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1. Bachet JB, Rougier P, de Gramont A, André T: [Rectal cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy: which conclusions?]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Jan;97(1):107-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Rectal cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy: which conclusions?].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du rectum et chimiothérapie adjuvante: quelles conclusions?
  • Adenocarcinoma of the rectum represents about a third of cases of colorectal cancer, with an annual incidence of 12,000 cases in France.
  • On the contrary of colon cancer, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer has not been definitively proved, more because this question was assessed in few recent studies than because negative results.
  • Preoperative radiochemotherapy is now the reference treatment for mid and lower rectal cancers, and allow to increase the local control without improvement of progression free survival and overall survival.
  • The data of the "historical studies" of adjuvant treatment in rectal cancer published before 1990, of the meta-analysis of adjuvant trials in rectal cancer and of the QUASAR study suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines (intravenous or oral), in absence of pre-operative treatment, decrease the risk of metastatic relapse after curative surgery for a rectal cancer of stage II or III.
  • This benefice seems similar to the one observed in colon cancer.
  • In the EORTC radiotherapy group trial 22921, an adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low dose of leucovorin was not associated with a significantly improvement of overall survival but, despite the fact that only 42.9% of patients received all planed cycles, the progression free survival was increased (not significantly) in groups receiving adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The French recommendations are to discuss the indication of adjuvant chemotherapy by fluoropyrimidines in cases of stage III rectal cancer on histopathologic reports and no chemotherapy in case of stade II.
  • Despite the fact that none study have assessed a combination of fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin in adjuvant setting in rectal cancer, like in colon cancer, the Folfox4, modified Folfox6 or Xelox regimens are valid options in stage III (experts opinion).
  • In cases of pathologic complete remission or in absence of involved nodes, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy is not assessed.
  • In all cases, the decision of adjuvant chemotherapy has to be taken during a multidisciplinary meeting.
  • The interest of a combination of fluoropyrimidine and oxaliplatin is assessed in currently adjuvant trials (PETTAC-6 and CAO/ARO/AIO-04), and future trials will assess the interest of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19965305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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2. Pasetto LM, Friso ML, Pucciarelli S, Basso U, Rugge M, Sinigaglia G, Rossi E, Compostella A, Toppan P, Agostini M, Monfardini S: Role of neoadjuvant treatment in cT3N0M0 rectal cancer. Anticancer Res; 2008 Nov-Dec;28(6B):4129-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of neoadjuvant treatment in cT3N0M0 rectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the pathological response (pTNM), local relapse and overall survival (OS) in clinical T3N0M0 (cT3N0M0) rectal cancer after a neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CHT-RT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) continuous infusion (c.i.
  • A secondary endpoint was to identify the local relapse rate and OS in those patients also receiving an adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2006, 48 consecutive cT3N0M0 rectal cancer cases neoadjuvantly treated were retrospectively examined.
  • 5-FU neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 17 received bolus 5-FU administration and 3 patients received capecitabine-based therapy.
  • The mean number of chemotherapy weeks was 4.9 (range, 2-6).
  • Twenty-one patients had a lower (< or = 5 cm from the anal verge) and 27 had a middle rectal lesion (from 6 to 10 cm).
  • In those patients with the lower site of lesion, a sphincter-saving (SS) procedure was achieved in 88.9%.
  • CONCLUSION: The down-staging, the good level of SS and the disease-free survival (DFS) obtained here suggests that a neoadjuvant therapy may also be useful for stage II rectal cancer at diagnosis.
  • The use of a postoperative chemotherapy should probably be outlined better.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19192672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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3. Kim DY, Jung KH: [Radiation therapy for rectal cancer]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr;47(4):285-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Radiation therapy for rectal cancer].
  • The current conventional treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer with stage II or III is surgery following or followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT), which improved local control and overall survival when compared with surgery alone.
  • However, diagnostic imaging for accurate stage should be applied.
  • In addition, chemotherapeutic regimen, schedule for radiation therapy, and timing of surgery should be also optimized in order to maximize the effect of preoperative CRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16632979.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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4. Park IJ, Kim HC, Yu CS, Kim TW, Jang SJ, Kim JC: Effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on local recurrence in stage II rectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Feb;15(2):519-25
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Rectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on local recurrence in stage II rectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Prospective trials have demonstrated that chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy decreases local recurrence rates in stage II and stage III rectal cancer.
