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1. Steed ME, Vidaillac C, Rybak MJ: Novel daptomycin combinations against daptomycin-nonsusceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro model of simulated endocardial vegetations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 2010 Dec;54(12):5187-92
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  • Although infections with daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) MRSA are infrequent, optimal therapy of these strains has not been determined.
  • We investigated the killing effects of novel antibiotic combinations with daptomycin (DAP) against two clinical DNS MRSA isolates (SA-684 and R6003) in a 72-h in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model with simulated endocardial vegetations (SEV).
  • The unique combination of DAP plus TMP/SMX was the most effective and rapidly bactericidal regimen against the two isolates tested and may provide a clinical option to treat DNS S. aureus infections.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology. Daptomycin / pharmacology. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetamides / pharmacology. Cephalosporins / pharmacology. Drug Combinations. Endocarditis, Bacterial / microbiology. Linezolid. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Nafcillin / pharmacology. Oxazolidinones / pharmacology. Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 20921318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-6596
  • [Journal-full-title] Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetamides; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Cephalosporins; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Oxazolidinones; 4CNZ27M7RV / Nafcillin; 8064-90-2 / Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination; 807PW4VQE3 / cefepime; ISQ9I6J12J / Linezolid; NWQ5N31VKK / Daptomycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2981245
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2. van Bussel B, Pijpers E, Ferreira I, Castermans P, Kruseman AN: Polymorbidity in diabetes in older people: consequences for care and vocational training. Postgrad Med J; 2007 Dec;83(986):763-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Diabetes Complications.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of complicating and concurrent morbidities in older diabetic patients and to evaluate to what extent their occurrence affects the burden of disease and use of medical healthcare.
  • Healthcare registration systems were used to retrieve data on 300 patients with diabetes aged >or=60 years who, according to the severity of their disease and intensity of care required, were treated in a regional general practitioner (GP), diabetes nurse specialist (DNS) or medical specialist (MS) practice.
  • RESULTS: Complicating and concurrent morbidities were often found irrespective of the type of practice involved.
  • After adjustments for differences in sex, age and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), the extent of complicating comorbidities showed sequential increases in patients managed by GP, DNS and MS (mean number of 3.6, 4.7 and 6.7, respectively; p(trend)<0.001).
  • Both complicating and concurrent comorbidities were similarly associated with the extent of drug use (beta = 0.49 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.58) and beta = 0.57 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.72), respectively) and the number of consultations with specialists other than the main care giver (beta = 1.19 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.24) and beta = 1.21 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.28), respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The use of healthcare facilities by older patients with diabetes is substantial, irrespective of the complexity of the disease and the kind of practice involved.
  • The common manifestation of complicating and concurrent comorbidities and their varying complexity in individual patients requires a patient-oriented rather than a disease-oriented approach and vocational training programmes for care givers that are tailored to the complexity of multiple chronic diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Diabetes Complications / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Blood Glucose. Chronic Disease. Cost of Illness. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. Humans. Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Acceptance of Health Care. Polypharmacy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18057176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] Postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2750927
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3. Turner C, Pateman B: A study of district nurses' experiences of continuous ambulatory chemotherapy. Br J Community Nurs; 2000 Aug;5(8):396-400
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  • [Title] A study of district nurses' experiences of continuous ambulatory chemotherapy.
  • As a result of technical developments and policies that promote shorter hospital stays, patients are increasingly receiving high technology treatment in the community.
  • The administration of ambulatory intravenous chemotherapy at home is an example of such treatment.
  • Despite being generalist nurses, district nurses (DNs) are involved in what could be viewed as 'specialist' care - advising and supporting patients while they are receiving treatment.
  • This article reports on a study of 20 DNs from one community trust and examines the sources of the knowledge and skills used in caring for these patients and the communication links with the regional cancer centre.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Community Health Nursing. Home Infusion Therapy / nursing. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12271233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-4753
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of community nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Community Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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4. Raza ML, Zeeshan M, Ahmad M, Shaheen F, Simjee SU: Anticonvulsant activity of DNS II fraction in the acute seizure models. J Ethnopharmacol; 2010 Apr 21;128(3):600-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ACETONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Anticonvulsant activity of DNS II fraction in the acute seizure models.
