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1. Halberg F, Prem K, Halberg F, Norman C, Cornélissen G: Cancer chronomics I. Origins of timed cancer treatment: early marker rhythm-guided individualized chronochemotherapy. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2006;6(1):55-61
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  • [Title] Cancer chronomics I. Origins of timed cancer treatment: early marker rhythm-guided individualized chronochemotherapy.
  • A 21-year old patient who presented in 1973 with a rare and highly malignant ovarian endodermal sinus tumor with spillage into the peritoneal cavity is alive and well today after receiving chronochemotherapy.
  • During the first four courses of treatment, medications were given at different circadian stages.
  • Complete blood counts and marker variables such as mood, vigor, nausea, and temperature were monitored around the clock and analyzed by cosinor to seek times of highest tolerance.
  • Remaining treatment courses were administered at a time corresponding to the patient's best drug tolerance, rather than extrapolating the timing of optimal cyclophosphamide administration from also-implemented parallel laboratory studies on mice.

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  • (PMID = 17228525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM013981-44; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K06 GM013981; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM-13981; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K06 GM013981-44
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS75750; NLM/ PMC2581882
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2. Kehila M, Skhiri R, Boughizane S, Fekih M, Kebaili S, Rameh S, Agina M, Khairi H: [Yolk sac tumor revealed by an ascite of great abundance]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2009 Oct;38(6):516-20
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  • [Title] [Yolk sac tumor revealed by an ascite of great abundance].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur vitelline de l'ovaire révélée par une ascite de grande abondance.
  • We report the case of a 16-year-old girl explored for an ascite of great abundance responsible for a respiratory embarrassment.
  • Its symptomatology proved to be secondary to a vitelline tumour of the ovary.
  • She had a conservative treatment followed up by a chemotherapy which allowed a clinical and biological remission.
  • We report this observation considering the originality of the mode of revelation of the tumour.
  • We insist in addition on the possibility of a conservative treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / etiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drainage. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19481364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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3. Shimizu Y, Komiyama S, Kobayashi T, Nakata K, Iida T: Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary associated with pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Mar;88(3):447-50
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  • [Title] Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary associated with pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary has rarely been reported.
  • CASE: A 32-year-old pregnant woman was found to have an ovarian tumor.
  • At 19 weeks of gestation, tumorectomy was performed and a diagnosis of primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary (stage Ic) was made.
  • Pregnancy was continued without postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Subsequently, three courses of combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin were administered.
  • There was no evidence of recurrence at 27 months after initial treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary in a pregnant woman is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12648602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Aoki Y, Higashino M, Ishii S, Tanaka K: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary during pregnancy: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):497-9
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  • [Title] Yolk sac tumor of the ovary during pregnancy: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a therapeutic dilemma for the pregnant patient with malignancy requiring chemotherapy.
  • CASE: We had a case of a 30-year-old pregnant woman with a yolk sac tumor who underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy at 22 weeks gestation.
  • Chemotherapy during pregnancy was postponed because of concern with the risks of the chemotherapy to the fetus.
  • Tumor recurrence was confirmed clinically at 34 weeks gestation.
  • She was induced, delivering a healthy baby, and received seven complete chemotherapy courses (cisplatin, etoposide, and peplomycin).
  • Currently, the mother (39 months after last chemotherapy) and child are doing well.
  • CONCLUSION: AFP-L2 may be a sensitive indicator for a yolk sac tumor derived AFP, leading to an earlier detection of tumor recurrence during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Peplomycin / administration & dosage. Plant Lectins. Pregnancy. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism


