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1. Ramondetta LM, Johnson AJ, Sun CC, Atkinson N, Smith JA, Jung MS, Broaddus R, Iyer RB, Burke T: Phase 2 trial of mifepristone (RU-486) in advanced or recurrent endometrioid adenocarcinoma or low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Cancer; 2009 May 1;115(9):1867-74
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  • [Title] Phase 2 trial of mifepristone (RU-486) in advanced or recurrent endometrioid adenocarcinoma or low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: : The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of mifepristone (RU-486) in women with advanced or recurrent endometrioid adenocarcinoma or low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LGESS).
  • METHODS: : Mifepristone (RU-486; 200 mg orally) was given daily to patients with progesterone receptor-positive advanced or recurrent endometrioid adenocarcinoma or LGESS.
  • Quality-of-life data were obtained using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and Functional Assessment for Cancer Therapy.
  • Stable disease was noted in 3 of 12 patients (at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, and > or =77 weeks, respectively), and the median time to disease progression was 48 days.
  • Among the patients who had stable disease, 2 women had endometrioid endometrial cancer, and 1 woman had LGESS.
  • No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred.
  • CONCLUSIONS: : Single-agent mifepristone used in the treatment of recurrent endometrioid adenocarcinoma or LGESS resulted in a stable disease rate of 25%.
  • The authors concluded that further research into the best mode of application for mifepristone in the treatment of endometrial cancer is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Mifepristone / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 19241422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098258
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone
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2. Mendivil A, Schuler KM, Gehrig PA: Non-endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus: a review of selected histological subtypes. Cancer Control; 2009 Jan;16(1):46-52
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  • [Title] Non-endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus: a review of selected histological subtypes.
  • BACKGROUND: Understanding the etiology, presentation, evaluation, and management of selected non-endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus is needed to define optimal treatment regimens.
  • METHODS: The pathology and treatment of selected non-endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas of the uterus are reviewed and summarized.
  • RESULTS: The most common non-endometrioid histology is papillary serous (10%), followed by clear cell (2% to 4%), mucinous (0.6% to 5%), and squamous cell (0.1% to 0.5%).
  • Some non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas behave more aggressively than the endometrioid cancers such that even women with clinical stage I disease often have extrauterine metastasis at the time of surgical evaluation.
  • Therefore, when technically and medically feasible, comprehensive surgical staging is helpful for women with non-endometrioid endometrial cancer histology.
  • While whole abdominal radiotherapy has a limited role in early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and clear cell carcinoma (CC), there may be a role for postoperative chemotherapy and volume-directed radiotherapy in both early-stage UPSC and CC.
  • In the setting of optimally debulked advanced-stage disease, a combination of radiation and chemotherapy may be indicated.
  • In the setting of recurrent disease or in women with residual disease after surgery, a platinum-based regimen or enrollment in a clinical trial is recommended.
  • CONCLUSIONS: UPSC and CC are managed similarly since sufficient data to separate treatment recommendations are lacking.
  • Because both histologies are associated with a high rate of recurrence, adjuvant therapy is recommended even in women with early-stage disease.
  • The remaining cell types should be treated similar to endometrioid or other low-grade histologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19078929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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3. Posadas EM, Liel MS, Kwitkowski V, Minasian L, Godwin AK, Hussain MM, Espina V, Wood BJ, Steinberg SM, Kohn EC: A phase II and pharmacodynamic study of gefitinib in patients with refractory or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer; 2007 Apr 1;109(7):1323-30
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  • [Title] A phase II and pharmacodynamic study of gefitinib in patients with refractory or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the biochemical effects of gefitinib on its target signal-transduction pathways in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).
  • Prospectively planned core-needle tumor biopsies were obtained before treatment and after 4 weeks.
  • Protein expression of total and phosphorylated (p) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), protein kinase B (AKT), and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) was quantified in microdissected tumor cells using tissue lysate array proteomics.
  • A decrease in the quantity of both EGFR and p-EGFR was observed with gefitinib therapy in >50% of patients.
  • Combinatorial therapy with molecular therapeutics against complementary targets may prove successful.


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4. Wu HM, Lai CH, Huang HY, Wang HS, Soong YK: A successful live twin birth by in vitro fertilization after conservative treatment of recurrent endometrial cancer. Chang Gung Med J; 2008 Jan-Feb;31(1):102-6
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  • [Title] A successful live twin birth by in vitro fertilization after conservative treatment of recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • Endometrial cancer is predominately a postmenopausal disease.
  • Endometrial cancer in women of childbearing age is relatively unusual.
  • Endometrial cancer is typically treated with hysterectomy.
  • After the development of endometrial cancer, successful pregnancy is rare.
  • We present a case of recurrent stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma in a 35-year-old woman.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed endometrial lesions without myometrium invasion and no pelvic lymph node enlargement.
  • Fertility-preserving medical therapy with megestrol acetate for 1 year and subsequent assisted reproductive treatment (ART) were performed.
