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1. Mathew GK, Singh SS, Swaminathan RG, Tenali SG: Laparotomy for post chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors. J Postgrad Med; 2006 Oct-Dec;52(4):262-5
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  • [Title] Laparotomy for post chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary conservative surgery and cisplatin-based chemotherapy have resulted in high cure rates in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • A significant proportion of advanced tumors may have post-chemotherapy residue and it is important to distinguish necrosis or fibrosis without viable tumor from persistent viable tumor and teratoma.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the role of laparotomy in assessing the nature of post-chemotherapy residue in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors seen at Cancer Institute, Chennai between 1992 and 2002 were studied.
  • Sixty-eight patients completed combination chemotherapy with cisplatin regimes, of whom 35 had radiological residual masses.
  • None of our patients with dysgerminoma, embryonal carcinoma, absence of teratoma element in the primary tumor and radiological residue of < 5 cm had viable tumor whereas all patients with tumors containing teratoma component initially had residual tumor.
  • Absence of viable disease was higher in patients who had normalization of serum markers by two cycles of chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that patients with absence of teratoma element initially, radiological residue of< 5 cm and normalization of serum markers after two cycles of chemotherapy do not require surgery to assess the nature of post-chemotherapy residue.
  • However, laparotomy should be performed in patients with tumors that initially contain teratoma element and in those with sluggish tumor marker response after two cycles of chemotherapy since they have a high chance of having viable post chemotherapy residue.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparotomy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2006 Oct-Dec;52(4):246-7 [17191357.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Postgrad Med. 2006 Oct-Dec;52(4):245-6 [17191355.001]
  • (PMID = 17102543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3859
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of postgraduate medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Postgrad Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Ray-Coquard I, Pautier P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Méeus P, Morice P, Treilleux I, Duvillard P, Alexandre J, Lhommé C, Selle F, Guastalla J: [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Jan;97(1):123-35
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  • [Title] [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs rares de l'ovaire: stratégies thérapeutiques en 2010, Observatoire francophone des tumeurs rares de l'ovaire et émergence des centres de références.
  • Majorities of the rare ovarian cancers were represented by germ cell tumours and sex cords ovarian tumours with borderline tumours, clear cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma and are extremely rare malignant diseases of the ovaries.
  • Tumors of the stromal (Leydig cells) and/or sex cords (Sertoli cells) represent approximately 7% of ovarian cancers and develop from the conjunctive tissue (respectively, interstitial and nurse cells) of the ovaries.
  • All together, they represented less than 5% of the adult malignant and non malignant ovarian tumours.
  • Treatment of rare ovarian tumors is currently as follows.
  • Surgery is the same as that for ovarian adenocarcinoma, with one major difference: conservation of reproductive function in women of reproductive age is usual case for this type of tumor.
  • Chemotherapy for germ cell and sex cords tumors, based on data reported in the literature is the same as that prescribed for testicular germ-cell tumors.
  • For rare epithelial carcinoma, carboplatin plus paclitaxel remains the standard attitude with a well-known less efficiency than for other epithelial subtypes.
  • Surgery, chemotherapy and possible surgical intervention for residual lesions are highly complex.
  • Too rare to be included in randomized studies, treatment of these tumors has benefited from the therapeutic advancements made against testicular germ-cell tumors or with publications using retrospective data.
  • Because of the rarity of these tumours a specialized website (www.ovaire-rare.org) was developed in France in 2002.
  • The other new scientific data concern surgical procedures for sex cords tumors, evidence for presence of FOXL2 mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors, the use of paclitaxel plus carboplatin for sex cords tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. France. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20007069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M, Modares Gilani M, Ghaemmaghami F, Mousavi A, Ghotbizadeh F: Ovarian carcinoma associated with pregnancy: a clinicopathologic analysis of 23 cases and review of the literature. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth; 2008;8:3
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  • [Title] Ovarian carcinoma associated with pregnancy: a clinicopathologic analysis of 23 cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze and describe cases of ovarian cancer in pregnant women treated at our center and to review the literature concerned, and to discuss the rationale for therapy.
  • METHODS: Twenty-Three patients of ovarian malignancies during pregnancy were treated at Vali- Asr Hospital between 1991 and 2002.
