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Items 1 to 40 of about 40
1. Kato M, Ikeda Y, Namiki S, Saito S, Ito A, Arai Y: Spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastases from testicular embryonal carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2008 Mar;15(3):265-6
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of pulmonary metastases from testicular embryonal carcinoma.
  • Computed tomography of the chest revealed multiple coin lesions.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the left testis showed an 8-mm tumor that was hard and palpable.
  • Testicular tumor with lung metastasis was diagnosed and orchiectomy was performed.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was embryonal carcinoma with infiltration of histiocytes.
  • Chemotherapy was not performed because the metastatic lesions continued to regress spontaneously.
  • Six months later, no tumor was observed on computed tomography images of the lungs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18304227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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2. Gohji K, Watsuji T, Ubai T, Ueda H, Katsuoka Y: Embryonal carcinoma of the testis associated with prostate cancer in a 72-year-old man. Int J Urol; 2001 Dec;8(12):719-21
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  • [Title] Embryonal carcinoma of the testis associated with prostate cancer in a 72-year-old man.
  • The patient underwent high orchiectomy under diagnosis and a final pathological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma of the left testis.
  • A systematic needle prostate biopsy under guidance of transrectal ultrasound revealed prostate cancer (Gleason score, 8) on the left lobe (T2aN0M0).
  • Systemic chemotherapy was given for retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis of testicular cancer and hormonal therapy (LH-RH analog) was given for prostate cancer.
  • The patient was well with no evidence of metastasis from the testicular cancer or prostate cancer and with no elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein or prostate specific antigen 26 months after the orchiectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Prostate-Specific Antigen

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  • (PMID = 11851777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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3. Kita M, Sasaki Y, Okuyama M, Saga Y, Hashimoto H, Kaneko S, Yachiku S, Tokumitsu M, Inada F, Ishida H: [Pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma generated during treatment of testicular tumor]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2003 Nov;94(7):696-700
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma generated during treatment of testicular tumor].
  • He had undergone right high orchiectomy, chemotherapy with four courses of PEB regimen (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection the previous year.
  • The pathological findings showed mixed germ cell tumor (seminoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma) in the testis and mature teratoma in the draining lymph node.
  • Two courses of salvage chemotherapy using a VIP regimen (etoposide, ifosfamide, cisplatin) were performed after diagnosis of pulmonary metastases, but had no affect on tumor size.
  • Video-assisted excision of pulmonary metastases was then performed, giving a pathological diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma in all three resected tumors.
  • The operation was followed by three courses of CYVADIC (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, dacarbazin) chemotherapy and oral cyclophosphamide, as a small residual tumor was suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Orchiectomy. Pneumonectomy. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14672002.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; CYVADIC protocol; ICE protocol 1
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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4. Cruz Guerra NA, Mayayo Dehesa T, Cuesta Roca C, Arias Fúnez F, Sánchez Encinas M, Escudero Barrilero A: [Testicular embryonal carcinoma with contralateral synchronous intratubular germ cell neoplasia: analysis of a case]. Actas Urol Esp; 2000 Jun;24(6):491-5
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  • [Title] [Testicular embryonal carcinoma with contralateral synchronous intratubular germ cell neoplasia: analysis of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma embrionario testicular con neoplasia intratubular de células germinales sincrónica contralateral: análisis de un caso.
  • We report the case of a 20-year old male with a right testicular tumor.
  • Bilateral orchidectomy was practised considering the synchronous clinical, ultrasonographical and histological (intraoperative biopsy) findings of the left testis.
  • The definitive pathological report showed a right embryonal carcinoma with wide intratubular germ cell neoplasia (IGCN) of the contralateral testis.
  • IGCN (formerly carcinoma in situ) is present in about 5% of cases in the contralateral gonad of those patients with a testicular neoplasm.
  • More than 50% will develop cancer in that testis.
  • The diagnosis of IGCN is based on biopsy, although ultrasonography could give some data too, as some authors report.
  • We analyze the therapy options for IGCN: (orchidectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or "wait and see").
  • Chemotherapy was used due to existence of retroperitoneal lymph node metastases, with an excellent follow-up afterwards.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal. Germinoma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 11011433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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5. Patai K, Sobel G, Csömör S, Paulin F: Four pregnancies and two deliveries after unilateral orchidectomy and chemotherapy for testicular embryonal carcinoma. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct; 2005 Jul-Aug;16(4):313-4
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  • [Title] Four pregnancies and two deliveries after unilateral orchidectomy and chemotherapy for testicular embryonal carcinoma.
  • This case report describes a 33-year-old patient diagnosed with left-sided testicular embryonic carcinoma with vascular invasion.
  • Unilateral orchiectomy was performed and the patient subsequently underwent chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Delivery, Obstetric. Female. Fertility. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy

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  • [Cites] Curr Opin Urol. 1998 Nov;8(6):547-50 [17039075.001]
  • [Cites] Hum Reprod. 1997 Dec;12(12):2836-8 [9455864.001]
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  • (PMID = 16211371.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] International urogynecology journal and pelvic floor dysfunction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Hasebe K, Satoh M, Tsujimoto Y, Takada T, Honda M, Matsumiya K, Fujioka H, Okihara K, Miki T: [Simultaneous bilateral testicular tumors with different cell types: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Jul;51(7):475-8
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  • [Title] [Simultaneous bilateral testicular tumors with different cell types: a case report].
  • The bilateral testicular tumors were palpated and visualized by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (right phi5 cm, left phi2 cm in diameter).
  • Computed tomography revealed a metastatic lymph node around the abdominal aorta (3 x 3 x 10 cm in size).
  • Enucleation of the left testicular tumor was not performed because of its irregular demarcation.
  • Histological examination revealed typical seminoma of the right testis and embryonal carcinoma of the left testis.
  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed after 4 courses of systematic chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, platinum).
