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1. Myriokefalitaki E, Iavazzo C, Vorgias G, Akrivos T: A two eterochronous primary gynaecological malignancies of different origin. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2009;110(11):726-8
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  • Curettage revealed an endometrial cancer.
  • Histology showed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of endometrium stage Ib, moderately differentiated.
  • No additional therapy was given.
  • The patient was classified as stage II vaginal carcinoma and underwent complete radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case indicates that female genital carcinomas of different histological origins may occur with minimal time-interval, even in the absence of known predisposing factors like previous chemo-radiotherapy, HPV infection or diethylstilbestrol exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20120445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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2. Oza AM, Eisenhauer EA, Elit L, Cutz JC, Sakurada A, Tsao MS, Hoskins PJ, Biagi J, Ghatage P, Mazurka J, Provencher D, Dore N, Dancey J, Fyles A: Phase II study of erlotinib in recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer: NCIC IND-148. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Sep 10;26(26):4319-25
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  • [Title] Phase II study of erlotinib in recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer: NCIC IND-148.
  • PURPOSE: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is common in endometrial cancers and may have a major role in tumor growth and progression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A multinomial design two-stage phase II study was performed to evaluate single-agent activity of erlotinib in women with advanced endometrial cancer with recurrent or metastatic disease who were chemotherapy naïve and had received up to one line of prior hormonal therapy.
  • Archival tumor tissue was analyzed for EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and gene amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).
  • Treatment was well tolerated and severe toxicity infrequent, with the only grade 4 toxicity being an elevation of transaminases (AST).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use


3. Adamian RT: [Therapy of atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with the combination of progestins and anticoagulants]. Vopr Onkol; 2001;47(3):359-62
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  • [Title] [Therapy of atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with the combination of progestins and anticoagulants].
  • The data on clinical trials of newly-developed hormonotherapy of atypical hyperplasia (AH) and cervical adenocarcinoma (CAC) are presented.
  • The study included 34 patients with histologically--confirmed AH and 86--CAC (stage I-II and III-IV).
  • All patients were given preoperative "shock therapy" with a combination of progestins and anticoagulants: 500 mg, i.v., 10 days--(AH) and well-differentiated cell CAC; 20 days--moderately- and poorly-differentiated cell CAC.
  • For comparison, identical numbers of AH and CAC patients received similar preoperative progestin therapy without anticoagulants.
  • It was found that hormonotherapy used in conjunction with anticoagulants reinforced significantly all features of hormonal pathomorphosism both in AH and CAC stage I-II while, in well-differentiated cell adenocarcinoma, the difference from control was significant (p < 0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Anticoagulants / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrium / pathology. Progesterone Congeners / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hydroxyprogesterones / therapeutic use. Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11544839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Russia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Hydroxyprogesterones; 0 / Progesterone Congeners; 276F2O42F5 / 17-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone caproate; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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4. Joshi SC, Sharma DN, Khurana N, Mohanta PK, Bahadur AK: Endometrial carcinoma with recurrence in the incisional scar: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2003 Nov-Dec;13(6):901-3
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  • [Title] Endometrial carcinoma with recurrence in the incisional scar: a case report.
  • We report a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of uterus which developed a recurrence over the scar of surgery.
  • The patient initially underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for her stage II disease.
  • She was disease-free until 21 months when she developed a small mass over the lower site of incisional scar.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology from this swelling revealed metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma similar to previous histopathology.
  • Treatment of the scar recurrence consisted of palliative radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Cicatrix / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 14675332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Wen HW, Tian F, Ma L, Liao QP: [Effects of postoperative chemotherapy on the prognosis of patients with high-risk early stage endometrial cancer]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Mar;44(3):196-9
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  • [Title] [Effects of postoperative chemotherapy on the prognosis of patients with high-risk early stage endometrial cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with high-risk stage I and II (early stage) endometrial cancer.
  • 2007, 106 cases with early stage high-risk endometrial cancer were treated in Peking University First Hospital and were divided into two groups based with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT group, 66 cases) and without adjuvant chemotherapy (control group, 40 cases).
  • On the univariate analysis, the 5-year survival rate of patients received four or more cycles combined chemotherapy was higher than that of cases less than four cycles chemotherapy (100% and 86%, P<0.05).
  • While, it were not significant difference in age, stage, histology, grade, radiotherapy alone, chemotherapy combined radiotherapy or progestin hormonal therapy (P>0.05).
