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2. Osuagwu CC, Okafor OC, Ezeome ER, Uche CE, Ememonu C, Kesieme E: Familial adenomatous polyposis with synchronous invasive colonic carcinomas and metastatic jejunal adenocarcinoma in a Nigerian male. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(4):e66
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  • [Title] Familial adenomatous polyposis with synchronous invasive colonic carcinomas and metastatic jejunal adenocarcinoma in a Nigerian male.
  • An intriguing feature of this case is an ulcerated jejunal carcinoma which was metastatic rather than synchronous carcinoma.
  • This patient presented with partial large bowel obstruction and the pathological analysis revealed 4 invasive adenocarcinomas, 3 in the colon and 1 in the jejunum (Dukes stage D).
  • Palliative pancolectomy and jejunal tumour resection with chemotherapy was offered to him.
  • The challenges of managing a hereditary cancer syndrome in a resource poor country are highlighted.

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  • (PMID = 21234258.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019601
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adenocarcinoma. / colon / familial adenomatous polyposis / jejunum
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3. Lin JT, Wang WS, Yen CC, Liu JH, Yang MH, Chao TC, Chen PM, Chiou TJ: Outcome of colorectal carcinoma in patients under 40 years of age. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005 Jun;20(6):900-5
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  • [Title] Outcome of colorectal carcinoma in patients under 40 years of age.
  • AIMS: Colorectal carcinoma in patients under 40 years of age usually has a poor prognosis.
  • Controversies still exist regarding the features and the prognosis of colorectal cancer in young patients.
  • METHODS: The records of 45 patients with histologically confirmed colorectal carcinoma treated between 1992 and 2002 at the Division of Oncology at Taipei Veterans General Hospital were reviewed.
  • The relevance of sex, duration of symptoms, tumor site, histological type, lymph node involvement, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels at the diagnosis and tumor stage to overall survival (OS) were determined by univariate analysis, and their independent significance were tested by multivariate analysis.
  • RESULTS: Most patients presented with an advanced tumor stage (24% Dukes' C and 66% Dukes' D).
  • Colon carcinoma constituted 76% of the colorectal tumors.
  • Two patients were found to have colon carcinoma during pregnancy.
  • The 5-year survival rate in patients with Stage B, C, and D were 25, 16 and 0%, respectively.
  • With aggressive treatment, patients with early stage carcinoma achieved longer survival.
  • Eleven patients received resection of metastatic carcinoma of the liver, lung and ovary.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with irinotecan/5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy seemed to improve the OS in such patients, though the OS was still poorer than in patients with early stage tumors.
  • In univariate analysis, KPS (P = 0.0001), lymph node involvement (P = 0.0024), CEA (P = 0.0423) and LDH levels (P = 0.0126) at the diagnosis and tumor stage (P = 0.0122) proved to be significant predictors of overall survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that performance status and preoperative LDH levels were the major determinants for survival in patients with colorectal carcinoma under 40 years of age and the present series also suggests that surgical resection of metastatic colorectal carcinoma followed by adjuvant chemotherapy might be beneficial in certain patients.
  • The data also suggests that current treatment modalities for young patients with advanced colorectal cancer might not be effective and more effective therapeutic regimens might be needed.
  • Thus, it is important for surgeons to recognize the potential for colorectal cancer in young patients and to take an aggressive approach to the diagnosis and early treatment of the disease.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15946138.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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4. Elsaleh H, Powell B, Soontrapornchai P, Joseph D, Goria F, Spry N, Iacopetta B: p53 gene mutation, microsatellite instability and adjuvant chemotherapy: impact on survival of 388 patients with Dukes' C colon carcinoma. Oncology; 2000;58(1):52-9
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  • [Title] p53 gene mutation, microsatellite instability and adjuvant chemotherapy: impact on survival of 388 patients with Dukes' C colon carcinoma.
