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1. Kurbacher CM, Kurbacher JA, Cramer EM, Rhiem K, Mallman PK, Reichelt R, Reinhold U, Stier U, Cree IA: Continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage therapy in refractory recurrent breast or female genital tract carcinoma. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Apr;19(4 Suppl 2):23-6
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  • [Title] Continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage therapy in refractory recurrent breast or female genital tract carcinoma.
  • Adjuvant treatment with continuous low-dose GM-CSF has been shown to prolong survival of stage III/IV melanoma patients.
  • Data on continuous low-dose GM-CSF therapy in tumors other than prostate cancer are still lacking.
  • This pilot trial was initiated in order to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage in various chemotherapy-refractory carcinomas.
  • Their malignancies included metastatic breast cancer, recurrent ovarian carcinoma, metastatic endometrial carcinoma, and recurrent squamous cell cancer of the cervix uteri.
  • Therapy was continued until progression or refusal by the patient.
  • Notably, 6 of 7 responders but only 1 of 8 patients with disease progression developed leukocytosis during therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Pilot Projects. Recombinant Proteins. Salvage Therapy


2. Gadducci A, Cosio S, Carpi A, Nicolini A, Genazzani AR: Serum tumor markers in the management of ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer. Biomed Pharmacother; 2004 Jan;58(1):24-38
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  • [Title] Serum tumor markers in the management of ovarian, endometrial and cervical cancer.
  • CA 125 is the most reliable serum marker for ovarian carcinoma.
  • Whereas its role in the screening of the malignancy is controversial, serum CA 125 assay is very useful for both the differential diagnosis of ovarian masses, particularly in postmenopause, and the monitoring of the response to chemotherapy and follow-up of patients with histologically proven ovarian carcinoma.
  • Tumor-associated antigens other than CA 125, such as CA 19.9, CA 15.3 and TAG.72, firstly identified in gastro-intestinal or breast malignancies, have been detected also in tissue and serum samples from patients with ovarian carcinoma.
  • Serum CA 125 correlates with the clinical course of disease better than the other antigens, and in patients with positive CA 125 assay at diagnosis the concomitant evaluation of CA 19.9 or CA 72.4 or CA 15.3 does not offer any additional benefit for monitoring ovarian carcinoma.
  • Serum alphaFP and betaHCG are very useful in the preoperative evaluation and management of nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ cell tumors, whereas elevated serum inhibin levels can be detected in patients with granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
  • As for endometrial carcinoma, preoperative serum CA 125 levels correlate with stage, depth of myometrial invasion, histologic grade, cervical invasion, peritoneal cytology, lymph node status and clinical outcome.
  • Moreover, serial CA 125 assay is a good indicator of disease activity and a useful biochemical tool for post-treatment surveillance of patients with endometrial carcinoma.
  • SCC is the most reliable serum marker for squamous cell cervical carcinoma, and in patients with this malignancy pretreatment SCC levels are related to tumor stage, tumor size, depth of cervical invasion, lymph-vascular space involvement, lymph node status and clinical outcome.
  • Serial SCC measurements parallel the response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as the clinical course of disease after the completion of treatment.
  • Serum CYFRA 21.1 seems to be less sensitive than serum SCC for squamous cell cervical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / blood. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy


3. Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Fezoulidis I: Cancer vascularization: implications in radiotherapy? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2000 Sep 1;48(2):545-53
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  • The distribution of the vascular density within tumors was studied in 436 non-small-cell lung carcinomas and 298 breast carcinomas.
  • (1) tumors with low or (2) tumors with high vessel density throughout the tissue section, and (3) tumors with high vessel density in the tumor periphery and low in inner areas.
  • The death rate following surgery showed a direct association with the vascular density in lung, breast, colon, and endometrial cancer.
  • In inoperable gastric cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, and in head and neck cancer patients treated with radical chemoradiotherapy there was a 'U-like' association of the death rate with the vascular density suggesting that very low (poor oxygen and drug availability) and very high (intensified angiogenic pathways) vascularization are both linked to poor outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: The present study stresses the importance of the vascular density as a putative variable that may have affected the results of large clinical trials that investigated the role of anemia, hyperbaric oxygen, hypoxic sensitizers, or even of combined chemoradiotherapy in the outcome of radiation treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / blood supply. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / blood supply. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood supply. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Colonic Neoplasms / blood supply. Colonic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood supply. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / blood supply. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Microcirculation. Oxygen Consumption. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10974475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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4. Modesitt SC, van Nagell JR Jr: The impact of obesity on the incidence and treatment of gynecologic cancers: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv; 2005 Oct;60(10):683-92
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  • [Title] The impact of obesity on the incidence and treatment of gynecologic cancers: a review.