  • On the multivariate analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy was found to affect independent prognostic covariates on early stage cases (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy maybe improve the prognosis of patients with high-risk early stage endometrial cancer, which need to be further study by prospective randomized trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19570445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Greven K, Winter K, Underhill K, Fontenesci J, Cooper J, Burke T: Final analysis of RTOG 9708: adjuvant postoperative irradiation combined with cisplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy following surgery for patients with high-risk endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Oct;103(1):155-9
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  • [Title] Final analysis of RTOG 9708: adjuvant postoperative irradiation combined with cisplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy following surgery for patients with high-risk endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: A phase II study was completed by the RTOG to assess the feasibility, safety, toxicity, and patterns of recurrence and survival when chemotherapy was combined with adjuvant radiation for patients with high-risk endometrial cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathologic requirements included grade 2 or 3 endometrial adenocarcinoma with either >50% myometrial invasion, cervical stromal invasion, or pelvic-confined extrauterine disease.
  • Radiation included 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the pelvis along with cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 28.
  • Follow-up times range from 6.8 to 72 months with a median of 4.3 years.
  • Four-year rates for survival and DFS for Stage III patients are 77% and 72%, respectively.
  • There have been no recurrences for patients with stage IC, IIA, or IIB.
  • CONCLUSION: Local-regional control is excellent following combined modality treatment in all patients suggesting additive effects of chemotherapy and radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16545437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Sutton G, Axelrod JH, Bundy BN, Roy T, Homesley H, Lee RB, Gehrig PA, Zaino R: Adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation in clinical stages I and II papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Feb;100(2):349-54
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  • [Title] Adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation in clinical stages I and II papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcome in patients with clinical stage I/II papillary serous (PS) or clear cell (CC) endometrial carcinoma treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Among 21 PS patients (median age: 68 years), one refused therapy, and another received a non-protocol vaginal boost.
  • Five others died due to protocol treatment (1), toxicity from subsequent chemotherapy (1), intercurrent disease (1), and unknown cause (2).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Over half of the treatment failures were within the radiation field.
  • Systemic chemotherapy, radiosensitizing chemotherapy, or sequential radiation and chemotherapy should be considered in future adjuvant trials for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16213007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12477; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12482; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12484; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12534; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13633; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 15975; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16386; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16938; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23073; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23501; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 28160; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 34477; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 35640; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37535; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37569; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40296
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. DuBeshter B, Estler K, Altobelli K, McDonald S, Glantz C, Angel C: High-dose rate brachytherapy for Stage I/II papillary serous or clear cell endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Aug;94(2):383-6
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  • [Title] High-dose rate brachytherapy for Stage I/II papillary serous or clear cell endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of high-dose rate brachytherapy as adjuvant treatment for Stage I/II papillary serous or clear cell endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of all patients with Stage I/II papillary serous or clear cell endometrial cancer treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy between 1995 and 2001 was performed.
  • RESULTS: Three (13%) recurrences occurred among 24 patients with Stage I/II papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma.
  • Two of the three recurrences were distant and all patients with recurrence died despite additional treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) as the sole adjuvant treatment of Stage I/II papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma is associated with a 13% risk of recurrence.
  • High-dose rate brachytherapy is adequate for Stage IA cases, but more aggressive treatment combining chemotherapy with HDR should be evaluated for more advanced Stage I/II cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15297176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iridium Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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9. Mundt AJ, McBride R, Rotmensch J, Waggoner SE, Yamada SD, Connell PP: Significant pelvic recurrence in high-risk pathologic stage I--IV endometrial carcinoma patients after adjuvant chemotherapy alone: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Aug 1;50(5):1145-53
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  • [Title] Significant pelvic recurrence in high-risk pathologic stage I--IV endometrial carcinoma patients after adjuvant chemotherapy alone: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of pelvic recurrence (PVR) in high-risk pathologic Stage I--IV endometrial carcinoma patients after adjuvant chemotherapy alone.
  • METHODS: Between 1992 and 1998, 43 high-risk endometrial cancer patients received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • No patients received preoperative radiation therapy (RT).
  • Most patients had Stage III--IV disease (83.7%) or unfavorable histology tumors (74.4%).
  • All patients received 4-6 cycles of chemotherapy as the sole adjuvant therapy, consisting primarily of cisplatin and doxorubicin.
  • Of the 17 women who developed a PVR, 8 relapsed in the vagina, 3 in the nonvaginal pelvis, and 6 in both.
  • Nine of the 29 relapsed patients (31%) developed PVR as their only (6) or first site (3) of recurrence.
  • Factors associated with a higher rate of PVR (as the first or only site) were CI and Stage I--II disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PVR is common in high-risk pathologic Stage I-IV endometrial cancer patients after adjuvant chemotherapy alone.
