excellent cure rates seen with early-stage disease have precluded the need for endometrial cancer screening programs.
  • Adenocarcinomas constitute 97% of endometrial cancers, with endometrioid the most common histologic subtype.
  • Two different pathways of endometrial carcinogenesis exist.
  • The use of oral contraceptives has consistently been shown to decrease the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma via this pathway, with 12 months or more of continuous use decreasing the lifetime risk by 40-50%.
  • The alternate pathway of endometrial carcinogenesis represents malignant transformation of atrophic endometrium and proceeds through endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma as the malignant precursor of the more virulent serous papillary and clear cell endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • The staging of endometrial cancer (according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology) is surgical.
  • Recent studies suggest a therapeutic benefit associated with extensive retroperitoneal lymph node evaluation to determine the disease extent and thereby more effectively direct potentially life-saving adjuvant therapy.
  • Adjuvant radiation therapy, known to have survival benefit in advanced-stage disease, may also have survival benefit in intermediate-risk surgical stage I disease on the basis of results recently released from a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
  • The use of radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, alone or in combination, is recommended for primary advanced and recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 11933681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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29. Nishimura N, Hachisuga T, Saito T, Kawarabayashi T: Subsequent endometrial carcinoma with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in Japanese breast cancer patients. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;11(4):272-6
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  • [Title] Subsequent endometrial carcinoma with adjuvant tamoxifen treatment in Japanese breast cancer patients.
  • This study aimed to detail the clinicopathologic features of endometrial carcinomas that developed in Japanese patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer patients.
  • Ten endometrial carcinomas in tamoxifen-treated breast cancer patients were collected from two medical centers.
  • The endometrial carcinomas included two stage Ia, four stage Ib, two stage Ic and two stage IIIc.
  • The tumor was limited to the endometrium in two cases.
  • The cell types comprised nine endometrioid adenocarcinomas and one serous carcinoma.
  • Five of eight postmenopausal endometrial carcinomas were associated with polypoid endometrial lesions composed of cystically dilated atrophic and proliferative glands widely separated by fibrotic stroma.
  • Two patients with retroperitoneal lymph node metastases died of endometrial cancer.
  • One patient developed a contralateral breast cancer during tamoxifen treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / etiology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Female. Humans. Japan. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 11520364.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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30. Fleming NA, Hopkins L, de Nanassy J, Senterman M, Black AY: Mullerian adenosarcoma of the cervix in a 10-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e45-51
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  • It usually presents as a polypoid mass within the endometrium.
  • An endometrial curettage was performed.
  • After a thorough evaluation of the available literature, review with the Regional Tumor Board and extensive discussions with the family, a decision was made to perform a radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingectomy, bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, upper vaginectomy and preservation of ovaries.
  • The procedure was uncomplicated.
  • Due to the rarity of this tumor in this age group, optimal therapy is uncertain.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation have not been used in the absence of extensive pelvic and/or residual disease.
  • If recurrence occurs, it tends to be local and following prior conservative treatments such as cone biopsy or trachelectomy.


31. Huang SY, Jung SM, Ng KK, Chang YC, Lai CH: Ovarian metastasis in a nulliparous woman with endometrial adenocarcinoma failing conservative hormonal treatment. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 May;97(2):652-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian metastasis in a nulliparous woman with endometrial adenocarcinoma failing conservative hormonal treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: There have been several reports about successful fertility-preserving treatment of endometrial carcinoma with subsequent pregnancy.
  • However, conservative hormonal treatment for early-stage endometrial cancer still entails some risk.
  • CASE: We present a 36-year-old nulliparous woman, initially diagnosed as clinical stage IA, grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma, receiving 6-month conservative treatment with remission achieved at 4 months from diagnosis.
  • Recurrence at the endometrium was documented at the end of treatment.
  • She underwent a definitive surgery including total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymph node dissection.
  • CONCLUSION: This case report signals a warning that negative preoperative imaging studies are not reassuring for a relapsing low-grade, early-stage endometrial carcinoma failing conservative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Megestrol Acetate / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15863173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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