  • On the basis of these observations and the low malignant potential of well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma, fertility-preserving treatment using Megace therapy was suggested.
  • In this case, recurrence occurred after the completion of Megace therapy and three failed attempts at artificial insemination by the husband (AIH).
  • Recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma was documented using hysteroscopy and direct endometrial biopsy.
  • Another course of Megace therapy was administered due to her desire for children.
  • A successful pregnancy occurred after long-term medical treatment and IVF-ET.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fertilization in Vitro. Megestrol Acetate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy. Twins

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  • (PMID = 18419059.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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5. Akahira J, Konno R, Ito K, Sato S, Yajima A: Choroidal metastasis presented as the initial symptom of the recurrence from ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma: A case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Apr;77(1):219-21
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  • [Title] Choroidal metastasis presented as the initial symptom of the recurrence from ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma: A case report.
  • Choroidal metastasis from recurrent ovarian cancer is extremely rare.
  • To our knowledge, this report is the first such case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • After cesarean section, multiple metastases were found including the choroid, scalp, bone, and lung, and she received four courses of single agent carboplatin chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10739718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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6. Kuo KT, Mao TL, Jones S, Veras E, Ayhan A, Wang TL, Glas R, Slamon D, Velculescu VE, Kuman RJ, Shih IeM: Frequent activating mutations of PIK3CA in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Am J Pathol; 2009 May;174(5):1597-601
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  • Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is one of the most malignant types of ovarian carcinomas, particularly at advanced stages.
  • Unlike the more common type of ovarian cancer, high-grade serous carcinoma, ovarian CCC is often resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy, and therefore an effective treatment for this tumor type at advanced stages is urgently needed.
  • In this study, we analyzed 97 ovarian CCCs for sequence mutations in KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, PTEN, and CTNNB1 as these mutations frequently occur in other major types of ovarian carcinomas.
  • The samples included 18 CCCs for which affinity-purified tumor cells from fresh specimens were available, 69 microdissected tumors from paraffin tissues, and 10 tumor cell lines.
  • We therefore suggest that the use of PIK3CA-targeting drugs may offer a more effective therapeutic approach compared with current chemotherapeutic agents for patients with advanced-stage and recurrent CCC.

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  • (PMID = 19349352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA121113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129080-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129080-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA116184; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103937-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103937-05; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / / ; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116184; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103937
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671248
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7. Kinugasa Y, Morishige K, Kamiura S, Tsukamoto Y, Saji F: Parathyroid hormone-related protein-secreting uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;36(2):113-5
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  • [Title] Parathyroid hormone-related protein-secreting uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)-secreting metastatic uterine endometrioid cancer was made in a 32-year-old Japanese woman with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy.
  • The primary endometrial cancer had been removed, and the tumor was diagnosed as Grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma with shallow myometrial invasion.
  • Salvage chemotherapy (paclitaxel and calboplatin) was started from 5 months after surgery when recurrent tumors were detected in the peritoneum and liver.
  • Despite the salvage chemotherapy, the tumor progressed and hypercalcemia became evident with elevated PTHrP whereas no bone metastasis was identified.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of hypercalcemia due to PTHrP secretion in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemistry. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16418186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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8. Kalli KR, Oberg AL, Keeney GL, Christianson TJ, Low PS, Knutson KL, Hartmann LC: Folate receptor alpha as a tumor target in epithelial ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Mar;108(3):619-26
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  • OBJECTIVES: Folate receptor alpha (FRalpha) is a folate-binding protein overexpressed on ovarian and several other epithelial malignancies that can be used as a target for imaging and therapeutic strategies.
  • The goal of this study is to improve historical data that lack specific information about FRalpha expression in rare histological subtypes, primary disease versus metastatic foci, and recurrent disease.
  • METHODS: FRalpha expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on 186 primary and 27 recurrent ovarian tumors, including 24 pairs of samples obtained from the same individuals at diagnosis and at secondary debulking surgery.
  • FRalpha staining was analyzed in light of disease morphology, stage, grade, debulking status, and time from diagnosis to recurrence and death.
  • RESULTS: FRalpha expression was apparent in 134 of 186 (72%) primary and 22 of 27 (81.5%) recurrent ovarian tumors.
  • In 21 of 24 (87.5%) matched specimens, recurrent tumors reflected the FRalpha status detected at diagnosis.
  • FRalpha status was not associated with time to recurrence or overall survival in either univariate or multivariable analyses.
  • New findings from this study show that FRalpha expression is maintained on metastatic foci and recurrent tumors, suggesting that novel folate-targeted therapies may hold promise for the majority of women with either newly diagnosed or recurrent ovarian cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18222534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090628-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80628; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA090628-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS123756; NLM/ PMC2707764
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9. Steer C, Harper P: Is there any place for cytotoxic chemotherapy in endometrial cancer? Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2001 Jun;15(3):447-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is there any place for cytotoxic chemotherapy in endometrial cancer?