  • Data on treatment and follow-up were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of ovarian carcinoma associated with pregnancy in our series was 0.083/1000 deliveries.
  • Eleven (47.8%) were found with ovarian malignant germ cell tumors, five (21.7%) with low malignant potential tumors, four (17.4%) with invasive epithelial tumors, and three (13%) with sex cord stromal tumors.
  • The prognosis was significantly related with stage and histological type (P < 0.05).
  • Chemotherapy was administered to 44% of the patients, in two cases during pregnancy.
  • In most of case conservative surgical treatment could be performed with adequate staging and debulking.
  • CONCLUSION: Early finding of ascitis by ultrasound and persistent large ovarian mass during pregnancy may be related to malignancy and advanced stage.
  • Pregnant women in advanced stage of ovarian cancer seem to have poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Pregnancy Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cesarean Section / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Incidence. Iran / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18205951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC pregnancy and childbirth
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 49
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2266699
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4. Roth LM, Talerman A: Recent advances in the pathology and classification of ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Oct;25(4):305-20
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  • [Title] Recent advances in the pathology and classification of ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • In recent years, our knowledge of ovarian germ cell tumors has increased, and their classification has evolved.
  • The introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and the discovery of tumor markers, including alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin, have dramatically changed the clinical outlook for most of these patients.
  • In this review, recent advances in the classification and pathology of ovarian germ cell tumors are discussed.
  • Where appropriate, comparisons are made with testicular germ cell tumors.
  • The last section of the article discusses the pathogenesis of germ cell tumors.
  • This review will emphasize the articles written in the last 10 years and those that have significantly advanced our knowledge of germ cell tumors in past decades.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / classification. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / classification. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / classification. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / classification. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / classification. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / classification. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / classification. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Teratoma / classification. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16990705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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5. Gueye A, Narducci F, Baranzelli MC, Collinet P, Farine O, Fournier C, Vinatier D, Leblanc E: [Malignant ovarian germ cell tumours: a trial of 36 cases]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 May;35(5):406-19
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  • [Title] [Malignant ovarian germ cell tumours: a trial of 36 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: With personal results and a review of the literature, we report the eventual interest of surgical staging in malignant ovarian germ cell tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 36 patients (21.5-[8-61]) with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours between January 1984 and December 2004.
  • There were 4 groups: no 1--dysgerminoma only, no 2--immature teratoma, no 3--malignant ovarian germ cell tumours with secretion.
  • All the patients had a minimal follow up of 18 months after treatment.
  • Three patients had neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Twenty-six patients had adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Surgery in a young patient with malignant ovarian germ cells tumours must be conservative (adnexectomy) (preserving fertility and because of good prognostic).
  • In case of stage IA with part of dysgerminoma and/or immature teratoma and/or embryonal carcinoma certified by surgical staging, strict follow up could be organized (clinic, radiology, AFP, HCG).
  • In case of more than stage IA, chemotherapy is indicated after conservative surgery and surgical staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17350873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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6. Lai CH, Chang TC, Hsueh S, Wu TI, Chao A, Chou HH, Wang PN: Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):784-91
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  • [Title] Outcome and prognostic factors in ovarian germ cell malignancies.
  • OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to investigate the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with ovarian germ cell malignancies (OGCMs).
  • METHODS: A total of 93 patients with OGCMs were retrospectively reviewed, among whom 84 patients had primary treatment at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) between 1984 and 2003.
  • The other nine patients were primarily treated outside and referred for follow-up (n = 1), adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 4), or salvage therapy after recurrence (n = 4).
  • The clinicopathological and treatment-related characteristics were analyzed for association with the occurrence of tumor persistence/recurrence or death.
  • RESULTS: Of the study patients, 32 had dysgerminoma (DSG), 29 immature teratoma (IMT), 23 endodermal sinus tumor, 7 mixed germ cell tumors, and 1 each had choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • The median time to recurrence or progression was 8 months.
  • There were 11 treatment failures with 6 died of cancer.
  • Histology (DSG/IMT versus non-DSG/IMT) (P < 0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with treatment failure, while histology (P = 0.0004), salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) after primary chemotherapy failed (P = 0.0405), and residual tumor after salvage surgery (P = 0.0014) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis of OGCMs is excellent if managed with standard treatment initially.