  • Some patients with stage II lesions, however, have relatively low risks of local recurrence.
  • We evaluated the effect of radiotherapy on local recurrence in patients with stage IIA rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: From the colorectal cancer database, we identified 390 stage IIA rectal cancer patients who underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant therapy from 1995 to 2002; a total of 72 patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy and who did not receive adjuvant therapy were excluded.
  • RESULTS: Of the 390 patients, 110 had primary tumors in the upper rectum, 136 in the midrectum, and 144 in the lower rectum.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was provided to 180 patients (46.2%), and chemotherapy plus radiotherapy was provided to 210 patients (53.8%).
  • Radiotherapy was significantly more common in younger patients (P = .01) and those with lower rectal cancer (P < .001).
  • In patients with mid and lower rectal cancer, the local recurrence rate was not affected by radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy did not seem to provide additional benefit in decreasing local recurrence rate of stage IIA rectal cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17960464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Kuo I, Wong JH, Roy-Chowdhury S, Lum SS, Morgan JW, Kazanjian K: The use of pelvic radiation in stage II rectal cancer: a population-based analysis. Am Surg; 2010 Oct;76(10):1092-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of pelvic radiation in stage II rectal cancer: a population-based analysis.
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines recommend the use of pelvic radiation in T3N0 rectal cancer.
  • We sought to determine the rate of compliance with NIH radiation guidelines for patients with T3N0 rectal cancer.
  • We performed a retrospective cohort study of T3NO rectal cancer diagnosed between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2003, in Region 5 of the California Cancer Registry (R5 CCR).
  • Three hundred twenty-nine patients with T3N0 rectal cancer were identified.
  • Only 54.1 per cent of patients with T3N0 cancer received pelvic radiation.
  • There was no difference in gender (P = 0.13) or the number of nodes examined (P = 0.19) between patients who had treatment with pelvic radiation and those who did not.
  • However, patients receiving radiation were significantly younger (mean 64 years with radiation therapy [XRT] vs. 72 years without XRT, P < 0.001) and significantly more likely to be treated with systemic chemotherapy (75% with XRT vs. 8.6% without XRT, P < 0.001).
  • Significant numbers of patients with T3N0 rectal cancer are not receiving pelvic radiation in R5 CRR.
  • [MeSH-major] Guideline Adherence / statistics & numerical data. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 21105617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N02-PC-15105; United States / NCCDPHP CDC HHS / DP / U58DP000807-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Law WL, Ho JW, Chan R, Au G, Chu KW: Outcome of anterior resection for stage II rectal cancer without radiation: the role of adjuvant chemotherapy. Dis Colon Rectum; 2005 Feb;48(2):218-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of anterior resection for stage II rectal cancer without radiation: the role of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the oncological outcome of patients who had Stage II rectal cancer and underwent curative nonsphincter-ablation surgery without adjuvant radiation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the study period from August 1993 to December 2002, 224 patients (141 men) with Stage II cancer underwent curative anterior resection or Hartmann's procedure without adjuvant radiation.
  • The median follow-up time of the surviving patients was 43.6 months.
  • On multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with a higher recurrence rate included lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and absence of chemotherapy.
  • The overall and cancer-specific survival rates of the patients were 71.1 percent and 81.1 percent, respectively.
  • On multivariate analysis, only adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.024; hazard ratio = 6.04; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.27-28.74) and the absence of lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.002; hazard ratio = 3.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.63-8.77) were independent factors associated with significantly better cancer-specific survival.
  • CONCLUSION: A low local recurrence rate can be achieved in patients with Stage II rectal cancer treated with nonsphincter-ablation surgery without adjuvant radiation.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy is associated with a lower recurrence rate and higher survival rates.
  • Further study is warranted to define the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Surgery / methods. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Jan;49(1):143; author reply 143-4 [16270164.001]
  • (PMID = 15711860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Carrato A: Adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer. Gastrointest Cancer Res; 2008 Jul;2(4 Suppl):S42-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer.
  • Many patients with stage III colon cancer, and selected patients with stage II disease, will obtain significant benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Combination regimens that include a fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin are the current standard of care, based on findings from the Multicenter International Study of Oxaliplatin/5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin in the Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer (MOSAIC) and the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) C-07 trials.
  • Ongoing randomized trials are evaluating oral fluoropyrimidines combined with oxaliplatin and the addition of targeted therapies to oxaliplatin-based regimens for use in colon cancer adjuvant treatment.