  • The objectives of this review were to systematically evaluate and discuss the impact of overweight and obesity on endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer incidence and to review the data on the impact of obesity on treatment of these same gynecologic cancers.
  • A PUBMED literature search was performed to identify articles in the English language that focused on the impact of obesity on cancer incidence and treatment.
  • Obesity profoundly increases the incidence of endometrial cancer, predominantly through the effects of unopposed estrogen.
  • Obese women with cancer have decreased survival; this may be disease-specific, the result of comorbid illnesses, or response to treatment.
  • Obese women have increased surgical complications, may also have increased radiation complications, and there is no current consensus regarding appropriate chemotherapy dosing in the obese patient.
  • Obesity is a serious health problem with significant effects on the incidence and treatment of the gynecologic malignancies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Comorbidity. Endometrial Neoplasms / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Risk Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16186785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7828
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrical & gynecological survey
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol Surv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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5. Katsumata N, Noda K, Nozawa S, Kitagawa R, Nishimura R, Yamaguchi S, Aoki D, Susumu N, Kuramoto H, Jobo T, Ueki K, Ueki M, Kohno I, Fujiwara K, Sohda Y, Eguchi F: Phase II trial of docetaxel in advanced or metastatic endometrial cancer: a Japanese Cooperative Study. Br J Cancer; 2005 Oct 31;93(9):999-1004
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of docetaxel in advanced or metastatic endometrial cancer: a Japanese Cooperative Study.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether docetaxel has antitumour activity in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma.
  • Chemotherapy-naïve or previously treated patients (one regimen) with histopathologically documented endometrial carcinoma and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status </=2 entered the study.
  • Of 33 patients with a median age of 59 years (range, 39-74 years) who entered the study, 14 patients (42%) had received one prior chemotherapy regimen.
  • The median time to progression was 3.9 months.
  • Docetaxel has antitumour activity in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma, including those previously treated with chemotherapy; however, the effect was transient and accompanied by pronounced neutropenia in most patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Female. Humans. Japan. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16234823.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361676
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6. Dutt A, Salvesen HB, Chen TH, Ramos AH, Onofrio RC, Hatton C, Nicoletti R, Winckler W, Grewal R, Hanna M, Wyhs N, Ziaugra L, Richter DJ, Trovik J, Engelsen IB, Stefansson IM, Fennell T, Cibulskis K, Zody MC, Akslen LA, Gabriel S, Wong KK, Sellers WR, Meyerson M, Greulich H: Drug-sensitive FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Jun 24;105(25):8713-7
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  • [Title] Drug-sensitive FGFR2 mutations in endometrial carcinoma.
  • Oncogenic activation of tyrosine kinases is a common mechanism of carcinogenesis and, given the druggable nature of these enzymes, an attractive target for anticancer therapy.
  • Here, we show that somatic mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) tyrosine kinase gene, FGFR2, are present in 12% of endometrial carcinomas, with additional instances found in lung squamous cell carcinoma and cervical carcinoma.
  • Inhibition of FGFR2 kinase activity in endometrial carcinoma cell lines bearing such FGFR2 mutations inhibits transformation and survival, implicating FGFR2 as a novel therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cell Survival. Female. Mice. NIH 3T3 Cells. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 18552176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA126546
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2438391
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7. Amico P, Caltabiano R, Zizza G, Lanzafame S: About a case of diffuse endometrial squamous metaplasia after resectoscopic myomectomy: a potential diagnostic pitfall for gynecologists and pathologists. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Jul;18(4):392-5
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  • [Title] About a case of diffuse endometrial squamous metaplasia after resectoscopic myomectomy: a potential diagnostic pitfall for gynecologists and pathologists.
  • We report a case of diffuse endometrial squamous metaplasia found after in a resectoscopic myomectomy specimen.
  • After pharmacologic treatment with a GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) leuprolide acetate, the patient underwent a resectoscopic myomectomy.
  • Histologic examination showed fragments of myometrial tissue with the foci of endometrial glands with diffuse features of squamous metaplasia; in part classical, mature type; and in part immature type, and the so-called "morula type."