  • The postoperative course was good and uneventful at 16 months under androgen replacement therapy without disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16119814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Khan L, Verma S, Singh P, Agarwal A: Testicular embryonal carcinoma presenting as chest wall subcutaneous mass. J Cytol; 2009 Jan;26(1):39-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular embryonal carcinoma presenting as chest wall subcutaneous mass.
  • Embryonal carcinoma affects young males in the prime of life with a majority of these tumors already having metastasis at the time of diagnosis.
  • Subcutaneous metastasis from embryonal carcinoma are very rare and often associated with wide spread disease and poor prognosis.
  • We report a case of chest wall subcutaneous metastasis of embryonal carcinoma in a 27 year-old man that was the first presentation of the disease and was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
  • Subsequent search led to the discovery of the primary in the testis.
  • The cytomorphological features of embryonal carcinoma are quite distinctive and FNAC plays a vital role in early diagnosis.
  • The criteria for diagnosis includes presence of cellular smears exhibiting disperse cells as well as cell aggregates forming microglandular patterns.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment with platinum based chemotherapy in conjunction with radiotherapy and surgery have high cure rate.

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  • [Cites] J Cutan Pathol. 2000 Nov;27(10):485-92 [11100807.001]
  • [Cites] Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 1961 Jul;52:682-6 [13727587.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Oncol. 2004 Sep;15(9):1377-99 [15319245.001]
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  • [Cites] Am J Dermatopathol. 2006 Dec;28(6):523-5 [17122498.001]
  • (PMID = 21938149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0970-9371
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3167990
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chest wall metastasis / embryonal carcinoma / fine needle aspiration cytology
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8. Fujita K, Itoh Y, Wada R, Nagao K, Fujime M: Embryonal carcinoma producing DU-PAN-2 with burned-out phenomenon in the testis. Int J Urol; 2006 Apr;13(4):473-5
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  • [Title] Embryonal carcinoma producing DU-PAN-2 with burned-out phenomenon in the testis.
  • A burned-out testicular tumor with lung and lymph node metastases presented high serum levels of DU-PAN-2.
  • A biopsy of the cervical lymph nodes revealed embryonal carcinoma.
  • Four courses of chemotherapy, including cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin, normalized the level of DU-PAN-2, and the metastatic lesions disappeared.
  • This is the second reported case of an embryonal carcinoma producing DU-PAN-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secretion. Testicular Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Neoplasm / blood. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Orchiectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16734880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DU-PAN-2 antigen, human
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9. Weinberg NM, Zwas DR, Owen AN, Zangrilli JG, Van Tassell P: Left ventricular intracardiac metastatic germ cell tumor presenting with hemorrhagic cerebrovascular event. J Am Soc Echocardiogr; 2004 Oct;17(10):1080-3
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  • We describe an unusual case of a 26-year-old man admitted with respiratory distress and found to have testicular cancer metastatic to the lung and heart.
  • Echocardiography demonstrated testicular cancer metastatic to the septal surface of the left ventricle of the heart with presumed embolization to the cerebrovascular region.
  • The patient received chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the areas of tumor mass with subsequent resolution of tumor burden.
  • This is the first reported case of metastasis from embryonal carcinoma of the testis to the left ventricle of the heart.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Heart Ventricles / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Echocardiography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Stroke / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15452476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-7317
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Soc Echocardiogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Berney DM, Shamash J, Pieroni K, Oliver RT: Loss of CD30 expression in metastatic embryonal carcinoma: the effects of chemotherapy? Histopathology; 2001 Oct;39(4):382-5
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  • [Title] Loss of CD30 expression in metastatic embryonal carcinoma: the effects of chemotherapy?
  • AIMS: CD30 has been shown to be consistently strongly expressed in embryonal carcinomas.
  • Our aim was to examine changes in CD30 expression in embryonal carcinomas before and after treatment with chemotherapy.
  • Seventeen contained embryonal carcinoma deposits.
  • In nine cases, the matching pre-chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens were available.
  • All nine pre- chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens showed embryonal carcinoma and stained strongly positively for CD30.
  • However, only four out of nine of the matched post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection specimens and a total of six out of 17 (35%) with embryonal carcinoma deposits stained for CD30.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Loss of CD30 expression occurs frequently in metastatic embryonal carcinomas after chemotherapy.
  • This finding has implications in the use of CD30 in the diagnosis of metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and suggests that chemotherapy may alter the immunophenotype of embryonal carcinoma while retaining its characteristic histological appearances.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD30 / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Testis / chemistry. Testis / drug effects. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11683938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD30
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11. Yücel S, Türkeri LN, Akdas A: Early cystic relapse of embryonal carcinoma of testis in obturator fossa. Arch Esp Urol; 2000 Jan-Feb;53(1):87-9
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  • [Title] Early cystic relapse of embryonal carcinoma of testis in obturator fossa.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of embryonal carcinoma stage IIB arising from the right testis that subsequently underwent chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and presented with an early cystic recurrence in the obturator fossa.
  • METHODS: This case is reanalyzed retrospectively and literature is reevaluated for the early recurrences of testicular tumors at atypical locations.
  • We discuss the rarity of obturator fossa as a location for early recurrences of testis tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case provides an example of the possibility of recurrence in an unpredictable short interval subsequent to proper therapies and underscores the importance of close follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 10730433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SPAIN
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12. von Ostau C, Krege S, Hartmann M, Rübben H: Metachronous contralateral germ cell tumor 7 years after management of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia by chemotherapy and multiple control biopsies. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2001 Oct;35(5):430-1
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  • [Title] Metachronous contralateral germ cell tumor 7 years after management of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia by chemotherapy and multiple control biopsies.
  • We report about a metachronous germ cell tumor 7 years after chemotherapy of advanced testicular cancer and contralateral testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN).
  • Chemotherapy can not safely eradicate TIN.
  • The safest treatment for TIN remains low dose radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Testis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11771876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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13. Feyerabend T, Wiedemann GJ, Steeves R: Advanced non-seminomatous germ cell cancer of the testis with brain metastases: feasibility of additional brain irradiation and whole body hyperthermia plus chemotherapy. Oncol Rep; 2001 Mar-Apr;8(2):219-23
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  • [Title] Advanced non-seminomatous germ cell cancer of the testis with brain metastases: feasibility of additional brain irradiation and whole body hyperthermia plus chemotherapy.