7. Kang H, Kim TJ, Kim WY, Choi CH, Lee JW, Kim BG, Bae DS: Outcome and reproductive function after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) for patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Oct;111(1):106-10
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  • [Title] Outcome and reproductive function after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) for patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome and reproductive function of patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor (EST) after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP).
  • METHODS: Between 1995 and 2006, 1034 patients with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer were treated at a single institution.
  • Among these patients, 51 had a confirmed diagnosis of malignant ovarian germ cell tumor (MOGCT) including 20 cases of EST.
  • We retrospectively reviewed those patients with EST, who received BEP as adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Of the 15 patients who were treated with fertility-sparing surgery, all had regular menstruation following the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, and two of these patients had pregnancies with live birth deliveries and no complications.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with EST, the cumulative high-dose BEP regimen resulted in excellent overall survival and did not seem to impair ovarian function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / physiopathology. Fertility. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ovary / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18656249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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8. Thanaboonyawat I, Benjapibal M: A case of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 May;91(5):764-8
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy.
  • Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary is extremely rare.
  • The authors present a case report of a pregnant woman with persistent left adnexal mass and subsequently found to have a primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary that was diagnosed at 19 weeks of gestation.
  • After left salpingo-oophorectomy had been performed, the patient chose to terminate the pregnancy before the initiation of combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin.
  • The response to chemotherapy was not satisfactory.
  • The patient expired after seven cycles of treatment had been completed because of pulmonary fibrosis and the drug toxicity of bleomycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Induced. Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Pulmonary Fibrosis / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 18672645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Benjapibal M, Chaopotong P, Leelaphatanadit C, Jaishuen A: Ruptured ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Oct;36(5):1137-41
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  • [Title] Ruptured ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature.
  • Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary is a very rare event.
  • We present a case report of a pregnant woman with a ruptured primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary that was diagnosed at 13 weeks of gestation.
  • After right salpingo-oophorectomy had been performed the patient received four cycles of combination chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) starting at the 15th week of pregnancy.
  • The patient did not have any evidence of tumor recurrence for 23 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Ovariectomy. Pregnancy. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / drug therapy. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome


10. Manchana T, Sirisabya N, Lertkhachonsuk R, Tresukosol D: Transient cortical blindness during chemotherapy (PVB) for ovarian germ cell tumor. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Aug;89(8):1265-8
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  • [Title] Transient cortical blindness during chemotherapy (PVB) for ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • A 17 year-old female with stage IIIc endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary developed transient cortical blindness and severe hypertension after 5 cycles of PVB regimen consisting of cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin.
  • Her visual acuity and blood pressure completely recovered within a few days after supportive treatment with antihypertensive drug.
  • Most reports suggested that this rare toxicity was from cisplatin therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Blindness, Cortical / chemically induced. Brain Diseases / chemically induced. Brain Diseases / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging


11. Kamoi S, Ohaki Y, Mori O, Okada S, Seto M, Matsushita N, Kawamura T, Araki T: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor component in a postmenopausal woman. APMIS; 2002 Jun;110(6):508-14
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor component in a postmenopausal woman.
  • The co-existence of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with an ovarian yolk sac tumor is very rare.
  • A 54-year-old postmenopausal woman with a 6-month history of progressive abdominal distension was seen at our hospital.
  • MR imaging revealed a large cyst with a solid intramural node.
  • At laparotomy, a large tumor approximately 20 cm in diameter was found to occupy the abdominal cavity, adhering to the swollen appendix and part of the omentum.
  • Microscopically, foci of endometrioid adenocarcinoma together with a yolk sac tumor component were observed within a large endometriotic cyst.
  • Since the tumor was clinically staged 1c, the patient was given 500 mg of intraperitoneal carboplatin postoperatively, followed by five courses of combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide and peplomycin at 4-week intervals.
  • In contrast to a very poor prognosis of this tumor in previously reported cases, our patient showed no sign of recurrence during a 21-month follow-up period.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12193212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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12. Erdemoglu E, Ozen S: Ovarian gonodoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young 46, XX female: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):516-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian gonodoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young 46, XX female: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCTs) other than dysgerminoma are very unusual.
  • This is the first case report of a pure endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary with gonodoblastoma in a 46 XX, female.
  • Fertility sparing surgery was undertaken and revealed a Stage IA endodermal sinus tumor and gonodoblastoma in the same ovary.
  • The patient refused chemotherapy and was followed-up for six months without disease.
  • Tumor markers and immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these OGCTs with gonodoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Gonadoblastoma / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18179152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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13. Cyganek A, Ejmocka-Ambroziak A, Wiczyńska-Zajac A, Marianowski L: [Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor associated with pregnancy--a case report]. Ginekol Pol; 2002 Apr;73(4):408-11
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  • [Title] [Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor associated with pregnancy--a case report].
  • An ovarian endodermal sinus tumor was found in a 29-years old patient with a 32-week intrauterine gestation.
  • She received caesarean section, conservative surgery and three courses of combination chemotherapy.
  • She died 6 months after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 12152296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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14. Guillem V, Poveda A: Germ cell tumours of the ovary. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(4):237-43
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the ovary.
  • Germinal cell tumours represent only 2-5% of all cancers of the ovary.
  • However, the characteristics of the tumour and the patients have some special qualities as high rates of healing goes together with a strong desire to keep fertility intact because this condition occurs in female children and adolescent girls.
  • Neither the prognosis nor the treatment of these tumours is homogeneous; the low incidence is the reason it is hard to develop prospective studies for establishing prognostic factors and specific treatments.
  • The introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy into initial surgery has improved the prognosis of these patients.
  • The surgical treatment demands the application of the same principles seen in cytoreduction surgery of epithelial cancers of the ovary (maximum possible cytoreduction), though in many cases hysterectomy and double adnexectomy may be obviated.
  • In view of the rarity of these tumours, it is advisable to work within cooperative groups that may have subgroups for the treatment of rare tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Child. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / drug therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovary / pathology. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. World Health Organization. alpha-Fetoproteins

