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1. Beck H, Moriyama E: Transverse sinus-tentorium splitting approach for pineal region tumors--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2001 Apr;41(4):217-21
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  • The tentative diagnosis was mixed germ cell tumor.
  • Tumor resection was carried out via a transverse sinus-tentorium splitting approach.
  • The tumor tissue was completely resected, and no operative complication other than transient vertical gaze paresis was noted.
  • The histological diagnosis was mixed germ cell tumor composed of mature and immature teratoma, germinoma, and embryonal carcinoma.
  • After three courses of chemotherapy, the patient underwent external irradiation.
  • Transverse sinus section is not mandatory for this approach, but sectioning of the unilateral transverse sinus and the tentorium along the rectal sinus allows retraction of the falx and the underlying brain to the opposite side.
  • This approach enables safer and more extensive tumor removal for large pineal region tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pineal Gland / pathology. Pineal Gland / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain / pathology. Brain / surgery. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11381683.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Berney DM, Shamash J, Gaffney J, Jordan S, Oliver RT: DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 Sep 9;87(6):624-9
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  • [Title] DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours.
  • A small number of testicular germ cell tumours are refractory to current chemotherapy regimens.
  • DNA topoisomerase I is the target for several new drugs and a potential candidate treatment for chemorefractory germ cell tumours.
  • DNA topoisomerase II alpha is the target for etoposide, which is currently used regularly in germ cell tumour treatment.
  • The expression of DNA topoisomerase I and II alpha were therefore assessed immunohistochemically in a range of testicular tumours, especially those with persistent malignant elements on retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Pre-chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens were matched with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections to examine changes in expression.
  • There was considerable variation in the expression of topoisomerase I in different tumour types.
  • Both yolk sac tumours and teratoma, mature showed universal expression of topoisomerase I, while 38% of seminomas and 30% of embryonal carcinomas were positive.
  • Strong topoisomerase II alpha expression was found in embryonal carcinoma.
  • There was a negative correlation between topoisomerase I and II alpha expression (P=0.004) and downregulation of topoisomerase II alpha after chemotherapy (P=0.02).
  • Topoisomerase I expression appears to increase in those cases with residual teratoma, mature, but is largely unchanged in those cases remaining as embryonal carcinoma.
  • These results suggest that topoisomerase I inhibitors may be useful in chemorefractory germ cell tumours, especially yolk sac tumours and where there are unresectable residual teratoma, mature deposits.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Seminoma / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Down-Regulation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Testis / chemistry. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12237772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364243
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3. Fujita K, Tsujikawa K, Murosaki N, Sugao H, Itoh Y, Takao T, Nakai Y, Miki T: [A giant testicular tumor detected with dyspnea due to lung metastases: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2001 Aug;47(8):599-604
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  • [Title] [A giant testicular tumor detected with dyspnea due to lung metastases: a case report].
  • Clinical examination revealed the left infant-head-sized testicular tumor, multiple lung metastases and retroperitoneal bulky lymph node metastasis with marked elevation of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-fetoprotein.
  • Left radical orchiectomy followed by the chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin (EP) for 4 cycles was performed.
  • The tumor weighed 1,700 g, and was pathologically diagnosed as mixed germ cell tumor consisting of embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • After the treatment, the tumor markers were normalized with partial response (PR) of lung metastases and complete response (CR) of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis.
  • Five months after the treatment, he was seized with convulsion due to brain metastasis with hemorrhage.
  • Therefore, a surgical resection of brain metastasis and 2nd line chemotherapy with etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin (VIP) chemotherapy for 3 cycles was performed.
  • The patient has been free of recurrence for 21 months after the 2nd line chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Dyspnea / etiology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 11579605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; VP-P protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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4. Kanto S, Tokuyama S, Numahata K, Nakagawa H, Saito S, Arai Y: [Occult lumbar vertebral body metastasis of non-seminomatous germ cell tumor eradicated by radiation and salvage surgery 9 years after initial onset]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 May;98(4):634-7
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  • [Title] [Occult lumbar vertebral body metastasis of non-seminomatous germ cell tumor eradicated by radiation and salvage surgery 9 years after initial onset].