  • These results support the continued use of locoregional RT in patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Further studies are needed to test the addition of chemotherapy to locoregional RT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / prevention & control. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Chicago / epidemiology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / prevention & control. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Life Tables. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / prevention & control. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 11483323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Adhikari D, Feroz F, Liefshitz A, Barakat RR, Bertino JR, Banerjee D: Pretreatment of endometrial carcinoma cell lines with butyrate results in upregulation of Bax and correlates with potentiation of radiation induced cell kill. In Vivo; 2000 Sep-Oct;14(5):603-9
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  • [Title] Pretreatment of endometrial carcinoma cell lines with butyrate results in upregulation of Bax and correlates with potentiation of radiation induced cell kill.
  • BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy.
  • Surgery has been the standard therapy for stage I and II endometrial carcinoma and radiation therapy either before or after surgery has been used to improve local control especially for high grade lesions.
  • We have used Sodium Butyrate (BA) in order to examine whether endometrial carcinoma cells can be rendered more sensitive to radiation therapy.
  • METHODS: Endometrial carcinoma cells in culture were pretreated with sodium butyrate and then irradiated.
  • Treatment of cells over expressing Bcl-2 with BA did not show induction of Bax suggesting that higher levels of Bcl-2 can block butyrate induced increase in levels of Bax.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Butyrates / pharmacology. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cell Survival / radiation effects. Clone Cells / drug effects. Clone Cells / radiation effects. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured / radiation effects. Up-Regulation. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 11125544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Butyrates; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein
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11. Tropé C, Kristensen GB, Abeler VM: Clear-cell and papillary serous cancer: treatment options. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2001 Jun;15(3):433-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clear-cell and papillary serous cancer: treatment options.
  • Clear-cell carcinoma (CCC) and serous papillary carcinoma of the endometrium (UPSC) are rare subtypes of endometrial carcinoma (10%).
  • The histological diagnosis can be made on the dilation and curettage specimens in both types in a very high percentage of the cases.
  • This is important in the planning of treatment.
  • CCC and UPSC are associated with about 50% of all relapses occurring in endometrial carcinoma, and the 5-year survival rate is, on average, 42% and 27% respectively.
  • Surgico-pathological stage, age, and vessel invasion are independent prognostic factors for both groups.
  • Stage Ia patients treated with complete surgical staging alone have a low risk of relapse and need not be offered adjuvant systemic therapy or pelvic radiation.
  • The treatment of patients with CCC and UPSC stage Ib, Ic, II and III should include radical debulking surgery and some form of adjuvant therapy, but it is not clear which type is most effective.
  • Adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy plus intracavitary radiotherapy is usually given in early-stage disease and pelvic radio therapy/or whole abdomen irradiation plus adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (PAC) in advanced disease.
  • Paclitaxel, alone or in combination, is currently being tested in phase II studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aneuploidy. Combined Modality Therapy. Dilatation and Curettage. Female. Genes, p53. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Transcriptional Activation. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 11476564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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12. Susumu N, Sagae S, Udagawa Y, Niwa K, Kuramoto H, Satoh S, Kudo R, Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group: Randomized phase III trial of pelvic radiotherapy versus cisplatin-based combined chemotherapy in patients with intermediate- and high-risk endometrial cancer: a Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jan;108(1):226-33
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  • [Title] Randomized phase III trial of pelvic radiotherapy versus cisplatin-based combined chemotherapy in patients with intermediate- and high-risk endometrial cancer: a Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish an optimal adjuvant therapy for intermediate- and high-risk endometrial cancer patients, we conducted a multi-center randomized phase III trial of adjuvant pelvic radiation therapy (PRT) versus cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-cisplatin (CAP) chemotherapy in women with endometrioid adenocarcinoma with deeper than 50% myometrial invasion.
  • The PRT group received at least 40 Gy.
  • These rates were also not significantly different in a low- to intermediate-risk group defined as stage IC patients under 70 years old with G1/2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • However, among 120 patients in a high- to intermediate-risk group defined as (1) stage IC in patients over 70 years old or with G3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma or (2) stage II or IIIA (positive cytology), the CAP group had a significantly higher PFS rate (83.8% vs. 66.2%, log-rank test P=0.024, hazard ratio 0.44) and higher OS rate (89.7% vs. 73.6%, log-rank test P=0.006, hazard ratio 0.24).
  • CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy may be a useful alternative to radiotherapy for intermediate-risk endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Compliance. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome


13. Monge AH, Pineda RP, del Rocio Estrada Hernandez M, Juárez EG, García JC: [Fallopian tube primary invasive adenocarcinoma associated with acute inflammatory pelvic disease. Case report and literature review]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2008 Feb;76(2):118-24
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  • [Title] [Fallopian tube primary invasive adenocarcinoma associated with acute inflammatory pelvic disease. Case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenocarcinoma invasor primario de trompa de falopio concomitante con enfermedad pélvica inflamatoria aguda. Comunicación de un caso y revisión de la bibliografía.