  • Presence of endometrial squamous metaplasia in the endometrium may produce dramatic histologic changes on biopsies and sometimes it may be difficult to distinguish it from primitive primary carcinomas of nonendometrioid histology, representing therefore, a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • GnRHa therapy could play a possible role in the onset of squamous metaplasia.

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  • (PMID = 20436347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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8. Homesley HD, Meltzer NP, Nieves L, Vaccarello L, Lowendowski GS, Elbendary AA: A phase II trial of weekly 1-hour paclitaxel as second-line therapy for endometrial and cervical cancer. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):62-5
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  • [Title] A phase II trial of weekly 1-hour paclitaxel as second-line therapy for endometrial and cervical cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The efficacy of weekly paclitaxel has not been well characterized in either cervical or endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: Eligible women had disseminated endometrial or squamous cell cancer of the cervix, one prior chemotherapy regimen, measurable disease, and a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) performance status of 0-2.
  • RESULTS: Forty-four patients were registered, and 15 of 16 patients with endometrial cancer and 20 of 28 patients with cervical cancer were evaluable for response.
  • Four of the 15 (26.7%) endometrial cancer patients responded to treatment, with one complete response of 22 weeks and three partial responses.
  • Two of the 20 (10%) cervical cancer patients responded to treatment, with one complete response of 25 weeks and one partial response of 14 weeks.
  • CONCLUSION: Although confirmatory larger trials are needed, weekly paclitaxel appears promising for advanced endometrial carcinoma, and possibly for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous

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  • (PMID = 18307021.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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9. Mendivil A, Schuler KM, Gehrig PA: Non-endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus: a review of selected histological subtypes. Cancer Control; 2009 Jan;16(1):46-52
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  • BACKGROUND: Understanding the etiology, presentation, evaluation, and management of selected non-endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus is needed to define optimal treatment regimens.
  • METHODS: The pathology and treatment of selected non-endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas of the uterus are reviewed and summarized.
  • RESULTS: The most common non-endometrioid histology is papillary serous (10%), followed by clear cell (2% to 4%), mucinous (0.6% to 5%), and squamous cell (0.1% to 0.5%).
  • Some non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas behave more aggressively than the endometrioid cancers such that even women with clinical stage I disease often have extrauterine metastasis at the time of surgical evaluation.
  • Therefore, when technically and medically feasible, comprehensive surgical staging is helpful for women with non-endometrioid endometrial cancer histology.
  • While whole abdominal radiotherapy has a limited role in early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and clear cell carcinoma (CC), there may be a role for postoperative chemotherapy and volume-directed radiotherapy in both early-stage UPSC and CC.
  • In the setting of optimally debulked advanced-stage disease, a combination of radiation and chemotherapy may be indicated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: UPSC and CC are managed similarly since sufficient data to separate treatment recommendations are lacking.
  • Because both histologies are associated with a high rate of recurrence, adjuvant therapy is recommended even in women with early-stage disease.
  • The remaining cell types should be treated similar to endometrioid or other low-grade histologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19078929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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10. Fraunholz IB, Schopohl B, Falk S, Boettcher HD: Cytohormonal status and acute radiation vaginitis. Front Radiat Ther Oncol; 2002;37:112-20
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  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Menopause. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 11764652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0071-9676
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers of radiation therapy and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Radiat Ther Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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11. Johann S, Mueller MD: [Follow-up after malignant tumours of the uterus (cancer of the uterine corpus / cervical cancer)]. Ther Umsch; 2008 Jun;65(6):341-6
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  • The endometrial carcinoma with its different histological subtypes counts for most of the malignomas of the uterine body.
  • But the rare category of uterine sarcomas (carcinosarcomas, leiomyosarcomas as well as endometrial stromal sarcomas) also belongs to this group.
  • Cervical cancer presents an own entitity, regarding both histology and therapeutic options.
  • Endometrial cancer is the most common genital malignoma in Northern Europe and North America.
  • Histologically, the endometrial cancer can be subdivided in two groups: type I is hormonal sensitive and well differentiated, type II represents an undifferenciated aggressive tumour with poor prognosis.
  • Due to the main symptom - abnormal vaginal bleeding - endometrial cancer is detected in an early stage in about 75% of all patients.
  • First choice in therapy is stage related surgery.
  • Cervical cancer is mainly a squamous cell carcinoma and oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated.