  • In this report we describe a case of late relapse non-seminomatous germ cell tumor eradicated after 9 years of initial onset.
  • A 20-year-old man complaining of recent aches, vomiting and headaches was diagnosed with right testicular tumor with solitary brain and bilateral lung metastases.
  • A right high orchiectomy was performed, followed by a right occipital osteoplastic craniotomy due to the presence of left hemiplesia and anisocoria prior to chemotherapy.
  • Pathologically, the tumors were embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • The patient received 5 cycles of cisplatin-based PEP chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide and peplomycin) after which all the tumor markers fell to within the normal range.
  • The remaining right lung tumor was removed surgically and the remnant lesion was found to be scar tissue.
  • Four years after initial therapy, elevated serum HCG levels were detected.
  • The tumor metastasis showed only HCG elevation responsive to chemotherapy each time followed by relapse and undetectable with all kinds of imaging examinations for 5 years.
  • Finally when the tumor became chemorefractory, conventional computed tomography scan on bone window detected the occult tumor in L4 corporal body.
  • After radiation therapy the tumor was removed by total spondylectomy and there was no viable tumor cells in the specimen pathologically.
  • CT bone window photography may be sometimes useful to detect occult bone metastasis and salvage surgery combined with radiation therapy may be worth trying in patients with chemorefractory non-seminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Salvage Therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17564107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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5. Brandes AA, Pasetto LM, Monfardini S: The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Aug;26(4):233-42
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  • [Title] The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours.
  • Germ cell tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) include many subtypes whose response to treatment varies, even though the symptoms and radiological appearances are similar.
  • Patients with choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, or yolk sac tumour have the lowest survival rates; patients with germinoma or mature teratoma have longer survival rates.
  • Although a wider resection is associated with a higher rate of survival for patients with non-germinomatous germ cell (NGGC) tumours, to date an aggressive surgical approach has been advocated only for pineal region tumours, but not for hypothalamic/neurohypophyseal tumours.
  • Beside the delayed injury induced by radiotherapy, the late injury induced by chemotherapy is becoming increasingly evident.
  • Cisplatin is considered an indispensable drug, but it may cause renal damage, ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy and sterility, while etoposide is associated with an excess frequency of second neoplasms.
  • Taking into account all of the published literature, the following therapeutic options are suggested: in pure germinoma tumours (GT) radiotherapy alone will usually ensure adequate control of the disease, and the long-term sequelae may be limited by reducing the dose delivered, as was proposed for germ cell testicular tumours, to 30 Gy to limited fields plus 25-30 Gy to the spinal axis if there is disseminated disease.
  • In cases of recurrence, which should be uncommon, patients may be rescued with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • In NGGC tumours, the prognosis is more unfavourable and there is often dissemination to the spine at diagnosis; however, the tumour's high chemosensitivity suggests neoadjuvant treatment chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for three cycles followed by consolidation radiotherapy with 40 Gy to the limited fields plus 30 Gy to the spinal axis if disseminated.
  • In our opinion, a higher dose of radiotherapy in cases in which chemotherapy does not achieve a radiological complete remission is not advisable, because very often the residual radiological abnormality does not represent biologically active tumour but differentiated forms such as mature teratoma.
  • The challenge for 2000 is to both cure these patients, and avoid the late and permanent sequelae of radiation and/or chemotherapy that may subsequently impair quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10913379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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6. Maruki C, Takara K, Abe K, Tsunoda A, Ebato M, Ikeya F: [Primary pineal embryonal carcinoma occurring in a middle aged man]. No Shinkei Geka; 2000 Oct;28(10):909-12
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  • [Title] [Primary pineal embryonal carcinoma occurring in a middle aged man].
  • A case of a primary pineal embryonal carcinoma occurring in a middle aged man is reported.
  • Head CT and MRI showed a tumor in the pineal region.
  • The tumor was partially removed and an intra-operative specimen was used to diagnose a kind of germ cell line tumor.
  • However, the tumor was diagnosed afterwards as a pure embryonal carcinoma.
  • Three courses of PE chemotherapy followed by 30 Gy of whole craniospinal irradiation and 30 Gy of extended local irradiation were completed.