  • Aggressive HD-CT with salvage surgery needs to be applied for recurrent/persistent disease after primary chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15721426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Ghaemmaghami F, Hasanzadeh M, Karimi Zarchi M, Fallahi A: Nondysgerminomatous ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A case-controlled study. Int J Surg; 2008 Oct;6(5):382-6
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  • [Title] Nondysgerminomatous ovarian tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A case-controlled study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the response of patients with nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ-cell tumors (NDOGCT) to platinum-based chemotherapy and to determine association of prognostic factors to relapse of disease.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 21 patients who had surgical resection of nondysgerminomatous ovarian germ-cell tumors (NDOGCT) and received adjuvant chemotherapy in Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Tehran, Iran during 1997-2004.
  • Histological type of tumors included the following: immature teratoma (n=7), mixed germ-cell tumor (n=7), yolk sac tumors (n=4), and embryonal carcinoma (n=3).
  • Distribution by stage at the time of surgery was as follows; stage I (n=10), stage III (n=6), and stage IV (n=5).
  • After the initial surgery, 13 patients immediately received chemotherapy and the other 8 patients received chemotherapy at a median time of 5.5 months (range, 1-40 months).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy included the following: bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (n=17); vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (n=2); methotrexate, etoposide, and cisplatin (n=l); and cisplatin (n=l).
  • Thirty-one percent of the patients suffered a relapse after platinum-based combination chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that stage at the initial surgery, residual disease and the interval from initial diagnosis to the start of chemotherapy were possible prognostic factors for relapse.
  • Also, our study indicates that there may be a role for aggressive cytoreductive surgery in advance NDOGCT, and a need for second-line combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Case-Control Studies. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18715834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-9159
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgery (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Yamamoto N, Yamada Y, Fujiwara Y, Yamada K, Fujisaka Y, Shimizu T, Tamura T: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of HER2-targeted rhuMAb 2C4 (Pertuzumab, RO4368451) in Japanese patients with solid tumors. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr;39(4):260-6
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  • METHODS: Patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapy were administered pertuzumab 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks.
  • There was limited evidence of activity (stable disease 2; progressive disease 13; and not evaluable 3); however, tumor shrinkage and tumor marker decrease were observed in an ovarian cancer and a non-small-cell lung cancer patient, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antibodies, Monoclonal / toxicity. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Area Under Curve. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Digestive System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Female. Humans. Hypersensitivity / diagnosis. Hypersensitivity / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphopenia / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / drug effects. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19261664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain; 380610-27-5 / pertuzumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2661001
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9. De Backer A, Madern GC, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):459-64
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare in childhood.
  • The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, management, and outcome in a two-center series of girls with ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: The records of 66 patients (median age 9 years) with histologically proven ovarian germ cell tumor (either benign or malignant), treated over a 44-year-span, were reviewed.
  • Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most frequently performed procedure (n = 46), and ovarian-sparing tumorectomy was performed in 9 patients (one bilaterally).
  • Histologically, teratomas were found most frequently (mature: 45, immature: 9), followed by mixed tumors (n = 7), yolk sac tumors (n = 3), dysgerminoma (n = 2), gonadoblastoma (n = 2), and embryonal carcinoma (n = 1).
  • Surgical removal of the tumor with or without the ovary and/or adnex was the sole treatment in 55 patients, chemotherapy was administered in 10 and radiotherapy + chemotherapy in one.
  • The 64 survivors are now between 8 months and 44 years after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a recurrence rate of 4.5% and a mortality rate of 3%, this series confirms the excellent prognosis for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16206211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Schuman SI, Lambrou N, Robson K, Glück S, Myriounis N, Pearson JM, Lucci JA 3rd: Pegfilgrastim dosing on same day as myelosuppressive chemotherapy for ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer. J Support Oncol; 2009 Nov-Dec;7(6):225-8
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  • [Title] Pegfilgrastim dosing on same day as myelosuppressive chemotherapy for ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer.
  • According to the prescribing information, pegfilgrastim should not be administered within 14 days prior to, or within 24 hours after, the administration of cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • A single-institution retrospective review was conducted of all patients with ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer who received prophylactic pegfilgrastim on the same day as myelosuppressive chemotherapy from May 2003 to June 2006.