  • Surgery is only indicated up to stage IIA, advanced stages should be treated by radio-chemotherapy.
  • Intention is the detection of the curable local relapse.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


12. Sivanesaratnam V: Chien-Tien Hsu Memorial Lecture. Fertility and gynaecologic malignancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2001 Feb;27(1):1-15
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  • A clear inverse relationship exists between family size and the incidence of ovarian and endometrial cancer.
  • A slightly increased risk of breast cancer has been reported in current users and those who had used hormonal contraceptives (OCs) within 10 years; this risk declined with time and disappeared after 10 years.
  • Most studies found OC to reduce the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer.
  • The relative risks of squamous cell carcinoma and adenomatous carcinoma of the cervix have been reported to be 1.3 and 1.5, respectively in ever-users of OCs; however, the aetiology of cervical cancer is multifactoral.
  • Therapy of gynaecological malignancies may have an influence on subsequent fertility.
  • Amenorrhoea developing after treatment of hydatidiform mole may be due to choriocarcinoma, recurrent mole or a normal pregnancy.
  • The risk of fetal teratogenicity from chemotherapy is present only if conception occurs during or immediately following the treatment cycles.
  • Fertility is not impaired following chemotherapy.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery may be safe in early ovarian epithelial cancers and even in advanced germ cell tumours.

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  • (PMID = 11330724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Lectures
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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13. Balendiran GK: Fibrates in the chemical action of daunorubicin. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2009 May;9(3):366-9
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  • Anthracyclines are an important reagent in many chemotherapy regimes for treating a wide range of tumors.
  • Natural product, daunorubicin a toxic analogue of anthracycline is reduced to less toxic daunorubicinol by the AKR1B10, enzyme, which is overexpressed in most cases of smoking associate squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, AKR1B10 was discovered as an enzyme overexpressed in human liver, cervical and endometrial cancer cases in samples from uterine cancer patients.
  • Also, the expression of AKR1B10 was associated with tumor recurrence after surgery and keratinization of squamous cell carcinoma in cervical cancer and estimated to have the potential as a tumor intervention target colorectal cancer cells (HCT-8) and diagnostic marker for non-small-cell lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Clofibric Acid / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aldehyde Reductase / chemistry. Aldehyde Reductase / drug effects. Aldehyde Reductase / genetics. Aldehyde Reductase / metabolism. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Kinetics. Models, Molecular. Substrate Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19442055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R15 DK085496
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 53PF01Q249 / Clofibric Acid; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1B10 protein, human; EC 1.1.1.21 / Aldehyde Reductase; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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14. Levgur M: Estrogen and combined hormone therapy for women after genital malignancies: a review. J Reprod Med; 2004 Oct;49(10):837-48
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  • [Title] Estrogen and combined hormone therapy for women after genital malignancies: a review.
  • This review summarizes information regarding estrogen therapy (ET) and hormone therapy (HT) for women with endometrial cancer as well as other gynecologic malignancies.
  • Of the 228 patients who received estrogen therapy, 3.5% developed recurrences as opposed to 16.5% among the 309 women receiving no therapy.
  • It is agreed, however, that the histologic type of the tumor is an important factor to consider prior to the initiation of such therapy.
  • Utilizing estrogen compounds has no bearing on risks of later developing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, or tubal, vulvar or vaginal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Continuity of Patient Care. Drug Therapy, Combination. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15568410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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15. Subramaniam R, Arnott SJ, Leslie MD: Successful chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer despite previous radical radiotherapy for gynaecological malignancy. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2002 Aug;14(4):285-6
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  • Repeat radical irradiation of the pelvis is generally not undertaken because of concerns regarding normal tissue damage; in particular to small bowel, bladder and bone.
  • Two patients with carcinoma of the anal canal are presented who had previously been treated by radical pelvic radiotherapy for gynaecological malignancy.
  • Both were re-treated with radical radiotherapy to the pelvis with concomitant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Hysterectomy. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12206638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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16. Rimel BJ, Huettner P, Powell MA, Mutch DG, Goodfellow PJ: Absence of MGMT promoter methylation in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jan;112(1):224-8
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  • [Title] Absence of MGMT promoter methylation in endometrial cancer.
  • CpG island methylation, response to combination chemotherapy, and patient survival in advanced microsatellite stable colorectal carcinoma.
  • Loss of expression of DNA repair enzyme MGMT in oral leukoplakia and early oral squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma may develop within a background of accumulating DNA methylation in normal and dysplastic mucosa.