  • An MRI showed the tumor to be in complete remission.
  • Despite careful follow-up with chemotherapy every three months, a re-operation and linac radio-surgery, the tumor recurred, and disseminated.
  • A pure primary pineal embryonal carcinoma occurring in a middle-aged person has never been reported previously in detail.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / etiology. Pineal Gland

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  • (PMID = 11070913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
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7. Kochi M, Itoyama Y, Shiraishi S, Kitamura I, Marubayashi T, Ushio Y: Successful treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors by administering neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy before excision of residual tumors. J Neurosurg; 2003 Jul;99(1):106-14
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors by administering neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy before excision of residual tumors.
  • OBJECT: The goal of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of our novel treatment strategy, neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) consisting of combined chemo- and radiotherapy, which are performed before complete excision of residual tumor in patients with intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs).
  • METHODS: The authors treated 11 consecutive patients with NGMGCTs by applying NAT consisting of combined platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy, followed by complete excision of residual tumors.
  • The pretreatment diagnosis, based on tumor markers with or without biopsy, was yolk sac tumor in five patients, embryonal carcinoma in one patient, immature teratoma in one patient, and mixed germ cell tumor containing malignant tumor components in four patients.
  • Of the 11 patients, 10 are currently alive without recurrence of their disease, 30 to 177 months (mean 96 months) after diagnosis.
  • In one patient a leptomeningeal tumor recurred and he died of the disease 21 months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant therapy, consisting of combined chemo- and radiotherapy, followed by complete excision of residual tumors is highly effective in patients with intracranial NGMGCTs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms. Carcinoma. Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Germinoma. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Postoperative Care. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12854751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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8. Sell S: Alpha-fetoprotein, stem cells and cancer: how study of the production of alpha-fetoprotein during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis led to reaffirmation of the stem cell theory of cancer. Tumour Biol; 2008;29(3):161-80
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  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein, stem cells and cancer: how study of the production of alpha-fetoprotein during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis led to reaffirmation of the stem cell theory of cancer.
  • Identification of the cells in the liver that produce alpha-fetoprotein during development, in response to liver injury and during the early stages of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis led to the conclusion that maturation arrest of liver-determined tissue stem cells was the cellular process that gives rise to hepatocellular carcinomas.
  • When the cellular changes in these processes were compared to that of the formation of teratocarcinomas, the hypothesis arose that all cancers arise from maturation arrest of tissue-determined stem cells.
  • This was essentially a reinterpretation of the embryonal rest theory of cancer whereby tissue stem cells take the role of embryonal rests.
  • A corollary of the stem cell theory of the origin of cancer is that cancers contain the same functional cell populations as normal tissues: stem cells, transit-amplifying cells and mature cells.
  • On the other hand, cancer stem cells generally divide very rarely and contribute little to tumor growth.
  • However, the presence of cancer stem cells in tumors is believed to be responsible for the properties of immortalization, transplantability and resistance to therapy characteristic of cancers.
  • Current therapies for cancer (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis and differentiation therapy) are directed against the cancer transit-amplifying cells.
  • When these therapies are discontinued, the cancer reforms from the cancer stem cells.
  • Therapy directed toward interruption of the cell signaling pathways that maintain cancer stem cells could lead to new modalities to the prevention of regrowth of the cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Signal Transduction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • (PMID = 18612221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112481-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA071390; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES009495-01A2; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057619-01A1; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057619; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057619-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074888-01A2; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES009495-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074888-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112481-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA071390-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES009495-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112481; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057619-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057619-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112481-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES009495; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES009495-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112481-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074888-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES009495-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074888; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA074888-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK057619-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 188
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS68144; NLM/ PMC2679671
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9. Goetz CM, Schmid I, Pietsch T, Peraud A, Haas RJ: Mixed malignant germ cell tumour of the lateral ventricle in an 8-month-old girl: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2002 Nov;18(11):644-7
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  • [Title] Mixed malignant germ cell tumour of the lateral ventricle in an 8-month-old girl: case report and review of the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a huge intracerebral malignant germ cell tumour (GCT) which appeared in the lateral ventricles of an 8-month-old girl.