  • Cytotoxic chemotherapy has an established role in the treatment of many solid tumours that are considered to be incurable with any modern treatment method.
  • Such treatment may result in an improvement in quality of life without influencing overall survival.
  • In this chapter the evidence to support the use of chemotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma is reviewed.
  • The most effective single agent and combination treatments are outlined.
  • Although evidence from randomized trials is limited, combination chemotherapy can lead to response rates of over 40% in patients with advanced disease.
  • The role of chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment in patients with early-stage disease is less well defined and this treatment is not recommended outside a clinical trial.
  • The role of chemotherapy for treatment of the aggressive histological variant, uterine papillary serous carcinoma is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Female. Humans. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 11476565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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10. Misawa A, Nagao M, Kushimoto T, Yasuda M: [Combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC therapy) for endometrial cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(11):1901-5
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  • [Title] [Combination chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin (TC therapy) for endometrial cancer].
  • Standard chemotherapy for endometrial cancer, including therapy with adriamycin and cisplatin (AP therapy), has not been established.
  • We retrospectively investigated 46 patients with endometrial cancer who were diagnosed and treated in our hospital.
  • As a rule, 6 courses of TC therapy (paclitaxel (PTX): 180 mg/m2, carboplatin (CBDCA): AUC 5), as initial chemotherapy, were performed at 3-week intervals in 18 patients with advanced or recurrent cancer from whom informed consent was obtained.
  • In endometrioid adenocarcinoma patients, the response rate was 66.6%.
  • Two patients with a partial response (PR) (1 with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 1 with serous adenocarcinoma) achieved a disease-free survival of more than 30 months.
  • Thus, TC therapy may be effective for endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19011339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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11. Benedetti Panici P, Greggi S, Amoroso M, Scambia G, Battaglia FA, Gebbia V, Salerno G, Paratore MP, Mancuso S: A combination of platinum and tamoxifen in advanced ovarian cancer failing platinum-based chemotherapy: results of a Phase II study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2001 Nov-Dec;11(6):438-44
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  • [Title] A combination of platinum and tamoxifen in advanced ovarian cancer failing platinum-based chemotherapy: results of a Phase II study.
  • The treatment of recurrent or progressive ovarian cancer has limited therapeutic potential.
  • The clinical outcome of second-line therapy largely depends on the potential chemo-sensitivity of the tumor expressed during up-front chemotherapy, as well as on the treatment-free interval from the last course of cytotoxic therapy.
  • However, the identification of agents such as tamoxifen (TAM) at nontoxic doses, able to act synergistically with standard chemotherapy, may be useful to overcome resistance.
  • Fifty patients with recurrent or progressive ovarian cancer following platinum (P)-based chemotherapy (28 platinum-resistant and 22 platinum-sensitive) entered a Phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of P re-challenge with the addition of TAM as a chemotherapy response modulator.
  • TAM was administered at the doses of 80 mg/day for 30 days followed by 40 mg/day for the remaining period of treatment.
  • This phase II trial confirmed the activity for a re-challenge employing a P compound and TAM in clinically defined P-resistant ovarian cancer patients.
  • The mild toxicity profile and the relatively low cost of the treatment render further investigations on the P-TAM regimen worthwhile.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 11906546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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12. Topuz E, Eralp Y, Saip P, Aydiner A, Taş F, Saliho Y, Salihoğlu Y, Berkman S, Bengisu E: The efficacy of combination chemotherapy including intraperitoneal cisplatinum and mitoxantrone with intravenous ifosfamide in patients with FIGO stage I C ovarian carcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2001;22(1):70-3
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  • [Title] The efficacy of combination chemotherapy including intraperitoneal cisplatinum and mitoxantrone with intravenous ifosfamide in patients with FIGO stage I C ovarian carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Patients with stage I ovarian cancer show a high incidence of recurrent disease ranging from 30% to 50%, which may be associated with a shortened survival.
  • Therefore, a subset of early-stage patients with poor prognostic factors who are most likely to present with recurrent disease in the next few years may benefit from adjuvant treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: In this pilot study, we evaluated the efficacy of combination chemotherapy including intraperitoneal mitoxantrone (12 mg/ml) and cisplatinum (75 mg/ml) on day 1, in addition to intravenous ifosfamide (4000 mg/m2) given on day 15 with mesna protection.
  • RESULTS: Following a median of 5 cycles of chemotherapy, 12 patients had a complete response (92.3%), while one patient had progressive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Tolerance. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infusions, Intravenous. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11321501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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13. Bakrin N, Cotte E, Sayag-Beaujard A, Raudrant D, Isaac S, Mohamed F, Gilly FN, Glehen O: Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Jul;20(5):809-14
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  • [Title] Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity.
  • Our objective was to determine if cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a feasible therapeutic option for treatment of peritoneal recurrence of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Between August 2002 and May 2007, 5 patients with recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity who underwent CRS with HIPEC.