  • Adjuvant treatment approaches for patients with rectal cancer (stage II and III) now include preoperative chemoradiotherapy, based on a phase III comparison of preoperative vs. postoperative chemoradiotherapy conducted in Germany.
  • Additional research is needed to identify patient subgroups at risk for recurrence, predictive factors for treatment response, and better treatment strategies for patients with colon and rectal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19343149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-7820
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal cancer research : GCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest Cancer Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Petersen VC, Baxter KJ, Love SB, Shepherd NA: Identification of objective pathological prognostic determinants and models of prognosis in Dukes' B colon cancer. Gut; 2002 Jul;51(1):65-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of objective pathological prognostic determinants and models of prognosis in Dukes' B colon cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is a need for objective easily determined pathological prognostic parameters in Dukes' B colon carcinoma to allow selection of such patients for further treatment as the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for these patients remains unclear.
  • This study was initiated to assess the influence of pathological factors on prognosis in an unselected prospective series of Dukes' B colonic cancer.
  • METHODS: The Gloucester Colorectal Cancer study, established in 1988, recruited more than 1000 cases.
  • Meticulous pathological assessment of the 268 Dukes' B colonic cancer resections in this series included evaluation of all pathological factors that could influence staging and prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative prognostic index allows apportionment of patients with Dukes' B colon cancer into defined prognostic groups, which in turn could allow more objective selection of patients for adjuvant therapy, especially as part of clinical trials.

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  • (PMID = 12077094.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1773289
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9. Lamberti C, Lundin S, Bogdanow M, Gorschlüter M, Schmidt-Wolf IG, Sauerbruch T: [Adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy of colorectal cancer in Germany outside controlled trials]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2006 Mar 10;131(10):485-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy of colorectal cancer in Germany outside controlled trials].
  • [Transliterated title] Adjuvante und palliative Chemotherapie des kolorektalen Karzinoms in Deutschland ausserhalb kontrollierter Studien.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignant tumour in Germany with an unfavorable prognosis especially in a locally advanced or metastasizing stage.
  • Although adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy significantly improve 5-year survival, consensus recommendations have in the past been inadequately transformed into clinical practice.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a multicentre study done between January 2000 and January 2002, tumour stage, primary care, adjuvant or palliative chemotherapy and follow-up of 444 patients (216 males, 228 females) with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer were recorded.
  • RESULTS: 301 patients had colonic and 143 patients rectal cancer.
  • 36 of 96 (38%) patients with stage II colon cancer and 66 of 87 (76%) with stage III disease received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • 8 of 51 (16%) patients with rectal cancer stage II and 22 of 38 (58%) patients with stage III underwent adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy.
  • The 68 of 84 (81%) patients with stage IV CRC who received palliative chemotherapy were given almost exclusively 5-FU monotherapy.
  • Initial or sequential combination chemotherapy with oxaliplatin or irinotecan were performed in only 24 of 84 (29%) patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stage III colon cancer was predominantly treated according to the existing standard guidelines.
  • In contrast combined radio- and chemotherapy for rectal cancer stage II and III was only performed in one third of the patients, another third receiving neither adjuvant radiation nor chemotherapy.
  • Initial combined or sequential combined chemotherapy for metastasizing colorectal cancer was rarely performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Guideline Adherence. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16511737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 7673326042 / irinotecan; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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10. Glimelius B, Dahl O, Cedermark B, Jakobsen A, Bentzen SM, Starkhammar H, Grönberg H, Hultborn R, Albertsson M, Påhlman L, Tveit KM, Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumour Adjuvant Therapy Group: Adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer: a joint analysis of randomised trials by the Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumour Adjuvant Therapy Group. Acta Oncol; 2005;44(8):904-12
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  • [Title] Adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer: a joint analysis of randomised trials by the Nordic Gastrointestinal Tumour Adjuvant Therapy Group.
  • Due to uncertainties regarding clinically meaningful gains from adjuvant chemotherapy after colorectal cancer surgery, several Nordic Groups in the early 1990s initiated randomised trials to prove or reject such gains.
  • Between October 1991 and December 1997, 2 224 patients under 76 years of age with colorectal cancer stages II and III were randomised to surgery alone (n = 1 121) or adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 1 103) which varied between trials (5FU/levamisole for 12 months, n = 444; 5FU/leucovorin for 4-5 months according to either a modified Mayo Clinic schedule (n = 262) or the Nordic schedule (n = 397).