  • Histology revealed an embryonal carcinoma mixed with a teratoma.
  • Chemotherapy induced a marked regression of the tumour.
  • After chemotherapy complete resection of the tumour remnant was easily achieved.
  • Histology showed only mesenchymal differentiated tumour tissue and the embryonal carcinoma could no longer be detected.
  • More than 2 years after the second operation and 31 months after diagnosis the child remains tumour-free.
  • CONCLUSION: The majority of cranial mixed malignant GCTs affects patients older than 4 years of age.
  • To our knowledge this is the youngest patient in whom an intracranial malignant GCT containing an embryonal carcinoma has been diagnosed and successfully treated.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Lateral Ventricles / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm, Residual. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12420127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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10. Cohn DA, Stuart-Harris R: Isolated central nervous system relapse of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis. A case report and review of the literature. Oncology; 2001;61(3):184-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated central nervous system relapse of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis. A case report and review of the literature.
  • Isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT) of the testis has been reported in only 12 patients previously.
  • From a review of previous cases, isolated CNS relapse appears to be more common in patients with embryonal cell histology (alone or mixed with other elements) and occurred after a median of 8.5 months following initial presentation.
  • Long-term survival appears possible using multi-modal treatment with whole-brain radiotherapy, surgery and/or chemotherapy.
  • However, the optimal treatment of isolated CNS relapse remains undefined.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Occipital Lobe. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vision Disorders / etiology. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11574772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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11. Mickisch GH: Prognostic parameters for the management of advanced testis tumours. Curr Opin Urol; 2000 Sep;10(5):465-71
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  • The need for prognostic parameters in testicular germ cell tumours is sometimes questioned based on an overall cure rate of more than 80% of the patients regardless of tumour stage.
  • However, the trend for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis amenable to curative treatment as well as the high effectiveness of standard Cisplatinum containing chemotherapy has masked the continuing need for intensifying therapy in patients with adverse risk factors.
  • This intense treatment is often associated with worrysome morbidity and the assessment of prognostic factors, stage by stage, is warranted on which patient at risk can be identified and treated accordingly.
  • Traditional prognostic factors, on which most classification systems are based, include large tumour volume, the presence of liver, bone or brain metastasis, grossly elevated tumour markers and an extragonadal primary site, particularly in the mediastinum.
  • Clearly, the infrastructure and the experience of the treating uro-oncology unit (see 1) is decisive for treatment outcomes, and -at least-'difficult to treat' patients should be referred to properly resourced cancer centres.
  • Finally, biologic factors (see 3) such as beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin or MAGE epitopes in seminoma or the percentage of embryonal carcinoma components orvascular invasion mayor may not inversely influence the prognosis and need further assessment in prospective trials.
  • However, the search for even better (molecular) biologic factors is speeding up because more complex treatment decisions such as in advanced testicular cancers rely on a more precise determination of prognosis, enabling a more tailored selection of individualized therapeutic options.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11005453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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12. Kon H, Kumabe T, Jokura H, Shirane R: Recurrent intracranial germinoma outside the initial radiation field with progressive malignant transformation. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2002 Jun;144(6):611-6
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  • [Title] Recurrent intracranial germinoma outside the initial radiation field with progressive malignant transformation.
  • A 19-year-old man with a pure germinoma in the pineal region was successfully treated with chemotherapy followed by 24 Gy local irradiation.
  • Near complete response was achieved again after 28.8 Gy whole brain and 24 Gy whole spine irradiation.
  • Enlargement of the recurrent mass at the trigone of the left lateral ventricle was found in spite of additional chemotherapy.
  • Tumour extirpation was performed and histological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma.
  • The patient died of tumour progression 34 months after the initial treatment.
  • By a combination of chemotherapy regiments in use today, the initial radiation field to treat intracranial germinomas should not be confined to the tumour bed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Germinoma / drug therapy. Germinoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pineal Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 12111494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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13. Sawamura Y: Strategy of combined treatment of germ cell tumors. Prog Neurol Surg; 2009;23:86-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Strategy of combined treatment of germ cell tumors.