  • Of the 5 patients treated, histopathological type and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage were as follows: IB endometrioid (n = 1), IIIA endometrioid (n = 1), IIIC endometrioid (n = 2), and IC endometrioid + pseudosarcomatoid component (n = 1).
  • One patient with pseudosarcomatoid component developed recurrent disease 10 months after surgery and died 2 months later.
  • Regarding the toxicity of the procedure, highly selected patients with recurrent endometrial carcinoma confined to the peritoneal cavity may benefit from improved survival after CRS with HIPEC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Hyperthermia, Induced. Infusions, Parenteral. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 20973274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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14. Susumu N, Aoki D, Suzuki N, Nozawa S: [Hormonal therapy for endometrial adenocarcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2001 Jul;28(7):934-45
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  • [Title] [Hormonal therapy for endometrial adenocarcinoma].
  • Recently, the number of cases of endometrial cancer has increased in Japan.
  • Hormonal treatment using progestins such as MPA has been widely applied to endometrial cancer patients under 40 years old under the conditions of grade 1 well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma without myometrial invasion.
  • In our hospital, we applied high-dose (600 mg/day) MPA for over 8 weeks in 14 cases of endometrial cancer, of which adenocarcinoma disappeared in 12 cases (86%), followed by cyclic administrations of low-dose MPA, with 7 subsequent recurrences.
  • We think that a protocol for improving ovarian function, such as active induction of ovulation, should be established to induce intrinsic progesterone sufficient for the prevention of the recurrence of endometrial cancers.
  • In the 2 cases, in which adenocarcinoma remained even after long administrations of MPA, myometrial invasion was noted in the surgically resected specimens.
  • For advanced or recurrent endometrial cancers, MPA has been reported to be effective in an average of 26% in several reports, and effective in 42% cases when applied with combination chemotherapy, such as CAP, by virtue of the "chemical modulator" effect, which can delay the acquired resistance against ADM or CDDP.
  • Furthermore, MPA has resulted in a significant improvement of 5-year disease-free survival rate when used as adjuvant therapy after complete operations and whole pelvic irradiation, compared with administrations of 5-FU in a randomized controlled study in Japan.
  • Thus, in the future, we consider that hormonal therapy will play a more important role in endometrial cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 11478142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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15. Miyagi E, Onose R, Ochiai K, Nozawa S, Noda K, Japan Multicenter Study Group: Phase II trial of paclitaxel in patients with adenocarcinoma of endometrium. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5121

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase II trial of paclitaxel in patients with adenocarcinoma of endometrium.
  • : 5121 Background: The antitumor activity and safety of paclitaxel monotherapy in patients (pts) with endometrial cancer still remain to be clarified.
  • METHODS: Eligibility criteria included: advanced or recurrent histopathologically proven endometrial adenocarcinoma with measurable lesion(s), age between 20 and 75, ECOG PS 2 or less, adequate organ functions, and written informed consent.
  • No more than one regimen of prior chemotherapy was allowed.
  • Pts characteristics include: endometrioid adenocarcinoma (15), adenoacanthoma (2), serous adenocarcinoma (2), clear cell adenocarcinoma (2), adenosquamous carcinoma (1) and mixed adenocarcinoma (1), Stage III/Stage IV/Recurrent = 2/4/17, PS 0/1/2 = 14/7/2.
  • Thirteen pts had received prior chemotherapy.
  • All adverse reactions were successfully managed by prolonging treatment interval, dose reduction, interrupting administration, discontinuation, and/or administration of G-CSF.
  • Four pts discontinued treatment due to toxicity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that three-hour intravenous infusion of paclitaxel 210 mg/m2 is well-tolerated and active therapy for advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer, and is worthy of further study in combination with carboplatin.

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  • (PMID = 28016767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Dunder I, Berker B, Atabekoglu C, Bilgin T: Preliminary experience with salvage weekly paclitaxel in women with advanced recurrent ovarian carcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(1):79-82
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  • [Title] Preliminary experience with salvage weekly paclitaxel in women with advanced recurrent ovarian carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To assess the role of palliative chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • Nine patients died of progressive disease while on treatment.
  • Four of these patients developed febrile neutropenia without infection.
  • The favorable toxicity profile and the encouraging antitumor activity observed in this study makes this regimen an option for the salvage treatment of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Adult. Aged. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / mortality. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / radiography. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 15755007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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17. Beshara N, Fung Kee Fung M, Faught W: The role of topotecan as second-line therapy in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2002;23(4):287-90
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  • [Title] The role of topotecan as second-line therapy in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: Up to 80% of patients with advanced ovarian cancer will recur following first-line platinum containing chemotherapy.
  • Topotecan has recently been used as a second-line agent in treatment of advanced ovarian disease.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of topotecan on response rate and progression-free interval on patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who had been treated with platinum-containing first-line chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases of recurrent ovarian cancer treated with topotecan was done.
  • Response type was determined using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria.
  • Median time to response was eight weeks, median progression-free interval was 31 weeks and median time of follow-up and survival was 48 weeks.