  • The primary fallopian tube invader adenocarcinoma is a preoperative diagnosis rarely reported in the literature, because is the most uncommon of all gynecological tumors, with prevalence from 0.3 to 1.8%.
  • In 25 to 60% of the cases a report of adenocarcinoma in the pap smear with negative endometrial biopsy can be found.
  • The treatment is predominantly surgical, as that of epithelial ovarian carcinoma, and consists of an intraperitoneal washing, total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and a proper staging.
  • In some cases, as the persistence or recurrence of illness, it can be necessary adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • In some patients in early stage I or II with low risk, the complete staging could not be necessary.
  • There is controversy about administration criteria of adjuvant treatment, since there is not evidence of survival increase related to its use.
  • The five years survival rate was 64% for stage I, 42% for stage II, 32% for stage III, and 17% for stage IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / complications. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdomen, Acute / etiology. Acute Kidney Injury / etiology. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Anuria / etiology. Ceftriaxone / therapeutic use. Clindamycin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Ovariectomy. Peritonitis / drug therapy. Peritonitis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18798405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 3U02EL437C / Clindamycin; 75J73V1629 / Ceftriaxone
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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14. Nomura H, Tsuda H, Susumu N, Fujii T, Banno K, Kataoka F, Tominaga E, Suzuki A, Chiyoda T, Aoki D: Lymph node metastasis in grossly apparent stages I and II epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Apr;20(3):341-5
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  • [Title] Lymph node metastasis in grossly apparent stages I and II epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Incidence of lymph node metastasis is relatively high even in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC).
  • Lymphadenectomy is important in the surgical treatment of EOC; however, the exact role of lymphadenectomy in the management of EOC remains unclear.
  • In this study, we evaluated lymph node metastasis in stages I and II EOC patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-nine patients with stage I/II EOC underwent initial surgery, and 68 patients received adjuvant platinum and taxane chemotherapy after surgery at Keio University Hospital.
  • The patients were evaluated with respect to age at diagnosis, clinical stage, histology, histological grade, and tumor laterality.
  • The incidence of serous-type lymph node metastasis in PAN, PAN + PLN, and total was higher than nonserous type (25% vs 1.5%, P < 0.0001; 25% vs 3.0%, P = 0.001; 50% vs 5.9%, P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on diagnostic value, the result suggests that the role of lymphadenectomy might differ by histological type, as its therapeutic effect might be unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20375794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Sakuragi N, Hareyama H, Todo Y, Yamada H, Yamamoto R, Fujino T, Sagawa T, Fujimoto S: Prognostic significance of serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma in surgically staged endometrial carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2000 Apr;79(4):311-6
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma in surgically staged endometrial carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The serous adenocarcinoma (SA) and clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of endometrium have been shown to be associated with high relapse rate and poor survival.
  • It is not clear whether prognostic significance of these specific cell types of tumor is independent of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and other histopathologic prognostic factors in endometrial carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We examined 240 consecutive patients with clinical stage I to stage III endometrial carcinoma who were treated prospectively with radical surgery and/or platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: SA/CCA were more frequently associated with deep myometrial invasion, high nuclear grade (G3), lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI), and pelvic lymph node metastasis when compared to endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EMA).
  • Of 216 clinically staged stage I or II disease, seven of 12 cases of SA/CCA had extrauterine disease.
  • A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that cell type, grade, LVSI, and paraaortic node metastasis (PANM) were independent prognosticators.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of patients with endometrial carcinoma depends on cell type, grade, LVSI, and PANM.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 10746848.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6349
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
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16. Marttunen MB, Cacciatore B, Hietanen P, Pyrhönen S, Tiitinen A, Wahlström T, Ylikorkala O: Prospective study on gynaecological effects of two antioestrogens tamoxifen and toremifene in postmenopausal women. Br J Cancer; 2001 Apr 6;84(7):897-902
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  • To assess and compare the gynaecological consequences of the use of 2 antioestrogens we examined 167 postmenopausal breast cancer patients before and during the use of either tamoxifen (20 mg/day, n = 84) or toremifene (40 mg/day, n = 83) as an adjuvant treatment of stage II-III breast cancer.
  • Detailed interview concerning menopausal symptoms, pelvic examination including transvaginal sonography (TVS) and collection of endometrial sample were performed at baseline and at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months of treatment.