  • Other species of Delphinium are reported as anticonvulsant and are traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy.
  • DNS II acetone was chosen for further testing in the acute seizure models of epilepsy to study the antiepileptic potential in male mice.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different doses (60, 65 and 70mg/kg, i.p.) of DNS II acetone fraction of Delphinium nordhagenii was administered 30min prior the chemoconvulsant's injection in the male mice.
  • Moreover, four different doses of DNS II (60, 65, 70 and 100mg/kg, i.p.) were tested in the MES test.
  • RESULTS: The DNS II acetone fraction of Delphinium nordhagenii has exhibited the anticonvulsant actions by preventing the seizures against PTZ- and picrotoxin-induced seizure as well as 100% seizure protection in MES test.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Epilepsy / prevention & control. Seizures / drug therapy. Seizures / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetone / therapeutic use. Animals. Delphinium / chemistry. Diazepam / therapeutic use. Male. Melanoma / drug therapy. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. Pakistan. Pentylenetetrazole / therapeutic use. Phenytoin / therapeutic use. Picrotoxin / therapeutic use. Ranunculaceae / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20138136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7573
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 124-87-8 / Picrotoxin; 1364PS73AF / Acetone; 6158TKW0C5 / Phenytoin; Q3JTX2Q7TU / Diazepam; WM5Z385K7T / Pentylenetetrazole
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5. Shah SA, Sajid T, Asif M, Khan F, Haroon T, Malik S, Ghani R: Evaluation of efficacy of management protocol in allergic rhinitis. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2007 Jul-Sep;19(3):6-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHOD: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Ear, Nose & Throat and Head & Neck Surgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, over a period of two years (2005 - 2006), to assess the efficacy of a standard protocol of treatment developed and followed in the department.
  • All the patients were prescribed medical treatment, divided into initial phase of 10 days to two weeks duration followed by a maintenance phase, and a regular follow-up schedule was maintained upto two years.
  • 37.53% patients had surgery done for associated pathologies, mostly a DNS.
  • Compliance regarding medication was more than 90% in the initial phase of treatment that dropped to 50% in the maintenance phase.
  • 93% of the patients tolerated the treatment well.
  • Optimal treatment protocol is still lacking especially in the developing countries.
  • Associated problems that may need surgical treatment.
  • Regular follow-up must be ensured to monitor the progress of treatment as well as to identify patients who might be candidates for immunotherapy.
  • Newer modalities of treatment need to be further explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Protocols. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Education as Topic. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18444581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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6. Ravot E, Comolli G, Lori F, Lisziewicz J: High efficiency lentiviral gene delivery in non-dividing cells by deoxynucleoside treatment. J Gene Med; 2002 Mar-Apr;4(2):161-9
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  • [Title] High efficiency lentiviral gene delivery in non-dividing cells by deoxynucleoside treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Gene therapy has recently been advanced by the development of HIV-based vectors that are able to transduce some non-dividing cells.
  • In this study, a novel delivery strategy is developed to improve significantly the efficiency of HIV-based vectors in transducing non-dividing cells.
  • METHODS: Mature human monocyte-derived macrophages (14-21 days old) were transduced at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) of HIV vectors carrying a reporter gene. dNSs were added to the medium during transduction (5 mM dNS) and immediately before post-transduction culture (2.5 mM dNS).
  • RESULTS: The addition of dNS to the medium significantly enhanced the efficiency of transduction of human macrophages by HIV-based vectors.
  • The percentage of cells expressing the transgene rose up to 50% in the presence of dNS, increasing the basal transduction levels up to 35-fold (average=10.8-fold).
  • Furthermore, treatment with dNTP precursors compensated for the wide inter-donor variability, allowing the highest enhancement effects in donors with the lowest basal transduction efficiencies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration that a single treatment of non-dividing target cells with exogenous dNS can enhance the efficiency of lentiviral-mediated transduction of cells, allowing for high efficiency gene transfer.