  • CONCLUSION: Topotecan is considered a reasonable option for treatment of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer that have failed previous treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Topotecan / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12214724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 7M7YKX2N15 / Topotecan
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18. Sánchez-Muñoz A, Mendiola C, Pérez-Ruiz E, Rodríguez-Sánchez CA, Jurado JM, Alonso-Carrión L, Ghanem I, de Velasco G, Quero-Blanco C, Alba E: Bevacizumab plus low-dose metronomic oral cyclophosphamide in heavily pretreated patients with recurrent ovarian cancer. Oncology; 2010;79(1-2):98-104
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  • [Title] Bevacizumab plus low-dose metronomic oral cyclophosphamide in heavily pretreated patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • AIM: To retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab plus low-dose metronomic oral cyclophosphamide in heavily pretreated patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with recurrent ovarian cancer and prior treatment with platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy were included.
  • Treatment consisted of bevacizumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks plus oral cyclophosphamide 50 mg daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • The median number of previous treatments was 4 (range 1-8).
  • Seventy-nine percent of patients had received more than 2 previous lines of treatment.
  • There were no cases of gastrointestinal perforation (GIP) or treatment-related deaths.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of bevacizumab and metronomic cyclophosphamide was active and well-tolerated in heavily pretreated patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Bevacizumab. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Proportional Hazards Models. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 21079407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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19. Irvin WP, Rice LW, Berkowitz RS: Advances in the management of endometrial adenocarcinoma. A review. J Reprod Med; 2002 Mar;47(3):173-89; discussion 189-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advances in the management of endometrial adenocarcinoma. A review.
  • Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common and curable gynecologic neoplasm; the five-year survival for women with surgical stage I disease ranges from 83% to 93%; stage II, 73%; stage III, 52%; and stage IV, 27%.
  • The absence of an asymptomatic latency phase amenable to detection through screening and the already excellent cure rates seen with early-stage disease have precluded the need for endometrial cancer screening programs.
  • Adenocarcinomas constitute 97% of endometrial cancers, with endometrioid the most common histologic subtype.
  • Two different pathways of endometrial carcinogenesis exist.
  • One arises in a background of estrogen excess, giving rise to atypical hyperplasia as the malignant precursor of the more common endometrioid adenocarcinomas.
  • The use of oral contraceptives has consistently been shown to decrease the risk of developing endometrial carcinoma via this pathway, with 12 months or more of continuous use decreasing the lifetime risk by 40-50%.
  • The alternate pathway of endometrial carcinogenesis represents malignant transformation of atrophic endometrium and proceeds through endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma as the malignant precursor of the more virulent serous papillary and clear cell endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • The staging of endometrial cancer (according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology) is surgical.
  • Recent studies suggest a therapeutic benefit associated with extensive retroperitoneal lymph node evaluation to determine the disease extent and thereby more effectively direct potentially life-saving adjuvant therapy.
  • Adjuvant radiation therapy, known to have survival benefit in advanced-stage disease, may also have survival benefit in intermediate-risk surgical stage I disease on the basis of results recently released from a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
  • The use of radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, alone or in combination, is recommended for primary advanced and recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Staging
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 11933681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 126
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20. Nishio S, Koyanagi T, Miyabe K, Kuromatsu H: [Two cases of multidrug-resistant recurrent endometrial cancer successfully treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):735-8
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  • [Title] [Two cases of multidrug-resistant recurrent endometrial cancer successfully treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)].
  • We report two cases of multidrug-resistant endometrial cancer which recurred after the initial therapy and progressed despite further anticancer chemotherapy, but could be successfully treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA).
  • The first patient with stage IVb moderately-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus underwent initial operation and postoperative chemotherapy followed by maintenance chemotherapy.
  • The second patient with stage IIIc poorly-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus developed lung metastases 14 months after the initial operation and postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Subsequent chemotherapy yielded a complete response(CR).
  • Two months later, however, a small intestinal metastasis was observed, which was treated by surgical excision and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20414038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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21. Akizuki S, Katsumata N, Yamanaka Y, Andoh M, Fujiwara Y, Watanabe T: Weekly paclitaxel in patients with CAP-resistant advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: a series of four patients. Int J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug;10(4):272-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Weekly paclitaxel in patients with CAP-resistant advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma: a series of four patients.
  • We evaluated the feasibility of weekly paclitaxel in patients with recurrent or advanced endometrial carcinoma who had failed treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (CAP).
  • We treated four patients with CAP-resistant recurrent or advanced endometrial carcinoma with paclitaxel.
  • Paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2); infused over 1 h) was administered weekly for a maximum of 18 weeks, unless disease progression or intractable toxicity developed.
  • Two patients developed grade 3 leukopenia or neutropenia.