  • In a subgroup of 30 women (15 using tamoxifen and 15 toremifene) pulsatility index (PI) in an uterine artery was measured before and at 6 and 12 months of treatment.
  • The mean (+/-SD) follow-up time was 2.3 +/- 0.8 years.
  • 35% of the patients complained of vasomotor symptoms before the start of the trial.
  • This rate increased to 60.0% during the first year of the trial, being similar among patients using tamoxifen (57.1%) and toremifene (62.7%).
  • Endometrial thickness increased from baseline (3.9 +/- 2.7 mm) to 6.8 +/- 4.2 mm at 6 months (P< 0.001), and no difference emerged between the 2 regimens in this regard.
  • Before the start of the antioestrogen regimen, the endometrium was atrophic in 71 (75.5%) and proliferative in 19 of 94 (20.2%) samples; 4 patients had benign endometrial polyps.
  • During the use of antioestrogen altogether 339 endometrial samples were taken (159 in tamoxifen group, 180 in toremifene group).
  • The endometrium was proliferative more often in the tamoxifen group (47.8%) than in the toremifene group (32.2%) (P< 0.0001).
  • One patient in the toremifene group developed endometrial adenocarcinoma at 12 months, and one patient had breast cancer metastasis on the endometrium.
  • Neither regimen led to the development of premalignant endometrial changes.
  • Our data suggest that so close endometrial surveillance as used in our study may not be mandatory during the first 3 years of use of antioestrogen treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / drug effects. Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology. Postmenopause. Tamoxifen / pharmacology. Toremifene / pharmacology. Vagina / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Vasomotor System / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Cancer Research Campaign.
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  • (PMID = 11286468.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2363827
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17. Greven K, Winter K, Underhill K, Fontenesci J, Cooper J, Burke T, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: Preliminary analysis of RTOG 9708: Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy combined with cisplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy after surgery for patients with high-risk endometrial cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 May 1;59(1):168-73
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  • [Title] Preliminary analysis of RTOG 9708: Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy combined with cisplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy after surgery for patients with high-risk endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with completely resected high-risk endometrial cancer have a risk of disease recurrence even with the addition of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy (RT).
  • A Phase II study was completed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group to assess the safety and toxicity of chemotherapy when combined with pelvic RT for these patients.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Eligibility requirements included a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with Grade 2 or 3 endometrial adenocarcinoma with >50% myometrial invasion, stromal invasion of the cervix, or pelvic-confined extrauterine disease.
  • Vaginal brachytherapy with a low-dose-rate applicator (1 x 20 Gy to the surface) or high-dose-rate applicator (3 x 6 Gy to the surface) was performed after external beam RT.
  • The disease was Stage III, II, and I in 66%, 16%, and 18% of patients, respectively.
  • Two patients were not assessable because of incomplete treatment data.
  • Acute toxicity during RT/chemotherapy was Grade 1 in 27%, Grade 2 in 43%, Grade 3 in 27%, and Grade 4 in 2%.
  • During adjuvant chemotherapy, the toxicity was Grade 1 in 7%, Grade 2 in 7%, Grade 3 in 21%, and Grade 4 in 62%.
  • CONCLUSION: This treatment protocol demonstrated an excellent treatment completion rate and expected toxicity.
  • To assess the efficacy of this adjuvant treatment program, a Phase III trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9905) was designed with high-risk uterine-confined disease to be randomized between pelvic RT alone and pelvic RT with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Patient Compliance. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Recurrence. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15093913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. Marth C, Windbichler GH, Hausmaninger H, Petru E, Estermann K, Pelzer A, Mueller-Holzner E: Interferon-gamma in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel as a safe and effective first-line treatment option for advanced ovarian cancer: results of a phase I/II study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):1522-8
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  • [Title] Interferon-gamma in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel as a safe and effective first-line treatment option for advanced ovarian cancer: results of a phase I/II study.
  • In this phase I/II study, we examined if administration of IFN-gamma is also safe in combination with the current standard treatment, paclitaxel and carboplatin.
  • Thirty-four patients with newly diagnosed advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, FIGO stage III/IV, were treated for six to nine cycles with paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC] 5) every 3 weeks.
  • IFN-gamma is safe in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel for first-line treatment of patients with advanced ovarian cancer.
  • This combination should be further evaluated as an immunotherapeutic treatment option for ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Interferon-gamma / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16884360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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19. Ma SK, Zhang HT, Sun YC, Wu LY: [Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: review of 43 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;30(9):690-4
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  • [Title] [Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: review of 43 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, treatment methods, and prognosis of synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 43 patients with synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The most common symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding (69.8%) and abdominal or pelvic pain (44.2%).Pelvic masses were found in 39.5% of the patients and enlarged corpus in 27.9% at physical examination, while pelvic masses were found in 67.4% of the 43 patients (29 cases) and thickening or abnormal endometrium in 23.3% (10 cases) during ultrasound examination.