  • Patients with brain metastases in disseminated non-seminomatous germ cell cancer of the testis are treated by combined modality, e.g., cisplatin-containing chemotherapy, whole brain irradiation and/or surgical excision.
  • However, cure rates of patients refractory to that standard treatment are low (5-year survival rate <30%).
  • Preclinical data on the use of hyperthermia combined with selected cytotoxic drugs clearly show increased tumor cell killing compared to chemotherapy alone with no increase in toxicity to normal tissue.
  • These results are consistent with the concept that whole body hyperthermia (WBH) at 41.8 degrees C is non-myelosuppressive and can potentiate the tumoricidal effects of specific chemotherapeutic agents, thus improving the therapeutic index.
  • We report on a patient with embryonal testicular cancer presenting with lung, liver and brain metastases who initially underwent orchiectomy, whole brain irradiation and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy.
  • However, beta-HCG values dropped from initial 400000 mIU/ml to 12 mIU/ml with a normal alpha-fetoprotein all the time.
  • Then, two cycles of whole body hyperthermia (WBH) plus chemotherapy were performed, followed by one cycle of chemotherapy without WBH.
  • Radiotherapy, WBH and chemotherapy were well tolerated, especially no neurologic sequelae occurred.
  • WBH plus chemotherapy seems to be feasible and may contribute to long-term survival in patients with advanced stages of non-seminomatous germ cell cancer refractory to standard treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Germinoma / therapy. Hyperthermia, Induced. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11182030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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14. Stephenson AJ, Bosl GJ, Bajorin DF, Stasi J, Motzer RJ, Sheinfeld J: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with low stage testicular cancer with embryonal carcinoma predominance and/or lymphovascular invasion. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):557-60; discussion 560
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with low stage testicular cancer with embryonal carcinoma predominance and/or lymphovascular invasion.
  • PURPOSE: The outcome after primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) was analyzed in patients with clinical stage I-IIA nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer with embryonal carcinoma predominance (ECP) or lymphovascular invasion (LVI).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1989 and 2002, 267 patients with clinical stage I-IIA nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer, and ECP and/or LVI underwent RPLND.
  • All patients with relapse were continuously free of disease following standard chemotherapy with or without resection of residual masses and the 10-year actuarial overall survival was 100%.
  • When adjuvant chemotherapy was restricted to patients with PN2 disease, the estimated 5-year relapse rate was 9% and an estimated 72% of patients avoided chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The low risk of systemic relapse in patients with PS I and PN1 after RPLND alone combined with the 16% incidence of retroperitoneal teratoma and the favorable morbidity profile supports RPLND over primary chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with low stage disease with ECP and/or LVI who are not candidates for surveillance.
  • An estimated 72% of patients are spared the potential toxicity of chemotherapy if adjuvant therapy is restricted to patients with PN2.
  • After primary RPLND and selective adjuvant chemotherapy late recurrence is distinctly uncommon and long-term cancer control is anticipated in essentially all patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • [CommentIn] Aktuelle Urol. 2007 Jan;38(1):1-2 [17290323.001]
  • (PMID = 16006891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 32-CA82088
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Talha S, Cohen C, Kindo M, Asmane I, Faure A, Eisenmann B, Geny B, Kurtz JE: Emergency management of a particular massive pulmonary embolism... J Card Surg; 2009 Jul-Aug;24(4):472-4
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  • It led to the discovery of a primary testis embryonal carcinoma.
  • Combination chemotherapy (etoposide, cisplatin, and bleomycin) was immediately undertaken.
  • This is the first well-documented case of an isolated right ventricular germ-cell cancer metastasis extended into the pulmonary trunk, without intracaval and right atrial involvement, where the outcome was marked with immediate regrowth despite cardiac surgery and orchidectomy.
  • In conclusion, TTE should be considered alongside germ-cell cancer standard staging procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Heart Ventricles / pathology. Pulmonary Embolism / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Echocardiography. Emergencies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Orchiectomy. Pulmonary Valve / pathology. Pulmonary Valve / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Ventricular Outflow Obstruction / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19210553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-8191
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cardiac surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Card Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Sweeney CJ, Hermans BP, Heilman DK, Foster RS, Donohue JP, Einhorn LH: Results and outcome of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I embryonal carcinoma--predominant testis cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jan;18(2):358-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results and outcome of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I embryonal carcinoma--predominant testis cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of metastatic disease and usage of chemotherapy (adjuvant or metastatic) after primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in patients with clinical stage (CS) I embryonal carcinoma (EC)-predominant testicular cancer.
  • EC predominance was defined as the presence of EC at a level greater than that of any other histologic diagnosis.
  • PS II disease was more frequent in patients with EC predominance, as 40 (32.0%) of 125 had retroperitoneal metastases, compared with 26 (15.6%) of 167 patients with a non-EC-predominant histologic diagnosis (P =.0024).
  • Chemotherapy was administered to 48 (38.4%) of the 125 patients with CS I EC-predominant disease after RPLND.
  • This included 25 CS I patients with PS II disease who received adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to 23 patients who subsequently required chemotherapy for relapse after RPLND. Ten (66.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10637250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 2 R 35 CA 39844-14
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Ishida M, Hasegawa M, Kanao K, Oyama M, Nakajima Y: Non-palpable testicular embryonal carcinoma diagnosed by ultrasound: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;39(2):124-6
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  • [Title] Non-palpable testicular embryonal carcinoma diagnosed by ultrasound: a case report.
  • With the extensive use of scrotal ultrasound (US), incidental non-palpable testicular tumors have thus been unexpectedly discovered.
  • This report documents the case of 24-year-old male with a non-palpable testicular tumor that contained non-seminomatous germ cell components detected by US.