  • Outpatient treatment with weekly paclitaxel was well-tolerated and feasible for patients with CAP-resistant recurrent or advanced endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2002 May 1;20(9):2365-9 [11981009.001]
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  • (PMID = 16136374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; CISCA protocol
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22. Anwer K, Barnes MN, Fewell J, Lewis DH, Alvarez RD: Phase-I clinical trial of IL-12 plasmid/lipopolymer complexes for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer. Gene Ther; 2010 Mar;17(3):360-9
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  • [Title] Phase-I clinical trial of IL-12 plasmid/lipopolymer complexes for the treatment of recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • A phase-I trial to assess the safety and tolerability of human interleukin-12 (IL-12) plasmid (phIL-12) formulated with a synthetic lipopolymer, polyethyleneglycol-polyethyleneimine-cholesterol (PPC), was conducted on women with chemotherapy-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer.
  • Measurable levels of IL-12 plasmid were detectable in PF samples collected throughout the course of phIL-12/PPC treatment.
  • Treatment-related increases in IFN-gamma levels were observed in PF but not in serum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / therapy. Genetic Therapy / methods. Interleukin-12 / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Cholesterol / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Interferon-gamma / blood. Middle Aged. Plasmids / genetics. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Polyethyleneimine / therapeutic use


23. Bookman MA, Darcy KM, Clarke-Pearson D, Boothby RA, Horowitz IR: Evaluation of monoclonal humanized anti-HER2 antibody, trastuzumab, in patients with recurrent or refractory ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma with overexpression of HER2: a phase II trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Jan 15;21(2):283-90
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  • [Title] Evaluation of monoclonal humanized anti-HER2 antibody, trastuzumab, in patients with recurrent or refractory ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma with overexpression of HER2: a phase II trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility, toxicity, and efficacy of single-agent monoclonal antibody therapy targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu receptor in ovarian and primary peritoneal carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had measurable persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma with 2+ or 3+ HER2 overexpression documented by immunohistochemistry.
  • Patients without progressive disease or excessive toxicity could continue treatment indefinitely.
  • Those with stable or responding disease at 8 weeks were offered treatment at a higher weekly dose (4 mg/kg) at time of progression.
  • Forty-five patients, all of whom received prior chemotherapy, were entered, and 41 were deemed eligible and assessable.
  • There were only mild expected toxicities and no treatment-related deaths.
  • Serum concentrations of trastuzumab gradually increased with continued therapy.
  • Median treatment duration was 8 weeks (range, 2 to 104 weeks), and median progression-free interval was 2.0 months.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinical value of single-agent trastuzumab in recurrent ovarian cancer is limited by the low frequency of HER2 overexpression and low rate of objective response among patients with HER2 overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 12525520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab
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24. Patsner B: Primary endodermal sinus tumor of the endometrium presenting as "recurrent" endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Jan;80(1):93-5
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  • [Title] Primary endodermal sinus tumor of the endometrium presenting as "recurrent" endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary endodermal sinus tumor of the endometrium is an extremely rare malignancy with few reports in the world literature.
  • CASE: A case of primary endodermal sinus tumor of the endometrium is presented.
  • The case is unusual in several aspects: it occurred in a patient with a history of breast cancer and long-standing tamoxifen use, and was diagnosed only after presenting as an apparent unexpected recurrence of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The tumor recurred despite initial cytoreductive surgery and combination chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Rare types of endometrial cancers may present as unexpected recurrences of previously resected endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • Appropriate therapy depends on obtaining sufficient tissue to establish an accurate diagnosis to ensure selection of proper chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / chemically induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Oncol. 2002 Jan;84(1):184 [11749000.001]
  • (PMID = 11136577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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25. Amato NA, Partipilo V, Mele F, Boscia F, De Marzo P: [Pelvic lymphadenectomy as an alternative to adjuvant radiotherapy in early stage endometrial cancer at high risk of recurrent lymphatic metastases (stage I)]. Minerva Ginecol; 2009 Feb;61(1):1-12
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  • [Title] [Pelvic lymphadenectomy as an alternative to adjuvant radiotherapy in early stage endometrial cancer at high risk of recurrent lymphatic metastases (stage I)].
  • [Transliterated title] Linfoadenectomia pelvica come alternativa alla radioterapia adiuvante nel carcinoma endometriale ad alto rischio di metastasi linfonodali in fase precoce (stadio I).
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate if the surgical approach without pelvic lymphadenectomy and with adjuvant radiotherapy in the patients suffering from endometrioid adenocarcinoma type at high risk (of lymphatic metastasis) in early stage can be substituted by only surgery with pelvic lymphadenectomy (with or without para-aortic lymphadenectomy).
  • The cancer grading (G) was defined before the surgery with an hystological exam on endometrial biopsies.
  • Both were evaluated according to age, risk type, and therapy adopted.
  • RESULTS: Four patients (7.1%) showed relapse during the period of study in a medium time of 24 months (range: 12-36): 2 of these patients (C and D cases; 36%) had a relapse both locally (pelvic wall) and distantly; the other two (A and B cases; 36%) had only a distant relapse.