  • All 15 patients who underwent endometrial biopsies were proven to have endometrial carcinomas.
  • FIGO stages of endometrial carcinomas: IA 18 cases, IB 20 cases, IC 2 cases, IIA 3 cases; Stages of ovarian carcinomas: IA 19 cases, IB 4 cases, IC 7 cases, II 4 cases, III C 9 cases.
  • Twenty-four patients (55.8%) were in stage I both endometrial and ovarian carcinomas.
  • Thirty-eight of the 43 patients (88.4%) had a pathologically proven endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The predominant ovarian histology was endometrioid or mixed tumor with endometrioid components (30/43, 69.8%).
  • Postoperatively, 26 patients (60.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy alone, 12 had chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, only one patient had radiation alone and the remaining 4 cases received no adjuvant treatment.
  • The 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients with both endometrioid and ovarian carcinomas were higher than that of those with non-endometrioid or mixed subtypes (93.8%, 82.0% vs. 79.7%, 69.0%).
  • The 3-year and 5-year survival rates of patients with early stage disease were better than those of the other patients (93.3%, 93.3% vs. 69.7%, 36.7%).
  • Recurrence developed in 15 patients (34.9%).
  • It was showed by univariate analysis that lower CA125 level, early FIGO stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy significantly and positively affect the 5-year survival rates, while only early FIGO stage and chemotherapy plus radiotherapy were revealed by multivariate analysis as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary are different from either primary endometrial carcinoma or ovarian cancer, while it can usually be detected in early stage and with a good prognosis.
  • Surgical treatment alone may be enough for early stage patients.
  • Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy may be necessary for advanced stage patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid. Endometrial Neoplasms. Hysterectomy / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Proteins / metabolism. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19173912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NBR1 protein, human; 0 / Proteins
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20. Hickerson JW: Endometrial carcinoma: treatment and outcomes in the regional hospital setting. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2003 Jun;188(6):1573-7; discussion 1577-8
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  • [Title] Endometrial carcinoma: treatment and outcomes in the regional hospital setting.
  • OBJECTIVE: Between 1986 and 2000, 204 cases of endometrial carcinoma were managed at Good Samaritan Hospital and Samaritan Regional Cancer Center, both located in Corvallis, Ore.
  • The current review is the first in-depth examination of endometrial malignancies treated in Corvallis since the author's arrival in 1985.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Data were retrieved through confidential review of hospital, Cancer Center, and office charts of all patients treated for endometrial carcinoma during the previous 15 years.
  • RESULTS: Treatment modalities included surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and combinations thereof.
  • Seventy-six percent of the cases were surgical stage I, 9% were stage II, 10% were stage III, and 5% were stage IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / mortality. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hospitals, Private. Humans. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Oregon / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12824995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Storey DJ, Rush R, Stewart M, Rye T, Al-Nafussi A, Williams AR, Smyth JF, Gabra H: Endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer : 20 years of prospectively collected data from a single center. Cancer; 2008 May 15;112(10):2211-20
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  • [Title] Endometrioid epithelial ovarian cancer : 20 years of prospectively collected data from a single center.
  • BACKGROUND: Clinicopathological features and outcome of women with endometrioid and serous ovarian adenocarcinoma were compared.
  • Of these, 270 had pure endometrioid tumors; 659 had pure serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary.
  • Response to platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) overall survival, stage-for-stage median progression-free survival (PFS), and cause-specific median survival were compared.
  • RESULTS: Median age of diagnosis for patients with endometrioid tumors was younger than those with serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary (60 years vs 62 years; P = .013).
  • They presented more often with early disease (stage I and II; 50% vs 17%; P < .001), had less ascites, and had better performance status both overall and for stage II and III disease.
  • More endometrioid tumors were optimally debulked overall (71% vs 45%; P < .001), but there was no difference according to stage.
  • Objective and CA125 PBC response rates were not significantly different, but median PFS was better for patients with endometrioid tumors (24 months vs 13 months; P < .0001) as was overall median survival (48 months vs 22 months; P < .0001).
  • This relation remained for stage II and III disease and for moderately and poorly differentiated tumors.
  • Patients with concurrent endometrioid ovarian and endometrial malignancies had a survival advantage compared with those with ovarian malignancies alone.