  • The histopathological entity 'germ cell tumor' (GCT) encompasses a number of histological subtypes.
  • Germinoma and mature teratoma are curable and classified into the good prognostic group, whereas embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and other highly malignant neoplasms leave patients with a dismal prognosis.
  • There are other types of GCT that have an intermediate prognosis, such as immature teratoma.
  • Only mature teratomas are curable by surgical resection alone; the other types require adjuvant therapy.
  • To plan a surgical strategy, then eurosurgeon has to acquire enough knowledge of the effect of adjuvant therapies and biological behavior of the GCTs.
  • Germinoma can be cured by low-dose radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy, and nowadays needs only to be biopsied.
  • Other tumors, such as highly malignant tumors need a sophisticated combination therapy that includes surgery, craniospinal radiation therapy, and intensive chemotherapy.
  • An appropriate neoadjuvant therapy prior toradical surgical removal will remarkably reduce the surgical risk.
  • The goal of treatment should be tightly focused on the reduction of posttreatment sequelae, including surgical morbidity, and not on a complete microsurgical resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Pineal Gland. Pinealoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19329863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0079-6492
  • [Journal-full-title] Progress in neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog Neurol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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14. Kakimoto K, Ono Y, Meguro N, Takezawa K, Yoshida T, Arai Y, Usami M: Stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: Clinical outcome of 45 patients on a surveillance protocol after orchiectomy alone at a single institution in Japan. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16165

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: Clinical outcome of 45 patients on a surveillance protocol after orchiectomy alone at a single institution in Japan.
  • : e16165 Background: In Japan, risk-adapted treatment for patients with clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis (NSGCTT) has been performed in very few institutions.
  • The patients were monitored at follow-up evaluation for tumor marker (AFP, beta-hCG) levels and by abdominal CT scan, chest x-ray, and physical examination.
  • Primary testis tumor samples were assessed for prognostic factors including lymphatic and/or vascular (LV) invasion and pathological components such as the presence of embryonal carcinoma.
  • Two patients (12.5%) had metastases in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and lungs, two patients (12.5%) had metastases in the lungs alone, and one patient (6.2%) had metastases in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, lungs, and brain.
  • Of 31 patients with an embryonal carcinoma component, 13 patients (42%) developed metastases, whereas 21% of those without an embryonal carcinoma component developed metastases (p=0.04).
  • After chemotherapy and/or surgical treatment for relapse, the 5-year overall survival rate was 100%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As in previous reports, the presence of an embryonal carcinoma component and LV invasion appeared to be factors suggesting a high likelihood of relapse.

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  • (PMID = 27963435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Saporta S, Willing AE, Zigova T, Daadi MM, Sanberg PR: Comparison of calcium-binding proteins expressed in cultured hNT neurons and hNT neurons transplanted into the rat striatum. Exp Neurol; 2001 Feb;167(2):252-9
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  • An alternative source of cells for neural transplantation and brain repair that has many characteristics of immature neurons is the hNT neuron, derived from an embryonal human teratocarcinoma (NTera2) cell line that is terminally differentiated in vitro with retinoic acid.
  • The majority of hNT neurons are GABAergic in cell culture.
  • We have determined the calcium-binding protein (CBP) phenotypes of hNT neurons for three CBPs, calretinin (CR), calbindin D-28K (CB), and parvalbumin (PV), in cell culture and after transplantation into the rat striatum.
  • In cell culture, 95% of all cell profiles were human nuclear matrix antigen (NuMA) positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Corpus Striatum / surgery. Neoplastic Stem Cells / transplantation. Neurons / transplantation. Stroke / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens, Nuclear. Brain Tissue Transplantation / methods. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Cryopreservation. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Female. Fetal Tissue Transplantation / methods. Graft Survival. Humans. Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Phenotype. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Teratocarcinoma. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tretinoin / pharmacology. Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11161613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4886
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / NUMA1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Numa1 protein, rat; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase
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16. Sloetjes KG, van den Bergh JP, Wesseling P, Otten BJ, Pieters GF, Hermus AR: [Clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 32 patients with a primary intracranial germinoma, registered during the previous 15 years in the Dutch Pathological-Anatomical National Automated Archive (PALGA)]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2000 Nov 18;144(47):2264-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of 32 patients with a primary intracranial germinoma, registered during the previous 15 years in the Dutch Pathological-Anatomical National Automated Archive (PALGA)].