  • This simple approach might be transferred to a broader range of quiescent cell types that are scarcely susceptible to lentiviral-based gene delivery due to low dNTP levels.
  • [MeSH-minor] 3T3 Cells. Animals. Cell Division. Cell Line. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. HIV / genetics. Humans. Macrophages / metabolism. Mice. Retroviridae / genetics. Tetrazolium Salts / pharmacology. Thiazoles / pharmacology. Time Factors. Transduction, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 11933217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-498X
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of gene medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gene Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 0 / Thiazoles; 298-93-1 / thiazolyl blue; 533-67-5 / Deoxyribose
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7. Lipkowski AW, Misicka A, Kosson D, Kosson P, Lachwa-From M, Brodzik-Bienkowska A, Hruby VJ: Biological properties of a new fluorescent biphalin fragment analogue. Life Sci; 2002 Jan 11;70(8):893-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This paper presents data that replacement of the phenylalanine with a dansyl (X=DNS) groups gives an analogue (AA2016) that fully preserves the high affinity of the initial analogue for both mu and delta opioid receptors.
  • Because AA2016 contains a strong fluorescent group, it can be a very useful tool for prospective studies in vivo, including biological barrier permeability, tissue distribution, metabolism and receptor-ligand complex formation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesia. Animals. Dansyl Compounds. Male. Pain / drug therapy. Pain / metabolism. Phenylalanine. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Receptors, Opioid, delta / metabolism. Receptors, Opioid, mu / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11853227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-3205
  • [Journal-full-title] Life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Life Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 06284
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Dansyl Compounds; 0 / Enkephalins; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, delta; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, mu; 47E5O17Y3R / Phenylalanine; 83916-01-2 / biphalin
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8. Chuang KH, Cheng CM, Roffler SR, Lu YL, Lin SR, Wang JY, Tzou WS, Su YC, Chen BM, Cheng TL: Combination cancer therapy by hapten-targeted prodrug-activating enzymes and cytokines. Bioconjug Chem; 2006 May-Jun;17(3):707-14
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combination cancer therapy by hapten-targeted prodrug-activating enzymes and cytokines.
  • Combination therapy can help overcome limitations in the treatment of heterogeneous tumors.
  • In the current study, we examined whether multiple therapeutic agents could be targeted to anti-dansyl single-chain antibodies (DNS scFv) that were anchored on the plasma membrane of cancer cells.
  • Functional DNS scFv could be stably expressed on CT-26 colon cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo.
  • Dansyl moieties were covalently attached to recombinant beta-glucuronidase (betaG) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) via a flexible poly(ethylene glycol) linker to form DNS-PEG-betaG and DNS-PEG-IL-2 conjugates.
  • The conjugates selectively bound CT-26 cells that expressed anti-DNS scFv (CT-26/DNS cells) but not CT-26 cells that expressed control scFv (CT-26/phOx cells).
  • DNS-PEG-betaG preferentially activated a glucuronide prodrug (BHAMG) of p-hydroxy aniline mustard at CT-26/DNS cells in culture and accumulated in subcutaneous CT-26/DNS tumors after intravenous administration.
  • Systemic administration of DNS-PEG-IL-2 or DNS-PEG-betaG and BHAMG significantly delayed the growth of CT-26/DNS but not control CT-26/phOx tumors.
  • Combination treatment with DNS-PEG-betaG and BHAMG followed by DNS-PEG-IL-2 therapy significantly suppressed the growth of CT-26/DNS tumors as compared to either single-agent regimen.
  • These results show that at least two DNS-modified therapeutic agents can be selectively delivered to DNS scFv receptors in vitro and in vivo, allowing combination therapy of DNS scFv-modified tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Glucuronidase / pharmacology. Haptens / immunology. Interleukin-2 / pharmacology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / immunology. Prodrugs / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies / immunology. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Therapy, Combination. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16704208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-1802
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioconjugate chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioconjug. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Haptens; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Prodrugs; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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9. Dow GS, Armson A, Boddy MR, Itenge T, McCarthy D, Parkin JE, Thompson RC, Reynoldson JA: Plasmodium: assessment of the antimalarial potential of trifluralin and related compounds using a rat model of malaria, Rattus norvegicus. Exp Parasitol; 2002 Mar;100(3):155-60
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHLOROQUINE .

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  • Other DNs which have better absorption characteristics than either trifluralin or oryzalin may offer more scope for antimalarial activity in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Malaria / drug therapy. Plasmodium berghei / drug effects. Sulfanilamides. Trifluralin / pharmacology. Trifluralin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antimalarials / pharmacology. Antimalarials / therapeutic use. Cells, Cultured. Chloroquine / pharmacology. Chloroquine / therapeutic use. Dinitrobenzenes / pharmacology. Dinitrobenzenes / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Erythrocytes / parasitology. Parasitic Sensitivity Tests / methods. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew

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  • (PMID = 12173400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimalarials; 0 / Dinitrobenzenes; 0 / Sulfanilamides; 662E385DWH / oryzalin; 886U3H6UFF / Chloroquine; C8BX46QL7K / Trifluralin
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10. Jen M, Murphy M, Grant-Kels JM: Childhood melanoma. Clin Dermatol; 2009 Nov-Dec;27(6):529-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Childhood melanoma.
  • Pediatric melanoma is rare but increasing in incidence.
  • Because early diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis, clinicians need to include it as a possible diagnosis when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient.
  • Some risk factors for melanoma include xeroderma pigmentosum, giant congenital melanocytic nevi, dysplastic nevus syndrome, atypical nevi, many acquired melanocytic nevi, family history of melanoma, and immunosuppression.
  • Definitive treatment is with surgical excision.
  • Adjuvant therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy can be used in advanced cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19880040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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11. Shiose Y, Kuga H, Ohki H, Ikeda M, Yamashita F, Hashida M: Systematic research of peptide spacers controlling drug release from macromolecular prodrug system, carboxymethyldextran polyalcohol-peptide-drug conjugates. Bioconjug Chem; 2009 Jan;20(1):60-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systematic research of peptide spacers controlling drug release from macromolecular prodrug system, carboxymethyldextran polyalcohol-peptide-drug conjugates.
  • The primary purpose of this study was to comprehensively delineate specificity of the peptide spacer sequence to tumor-expressed proteases for the design of macromolecular carrier-peptide spacer-drug conjugate system.
  • 225 conjugates of carboxymethyldextran polyalcohol (CM-Dex-PA) as water-soluble carrier and a dansyl derivative (N-(4-aminobutyl)-5-(dimethylamino)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide, DNS) as the model drug linked with different tetrapeptide spacers (Gly-Gly-P(2)-P(1), P(2), P(1): Ala, Asn, Gly, Cit, Gln, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr, and Val) were combinatorially synthesized.
  • First, the drug release assay of all of the fluorogenic model conjugates was performed in murine Meth A solid tumor homogenates.
  • The drug release rate was higher with conjugates having hydrophobic amino acids at P(2).
  • It was also found that conjugates with Asn release the drug rapidly and, in contrast, those with Pro does not.
  • Second, we selected three peptide spacers (Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly, Gly-Gly-Ile-Gly, Gly-Gly-Pro-Leu), which release only DNS at different rates, and applied them to doxorubicin (DXR) conjugates.
  • These three DXR conjugates were used for investigating relationships with drug release, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity against Meth A bearing mice of these conjugates.
  • The release of DXR from the conjugates corresponded well with that of DNS conjugates in tumor homogenates.
  • Taken with the fact that the drug release rate in tumor homogenates was approximately 10-fold different between these two DXR conjugates, it is likely that cellular uptake of the conjugate would be rate-limiting, rather than the drug release process under the in vivo situation.
  • However, much weaker antitumor activity was observed with CM-Dex-PA-Gly-Gly-Pro-Leu-DXR, of which the drug release was extremely slow.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antigens, Neoplasm. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Carriers / pharmacokinetics. Histocompatibility Antigens. Mice. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19090781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4812
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioconjugate chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioconjug. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Prodrugs; 0 / tumor-associated transplantation antigen; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 9044-05-7 / carboxymethyl dextran; K3R6ZDH4DU / Dextrans
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