  • Forty-six patients were treated for the following malignancies: 35 (76%) epithelial ovarian, 6 (13%) primary peritoneal, and 5 (11.0%) ovarian germ cell or stromal cell carcinoma.
  • A total of 269 cycles of chemotherapy were administered.
  • All patients received pegfilgrastim within 1 hour of the completion of chemotherapy administration.
  • Grade 1 or 2 neutropenia developed in 10 cycles (3.7%), and the mean absolute neutrophil count was 4926/uL (range, 1,293-24,300).
  • No patients had febrile neutropenic episodes, hospitalizations, or antibiotic use secondary to neutropenia, nor did they have dose reductions or chemotherapy delays due to neutropenia.
  • Administration of pegfilgrastim on the same day as myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer may be determined to be a convenient, safe, and effective approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Filgrastim. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Neutropenia / prevention & control. Recombinant Proteins. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20380330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-6794
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of supportive oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Support Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 3A58010674 / pegfilgrastim; PVI5M0M1GW / Filgrastim
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11. Zuntová A, Sumerauer D, Teslík L, Kabícková E, Koutecký J: [Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary in childhood and adolescence]. Cesk Patol; 2004 Jul;40(3):92-101
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  • [Title] [Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary in childhood and adolescence].
  • Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary are rare malignant neoplasms containing combinations of two or more types of germ cell elements.
  • The aim of the study was to review biopsy examinations, medical records, treatment strategy, follow-up and outcome of all girls treated for mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, University Hospital Motol during the period 1979-2002.
  • The clinical data on surgical treatment, chemotherapy and radiotherapy used and follow-up information were obtained in all girls.
  • Sixteen girls with mixed germ cell tumour of the ovary, age range 3 years 11 months to 17 years 8 months (median 12 years) were treated.
  • All girls presented with unilateral tumour of the ovary and all underwent surgery as an initial treatment.
  • The original diagnosis of mixed histology was confirmed in all cases; in five cases the tumour contained three histologic components, in eleven cases the tumour consisted of two germ cell types.
  • All tumours contained elements of yolk sac tumour, followed by immature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, dysgerminoma and mature teratoma.
  • At the time of diagnosis three patients had stage I disease, four patients stage II, seven stage III and two stage IV disease.
  • All patients were treated with chemotherapy after surgery, predominantly with platinum-based regimens (PVB, BEP).
  • Overall survival and event-free survival were 80% and 81.3% respectively (median follow-up time 7.6 years).
  • Three patients have died from the disease, two progressed on treatment (MAC), one girl relapsed three months after finishing therapy, no further therapy was administered.
  • Microscopic examination should be extensive and careful to find out all types of malignant germ cell elements.
  • Platinum based chemotherapy is effective in the management of children and adolescents with mixed germ cell tumors of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15493415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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12. Leblanc E, Sonoda Y, Narducci F, Ferron G, Querleu D: Laparoscopic staging of early ovarian carcinoma. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Aug;18(4):407-12
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic staging of early ovarian carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A European randomized trial on early stage ovarian cancer confirmed the importance of accurate staging to select candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Since early-stage disease is often discovered incidentally, staging is not always carried out or inadequately performed at the time of primary surgery.
  • Laparoscopy was reported more than 10 years ago as a method of performing the staging procedure while avoiding the morbidity from a classical midline incision.
  • SUMMARY: Complete laparoscopic management seems feasible in selected cases of apparently early stage ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16794421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-872X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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13. Zhao S, Kato N, Endoh Y, Jin Z, Ajioka Y, Motoyama T: Ovarian gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor in a woman with 46, XX karyotype and successful pregnancies. Pathol Int; 2000 Apr;50(4):332-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor in a woman with 46, XX karyotype and successful pregnancies.
  • An extremely rare case of unilateral gonadoblastoma with mixed germ cell tumor arising in the ovary of a 27-year-old woman with 46,XX karyotype and two successful pregnancies is reported.
  • The mixed germ cell tumor was composed of choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, immature teratoma and dysgerminoma.