  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up of patients with intracranial germinoma in the Netherlands.
  • Informed consent was obtained from 32 of the 44 patients with respect to studying their medical records for age, symptoms at presentation, diagnostic investigations, presence of tumour markers, treatment and follow up.
  • Thirty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy, one with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy and one surgically.
  • One patient developed an intracranial embryonal carcinoma and another a testis seminoma.
  • CONCLUSION: At the time of this study 84% of all patients treated with radiotherapy were disease-free.
  • Although the percentage patients who had recovered after treatment (surgical and radiotherapy) was high, many patients either already had or subsequently developed neurological and endocrinological deficiencies.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cause of Death. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Female. Humans. Intracranial Hypertension / etiology. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / etiology. Netherlands. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology. Recurrence. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11109472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
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17. Huang X, Zhang R, Zhou LF: [Grading system for diagnosis and treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Sep 8;89(33):2333-6
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  • [Title] [Grading system for diagnosis and treatment of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the clinical feature, treatment and prognosis of intracranial nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCT).
  • METHODS: The records of 39 patients receiving treatment at our hospital between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively.
  • According to the classification of Matsutani, they were grouped into intermediate prognosis and poor prognosis groups based on tumor histology.
  • Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and outcome were analyzed in each group.
  • RESULTS: In these 39 cases, there were 15 mix germ cell tumors, 15 immature teratomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas and 2 yolk sac tumors.
  • The tumor was totally removed in 29 cases, sub-totally in 5 and partially in 3.
  • Embryonal carcinoma can be classified to the intermediate prognosis group because of its similar prognosis with immature teratoma and mixed tumors composed mainly of germinoma or teratoma.
  • Surgery remains the first choice for NGMGCT since treatment should be based on tumor histology.
  • For patients in the intermediate prognosis group, a combined regimen of surgical resection, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gamma knife surgery is mostly effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / classification. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20095355.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Sakurada K, Saino M, Mouri W, Sato A, Kitanaka C, Kayama T: Nestin expression in central nervous system germ cell tumors. Neurosurg Rev; 2008 Apr;31(2):173-6; discussion 176-7

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  • [Title] Nestin expression in central nervous system germ cell tumors.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors constitute a unique class of rare tumors that mainly affect children and adolescents.
  • These tumors are believed to originate from displaced primordial germ cells.
  • Recently, results of treatment of germ cell tumors have improved with use of radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy.
  • However, some tumors have proven refractory to intensive treatment with surgery, radiation, and combination chemotherapy.
  • Nestin is an intermediate filament protein expressed in undifferentiated cells during CNS development and in CNS tumors and is used as a marker of immature elements of tumors, including brain tumor stem cells.
  • In this study, we examined for the first time nestin expression in 19 CNS germ cell tumors (nine pure germinomas, five germinomas with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells, one yolk sac tumor, one choriocarcinoma, one embryonal carcinoma, and two mature teratomas).
  • These findings suggest that the detection of nestin expression could be useful in the management of CNS germ cell tumors, as an auxiliary predictor of dissemination and/or progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Intermediate Filament Proteins / biosynthesis. Intermediate Filament Proteins / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Choriocarcinoma / genetics. Choriocarcinoma / metabolism. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Female. Germinoma / genetics. Germinoma / metabolism. Germinoma / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / genetics. Giant Cell Tumors / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Nestin. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / metabolism. Teratoma / pathology. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18092184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5607
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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19. Roopesh Kumar SV, Mohanty A, Santosh V, Satish S, Devi BI, Praharaj SS, Kolluri SV: Endoscopic options in management of posterior third ventricular tumors. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Oct;23(10):1135-45
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  • Most of these are associated with hydrocephalus requiring a cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedure.
  • All patients underwent ETV and biopsy of the lesion during the same procedure.