  • A total of 812 patients had colon cancer stage II, 708 colon cancer stage III, 323 rectal cancer stage II and 368 rectal cancer stage III.
  • No statistically significant difference in overall survival, stratified for country or region, could be found in any group of patients according to stage or site.
  • In colon cancer stage III, an absolute difference of 7% (p = 0.15), favouring chemotherapy, was seen.
  • The present analyses corroborate a small but clinically meaningful survival gain from adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer stage III, but not in the other presentations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Levamisole / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Oncol. 2006;45(1):110
  • (PMID = 16332600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 2880D3468G / Levamisole; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Dahl O, Fluge Ø, Carlsen E, Wiig JN, Myrvold HE, Vonen B, Podhorny N, Bjerkeset O, Eide TJ, Halvorsen TB, Tveit KM, Norwegian Gastrointestinal Cancer Group: Final results of a randomised phase III study on adjuvant chemotherapy with 5 FU and levamisol in colon and rectum cancer stage II and III by the Norwegian Gastrointestinal Cancer Group. Acta Oncol; 2009;48(3):368-76
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  • [Title] Final results of a randomised phase III study on adjuvant chemotherapy with 5 FU and levamisol in colon and rectum cancer stage II and III by the Norwegian Gastrointestinal Cancer Group.
  • BACKGROUND: The recommendation of adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer with lymph node metastases, based on two studies from USA, was reluctantly accepted by Norwegian medical doctors.
  • It was therefore decided to assess the role of adjuvant therapy with 5fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with levamisole (Lev) in a confirmatory randomised study.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four hundred and twenty five patients with operable colon and rectum cancer, Stage II and III (Dukes' stage B and C), were from January 1993 to October 1996, included in a randomised multicentre trial in Norway.
  • Therapy started with a loading course of bolus i.v.
  • RESULTS: There was no significant survival difference between the two groups at 5 years: Disease-free survival (DFS) was 73% after chemotherapy, 68% (p=0.24) in the control group, and corresponding cancer specific survival (CSS) 75% and 71%, respectively (p=0.69).
  • There was no difference between the two groups when analysed for colon and rectum separately.
  • However, the subgroup of colon cancer with stage III exhibited a statistically significant difference both for DFS, 58% vs. 37% (p=0.012) and CSS, 65% vs. 47% (p=0.032) in favour of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Toxicity was generally mild and acceptable with no drug related fatalities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colon cancer patients with lymph node metastases benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU/Lev with acceptable toxicity.
  • Rectal cancer does not benefit from this regimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Levamisole / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Norway. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19242829.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 2880D3468G / Levamisole; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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12. Koshiishi H, Park S, Matsuyama T, Goto H, Kakimoto Y, Sakamoto K, Nishida K, Okamura T, Minami T, Kato H, Maruyama M, Takahashi E, Koshiishi Y: [Two resected cases of pulmonary metastasis from post operative colorectal cancer after preoperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2201-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Two resected cases of pulmonary metastasis from post operative colorectal cancer after preoperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX].
  • We described two resected cases of pulmonary metastasis from postoperative colorectal cancer after preoperative FOLFOX chemotherapy.
  • The first case is a 68-year-old male who underwent a sigmoidectomy as a stage III A sigmoid colon cancer in March 2003.
  • Three operations and systemic chemotherapy were performed.
  • The FOLFOX chemotherapy was performed 7 times, the tumor was not changed in the image, and the effect judgment was SD.
  • After the chemotherapy, a partial resection of the right lung was performed in November 2007.
  • The second case is a 63-year-old female who underwent an anterior resection of the rectum as a stage II rectal cancer in January 2000, a partial resection of the right lung as a metachronous right pulmonary metastasis in March 2003, and post operative chemotherapy (IFL) were performed.
  • The FOLFOX chemotherapy was performed 4 times, the tumor was not changed in the image, and the effect judgment was SD.
  • After the chemotherapy, a partial resection of the right lung was performed in April 2006.