  • The patient has been well, without evidence of disease for over 10 years since her first surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Gonadoblastoma. Ovarian Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 10849320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
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14. Deng HB, Adikari M, Parekh HK, Simpkins H: Ubiquitous induction of resistance to platinum drugs in human ovarian, cervical, germ-cell and lung carcinoma tumor cells overexpressing isoforms 1 and 2 of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2004 Oct;54(4):301-7
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  • [Title] Ubiquitous induction of resistance to platinum drugs in human ovarian, cervical, germ-cell and lung carcinoma tumor cells overexpressing isoforms 1 and 2 of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase.
  • We have recently demonstrated that overexpression of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DDH) in human ovarian carcinoma cells (2008/C13*) is associated with cisplatin and carboplatin resistance.
  • Furthermore, we have also elucidated that transfection of parental human ovarian carcinoma cells with a full-length DDH1 cDNA leads to induction of resistance to the platinum drugs.
  • However, none of these mechanisms has been found to be universally associated with the development of cisplatin resistance in tumor cells from different tissue sources.
  • The present study was undertaken to assess whether overexpression of DDH1 or DDH2 (in human ovarian, cervical, lung and germ-cell tumor cell lines) could specifically induce resistance to the platinum drugs in these cell lines.
  • Moreover, we also found a lack of cross-resistance to anticancer drugs that have a different mode of action including paclitaxel, vincristine, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and melphalan.
  • Although at present it is not clear how DDH is involved in platinum drug resistance, the identification of this gene as a causal factor in a series of cell lines derived from different tumors with different intracellular compositions indicates the importance of deciphering this hitherto undefined pathway which can produce resistance to platinum drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / enzymology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / enzymology. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / enzymology. Protein Isoforms. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 15138708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98804
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Isoforms; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.1.- / Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases; EC 1.1.1.- / AKR1C2 protein, human; EC 1.3.1.20 / trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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15. Einhorn LH, Brames MJ, Juliar B, Williams SD: Phase II study of paclitaxel plus gemcitabine salvage chemotherapy for germ cell tumors after progression following high-dose chemotherapy with tandem transplant. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Feb 10;25(5):513-6
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  • [Title] Phase II study of paclitaxel plus gemcitabine salvage chemotherapy for germ cell tumors after progression following high-dose chemotherapy with tandem transplant.
  • PURPOSE: To determine long-term survival and potential cure with salvage chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus gemcitabine after progression after both cisplatin combination chemotherapy and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy with tandem transplantation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty-four patients received salvage high-dose chemotherapy at Indiana University (Indianapolis, IN) from February 1996 to December 2004.
  • One additional CR is currently NED more than 63 months after paclitaxel plus gemcitabine with two subsequent resections of carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Long-term disease-free survival is possible with paclitaxel plus gemcitabine in this patient population that progressed after high-dose chemotherapy, and had not received prior paclitaxel or gemcitabine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Indiana. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2007 Sep;4(9):508-9 [17637730.001]
  • (PMID = 17290059.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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16. Mayer F, Mueller S, Malenke E, Kuczyk M, Hartmann JT, Bokemeyer C: Induction of apoptosis by flavopiridol unrelated to cell cycle arrest in germ cell tumour derived cell lines. Invest New Drugs; 2005 Jun;23(3):205-11
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  • [Title] Induction of apoptosis by flavopiridol unrelated to cell cycle arrest in germ cell tumour derived cell lines.
  • BACKGROUND: Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are highly sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • The inability to arrest the cell cycle at the G1/S-check-point due to a lack of retinoblastoma gene product RB has been suggested as one potential explanation for this feature.
  • Flavopiridol (FP), an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinases, causes cell cycle arrest or apoptosis depending on the relation of the transcription factor E2F1 and RB.
  • METHODS: The effect of FP was evaluated in GCT-derived cell lines NT2, 2102 EP and NCCIT in comparison to cell lines derived from ovarian cancer (SKOV), breast cancer (MCF7), and cervical cancer (HeLa) using the MTT-assay.
  • Cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis of PARP-cleavage.
  • RESULTS: FP did not affect cell cycle progression and proliferation of GCT cell lines at sublethal doses.
  • At higher concentrations, cell death occurred independent of cell cycle progression.
  • The IC50 was approximately fivefold lower for the three GCT cell lines (60/60/70 nM) than for the other tumour cell lines tested (350/280/300 nM).
  • The cell lines NTera2 and NCCIT showed comparable responses to FP despite differing in their IC50 to cisplatin by factor 4.