  • We sought to determine if MGMT promoter methylation plays a role in endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: One hundred and twenty primary endometrial cancers were analyzed for MGMT promoter methylation by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA).
  • The cohort included 77 endometrioid endometrial cancers, 43 endometrial tumors of adverse histologic type, and 6 endometrial cancer cell lines.
  • RESULTS: No MGMT promoter methylation was seen in the 120 endometrial cancers evaluated or the 6 endometrial cancer cell lines.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed moderate to high level expression of MGMT in the primary endometrial tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: MGMT promoter methylation is an infrequent event in endometrial cancer.
  • MGMT expression and the ability to repair damaged alkylguanine residues could in part explain the limited response of endometrial tumors to alkylating chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 18973931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA071754-08A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA071754; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA071754-08A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA071754
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.1.1.63 / O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS92462; NLM/ PMC2949277
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17. Piura B, Rabinovich A, Huleihel M: [Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in malignancies of the female genital tract]. Harefuah; 2003 Nov;142(11):786-91, 804
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  • [Title] [Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in malignancies of the female genital tract].
  • Their proteolytic activity depends on their binding to metal Zinc and is controlled by tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs).
  • Since MMPs may serve as markers of tumor behavior and as predictors of survival and since synthetic inhibitors of MMP may have a place in the treatment of cancer, researching MMPs and their tissue inhibitors in malignant diseases has attracted growing attention.
  • Studies on MMPs and their tissue inhibitors in malignancies of the female genital tract have shown the following:.
  • 1) In ovarian carcinoma and cervical carcinoma, over-expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 is associated with invasiveness, metastatic spread and poor prognosis;.
  • 2) In endometrial carcinoma, MMP-7 (matrilysin) is the main MMP associated with invasiveness, metastatic spread and poor prognosis;.
  • In vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, over-expression of MMP-13 is associated with invasiveness, metastatic spread and poor prognosis.
  • It is speculated that using synthetic drugs that inhibit MMPs in combination with conventional chemotherapy may contribute to the improvement of treatment results in cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / enzymology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 14631913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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18. Li X, Liu L, Wu L: [Ifosfamide combination chemotherapy for advanced gynecologic malignancies]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2000 Jul;22(4):330-2
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  • [Title] [Ifosfamide combination chemotherapy for advanced gynecologic malignancies].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and toxicity of ifosfamide (IFO) combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced gynecologic malignancies.
  • Of the 34 patients, 26 with epithelial cancer of the ovary were previously treated with cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy but failed to respond or recurred after treatment.
  • The remaining 8 patients with uterine sarcoma (5 cases), squamous-cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix with metastases to the liver or bone (2 cases), and endometrial carcinoma with lung metastases (1 case) were treated with IFO combination chemotherapy.
  • At least two courses of treatment were given unless tumor progression occurred after the first course.
  • Two patients with cervical carcinoma and two of five patients with uterine sarcoma responded to IFO combination chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: IFO combination chemotherapy is effective in treating recurrent or progressive gynecologic malignancies, especially PDD-sensitive ones.
  • Myelosuppression is relatively severe which may be due to prior long term and intensive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11778564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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19. Yen TC, Lai CH: Positron emission tomography in gynecologic cancer. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;36(1):93-104
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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography in gynecologic cancer.
  • Most positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies in gynecologic cancer are performed using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG).
  • It contributes valuable information in primary staging of untreated advanced cervical cancer, in the post-treatment surveillance with unexplained tumor marker (such as squamous cell carcinoma antigen [SCC-Ag]) elevation or suspicious of recurrence, and restaging of potentially curable recurrent cervical cancer.
  • In ovarian cancer, FDG-PET provides benefits for those with plateaued or increasing abnormal serum CA 125 (>35 U/mL), computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) defined localized recurrence feasible for local destructive procedures (such as surgery, radiotherapy, or radiofrequency ablation), and clinically suspected recurrent or persistent cancer for which CT-guide biopsy cannot be performed.
  • The role of FDG-PET in endometrial cancer is relatively less defined because of the lack of data in the literature.
  • In our prospective study, FDG-PET coupled with MRI-CT may facilitate optimal management of endometrial cancer in well-selected cases.
  • The clinical impact was positive in 29 (48.3%) of the 60 scans, 22.2% for primary staging, 73.1% for post-therapy surveillance, and 57.1% after salvage therapy, respectively.