  • Radical orchiectomy was performed and histological examinations confirmed a diagnosis of a mixed tumor of seminoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • Systemic chemotherapy was introduced immediately, and the serum level of AFP decreased to the normal range and the metastatic lesions had disappeared after three courses of the chemotherapy.
  • No recurrence was observed at 18 months follow-up after the chemotherapy.
  • This is the first case of non-palpable testicular embryonal carcinoma, which metastasized soon after the resection.
  • The obscurity and implications of such a diagnosis are also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / ultrasonography. Testicular Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 19066212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Emerson RE, Ulbright TM: Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis and its associated cancers: the use of novel biomarkers. Pathology; 2010 Jun;42(4):344-55
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  • [Title] Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis and its associated cancers: the use of novel biomarkers.
  • Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathology of testicular tumours have led to the identification of several new immunohistochemical markers for invasive and in situ germ cell neoplasms.
  • OCT3/4 and NANOG are nuclear stains that have high sensitivity and specificity for the identification of intratubular germ cell neoplasia as well as seminoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • A potential pitfall in their application to the detection of intratubular germ cell neoplasia, as in other markers that represent oncofetal antigens, is their expression in non-neoplastic germ cells with 'delayed maturation'.
  • SALL4, another nuclear stain, is positive for most germ cell tumours as a group and may be especially helpful in the distinction of these tumours from somatic carcinomas in non-testicular sites.
  • SOX2 and SOX17 may be useful for differentiating seminoma and embryonal carcinoma, especially following chemotherapy as embryonal carcinoma may lose CD30 expression in this setting.
  • This article reviews the application of these immunohistochemical markers and others to the diagnosis of germ cell neoplasia with reference to older immunohistochemical stains when appropriate.
  • Suggested immunohistochemical panels are described for individual tumour types.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20438407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 96
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19. Minnee RC, van den Berk GE, Groeneveld JO, van Dijk J, Turkcan K, Visser MJ, Vahl AC: Aortic aneurysm and orchitis due to Wegener's granulomatosis. Ann Vasc Surg; 2009 Nov-Dec;23(6):786.e15-9
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  • We present a patient with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) with involvement of the abdominal aorta, testis, peripheral nerve system, and skin.
  • He had a history of smoking, hypertension, and an embryonal carcinoma of the left testis, treated 13 years ago with orchidectomy and chemotherapy.
  • One month earlier, he underwent a partial orchidectomy of the right testis due to testicular swelling.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a 3.8 cm wide aneurysm of the distal part of the aorta with inflammation.
  • Pathological examination of the right testis showed necrotizing vasculitis of a small artery.
  • WG with extrapulmonary involvement occurs infrequently, and reports of manifestations of WG in aorta, testis, the peripheral nerve system, and skin are even more uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal / etiology. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis / diagnosis. Orchitis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aortography / methods. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Hypesthesia / etiology. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Pulse Therapy, Drug. Testis / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19748223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-5947
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of vascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Vasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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20. Mickisch GH: Prognostic parameters for the management of advanced testis tumours. Curr Opin Urol; 2000 Sep;10(5):465-71
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  • [Title] Prognostic parameters for the management of advanced testis tumours.
  • The need for prognostic parameters in testicular germ cell tumours is sometimes questioned based on an overall cure rate of more than 80% of the patients regardless of tumour stage.
  • However, the trend for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis amenable to curative treatment as well as the high effectiveness of standard Cisplatinum containing chemotherapy has masked the continuing need for intensifying therapy in patients with adverse risk factors.
  • This intense treatment is often associated with worrysome morbidity and the assessment of prognostic factors, stage by stage, is warranted on which patient at risk can be identified and treated accordingly.
  • Clearly, the infrastructure and the experience of the treating uro-oncology unit (see 1) is decisive for treatment outcomes, and -at least-'difficult to treat' patients should be referred to properly resourced cancer centres.
  • Finally, biologic factors (see 3) such as beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin or MAGE epitopes in seminoma or the percentage of embryonal carcinoma components orvascular invasion mayor may not inversely influence the prognosis and need further assessment in prospective trials.
  • However, the search for even better (molecular) biologic factors is speeding up because more complex treatment decisions such as in advanced testicular cancers rely on a more precise determination of prognosis, enabling a more tailored selection of individualized therapeutic options.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11005453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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21. Basu S, Rubello D: PET imaging in the management of tumors of testis and ovary: current thinking and future directions. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):229-56
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  • [Title] PET imaging in the management of tumors of testis and ovary: current thinking and future directions.
  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) in testicular malignancies has been examined in various studies primarily in three specific settings:.
  • 1) differentiation of active disease from fibrosis/mature teratoma in patients with residual mass following chemotherapy and evaluation of the response to treatment;.
  • 2) initial staging and disease assessment after orchidectomy identification of suspected recurrences in the context of elevated circulating serum markers; and 3) predicting response to treatment.
  • Of these, the area where FDG-PET imaging has been examined the most in testicular tumors is the evaluation of postchemotherapy residual mass in both seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) of the testis, a critical step in determining the subsequent management approach of these tumors that vary amongst various centers.
  • From the available data, this should be the test of choice for the assessment of a computed tomography (CT)-visualized residual mass following chemotherapy.
  • In patients with residual masses or raised marker levels following therapy, positron-emission tomography (PET) appears sensitive and specific for detecting recurrent disease, at suspected and unsuspected sites.
  • Fewer studies are available investigating its usefulness for staging at diagnosis and this requires further investigation to determine its eventual place as an imaging modality in this setting.
  • With regard to its role in ovarian carcinoma, it appears to be particularly useful for the diagnosis of recurrence when CA125 levels are rising and conventional imaging is inconclusive or negative.
  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT for the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer appears very promising and has the potential to replace the current surveillance techniques in detecting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / radionuclide imaging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18846028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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22. Nicolai N, Necchi A, Piva L, Stagni S, Catanzaro MA, Biasoni D, Milani A, Torelli T, Salvioni R: [Retroperitoneal surgery in the treatment of germ-cell tumors of the testis: retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND)]. Urologia; 2010 Apr-May;77(2):84-7
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  • [Title] [Retroperitoneal surgery in the treatment of germ-cell tumors of the testis: retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND)].