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  • (PMID = 17462976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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15. Jeyakumar A, Chalas E, Hindenburg A: Sustained complete remission in a patient with platinum-resistant ovarian yolk sac tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Sep;82(3):578-80
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  • [Title] Sustained complete remission in a patient with platinum-resistant ovarian yolk sac tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumors of the ovary are generally very responsive to chemotherapy; however, they are difficult to manage in the setting of platinum resistance where treatment options are limited and outcomes are poorer.
  • CASE: We present a 39-year-old woman who had a platinum-resistant yolk sac ovarian tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel, gemcitabine, and thalidomide might be an active regimen for platinum-resistant ovarian nondysgerminomas and further investigation of this combination is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Thalidomide / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11520160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zajaczek S, Zielińska D: [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):840-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls].
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian tumours in childhood and adolescence.
  • This diverse group of tumours derives from germ cells.
  • DESIGN: The aim of this work is presentation of germ cell tumours in the material from our clinic with characteristic clinical features, the scope of operation and effects of many years of observation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 109 girls with germ cell tumours of the ovary: 13 had malignant tumours: there were 7 patients with dysgerminomas, 2 with endodermal sinus tumour of the ovary, 3 with immature teratomas, 1 with carcinoma embryonale.
  • There can be problems with diagnosis of the syndrome, because developmental features imitate the onset of normal puberty.
  • It must be suggested that patients of stage I who wish to preserve childbearing function may be treated with unilateral salpingoophorectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Monitoring of the treatment is connected with measurement of biochemical markers.
  • Some of these markers are useful for monitoring of response to therapy.
  • Cytological smears and biopsy specimens from the remaining ovary, peritoneum and subdiaphragmatic area should be obtained laparoscopically.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sift ultrasonographic investigations can be helpful in the early diagnosis of germ cell tumours of the ovary in girls.
  • Fertility sparing operative treatment is preferred when karyotype is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Female. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Gonadoblastoma / therapy. Gonadotropins / blood. Gonadotropins / genetics. Humans. Poland. Risk Factors. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14674134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadotropins
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17. Lopez JM, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Ayala AG: Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2003 Oct;7(5):300-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary.
  • The clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical findings of an unusual case of ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary are reported.
  • The tumor was detected in a 51-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal swelling and a pelvic mass.
  • The tumor was confined to the right ovary and measured 16.0 cm in greatest dimension.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the tumor had a yolk sac component associated with an endometrioid carcinoma, grade I, and a mucinous cystadenoma.
  • Immunoperoxidase studies showed that the yolk sac component stained diffusely with a cytokeratin cocktail and was focally positive for alpha-fetoprotein.
  • In contrast, the endometrioid carcinoma stained positive for keratin 7 in addition to the cytokeratin cocktail, but was negative for alpha-fetoprotein.
  • After surgery, the patient received three cycles of chemotherapy.
  • However, the disease progressed and the patient died 10 months after the diagnosis of the ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Postmenopause