  • Flow cytometry and immunoblot for PARP indicated apoptotic cell death induced by FP.
  • GCT derived cell lines were far more responsive to FP than cell lines derived from other solid tumours.
  • In contrast to other models, FP did not induce cell cycle arrest in the GCT-derived cell lines tested, possibly due to the known lack of RB-expression in GCTs.
  • However, apoptosis was induced unrelated to cell cycle progression already at low concentrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Piperidines / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Paclitaxel / pharmacology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15868376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Piperidines; 45AD6X575G / alvocidib; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Guillem V, Poveda A: Germ cell tumours of the ovary. Clin Transl Oncol; 2007 Apr;9(4):237-43
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the ovary.
  • Germinal cell tumours represent only 2-5% of all cancers of the ovary.
  • Neither the prognosis nor the treatment of these tumours is homogeneous; the low incidence is the reason it is hard to develop prospective studies for establishing prognostic factors and specific treatments.
  • The introduction of adjuvant chemotherapy into initial surgery has improved the prognosis of these patients.
  • The surgical treatment demands the application of the same principles seen in cytoreduction surgery of epithelial cancers of the ovary (maximum possible cytoreduction), though in many cases hysterectomy and double adnexectomy may be obviated.
  • In view of the rarity of these tumours, it is advisable to work within cooperative groups that may have subgroups for the treatment of rare tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Child. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / drug therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovary / pathology. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. World Health Organization. alpha-Fetoproteins

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  • (PMID = 17462976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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18. Mann JR, Raafat F, Robinson K, Imeson J, Gornall P, Sokal M, Gray E, McKeever P, Hale J, Bailey S, Oakhill A: The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Nov 15;18(22):3809-18
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  • [Title] The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (JEB) in children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • Stage I testicular and some ovarian GCTs were resected and monitored with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ("watch-and-wait" approach).
  • Chemotherapy toxicities were assessed using World Health Organization or Brock grading.
  • Eight were excluded because either there was no histologic diagnosis (n = 3) or chemotherapy was given off-study (n = 5).
  • The remaining 184 patients had germinoma (n = 20), malignant teratoma (n = 55), embryonal carcinoma (n = 1), yolk sac tumor (n = 107), or choriocarcinoma (n = 1).
  • The median follow-up after JEB treatment was 53 months (range, 0 to 109 months); the median number of courses was five (range, three to eight).
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative surgery, a watch-and-wait approach after complete excision, and JEB for those requiring chemotherapy produced high cure rates and few serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11078494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; JEB protocol
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19. Pedrazzoli P, Ledermann JA, Lotz JP, Leyvraz S, Aglietta M, Rosti G, Champion KM, Secondino S, Selle F, Ketterer N, Grignani G, Siena S, Demirer T, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Solid Tumors Working Party: High dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors other than breast cancer in adults. Ann Oncol; 2006 Oct;17(10):1479-88
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  • [Title] High dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support for solid tumors other than breast cancer in adults.
  • Since the early 1980s high dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell support was adopted by many oncologists as a potentially curative option for solid tumors, supported by a strong rationale from laboratory studies and apparently convincing results of early phase II studies.
  • As a result, the number and size of randomized trials comparing this approach with conventional chemotherapy initiated (and often abandoned before completion) to prove or disprove its value was largely insufficient.
  • In fact, with the possible exception of breast carcinoma, the benefit of a greater escalation of dose of chemotherapy with stem cell support in solid tumors is still unsettled and many oncologists believe that this approach should cease.
  • In this article, we critically review and comment on the data from studies of high dose chemotherapy so far reported in adult patients with small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, germ cell tumors and sarcomas.

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  • (PMID = 16547069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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20. Ayhan A, Celik H, Taskiran C, Bozdag G, Aksu T: Oncologic and reproductive outcome after fertility-saving surgery in ovarian cancer. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2003;24(3-4):223-32
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  • [Title] Oncologic and reproductive outcome after fertility-saving surgery in ovarian cancer.
  • The rate of ovarian tumour diagnosis in reproductive age woman has increased parallel to the improvements in diagnostic methods and regular gynaecological visits.
  • Conservative surgical approaches for ovarian tumours after surgical staging include cystectomy, unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy plus contralateral cystectomy.