  • Two common genetic alterations in colon carcinoma, p53 mutation and microsatellite instability (MSI), were investigated to determine their prognostic importance for cancer-specific survival and response to adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with Dukes' C colon cancer.
  • The cellular response mechanisms to DNA-damaging agents in tumours with mutant p53 or MSI may as a consequence differ, and this might translate into different outcomes following adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • A consecutive series of 388 Dukes' C colon carcinomas with 5-year median follow-up was analysed for p53 mutation and for MSI (in proximal/transverse carcinomas only) using polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism.
  • One hundred and thirty-three patients (34%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil/levamisole) with curative intent.
  • The presence of MSI in the proximal/transverse colon carcinoma group was associated with significantly better 5-year survival: 58 versus 32% (p = 0.015, log rank test).
  • This was largely due to better survival observed in the MSI subgroup that received adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.017, log rank test).
  • Further work in prospective, randomised clinical trials investigating the effects of adjuvant therapy should consider incorporating MSI status in order to determine whether this is an independent predictive factor for survival and/or response to adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / genetics. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Microsatellite Repeats. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Levamisole / administration & dosage. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10644941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 2880D3468G / Levamisole; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Belhadj N, Gargouri D, Kharrat J, Ben Hriz F, Kochlef A, Kilani A, Romani M, Ghorbel A, Cherif R, Khlifi S, Ben Maamer A, Letaief A: [A gastroenterology unit experience with adjuvant chemotherapy for non-metastatic colon cancer: results from 24 cases]. Tunis Med; 2003 Jun;81(6):395-9
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  • [Title] [A gastroenterology unit experience with adjuvant chemotherapy for non-metastatic colon cancer: results from 24 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimiotherapie adjuvante des cancers coliques non metastatiques. Expérience d'un service de gastro-entérologie. A propos de 24 cas.
  • A prospective study was carried from January 1996 to December 2000 including patients that received adjuvant chemotherapy type FUFOL for colon carcinoma after curative surgery.
  • Chemotherapy was recommended for all stage Dukes B2 end C.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 24 patients (13 men and 11 women, mean age 56.7 +/- 11.5 years) with surgically resected stage B 2 in 7 cases (29%), C in 17 cases (71%).
  • Treatment was completed in 15 patients (62%).
  • With a median follow-up of 31.6 months, 11 patients had no recurrence, one patient had locoregional recurrence and 2 patients developed liver metastasis.
  • Adjuvant FUFOL chemotherapy is actually the recommended adjuvant post-surgical treatment for colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Leucovorin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Hospital Units. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14534945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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6. Vastyan AM, Walker J, Pintér AB, Gerrard M, Kajtar P: Colorectal carcinoma in children and adolescents--a report of seven cases. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Oct;11(5):338-41
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  • [Title] Colorectal carcinoma in children and adolescents--a report of seven cases.
  • Carcinoma of the colon and rectum is uncommon in this age group and has a poor prognosis.
  • Five patients had Dukes' stage C and two had Dukes' stage D tumour.
  • Post-operative chemotherapy was given to six patients and two had post-operative radiotherapy.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Aug;13(4):287 [13680503.001]
  • (PMID = 11719875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Scheithauer W, McKendrick J, Begbie S, Borner M, Burns WI, Burris HA, Cassidy J, Jodrell D, Koralewski P, Levine EL, Marschner N, Maroun J, Garcia-Alfonso P, Tujakowski J, Van Hazel G, Wong A, Zaluski J, Twelves C, X-ACT Study Group: Oral capecitabine as an alternative to i.v. 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy for colon cancer: safety results of a randomized, phase III trial. Ann Oncol; 2003 Dec;14(12):1735-43
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  • [Title] Oral capecitabine as an alternative to i.v. 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant therapy for colon cancer: safety results of a randomized, phase III trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Oral capecitabine achieves a superior response rate with an improved safety profile compared with bolus 5-fluorouracil-leucovorin (5-FU/LV) as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
  • We report here the results of a large phase III trial investigating adjuvant oral capecitabine compared with 5-FU/LV (Mayo Clinic regimen) in Dukes' C colon cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients aged 18-75 years with resected Dukes' C colon carcinoma were randomized to receive 24 weeks of treatment with either oral capecitabine 1250 mg/m(2) twice daily, days 1-14 every 21 days (n = 993), or i.v. bolus 5-FU 425 mg/m(2) with i.v. leucovorin 20 mg/m(2) on days 1-5, repeated every 28 days (n = 974).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on its improved safety profile, capecitabine has the potential to replace 5-FU/LV as standard adjuvant treatment for patients with colon cancer.