  • Independent predictors of survival after PBC were histological type, debulking status, and disease stage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar PBC response rates, endometrioid histology is associated with better survival compared with serous adenocarcinoma of the ovary, even with stage III or poorly differentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate


22. Kim S, Wu HG, Lee HP, Kang SB, Song YS, Park NH, Ha SW: Patterns of failure after postoperative radiation therapy for endometrial carcinoma. Cancer Res Treat; 2006;38(3):133-8
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  • [Title] Patterns of failure after postoperative radiation therapy for endometrial carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: We tried to investigate the outcome and patterns of failure of endometrial cancer patients who were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy (RT).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients with endometrial cancer who received postoperative RT between May 1979 and August 2000 were included in this retrospective study.
  • All the patients were staged according to 1988 FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) staging system; 2 were stage IA, 23 were stage IB, 20 were stage IC, 4 were stage IIA, 5 were stage IIB, 9 were stage IIIA, 2 were stage IIIB and 18 were stage IIIC.
  • The histologic diagnoses were adenocarcinoma in seventy-four patients (89%).
  • RESULTS: Overall, 11 patients (13%) experienced disease relapse: 4 with initial stage I or II disease and 7 with initial stage III disease.
  • Among the 54 stage I or II patients, 1 (2%) relapsed in the pelvis only, 2 (4%) relapsed in the vagina and distant organs, and 1 (2%) relapsed in the paraaortic lymph nodes (PANs).
  • Among the 29 stage III patients, 1 (3%) relapsed in the vagina.
  • The most common sites of failure for the stage III patients were the peritoneum (3 patients, 10%), PANs (2 patients, 7%), and lung (2 patients, 7%).
  • The five-year DFS rate was 93%, 100% and 74% for the stage I, II and III patients, respectively.
  • Three patients experienced severe radiation-related late complications: RTOG (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group) grade 3 radiation cystitis was seen in one patient, and grade 3 bowel obstruction was seen in two patients.
  • The major patterns of failure for stage III patients were peritoneal seeding and distant metastasis.
  • Selective use of whole abdominal radiotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy may improve the therapeutic outcome of these patients.

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  • (PMID = 19771273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2741680
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Endometrial neoplasms / Patterns of failure / Postoperative radiation therapy
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23. Humber CE, Tierney JF, Symonds RP, Collingwood M, Kirwan J, Williams C, Green JA: Chemotherapy for advanced, recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer: a systematic review of Cochrane collaboration. Ann Oncol; 2007 Mar;18(3):409-20
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for advanced, recurrent or metastatic endometrial cancer: a systematic review of Cochrane collaboration.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic chemotherapy has a limited place in the management of advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • The feasibility of administration of combination chemotherapy is limited in many patients on account of significant co-morbidity.
  • While early-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma is a common gynaecological cancer with a favourable prognosis, advanced or recurrent disease presents a difficult management problem.
  • This systematic review aimed to evaluate both the benefits and adverse effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy in these women.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out systematic searches for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chemotherapy with another intervention.
  • Data were extracted from trial reports or supplied by investigators.
  • The impact of more versus less intensive chemotherapy on OS, PFS and acute toxicity was assessed in a meta-analysis.
  • A meta-analysis of six of these trials found that PFS [HR = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.90; P = 0.004], but not OS (HR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.03; P = 0.12), was significantly improved when more intensive chemotherapy was compared with less intensive chemotherapy.
  • OS was improved when doxorubicin, cisplatin and other drugs were compared with doxorubicin and cisplatin.
  • Toxicity was generally higher with more chemotherapy.
  • There was insufficient evidence to assess the effect of chemotherapy on symptom control or quality of life (QoL).
  • Platinums, anthracyclines and taxanes were the most studied in phase II trials and combinations gave the best responses, but patient selection and pre-treatment was very variable.
  • CONCLUSIONS: More intense combination chemotherapy significantly improves the disease-free survival and the data indicate a modest improvement in OS.
  • Future developments are likely to exploit specific molecular characteristics of endometrial cancers, including their hormone dependence, growth factor target overexpression and PTEN loss.
  • While no one drug or regimen offers a clear benefit for women with advanced endometrial cancer, platinum drugs, anthracyclines and paclitaxel seem the most promising agents.
  • Chemotherapy and endocrine therapy need to be compared directly in an RCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17150999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U122861323
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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24. Craighead PS, Sait K, Stuart GC, Arthur K, Nation J, Duggan M, Guo D: Management of aggressive histologic variants of endometrial carcinoma at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre between 1984 and 1994. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 May;77(2):248-53
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  • [Title] Management of aggressive histologic variants of endometrial carcinoma at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre between 1984 and 1994.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the patient characteristics and outcome of patients with aggressive histologic variants (AV) of endometrial carcinoma, including uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC), and mixed type.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: All cases with AV histological type of endometrial carcinoma from January 1984 to December 1994 at the Tom Baker Cancer Centre were identified using the Alberta Cancer Registry.