  • One patient of the low risk group (3.8%) (case A) had a distant relapse (lungs) 12 months after the surgery and died 6 months after the appearance of the relapse without any additional treatment, because of age and of concomitant pathologies which suggested another illness.
  • One of them with distant relapse (36 months after the primary treatment) (case B) is still alive, even though she has got a controlled cancer, 8 months after the rescue treatment (chemotherapy), whereas two of them died in a medium time of 14 months (range 13-15 months) from the rescue treatment (C and D cases).
  • One of the three patients of the high risk group underwent the standard surgical treatment with lympho-adenectomy (case B) whereas the other two underwent the standard surgical treatment with aiding radiotherapy (C and D cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymphatic Metastasis / prevention & control. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19204656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Hahn HS, Yoon SG, Hong JS, Hong SR, Park SJ, Lim JY, Kwon YS, Lee IH, Lim KT, Lee KH, Shim JU, Mok JE, Kim TJ: Conservative treatment with progestin and pregnancy outcomes in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Aug;19(6):1068-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative treatment with progestin and pregnancy outcomes in endometrial cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservative treatment with progestin and pregnancy outcomes in women with early-stage endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 35 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma, who were treated with progestin from January 1996 to December 2006.
  • Women with early-stage grade 1 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, who wanted to receive conservative treatment or preserve fertility, were included.
  • Complete remission (CR) was defined as no evidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma or hyperplasia.
  • Partial remission was diagnosed when the patient developed endometrial hyperplasia, and persistent disease was defined as residual endometrial adenocarcinoma by pathologic confirmation.
  • The median time to CR was 9 months (range, 2-12 months).
  • Of the 22 patients with CR, 9 (40.9%) had recurrent disease, and the median time to recurrence was 12 months (range, 8-48 months).
  • There were no congenital anomalies in babies associated with progestin treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conservative treatment with progestin can be considered a good therapeutic option in patients with well-differentiated early-stage endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma who wish to preserve their uteri or become pregnant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / rehabilitation. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / rehabilitation. Pregnancy Outcome. Progestins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Follow-Up Studies. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Humans. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / adverse effects. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use. Megestrol Acetate / adverse effects. Megestrol Acetate / therapeutic use. Pregnancy. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19820370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Progestins; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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27. Skirnisdottir I, Nordqvist S, Sorbe B: Is adjuvant radiotherapy in early stages (FIGO I-II) of epithelial ovarian cancer a treatment of the past? Oncol Rep; 2005 Aug;14(2):521-9
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  • [Title] Is adjuvant radiotherapy in early stages (FIGO I-II) of epithelial ovarian cancer a treatment of the past?
  • External abdomino-pelvic irradiation after primary surgery in early stages of epithelial ovarian carcinoma has been used as adjuvant therapy.
  • The aims of this study were to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of abdomino-pelvic radiotherapy in ovarian carcinomas and to find predictive factors for recurrent disease.
  • The dose of specification was 20 Gy to the upper part of the abdominal cavity and 40 Gy to the lower part of the abdomen and the pelvic region.
  • In a multivariate analysis, FIGO-stage, histopathological type and tumor grade were independent prognostic factors with recurrent-free survival as the end-point.
  • Early radiation reactions of any type were noted in 85% of the cases.
  • In conclusion, adjuvant abdomino-pelvic radiotherapy is a treatment option in early stages of ovarian carcinoma together with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


28. Pothuri B, Chi DS, Reid T, Aghajanian C, Venkatraman E, Alektiar K, Bilsky M, Barakat RR: Craniotomy for central nervous system metastases in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Oct;87(1):133-7
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  • Numerous series have reported various modalities for treatment with median survivals of 3 to 5 months, but the role of craniotomy has not been specifically addressed.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients who underwent craniotomy between 1989 and 2001 for pathologically confirmed recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer metastatic to the CNS.
  • Histologic distribution was as follows: papillary serous, 9; endometrioid, 2; mixed papillary serous and endometrioid, 1; carcinosarcoma, 1; and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, 1.
  • All patients received initial platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • The median time from initial diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma to CNS relapse was 3.5 years (range, 1.3 to 8.2).
  • Eight patients (57%) had extracranial disease at the time of craniotomy.
  • The mean operative time for craniotomy was 178 min (range, 70 to 305).
  • The only major operative complications were deep vein thromboses that developed in two patients.
  • No patient developed a neurologic deficit as a result of craniotomy.
  • Postoperative treatment included whole-brain radiation in 11 patients, chemotherapy in 4, and hormonal therapy in 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite optimal cytoreduction, platinum-based chemotherapy, and negative second-look surgical assessment, patients with ovarian cancer can fail distantly with CNS metastases.
  • Craniotomy with adjuvant radiation therapy can provide control of brain metastases in the majority of these patients and may result in improved survival over radiation therapy alone in selected patients.