  • Efficacy results are expected to be available in Keywords: Adjuvant treatment, capecitabine, chemotherapy, colorectal cancer

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  • (PMID = 14630678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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8. Yip D, Strickland AH, Karapetis CS, Hawkins CA, Harper PG: Immunomodulation therapy in colorectal carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Jun;26(3):169-90
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  • [Title] Immunomodulation therapy in colorectal carcinoma.
  • There has been much progress in the understanding of the relationship between the immune system and colorectal cancer.
  • This has led to the use of immunomodulatory therapy in the adjuvant and palliative treatment of the condition.
  • Although attempts at the use of non-specific immunomodulation with agents such as levamisole, cimetidine, alpha interferon and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) have not produced significant clinical benefits when tested in randomized trials in both the adjuvant setting and for metastatic disease, promising results are being obtained with more specific therapy.
  • Edrecolomab [corrected], a murine monoclonal antibody targeting the 17-1A antigen on malignant colorectal cells has produced a reduction in relapse and mortality rates when used as adjuvant treatment following surgery for Dukes' C colon cancer.
  • Active specific therapy with autologous tumour vaccine administered with BCG has produced similar benefits in Dukes' B cancer.
  • Immune therapy offers the potential of low toxicity therapy in colorectal cancer and may have a role as an adjunct to conventional chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Immunotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer Treat Rev 2000 Aug;26(4):313
  • (PMID = 10814560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • [Number-of-references] 238
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9. Mross K, Semsek D: [Chemotherapy of colonic carcinoma in the year 2001]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2001 Mar 22;90(12):497-510
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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy of colonic carcinoma in the year 2001].
  • [Transliterated title] Die Chemotherapie des Kolonkarzinoms im Jahr 2001.
  • The systemic anticancer drug therapy is indicated in the adjuvant as well as in the palliative setting.
  • There is an indication for an adjuvant therapy in case of Dukes B (stadium II) as well as in Dukes C (stadium III) colon cancer.
  • An indication in the palliative setting remains for the Dukes D (stadium IV) colon cancer patients.
  • Locoregional chemotherapeutical approaches represent no standard procedure and cannot be recommended outside clinical trials because the real value of this therapy is unknown due to a lack of large randomized trials.
  • The mainstay of treatment of colon cancer is 5-Fluoruracil (5-FU), which should be combined with folinic acid in case of bolus (2-4 min. injection) therapy.
  • In the adjuvant situation the Mayo scheme administered over a period of half a year remains the standard of choice because this procedure is validated by large randomized trials and replaces the combination 5-FU + levamisol given over a period of one year in former times.
  • In the palliative situation 5-FU based therapy remains the goldstandard although more options than 5-FU plus folinic acid are now available.
  • Oxaliplatin and irinotecan are approved for the treatment of metastatic colon cancer in first line in combination with 5-FU.
  • Capecitabine and Ralitrexed are drugs, which are approved outside of Germany and can be used as well if indicated.
  • The median survival of patients with metastatic colon cancer is between 12 and 18 month.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11324309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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10. Molnar B, Ladanyi A, Tanko L, Sréter L, Tulassay Z: Circulating tumor cell clusters in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res; 2001 Dec;7(12):4080-5
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  • [Title] Circulating tumor cell clusters in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE: Recently several reverse transcription-PCR techniques have been proven to be useful for the detection of circulating micrometastases.