  • Relevant data from the charts of these patients were entered into a study database (Microsoft Excel) and analyzed for presentation, demography, treatment parameters, and outcome of treatment.
  • All pathology was reviewed at the time of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: A total of 103 patients with AV histological type were identified and analyzed; there were 61, 31, and 11 cases of UPSC, CCC, and mixed tumors, respectively.
  • Sixty-three patients had Stage I, 11 had Stage II, 15 had Stage III, and 14 had Stage IV disease.
  • The Cox proportional hazards model showed that lymphvascular space invasion and stage are the two independent prognostic factors affecting recurrence and survival.
  • Forty six percent of all cases underwent surgery alone, 39% underwent treatment which included pelvic RT, and 17% underwent treatment which included chemotherapy.
  • Pelvic recurrence was reduced significantly by radiotherapy in Stages I, II, and III (19% recurrence with no RT vs 7% recurrence with RT, P < 0.005).
  • Chemotherapy improved overall survival, but made little difference in distant relapse rates.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stage Ia cases treated by surgery alone have a low risk of relapse and need not be offered adjuvant systemic therapy or pelvic radiation.
  • Patients with Ib, Ic, II, and III have significantly lower pelvic failure rates if treated with pelvic radiation, but still have a high distant failure rate.
  • Systemic therapy did not significantly improve distant relapse-free survival, but did extend overall survival.
  • Stage IV patients usually died within 6 months with a few responding to systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Demography. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10785473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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25. Cirisano FD Jr, Robboy SJ, Dodge RK, Bentley RC, Krigman HR, Synan IS, Soper JT, Clarke-Pearson DL: The outcome of stage I-II clinically and surgically staged papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared with endometrioid carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Apr;77(1):55-65
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  • [Title] The outcome of stage I-II clinically and surgically staged papillary serous and clear cell endometrial cancers when compared with endometrioid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare survival and recurrence in clinical and surgical stage I-II papillary serous (PS), clear cell (CC), and endometrioid (EM) cancers of the endometrium and examine the prognostic utility of myometrial invasion.
  • METHODS: Clinical, surgicopathologic, and survival data were retrospectively collected on 574 clinical stage I-II endometrial cancer patients, including 53 PS and 18 CC (based on postoperative histology), undergoing hysterectomy at Duke University Medical Center between 1967 and 1990.
  • Prognostic variables examined included age, stage, grade, myometrial invasion, lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI), and histology.
  • Among PS, CC, and EM3 patients with recurrences there were no statistical differences in the proportion that received preoperative or postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Prognostic factors for shorter survival included age >=60, surgical stage III+IV, presence of LVSI, histology (PS, CC, or EM3), and >=50% myometrial invasion.
  • PS + CC tumors confined to the endometrium had a 5-year survival of 0.60 compared to 0.98 and 1.00 for EM and EM3, respectively.
  • The 5-year survival for surgical stage I + II PS + CC patients (0.56) was comparable to that for clinical stage I + II PS + CC patients (0.46) and remained significantly smaller than that for EM patients (0.86) (P < 0.001).
  • When controlled for surgical stage I-II tumors, 5-year survival for PS + CC patients remains comparable to that of clinical stage I-II patients and below that of EM.
  • Prognostic factors for survival in PS and CC patients include age, stage, and LVSI.
  • Thorough extended surgical staging is indicated in PS and CC tumors, and prospective trials of aggressive adjuvant therapies for surgical stage I-II tumors are needed to improve outcome in PS and CC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10739691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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26. Steer C, Harper P: Is there any place for cytotoxic chemotherapy in endometrial cancer? Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2001 Jun;15(3):447-67
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  • [Title] Is there any place for cytotoxic chemotherapy in endometrial cancer?
  • Cytotoxic chemotherapy has an established role in the treatment of many solid tumours that are considered to be incurable with any modern treatment method.
  • Such treatment may result in an improvement in quality of life without influencing overall survival.
  • In this chapter the evidence to support the use of chemotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma is reviewed.
  • The most effective single agent and combination treatments are outlined.
  • Although evidence from randomized trials is limited, combination chemotherapy can lead to response rates of over 40% in patients with advanced disease.
  • The role of chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment in patients with early-stage disease is less well defined and this treatment is not recommended outside a clinical trial.
  • The role of chemotherapy for treatment of the aggressive histological variant, uterine papillary serous carcinoma is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Female. Humans. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 11476565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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