  • [Transliterated title] La linfoadenectomia retroperitoneale (RPLND) nel trattamento delle neoplasie germinali del testicolo.
  • Germ-cell tumors of the testis (GCTT) are rare, but have a high social impact.
  • Improvements achieved both in diagnosis, with the use of scans (CT, MRI, US and recently PET) and of serum tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), beta-fraction of human chorionic gonadotropin (b-HCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and mainly in treatment, through the amelioration of radiotherapy and surgical techniques and, especially, with the introduction of Cisplatin, Etoposide and Ifosfamide in chemotherapic regimens, have made germ-cell tumor a model of "curable disease".
  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) has indications in patients with clinical stage I (CS1) as well as in advanced disease, where it is integrated in the multimodality treatment.
  • Currently, "nerve sparing" RPLND represents a safe management of CS1 nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor with minimal morbidity and excellent outcomes.
  • Nonetheless, surveillance and adjuvant chemotherapy are as effective as RPLND, but, in our opinion, associated with some discomforts for the patients.
  • Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (Lap-RPLND) is gaining popularity as a minimally invasive staging procedure for clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma, but its therapeutic role is still under investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Postoperative Complications. Reoperation. Retroperitoneal Space. Salvage Therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20890864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Bozzo C, Stomeo F, Meloni F, Lubelli A, Profili S: About an unique case of embryocarcinoma with nasal onset. Rhinology; 2005 Jun;43(2):146-51
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  • Both primary and salvage treatment of these tumours constitute a challenge.
  • Its site of primary onset can either be gonadal or extragonadal, more frequent in infancy and childhood, the sacral and cranial regions being the most affected, while gonadal sites (ovary and testis) are more frequently involved in childhood.
  • The patient underwent 6 courses of chemotherapy and further surgery by means of an endoscopic approach, without postsurgical sequelae.
  • A 5-years follow-up, with periodic controls, laboratory tests and imaging, all without signs of recurrence, confirmed that this unusual location of EC responded exclusively to primary chemotherapy, while earlier studies proved EC being responsive, in other sites of onset, to a combination of chemotherapy, radical surgical excision of the neoplasm, and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Endoscopy. Ethmoid Sinus / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16008073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0729
  • [Journal-full-title] Rhinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rhinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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24. Sugiyama T, Hirano Y, Ushiyama T, Suzuki K, Fujita K, Ohmi Y: [Burned-out testicular tumor: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2000 Nov;46(11):829-32
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  • [Title] [Burned-out testicular tumor: a case report].
  • A small nodule was palpable in his left testis and ultrasonographic examination demonstrated that the nodule was low echoic.
  • Computed tomography showed a large mass in his left retroperitoneal space.
  • We thought the mass was a metastatic lesion from a testicular tumor.
  • Only fibrous tissue, small calcified areas, and hyaline bodies were found.
  • As tumor markers were normalized after 3 courses of chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatine, the retroperitoneal mass was removed with the left kidney.
  • It consisted of embryonal carcinoma, mature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor.
  • One course of adjuvant chemotherapy was done and the patient has since been free from recurrence.
  • We suppose that the tumor was a so-called 'burned-out' testicular tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11193307.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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25. Wang WP, Guo C, Berney DM, Ulbright TM, Hansel DE, Shen R, Ali T, Epstein JI: Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):519-24
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis: a clinicopathologic study of 29 cases.
  • Testicular carcinoid tumors are rare with only limited studies.
  • We identified 29 primary testicular carcinoid cases from 7 academic institutions.
  • The most common presenting symptom was the sole finding of either a testicular mass or swelling seen in 15/24 cases with available information.
  • All 29 primary carcinoids lacked associated intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type.
  • Of the 28 cases found premortem, treatment included focal excision in 3 patients and radical orchiectomy in 25 patients.
  • Follow-up, available in 24 cases, ranged from 1 to 228 months (mean 52.7 mo); of the 20 patients with testicular typical carcinoid tumors found premortem, all were alive at last follow-up without recurrences or metastases.
  • Of the 4 patients with a primary atypical carcinoid tumor, 1 at the time of diagnosis had retroperitoneal and lung metastases who after chemotherapy underwent resection of the retroperitoneal tumor showing metastatic yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.
  • After resection, serum AFP levels remained elevated and the patient is scheduled for salvage chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant.
  • Most primary carcinoid tumors of the testis have a benign clinical course even if associated with epidermoid/dermoid cysts, or histologically mature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1075. Ubright, Thomas M [corrected to Ulbright, Thomas M]
  • (PMID = 20351489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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26. Subramanian VS, Gilligan T, Klein EA: A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer managed by surveillance. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2008 Apr;5(4):220-3
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  • [Title] A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer managed by surveillance.
  • BACKGROUND: A 25-year-old male presented to his local urologist with new-onset right testicular pain and swelling detected on self examination.
  • A scrotal ultrasound scan showed a right testicular mass, suspicious for neoplasm.
  • The patient underwent right inguinal orchiectomy and was diagnosed with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the right testis, composed of yolk sac tumor, teratoma, and embryonal carcinoma with no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • He opted to remain under surveillance rather than undergo primary chemotherapy or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for his clinical stage I disease.
  • Serologic relapse at 4 months after orchiectomy was successfully treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.
  • Pathology of the testicular mass was reviewed.
  • DIAGNOSIS: A 1.7 cm nodule anterior to the right psoas muscle suspicious for metastatic disease that was seen on CT 16 months after orchiectomy was pathologically confirmed as recurrent mature teratoma in the spermatic cord.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Spermatic Cord / pathology. Teratoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Disease Management. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Orchiectomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18268549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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27. Pohar KS, Rabbani F, Bosl GJ, Motzer RJ, Bajorin D, Sheinfeld J: Results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I and II pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis. J Urol; 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1155-8
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  • [Title] Results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I and II pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis.