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  • (PMID = 14571433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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18. Moodley M, Moodley J: Ovarian germ cell malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2003 Jul-Aug;13(4):541-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a case report.
  • The occurrence of germ cell tumors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been previously reported.
  • The approach to management as well as the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is problematic as many of these therapies are toxic.
  • The presentation, management, and outcome of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor in a HIV-infected patient is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / complications. Germinoma / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomy / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12911735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Hong DG, Chong GO, Seong WJ, Lee YS, Cho YL, Park JY, Chae JM, Park IS: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor in a 35-year-old woman. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(4):471-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor in a 35-year-old woman.
  • Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a malignant ovarian neoplasm differentiated from primordial germ cells that occur in young age, while endometrioid carcinoma (ECA) is a müllerian epithelial tumor that usually occurs in older patients.
  • The coexistence of an ovarian ECA and YST component is very rare.
  • We present a case of a simultaneous ECA and a YST component in a 35-year-old woman.
  • After completion of four courses of BEP chemotherapy, two courses of taxane and carboplatin chemotherapy were added.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20882900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Cicin I, Saip P, Guney N, Eralp Y, Ayan I, Kebudi R, Topuz E: Yolk sac tumours of the ovary: evaluation of clinicopathological features and prognostic factors. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2009 Oct;146(2):210-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Yolk sac tumours of the ovary: evaluation of clinicopathological features and prognostic factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathological prognostic features, factors and outcomes of chemotherapy in ovarian yolk sac tumours (YST).
  • STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the medical records of 32 women with ovarian YST treated from 1990 to 2006 at two centres.
  • The most common symptoms at diagnosis included abdominal swelling or mass (72%) and abdominopelvic pain (62%).
  • The location of the tumour was bilateral in 2 cases.
  • Of 32 patients who received postoperative chemotherapy, 27 were treated with a bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin (BEP) regimen.
  • Ten (31%) patients suffered from a recurrence of the disease with a median time to recurrence of 8 months (range, 6-28 months).
  • While age, histology (mixed vs. pure), stage, tumour size, ascites, and marker levels were not found as prognostic factors, the presence of residual tumour (P=0.014) and BEP chemotherapy (P=0.016) were significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ovarian YST, fertility-sparing surgery is as effective as radical surgery.
  • In these tumours, adjunctive therapeutic modalities to eradicate intra-abdominal disease and effective salvage therapy strategies are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19419810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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21. Ayhan A, Taskiran C, Bozdag G, Altinbas S, Altinbas A, Yuce K: Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Dec 1;123(2):230-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment regimens used for patients with endodermal sinus tumors (EST), and also to examine the prognostic value of surgicopathological variables.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two patients treated for pure EST, and seven patients who had mixed germ cell tumors with EST components were included.
  • Initial surgery consisting of surgical staging to achieve optimal debulking was the principal mode of therapy.
  • RESULTS: The median age at the time of diagnosis was 18 (range 8-45).
  • As an adjuvant therapy 18 patients (62%) received platin-based chemotherapy, three patients (10%) had non-platin-based chemotherapy, four patients (14%) had radiotherapy, and four patients (14%) had combined radiotherapy plus non-platin-based chemotherapy.
  • Platin-based chemotherapy achieved significant survival benefit (P = 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively).
  • There was no significant survival difference with respect to age, histology, and tumor size.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility-sparing surgery with a postoperative platin-based combination chemotherapy should be the selected mode of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Hospitals, University. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16026921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds
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22. Tangour-Bouaicha M, Bel Haj Salah M, Ben Brahim E, Ben Othmène M, Douggaz A, Sassi S, Chatti-Dey S: [Primary peritoneal yolk sac tumour. A case report]. Ann Pathol; 2010 Oct;30(5):378-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary peritoneal yolk sac tumour. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur vitelline péritonéale primitive. À propos d'une observation.
  • Yolk sac tumours are rare germinal neoplasms that often arise in ovary and testis.
  • We report a case of a 16-year-old girl who underwent laparotomy for an acute abdominal pain and circulatory dysfunction.
  • Microscopic examination of the pathologic specimen concluded to a yolk sac tumour.
  • Patient underwent intensive chemotherapy; she's free of disease 2 years after diagnosis.
  • Through this case, clinicopathologic features of this rare neoplasm will be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 21055525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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23. Ali L, Bambach BJ, Kozielski R, Wagner H, Lele S, Mhawech-Fauceglia P: Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with major fibrosarcoma component in a 13-year-old girl. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 May;29(3):252-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with major fibrosarcoma component in a 13-year-old girl.
  • We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old girl with a chief complaint of lower abdominal pain.
  • A computed tomographic scan showed a 10-cm right ovarian mass.
  • The final diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor with a major (95%) fibrosarcoma component, based on morphology and further confirmed by an extensive panel of immunohistochemistry.
  • The patient completed 7 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy with cisplatin without major complications.
  • To our knowledge, our case is the first of its kind in the literature to document yolk sac tumor associated with fibrosarcoma in a teenage female.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20407325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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24. Ratnapala SR, Ratnapala SD: Pregnancy after excision of a yolk sac tumour of the ovary followed by chemotherapy. Ceylon Med J; 2004 Dec;49(4):134-5
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  • [Title] Pregnancy after excision of a yolk sac tumour of the ovary followed by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Pregnancy, High-Risk. Yolk Sac / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cesarean Section. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Risk Assessment






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