  • Ovarian tumours diagnosed in young ages tend to be low-stage low-grade malignancies.
  • In invasive ovarian cancer, fertility saving surgery is confined to early-stage and low-grade disease.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary for high-risk patients.
  • Prognosis of borderline ovarian tumours is excellent.
  • In contrast to invasive ovarian cancer, borderline tumours can be operated on conservatively at all stages.
  • Chemotherapy is rarely prescribed even in advanced stages.
  • Eighty percent of malignant germ cell tumours are diagnosed less than 30 years of age, and 70-75% of patients have Stage I disease.
  • Conservative surgery is generally used in malignant germ cell tumours even in advanced stages.
  • Because of this over-treatment of these patients for fertility should be avoided.
  • Briefly, fertility saving surgery can be performed safely in germ cell, borderline and early stage epithelial ovarian tumours in selected cases.
  • Menstrual irregularities caused by chemotherapy are transient.
  • The congenital malformation rate of ovarian cancer patients is slightly higher than that of the normal population, but no significant difference has been observed between patients who received or did not receive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12807228.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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21. He X, Lin B, Kong L, Zhang J: The potential mechanism of chemosensitive difference between 2 types of ovarian cancer. Saudi Med J; 2007 Jul;28(7):1044-9
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  • [Title] The potential mechanism of chemosensitive difference between 2 types of ovarian cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the potential molecular mechanism of chemosensitive difference between human malignant epithelial and germ cell tumor of the ovary by testing the expression of p53 (mutation), Bcl-2, topoisomerase II alpha (Topo II alpha).
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin embedded tumor tissue microarray from malignant epithelial (n=53) and germ cell tumor of the ovary (n=25) in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Second West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China from the year 2000 to 2004.
  • The expression of p53, Bcl-2 and Topo II alpha in the 2 types of ovarian cancer was compared and data were analyzed by student t test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Spearman rank correlation test.
  • RESULTS: The expression of p53 (mutation) in ovarian epithelial cancers (56.6%) was significantly higher than that in the malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (28%), whereas the expression of Bcl-2 and Topo II alpha had no significant difference between the 2 groups.
  • The age, FIGO stage and the chemotherapy response were significantly different between the 2 groups.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of p53 in ovarian cancer was related to chemosensitivity.
  • Our results suggest that p53 may have a role on the difference of chemosensitivity between human malignant epithelial and germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Carcinoma / genetics. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17603707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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22. Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zajaczek S, Zielińska D: [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):840-6
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  • [Title] [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls].
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian tumours in childhood and adolescence.
  • This diverse group of tumours derives from germ cells.
  • DESIGN: The aim of this work is presentation of germ cell tumours in the material from our clinic with characteristic clinical features, the scope of operation and effects of many years of observation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 109 girls with germ cell tumours of the ovary: 13 had malignant tumours: there were 7 patients with dysgerminomas, 2 with endodermal sinus tumour of the ovary, 3 with immature teratomas, 1 with carcinoma embryonale.
  • It must be suggested that patients of stage I who wish to preserve childbearing function may be treated with unilateral salpingoophorectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Monitoring of the treatment is connected with measurement of biochemical markers.
  • Some of these markers are useful for monitoring of response to therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sift ultrasonographic investigations can be helpful in the early diagnosis of germ cell tumours of the ovary in girls.
  • Fertility sparing operative treatment is preferred when karyotype is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Female. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Gonadoblastoma / therapy. Gonadotropins / blood. Gonadotropins / genetics. Humans. Poland. Risk Factors. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14674134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadotropins
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23. Biskup W, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Leuschner I, Göbel U: Teratoma with malignant transformation: experiences of the cooperative GPOH protocols MAKEI 83/86/89/96. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):303-8
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  • BACKGROUND: The designation of a teratoma with malignant transformation (TMT) refers to the occurrence of somatic non-germ cell malignancies within a teratoma.
  • While TMT is a rare but well recognised phenomenon in adult germ cell tumors (GCT), data on TMT in pediatric GCTs are lacking.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 2003, 641 patients with extracranial nontesticular pure teratoma (256 coccygeal, 246 ovarian, 139 other sites) were reported to the MAKEI protocols 83/86/89/96 by various, mainly German centres.
  • Patients with malignant germ cell tumor components were excluded from this analysis.