  • In this study, evaluation and modification of a commercial, cytokeratin-based, immunomagnetic cell separation method was performed for the detection of intact cell clusters in colorectal carcinoma patients.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Thirty-two colon cancer patients (6 were in Dukes stage B, 13 in stage C, and 13 in stage D) and 20 healthy donor samples were evaluated.
  • Immunomagnetic cell separation was performed from the buffy coat of peripheral blood samples (20 ml) using the Carcinoma Cell Enrichment Kit (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany), avoiding any filtering steps.
  • Follow-up data indicate that chemotherapy cannot destroy all of the circulating tumor cell clusters.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Using the methods presented, we could detect circulating colon cancer cells and cell clusters in colon carcinoma patients.
  • Present data prove that such structures are present in human colorectal cancer, too.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Colorectal Neoplasms / blood

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Jun;8(6):2015; author reply 2016-7 [12060648.001]
  • (PMID = 11751505.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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12. Labianca R, Fossati R, Zaniboni A, Torri V, Marsoni S, Nitti D, Boffi L, Scatizzi M, Tardio B, Mastrodonato N, Banducci S, Consani G, Pancera G, ACOI/GIVIO/GISCAD Investigators: Randomized trial of intraportal and/or systemic adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with colon carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2004 May 19;96(10):750-8
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  • [Title] Randomized trial of intraportal and/or systemic adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with colon carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy after surgical resection of colon cancer is standard treatment.
  • In a randomized clinical trial of patients with colon cancer, we compared the benefits of chemotherapy delivered by these routes individually or in combination.
  • METHODS: From April 2, 1992, through April 30, 1998, 1084 eligible patients with Dukes' stage B or C colon carcinoma were randomly assigned: 369 patients to the IP regimen (continuous portal vein infusion of 5-fluorouracil at 500 mg/m2 of body surface daily and heparin at 5000 IU daily for 7 consecutive days, beginning on the day of surgery), 358 patients to the SY regimen (six 28-day courses of systemic leucovorin at 100 mg/m2 daily on days 1 through 5 followed by systemic bolus 5-fluorouracil at 370 mg/m2 daily on days 1 through 5, with treatment initiated 15-35 days after surgery), and 357 patients to the IP+SY regimen (the IP regimen followed by the SY regimen, with the same scheduling).
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up time of 99 months, 389 events (recurrences, second malignancies, or deaths) had occurred, and 361 patients died.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Portal Vein
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Italy. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Research Design. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 May 19;96(10):727-9 [15150295.001]
  • (PMID = 15150303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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13. Burz C, Berindan-Neagoe IB, Balacescu O, Tanaselia C, Ursu M, Gog A, Vlase L, Chintoanu M, Balacescu L, Leucuta SE, Irimie A, Cristea V: Clinical and pharmacokinetics study of oxaliplatin in colon cancer patients. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis; 2009 Mar;18(1):39-43
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  • [Title] Clinical and pharmacokinetics study of oxaliplatin in colon cancer patients.
  • AIM: to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of oxaliplatin and to analyze the pharmacokinetics of both ultrafiltrable (free) and protein-bound platinum in patients with metastatic colon cancer.
  • METHOD: 60 patients with stage IV colon carcinoma received 4-6 (mean 4.5) cycles of oxaliplatin based combination chemotherapy.
  • The pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin was evaluated in 8 patients who were given 85 mg/sqm or 130 mg/sqm using an infusion time of 2-4 h.
  • The median time of progression was 9.3 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Oxaliplatin is active and well tolerated in patients with advanced colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacokinetics. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Area Under Curve. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / blood. Fluorouracil / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Leucovorin / blood. Leucovorin / pharmacokinetics. Male. Mass Spectrometry. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Protein Binding. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19337632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1841-8724
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal and liver diseases : JGLD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointestin Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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