  • A positive biopsy was obtained in all the patients (pinealocytoma 4, pinealoblastoma 10, embryonal cell carcinoma 1, germinoma 2, oligodendroglioma 1, astrocytoma 2, tuberculoma 4).
  • All patients were subsequently managed with further surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy either alone or in combination depending on the pathology.
  • One patient with a tumor bed hematoma required clot evacuation.
  • Two patients died, one during hospital stay with a tumor bed hematoma and another at 6 months follow-up due to extensive leptomeningeal spread.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The high yield of endoscopic biopsy (100%) and success of ETV (91%) emphasizes its role in management of the diverse group of PTV lesions in arriving at the optimal definitive management.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endoscopy. Neurosurgical Procedures. Third Ventricle / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy. Brain / pathology. Child. Craniotomy. Decompression, Surgical. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / diagnosis. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Hydrocephalus / surgery. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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20. Friedman JA, Lynch JJ, Buckner JC, Scheithauer BW, Raffel C: Management of malignant pineal germ cell tumors with residual mature teratoma. Neurosurgery; 2001 Mar;48(3):518-22; discussion 522-3
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  • [Title] Management of malignant pineal germ cell tumors with residual mature teratoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The treatment of intracranial mixed germ cell tumors presents a unique challenge, since eradication of malignant tumor by radiation and/or chemotherapy may spare the benign tumor component.
  • We reviewed our surgical experience with residual malignant pineal germ cell tumors after neoadjuvant therapy.
  • METHODS: Between 1987 and 1997, 16 patients with malignant intracranial germ cell tumors were treated at the Mayo Clinic with a protocol of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • After the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination, all patients were treated with four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin as well as external beam radiation therapy (range, 3030-5940 cGy).
  • Six patients had an incomplete response to therapy, as demonstrated by observation of residual tumor on magnetic resonance imaging scans.
  • Initial pathology in these six patients was germinoma in four and combinations of yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, malignant teratoma, and germinoma in two.
  • Tumor markers were elevated in four of the six patients at presentation.
  • CONCLUSION: Residual pineal tumor occurring after treatment of malignant intracranial germ cell tumor with neoadjuvant therapy is likely to be mature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Germinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pineal Gland. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Algorithms. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm, Residual


21. Sabatino G, Lauriola L, Sioletic S, Puca A: Occipital ganglio-neuroblastoma in an adult. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 May;151(5):495-6
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  • Three years before thyroidectomy for a follicular carcinoma was performed.
  • A diagnosis of GNB was made from histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry.
  • She underwent fractioned radiotherapy (60 Gy) and chemotherapy with Temozolomide.
  • She remained disease free 18 months after diagnosis.
  • DISCUSSION: Recent observations suggest that in spite of an embryonal appearance, these tumours are circumscribed and have a better prognosis than malignant gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ganglioneuroblastoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Occipital Lobe / radiography

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  • (PMID = 19262982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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22. Su D, Gudas LJ: Gene expression profiling elucidates a specific role for RARgamma in the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells. Biochem Pharmacol; 2008 Mar 1;75(5):1129-60
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  • We identified and characterized genes that are differentially expressed in F9 wild type (Wt) and F9 RARgamma-/- cells, with and without RA treatment, through the use of oligonucleotide-based microarrays.
  • Other genes, such as Runx1, were expressed at lower levels in both F9 RARbeta2-/- and RARgamma-/- cell lines than in F9 Wt and RARalpha-/-.
  • Delineation of the receptor-specific actions of RA with respect to cell proliferation and differentiation should result in more effective therapies with this drug.

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  • (PMID = 18164278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA043796-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043796-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043796-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043796-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043796-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA043796-17; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA043796-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA043796-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA043796-14; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA043796; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA043796-15
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor gamma; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS242556; NLM/ PMC2988767
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23. Krarup-Hansen A, Helweg-Larsen S, Schmalbruch H, Rørth M, Krarup C: Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies. Brain; 2007 Apr;130(Pt 4):1076-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy.