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  • (PMID = 12468354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. van Wijk FH, Aapro MS, Bolis G, Chevallier B, van der Burg ME, Poveda A, de Oliveira CF, Tumolo S, Scotto di Palumbo V, Piccart M, Franchi M, Zanaboni F, Lacave AJ, Fontanelli R, Favalli G, Zola P, Guastalla JP, Rosso R, Marth C, Nooij M, Presti M, Scarabelli C, Splinter TA, Ploch E, Beex LV, ten Bokkel Huinink W, Forni M, Melpignano M, Blake P, Kerbrat P, Mendiola C, Cervantes A, Goupil A, Harper PG, Madronal C, Namer M, Scarfone G, Stoot JE, Teodorovic I, Coens C, Vergote I, Vermorken JB, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Gynaecological Cancer Group: Doxorubicin versus doxorubicin and cisplatin in endometrial carcinoma: definitive results of a randomised study (55872) by the EORTC Gynaecological Cancer Group. Ann Oncol; 2003 Mar;14(3):441-8
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  • [Title] Doxorubicin versus doxorubicin and cisplatin in endometrial carcinoma: definitive results of a randomised study (55872) by the EORTC Gynaecological Cancer Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Combination chemotherapy yields better response rates which do not always lead to a survival advantage.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether the reported differences in the efficacy and toxicity of monotherapy with doxorubicin (DOX) versus combination therapy with cisplatin (CDDP) in endometrial adenocarcinoma lead to significant advantage in favour of the combination.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had histologically-proven advanced and/or recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma and were chemo-naïve.
  • Treatment consisted of either DOX 60 mg/m(2) alone or CDDP 50 mg/m2 added to DOX 60 mg/m2, every 4 weeks.
  • Regression analysis showed that WHO performance status was statistically significant as a prognostic factor for survival, and stratifying for this factor, treatment effect reaches significance (hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.03, P = 0.024).

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Oncol. 2003 May;14(5):811
  • (PMID = 12598351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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30. Yamazawa K, Hirai M, Fujito A, Nishi H, Terauchi F, Ishikura H, Shozu M, Isaka K: Fertility-preserving treatment with progestin, and pathological criteria to predict responses, in young women with endometrial cancer. Hum Reprod; 2007 Jul;22(7):1953-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fertility-preserving treatment with progestin, and pathological criteria to predict responses, in young women with endometrial cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: There are therapeutic dilemmas regarding conservative management of endometrial cancer in young women.
  • METHODS: We planned a prospective study to conservatively treat women aged under 40 years with clinical stage 1A, grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma from 1999 to 2005.
  • Curettage materials were pathologically evaluated according to our criteria including partial response (PR) (a small amount of cancer tissue with remarkable hormonal effects or atypical hyperplasia).
  • To predict complete response (CR) to progestin, immunohistochemical staining for insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten, progesterone receptor (PgR), estrogen receptor and Ki67 were assessed.
  • Two patients developed recurrent disease 10 and 22 months after the last dilatation and curettage, and both had synchronous ovarian cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with an initial PR can obtain CR after further treatment, and the PgR may be useful in predicting CR to fertility-preserving treatment in young women with endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Progestins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Fertility / drug effects. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Pregnancy. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17449880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Progestins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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31. Akram T, Maseelall P, Fanning J: Carboplatin and paclitaxel for the treatment of advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2005 May;192(5):1365-7
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  • [Title] Carboplatin and paclitaxel for the treatment of advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the activity and toxicity of carboplatin and paclitaxel (taxol) in the treatment of advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of 18 consecutive patients with advanced (stage 4) or recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma that had been treated with outpatient carboplatin and taxol.
  • Kaplan-Meier test was used to estimate the median survival time of 27 months and the median progression free survival time of 24 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Carboplatin and taxol for the treatment of advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer appear to be active regimens with minimal toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15902110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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32. Yasuda M, Matsui N, Kajiwara H, Osamura RY, Miyamoto T, Murakami M, Shinozuka T, Itoh J: Malignant transformation of atypical endometrial hyperplasia after progesterone therapy showing germ-cell tumor-like differentiation. Pathol Int; 2004 Jun;54(6):451-6
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Malignant germ cell tumor.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant transformation of atypical endometrial hyperplasia after progesterone therapy showing germ-cell tumor-like differentiation.
  • A 31-year-old woman was treated for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy to preserve fertility.
  • The AEH was found by repeated cytologic and histologic examinations to have completely disappeared with the therapy, but 3 years after her last follow up she required emergency surgery to treat severe genital bleeding.
  • The hysterectomied uterus consisted mostly of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, G3 endometrioid type.
  • Recurrent AEH had undergone malignant transformation, resulting in the development of well- and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and tumor exhibiting germ-cell-like differentiation.
  • The AEH before MPA therapy and the recurrent tumors had genetically different characteristics based on evidence of a loss of heterozygosity, detected at D8S1132 (chromosomal locus, 8q22.1) in the latter but not in the former, by analysis of genetic alterations using microsatellite markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Germinoma / secondary. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15144406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
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