  • PURPOSE: We determined the pathological findings and clinical outcome of patients with pure embryonal carcinoma (EC) of the testis managed by primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Only 1 of 9 (11%) patients with pN1 treated without adjuvant chemotherapy has had relapse.
  • Of 24 patients with pN2/N3 disease only 3 (12%) have required more than 2 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy for persistent or recurrent disease despite complete resection of the retroperitoneum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low stage pure EC of the testis are at high risk for retroperitoneal disease.
  • However these patients do not appear to be at increased risk for high volume (pN2/N3) retroperitoneal disease, systemic relapse in pN0 or pN1 disease managed without adjuvant chemotherapy (although the number of evaluable patients in this subset is somewhat small), or persistent or recurrent disease in completely resected high volume (pN2/N3) retroperitoneal disease compared to patients with mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1168 [14501717.001]
  • (PMID = 14501714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Koster R, di Pietro A, Timmer-Bosscha H, Gibcus JH, van den Berg A, Suurmeijer AJ, Bischoff R, Gietema JA, de Jong S: Cytoplasmic p21 expression levels determine cisplatin resistance in human testicular cancer. J Clin Invest; 2010 Oct;120(10):3594-605
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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic p21 expression levels determine cisplatin resistance in human testicular cancer.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapies such as cisplatin are used as first-line treatment for many cancers.
  • For example, a subset of testicular cancer patients still die even though testicular cancer is considered a paradigm of cisplatin-sensitive solid tumors, but the mechanisms of chemoresistance remain elusive.
  • Here, we have shown that one key determinant of cisplatin-resistance in testicular embryonal carcinoma (EC) is high cytoplasmic expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21.
  • The EC component of the majority of refractory testicular cancer patients exhibited high cytoplasmic p21 expression, which protected EC cell lines against cisplatin-induced apoptosis via CDK2 inhibition.
  • We also demonstrated in EC cell lines and human tumor tissue that high cytoplasmic p21 expression and cisplatin resistance of EC were inversely associated with the expression of Oct4 and miR-106b seed family members.
  • Thus, targeting cytoplasmic p21, including by modulation of the Oct4/miR-106b/p21 pathway, may offer new strategies for the treatment of chemoresistant testicular and other types of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / analysis. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromones / pharmacology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / analysis. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. MicroRNAs / physiology. Morpholines / pharmacology. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20811155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-8238
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Chromones; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / MIRN106 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Morpholines; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2947220
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29. Sassa N, Yoshino Y, Matsukawa Y, Komatsu T, Yoshikawa Y, Yamamoto T, Hattori R, Gotoh M: [Case report of malignant sertoli cell tumor]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Jul;99(5):656-9
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  • A 38-year-old male visited a hospital with a complaint of swelling his left testis.
  • His pathologic diagnosis was suspected seminoma, and all tumor markers (LDH, HCG, AFP) were negative, and CT imaging confirmed clinical stage 1 (pT1N0M0S0).
  • He received 3 courses of chemotherapy with BEP (bleomycine, etoposide, cisplatin), but, lymph node size did not change.
  • After he underwent a CT guided lymph node biopsy, his pathologic diagnosis was viable embryonal carcinoma.
  • We selected CPT-11 and nedaplatin for his salvage chemotherapy, but lymph node lesions did not change.
  • After he received 3 courses of chemotherapy, we performed retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy.
  • His pathologic diagnosis was viable sertoli cell tumor, malignant type.
  • [MeSH-major] Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Salvage Therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18697473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 7673326042 / irinotecan; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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30. Opot EN, Magoha GA: Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J; 2000 Feb;77(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective case study of testicular cancer patients over a fifteen year period.
  • PARTICIPANTS: All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department of Kenyatta National Hospital between 1983 and 1997.
  • Thirty one patients (79.49%) presented with painless testicular swellings, eleven (28.08%) with pain, nine (23.08%) with scrotal heaviness, six (15.38%) with abdominal swellings and one (2.56%) each with gynaecomastia and eye swelling.
  • On examination 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, ten (25.64%) had abdominal masses, seven (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, and one each (2.56%) had gynaecomastia and eye mass respectively.
  • More than eighty nine per cent had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma 12.24%, embroyonal carcinoma 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma 6.12% and malignant germ cell tumour, orchioblastoma and dysgerminoma each accounted for 2.04%.
  • Three patients (7.7%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sixteen (41.03%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy, six (15.38%) had orchidectomy and chemotherapy, ten (25.64%) had radiotherapy and chemotherapy, three (7.7%) and two (5.13%) had only chemotherapy and radiotherapy respectively.
  • No cisplastin based chemotherapy regime was used.
  • Cisplastin based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included as a component of testicular cancer management at Kenyatta National Hospital.
  • This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.
  • All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed.
  • The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%).
  • On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass.
  • More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%.
  • The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%).
  • No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used.
  • Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Incidence. Kenya / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Referral and Consultation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10774080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] KENYA
  • [Other-IDs] PIP/ 149564; POP/ 00296083
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Cancer (major topic) / Clinical Research (major topic) / Prevalence (major topic) / Research Report (major topic) / Retrospective Studies (major topic) / Signs And Symptoms (major topic) / Testis (major topic) / Treatment (major topic) / Africa / Africa South Of The Sahara / Biology / Developing Countries / Diseases / Eastern Africa / English Speaking Africa / Genitalia / Genitalia, Male / Kenya / Measurement / Neoplasms / Physiology / Research Methodology / Studies / Urogenital System
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL.
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31. Allan RW, Algood CB, Shih IeM: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1902-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis.
  • This report describes a rare case of a concurrent epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and a teratoma in a para-aortic lymph node from a 39-year-old male patient with the initial diagnosis of testicular malignant mixed germ-cell tumor.
  • The metastatic lesion was excised 2 years after orchiectomy and chemotherapy.
  • Microscopically, the metastatic lesion contained a teratoma component and dispersed small nests of cohesive chorionic-type intermediate trophoblastic cells, closely resembling gestational ETT in female patients.