  • Our preliminary results suggest that FDG-PET is potentially useful in selected gestational trophoblastic neoplasia by providing a precise metastatic mapping of tumor extent up front, monitoring response, and localizing viable tumors after chemotherapy.
  • The evaluation of a diagnostic tool, such as PET, is usually via comparing the diagnostic efficacy (sensitivity, specificity, etc), by using a more sophisticated receiver operating curve method, or the proportion of treatment been modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Genital Neoplasms, Female / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16356798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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20. Lee KB, Lee JM, Park CY, Lee KB, Cho HY, Ha SY: What is the difference between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cervix? A matched case-control study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):1569-73
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  • [Title] What is the difference between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cervix? A matched case-control study.
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of treatment strategies in patients with adenocarcinoma (AC) of the cervix and compare it with those with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix.
  • Primary radical surgery followed by adjuvant therapy, same as for SCC, would be acceptable for AC with pathologic tumor size of 2-4 cm.
  • Although it was difficult to determine whether AC recurred more systemically, more effective treatment strategies than those currently available for AC should be considered to reduce the systemic recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Stromal Cells / pathology. Survival Rate


21. Goker BO, Bese T, Ilvan S, Yilmaz E, Demirkiran F: A case with multiple gynecological malignancies. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):372-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A patient with cervical non-Hodgkin lymphoma was treated with chemotherapy.
  • Fourteen months after the diagnosis of the lymphoma, an endometrial adenocarcinoma was detected as a secondary malignant tumor.
  • Approximately 7 years after the diagnosis of endometrial cancer, vaginal invasive squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed as the third primary malignancy, and a second-line palliative radiotherapy was applied.
  • Congenital and acquired immune system disorders, viral oncogenes, and various human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types were investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology


22. Myriokefalitaki E, Iavazzo C, Vorgias G, Akrivos T: A two eterochronous primary gynaecological malignancies of different origin. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2009;110(11):726-8
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  • Curettage revealed an endometrial cancer.
  • Histology showed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of endometrium stage Ib, moderately differentiated.
  • No additional therapy was given.
  • Although, recurrence on vaginal cuff was possible, the biopsies of anterior vaginal wall showed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina.
  • The patient was classified as stage II vaginal carcinoma and underwent complete radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case indicates that female genital carcinomas of different histological origins may occur with minimal time-interval, even in the absence of known predisposing factors like previous chemo-radiotherapy, HPV infection or diethylstilbestrol exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vaginal Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 20120445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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23. Wheeler DT, Bristow RE, Kurman RJ: Histologic alterations in endometrial hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma treated with progestins. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jul;31(7):988-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histologic alterations in endometrial hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma treated with progestins.
  • The treatment of complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) and well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma (WDC) by progestin therapy has been shown to be a safe alternative to hysterectomy.
  • Accurate assessment for regressive changes induced by the progestins is critical to successful treatment.
  • However, there are few studies detailing the histopathologic changes associated with progestin therapy.
  • A total of 44 patients with CAH or WDC, treated with oral progestins or a progesterone or levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, were followed by endometrial biopsy and/or curettage at 3 to 6 month intervals for a maximum of 25 months.
  • The pretreatment and posttreatment endometrial samples were evaluated for response to treatment and for the histologic features of gland-to-stroma ratio, architectural abnormalities [back-to-back glands and confluency (cribriform and/or papillary patterns)], glandular cellularity, mitotic activity, cytologic atypia, and cytoplasmic changes.
  • Histologic changes seen in progestin-treated endometria included a decreased gland-to-stroma ratio, decreased glandular cellularity, decreased to absent mitotic activity, loss of cytologic atypia, and a variety of cytoplasmic changes including mucinous, secretory, squamous, and eosinophilic metaplasia.
  • Architectural changes tended to resolve later in the course of treatment.
  • Three instances of disease progression occurred, presumably only after discontinuing progestin treatment.
  • Only persistent architectural abnormalities and/or cytologic atypia in the 7 to 9-month biopsies were predictive of treatment failure, with a trend for cytologic atypia to be the most powerful predictor.
  • These findings indicate that progestin therapy should be continued for no less than 6 months to accurately assess treatment response.
  • A modified classification for progestin-treated lesions of the endometrium is proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Progestins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Nucleus / drug effects. Disease Progression. Endometrium / drug effects. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17592264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Progestins
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