  • Two patients had coccygeal teratomas and seven ovarian tumors.
  • Carcinoma was the dominating malignancy (five of nine cases).
  • Tumors with glial differentiation and embryonal tumors occurred in two cases each.
  • Resection was performed in seven patients (including both coccygeal tumors) and adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in one of them.
  • Two patients relapsed after resection, but both were cured with chemotherapy.
  • Two patients suffered from advanced tumors and both were treated with primary chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant transformation of pure teratomas constitutes a very rare entity in children and adolescents that is most commonly observed in postpubertal girls with ovarian teratoma.
  • In localised tumors, complete resection appears to be adequate, whereas chemotherapy should be considered in patients with R1- or R2-resection.
  • Cisplatinum-based chemotherapy was effective as two of four relapsed patients survived tumor free.
  • However, the ideal regimen has not yet been established and the known sensitivity of the histologic components to cytostatic drugs has to be considered in the choice of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Teratoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Sacrococcygeal Region / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17080331.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Basu S, Rubello D: PET imaging in the management of tumors of testis and ovary: current thinking and future directions. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):229-56
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  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) in testicular malignancies has been examined in various studies primarily in three specific settings:.
  • 1) differentiation of active disease from fibrosis/mature teratoma in patients with residual mass following chemotherapy and evaluation of the response to treatment;.
  • 2) initial staging and disease assessment after orchidectomy identification of suspected recurrences in the context of elevated circulating serum markers; and 3) predicting response to treatment.
  • Of these, the area where FDG-PET imaging has been examined the most in testicular tumors is the evaluation of postchemotherapy residual mass in both seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) of the testis, a critical step in determining the subsequent management approach of these tumors that vary amongst various centers.
  • From the available data, this should be the test of choice for the assessment of a computed tomography (CT)-visualized residual mass following chemotherapy.
  • In patients with residual masses or raised marker levels following therapy, positron-emission tomography (PET) appears sensitive and specific for detecting recurrent disease, at suspected and unsuspected sites.
  • With regard to its role in ovarian carcinoma, it appears to be particularly useful for the diagnosis of recurrence when CA125 levels are rising and conventional imaging is inconclusive or negative.
  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT for the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer appears very promising and has the potential to replace the current surveillance techniques in detecting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / radionuclide imaging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18846028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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25. Mikuz G: [WHO classification of testicular tumors]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2002;86:67-75
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  • The most important is obviously the precursor lesion of germ cell tumors, which has been called "intratubular malignant germ cells".
  • Such atypical cells appear in the tubules adjacent to the germ cell tumors, in some few cases (6%) also in the contra lateral healthy gonad and rarely in infertile men (1%).
  • The precursor lesion can progress to franc germ cell tumor starting probably with seminoma, which still maintain the capability of differentiation (pluripotente cells) in all other types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • This lesion is missed in germ cell tumors of childhood and in spermatocytic seminomas, both seem to have a histogenetic history rather different from the other germ cell in adults.
  • This is a harmless name for an extremely dangerous tumor in which one tissue overgrows the other and gives rise to somatic type sarcomas or carcinomas.
  • Such tumors do not respond like germ cell tumors to the usual chemotherapy.
  • Treatment should be tailored according to that used in standard management of the respective sarcoma or carcinoma.
  • In the comments it is mentioned that the testis carcinoid could be a part of teratoma, but the diagnosis is listed in the group of "miscellaneous" tumors together with tumors of ovarian epithelial type.
  • This is a very questionable decision because the normal testis does not contain neuroendocrine cells from which carcinoids would have to be able to develop.
  • "Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumour" has been recently described and can be sporadic or inherited.
  • The patients have cardiac myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, hormone active nodular hyperplasia of the adrenals and soft tissue myxomas.
  • The newly appearing "mixed germ cell--sex cord/gonadal stromal tumours, unclassified" has a histology similar to the well known gonadoblastomas.
  • For the therapy of germ cell tumor an assessment of risk factors found by the pathologists is extremely important.
  • The most important independent predictors of relapse are tumor invasion of blood or lymph-vessels, absence of yolk sac elements and the presence of an embryonal carcinoma component.
  • In the absence of such predictors a surveillance policy allows some patients to forgo chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 12647353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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