  • The diagnosis of ETT in this case was confirmed by stepwise immunohistochemistry.
  • Demonstration of ETT as one of the histologic manifestations of recurrent testicular germ-cell tumors should encourage pathologists to recognize this unique feature in assessing posttreatment mixed germ-cell neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / secondary. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19898219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Barton SJ, Ashdown DA, Ganta S, Wallace D: An unusual presentation of metastatic testicular tumour. J R Army Med Corps; 2005 Mar;151(1):30-3
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  • [Title] An unusual presentation of metastatic testicular tumour.
  • We report a unique case of metastatic malignant teratoma from an undescended testis which presented with acute pulmonary embolism.
  • After chemotherapy, the undescended right testicle was resected along with a cord of non- obstructing inferior venal caval tumour which extended into the right atrium with tumour floating free within the atrium at the end of the cord of tumour.
  • The presentation, diagnosis and treatment of testicular tumours is described and the literature pertaining to testicular tumours in military personnel reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Pulmonary Embolism / diagnosis. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Teratoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Military Personnel. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Vascular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Neoplasms / secondary. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Vena Cava, Inferior / pathology. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis. Venous Thrombosis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15912681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J R Army Med Corps
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Otite U, Webb JA, Oliver RT, Badenoch DF, Nargund VH: Testicular microlithiasis: is it a benign condition with malignant potential? Eur Urol; 2001 Nov;40(5):538-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular microlithiasis: is it a benign condition with malignant potential?
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the findings of testicular ultrasonography (US) in patients referred for testicular symptoms including pain, swelling and infertility, and to determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis (TM) and ist relevance to the development of testicular cancer.
  • METHODS: Records of 3,026 patients referred for testicular US between 1994 and 1999 were evaluated.
  • The indications for testicular US diagnosis, management and relevant histological details were obtained from medical records.
  • Patients with TM had an annual sonographic follow-up unless they had testicular cancer, in which case follow-up repeat US with clinical reviews was more frequent.
  • Sixteen of these patients had testicular malignancy (30%).
  • One patient with a small testis developed a seminoma while under surveillance.
  • Another patient with metastatic embryonal-cell carcinoma at initial diagnosis was found to have a seminoma 4 years following chemotherapy.
  • The relative risk of testicular tumours in the presence of TM was 13.2 (confidence interval 8.3-21.5).
  • CONCLUSION: TM can no longer be regarded simply as a benign condition because of its association with testicular malignancy.
  • In our series, 2 patients (5.2%) developed interval testicular cancers during follow-up US.
  • In rare instances of radiologically indeterminate cases, biopsy of the testis may be necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Calculi / complications. Precancerous Conditions. Testicular Diseases / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11752862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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34. Shirakawa T, Gotoh A, Zhang Z, Kao C, Chung LW, Gardner TA: Development of human chorionic gonadotropin subunit-beta promoter-based toxic gene therapy for testicular cancer. Urology; 2004 Mar;63(3):613-8
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  • [Title] Development of human chorionic gonadotropin subunit-beta promoter-based toxic gene therapy for testicular cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To develop a new toxic gene therapy using the tissue-specific human chorionic gonadotropin-beta (hCG-beta) promoter for testicular cancer.
  • Although most patients presenting with disseminated testicular tumor are cured through the use of chemotherapy with or without surgery, those patients with relapse after initial therapy present a difficult clinical problem.
  • The serum tumor marker hCG-beta is frequently elevated in patients with testicular cancer, and the pretreatment and post-treatment levels of serum hCG-beta are highly predictive of treatment outcome.
  • METHODS: Human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell line, NEC 8, a human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, and a human bladder cancer cell line, WH, were used in this study.
  • The tissue-specific activity of Ad-hCG-beta-TK was tested in vitro and in vivo.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we explored the possibility of developing a new therapeutic agent to target and induce the killing of testicular germ cell tumor selectively by using tissue-specific hCG-beta promoters.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / genetics. Genes, Transgenic, Suicide. Genetic Therapy. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Genetic Vectors / genetics. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Prodrugs / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Salvage Therapy. Thymidine Kinase / biosynthesis. Thymidine Kinase / genetics. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 15028478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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35. Häcker A, Hatzinger M, Knoll T, Michel MS, Köhrmann KU, Alken P, Siegsmund M: [Metachronous testicular tumor of an extragonadal germ cell tumor]. Aktuelle Urol; 2003 Oct;34(6):413-5
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  • [Title] [Metachronous testicular tumor of an extragonadal germ cell tumor].
  • Chemotherapy is the initial treatment of choice for extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGGCTs), followed by surgical resection of the residual tumor mass.
  • A primary testicular tumor must be ruled out by sonographic investigation and biopsy.
  • The rate of metachronous testicular cancer in men with primary EGGCT is largely unknown.
  • CASE REPORT: We present the first patient in the literature who developed a metachronous testicular cancer 10 months after primary occurrence of EGGCT in the retroperitoneum.
  • They should include careful sonographic investigation of the testis in order to detect metachronous testicular cancer early.
  • Intraoperative histopathology can be false-negative for cancer detection, as an immunohistochemical examination is not available.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Reoperation. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14579191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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36. Mikuz G: [WHO classification of testicular tumors]. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol; 2002;86:67-75
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  • [Title] [WHO classification of testicular tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] WHO-Klassifikation der Hodentumoren.
  • Twenty years after the first edition (1977), the WHO has presented the updated version of the "Histological typing of testis tumours".
  • Such atypical cells appear in the tubules adjacent to the germ cell tumors, in some few cases (6%) also in the contra lateral healthy gonad and rarely in infertile men (1%).
  • The precursor lesion can progress to franc germ cell tumor starting probably with seminoma, which still maintain the capability of differentiation (pluripotente cells) in all other types of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • This is a harmless name for an extremely dangerous tumor in which one tissue overgrows the other and gives rise to somatic type sarcomas or carcinomas.