  • To study whether the whole neuron or the distal axon was primarily affected, we have carried out serial clinical and electrophysiological studies in 16 males with testicular cancer before or early and late during and after treatment with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin at limited (<400 mg/m2 cisplatin), conventional (approximately 400 mg/m2 cisplatin) or high (>400 mg/m2 cisplatin) doses.
  • At cumulative doses of cisplatin higher than 300 mg/m2 the patients lost distal tendon and H-reflexes and displayed reduced vibration sense in the feet and the fingers.
  • Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment.
  • The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal axonal degeneration even at the lowest toxic doses of cisplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Neurons, Afferent / drug effects. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / physiology. Adult. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Etoposide / adverse effects. Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory / physiology. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Conduction / physiology. Prospective Studies. Reflex / physiology. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / physiopathology. Sensation Disorders / chemically induced. Sensation Disorders / physiopathology. Sensory Thresholds / physiology. Touch / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17301082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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24. Yamamoto N, Yamada Y, Fujiwara Y, Yamada K, Fujisaka Y, Shimizu T, Tamura T: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of HER2-targeted rhuMAb 2C4 (Pertuzumab, RO4368451) in Japanese patients with solid tumors. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr;39(4):260-6
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  • This study evaluated the toxicity, pharmacokinetics and anti-tumor activities of pertuzumab in Japanese patients with solid tumors.
  • METHODS: Patients with solid tumors refractory to standard therapy were administered pertuzumab 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 mg/kg intravenously once every 3 weeks.
  • There was limited evidence of activity (stable disease 2; progressive disease 13; and not evaluable 3); however, tumor shrinkage and tumor marker decrease were observed in an ovarian cancer and a non-small-cell lung cancer patient, respectively.
  • Although objective tumor response was not observed, it is worth evaluating as a flat dose and in combination with other cytotoxics and molecular-targeted agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacokinetics. Antibodies, Monoclonal / toxicity. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, ErbB-2 / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Area Under Curve. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Digestive System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Digestive System Neoplasms / surgery. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Female. Humans. Hypersensitivity / diagnosis. Hypersensitivity / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphopenia / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / drug effects. Natriuretic Peptide, Brain / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19261664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 114471-18-0 / Natriuretic Peptide, Brain; 380610-27-5 / pertuzumab; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2661001
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25. Pession A, Tonelli R: The MYCN oncogene as a specific and selective drug target for peripheral and central nervous system tumors. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2005 Jun;5(4):273-83
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  • [Title] The MYCN oncogene as a specific and selective drug target for peripheral and central nervous system tumors.
  • While Myc is ubiquitous, MYCN has a very restricted expression pattern: it is mainly expressed during embryonic development, but then becomes downregulated, while in adults it is usually detected in B-cell development.
  • Identification of selective inhibitors of MYCN and its mRNA and protein could be important for the development of more specific, effective and less toxic therapeutic agents for tumors of the PNS and CNS.
  • N-Myc is essential during neurogenesis for the rapid expansion of progenitor cells in the brain.
  • MYCN amplification and over-expression has been reported in medulloblastoma, and especially in the desmoplastic type.
  • Other tumors associated with MYCN overexpression include retinoblastoma, small cell lung carcinoma, glioblastoma and certain embryonal tumors.
  • A cell-based, N-Myc-dependent luciferase reporter gene assay to identify specific N-Myc small-molecule inhibitors has allowed identification of five compounds showing significant activity.
  • Peptide nucleic acids (PNA), which belong to the most recent (third) generation of nucleic acid therapeutics, form highly stable duplexes with DNA and RNA, and are resistant to degradation by nucleases and proteases.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Genes, myc / drug effects. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15975048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-0096
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 119
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26. Tamaki N, Yin D: Therapeutic strategies and surgical results for pineal region tumours. J Clin Neurosci; 2000 Mar;7(2):125-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapeutic strategies and surgical results for pineal region tumours.
  • Over 26 years we treated 36 patients including: 24 with germinoma; four, teratoma; three, pineal cyst; and one each, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, pineocytoma, pineoblastoma and metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Pineal Gland. Pinealoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy. Female. Gonadotropins / cerebrospinal fluid. Humans. Infant. Male. Microsurgery / methods. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / cerebrospinal fluid

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10844797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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