  • Such tumors do not respond like germ cell tumors to the usual chemotherapy.
  • Treatment should be tailored according to that used in standard management of the respective sarcoma or carcinoma.
  • In the comments it is mentioned that the testis carcinoid could be a part of teratoma, but the diagnosis is listed in the group of "miscellaneous" tumors together with tumors of ovarian epithelial type.
  • This is a very questionable decision because the normal testis does not contain neuroendocrine cells from which carcinoids would have to be able to develop.
  • The patients have cardiac myxomas, spotty skin pigmentation, hormone active nodular hyperplasia of the adrenals and soft tissue myxomas.
  • For the therapy of germ cell tumor an assessment of risk factors found by the pathologists is extremely important.
  • The most important independent predictors of relapse are tumor invasion of blood or lymph-vessels, absence of yolk sac elements and the presence of an embryonal carcinoma component.
  • In the absence of such predictors a surveillance policy allows some patients to forgo chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 12647353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-4113
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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37. Sloetjes KG, van den Bergh JP, Wesseling P, Otten BJ, Pieters GF, Hermus AR: [Clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 32 patients with a primary intracranial germinoma, registered during the previous 15 years in the Dutch Pathological-Anatomical National Automated Archive (PALGA)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2000 Nov 18;144(47):2264-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 32 patients with a primary intracranial germinoma, registered during the previous 15 years in the Dutch Pathological-Anatomical National Automated Archive (PALGA)].
  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up of patients with intracranial germinoma in the Netherlands.
  • Informed consent was obtained from 32 of the 44 patients with respect to studying their medical records for age, symptoms at presentation, diagnostic investigations, presence of tumour markers, treatment and follow up.
  • Thirty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy, one with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy and one surgically.
  • One patient developed an intracranial embryonal carcinoma and another a testis seminoma.
  • CONCLUSION: At the time of this study 84% of all patients treated with radiotherapy were disease-free.
  • Although the percentage patients who had recovered after treatment (surgical and radiotherapy) was high, many patients either already had or subsequently developed neurological and endocrinological deficiencies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cause of Death. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / etiology. Netherlands. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology. Recurrence. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11109472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
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38. Allende-Vega N, Sparks A, Lane DP, Saville MK: MdmX is a substrate for the deubiquitinating enzyme USP2a. Oncogene; 2010 Jan 21;29(3):432-41
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  • Ectopic expression of wild-type USP2a but not a catalytic mutant prevents Mdm2-mediated degradation of MdmX.
  • This correlates with the ability of wild-type USP2a to deubiquitinate MdmX. siRNA-mediated knockdown of USP2a in NTERA-2 testicular embryonal carcinoma cells and MCF7 breast cancer cells causes destabilization of MdmX and results in a decrease in MdmX protein levels, showing that endogenous USP2a participates in the regulation of MdmX stability.
  • The therapeutic drug, cisplatin decreases MdmX protein expression.
  • The magnitude and time course of USP2a downregulation suggests that the reduction in USP2a levels could contribute to the decrease in MdmX expression following treatment with cisplatin.
  • Knockdown of USP2a increases the sensitivity of NTERA-2 cells to cisplatin, raising the possibility that suppression of USP2a in combination with cisplatin may be an approach for cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Blotting, Western. Catalytic Domain / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Mutation. Protein Binding. RNA Interference. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Substrate Specificity. Transfection. Ubiquitination

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  • (PMID = 19838211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / MDM4 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 3.4.- / Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.- / USP2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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39. Looijenga LH, Gillis AJ, Stoop HJ, Hersmus R, Oosterhuis JW: Chromosomes and expression in human testicular germ-cell tumors: insight into their cell of origin and pathogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2007 Dec;1120:187-214
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  • [Title] Chromosomes and expression in human testicular germ-cell tumors: insight into their cell of origin and pathogenesis.
  • Within the testis, three types of GCTs can be diagnosed: type I (teratomas and yolk-sac tumors of neonates and infants); type II (seminomas and nonseminomas); type III (spermatocytic seminomas).
  • Here the focus is on the type II GCTs, the most frequent type in the adult testis (so-called TGCTs).
  • In the testis, they originate from the malignant counterpart of primordial germ cells/gonocytes, referred to as carcinoma in situ (CIS)/intratubular germ-cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGCNU).
  • CIS/ITGCNU and seminomatous cells are characterized by expression of OCT3/4 and NANOG, while in addition embryonal carcinoma expresses SOX2, all identified as transcription factors related to pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells.
  • With the exception of teratomas, most histological elements of TGCTs are sensitive for (cisplatin-based) chemotherapy; CIS/ITGCNU and seminoma cells are also sensitive to DNA damage induced by irradiation.
  • The unusual presence of wild-type P53 in TGCTs is explained by specific expression of a cluster of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), that is, hsa-miR 371-373, also expressed in ES cells, which prevents P53-driven cellular senescence upon oncogenic stress.
  • Demonstration of these characteristics, in combination with the knowledge of the abnormal niche of these cells, normally occupied by spermatogonia, allows an informative method for (early) diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Neoplastic Stem Cells / physiology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Progression. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Epigenesis, Genetic / physiology. Humans. Male. Models, Biological. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17911410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 206
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40. Gyorffy H, Tihanyi T, Gyökeres T, Zsirka-Klein A, Kádár P, Kaszás I, Kovács M: [Pancreas pseudocyst or metastasis?]. Orv Hetil; 2005 Oct 23;146(43):2223-6
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  • Following the morphological diagnosis, detailed urological and medical check up was performed.
  • A previously nonpalpable small tumour was found in the left testis which was radically resected.
  • The testicular tumour measuring 9 x 9 x 5 mm in diameter was diagnosed as embryonal carcinoma.
  • Later on the patient underwent chemotherapy.
  • The possibility of a metastasis, especially of germ cell origin, should be excluded (not only by physical examination, but by ultrasound of testis also) in case of retroperitoneal cystic tumours even with unusual morphology.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Pseudocyst / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16323569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
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