  • COMMENT: It was thought that FOLFOX chemotherapy can be a promising candidate for neoadjuvant treatment of pulmonary metastasis from postoperative colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 20037370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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13. Fujita S, Nakanisi Y, Taniguchi H, Yamamoto S, Akasu T, Moriya Y, Shimoda T: Cancer invasion to Auerbach's plexus is an important prognostic factor in patients with pT3-pT4 colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2007 Nov;50(11):1860-6
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  • [Title] Cancer invasion to Auerbach's plexus is an important prognostic factor in patients with pT3-pT4 colorectal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: By defining perineural invasion of colorectal cancer as invasion to Auerbach's plexus, we examined the usefulness of this pathologic finding as a prognostic factor.
  • METHODS: A total of 509 consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery for pT3 or pT4 colorectal cancer between May 1997 and December 2001 were reviewed.
  • The disease-free survival of the perineural invasion-positive group was significantly poorer than that of the perineural invasion-negative group for Stages II and III colon cancer, irrespective of the use of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • This improved disease-free survival also was seen in patients with Stage II rectal cancer not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • There was a nonsignificant difference in disease-free survival for Stage II rectal cancer and Stage III rectal cancer treated with chemotherapy, that of the perineural invasion-positive group being poorer.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that lymph node status, perineural invasion, depth of invasion, and cancer site were significant prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Perineural invasion defined as cancer invasion to Auerbach's plexus is an important prognostic factor for colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Colonic Neoplasms / mortality. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Myenteric Plexus / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / mortality. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Peripheral Nerves / pathology. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17899273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. McGory ML, Zingmond DS, Sekeris E, Bastani R, Ko CY: A patient's race/ethnicity does not explain the underuse of appropriate adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum; 2006 Mar;49(3):319-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A patient's race/ethnicity does not explain the underuse of appropriate adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: To improve colorectal cancer outcomes, appropriate adjuvant therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy) should be given.
  • Numerous studies have demonstrated underuse of adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer.
  • The current study examines variables associated with underuse of adjuvant therapy.
  • METHODS: Three population-based databases were linked: California Cancer Registry, California Patient Discharge Database, 2000 Census.
  • All colorectal cancer patients diagnosed from 1994 to 2001 were studied.
  • Patient characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, comorbidities, payer, diagnosis year, socioeconomic status) were used in five multivariate regression analyses to predict receipt of chemotherapy for Stage III colon cancer, and receipt of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for Stages II, III rectal cancer.
  • RESULTS: The overall cohort was 18,649 Stage III colon cancer and Stages II, III rectal cancer patients.
  • Receipt of chemotherapy was 48 percent for Stage III colon cancer, 48 percent for Stage II rectal cancer, and 66 percent for Stage III rectal cancer.
  • Receipt of radiation therapy was 52 percent for Stage II rectal cancer and 66 percent for Stage III rectal cancer.
  • In all five models, low socioeconomic status predicted underuse of chemotherapy or radiation therapy (P < 0.016).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most literature identifies race/ethnicity as the reason for disparate receipt of adjuvant therapy in colorectal cancer.
  • Explicit measures to improve care to the poor with colorectal cancer are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy / utilization

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  • (PMID = 16475031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U01CA086322-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Martinez M, Del Rio C, Navarro M, Pareja L, Martinez-Villacampa M, Dotor E, Rodon J, Cambray M: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):3756

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced resectable rectal cancer.
  • : 3756 Background: The goal of preoperative treatment of invasive rectal cancer is to improve the overall survival and to decrease the local failure and the stage and to enhance sphincter preservation.
  • All patients with resectable rectal cancer, stage: II: 24 pts, III: 89 pts, T3-4 Nx: 6.
  • All of them have been treated with normofractionated radiotherapy (RT): total dose: 45 Gy, 1,8 Gy/day, 5 days (d) a week (w), 5 w, and concurrent chemotherapy (CH) with 5-FU 300mg/m2/d continuous infusion, 5d/w (79) or 7d/w (40).
  • Preoperative CH-RT is a well-tolerated treatment with high overall survival and a decrease in local failure.

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  • (PMID = 28014092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Wolmark N, Wieand HS, Hyams DM, Colangelo L, Dimitrov NV, Romond EH, Wexler M, Prager D, Cruz AB Jr, Gordon PH, Petrelli NJ, Deutsch M, Mamounas E, Wickerham DL, Fisher ER, Rockette H, Fisher B: Randomized trial of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy for carcinoma of the rectum: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol R-02. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2000 Mar 1;92(5):388-96
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  • [Title] Randomized trial of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy for carcinoma of the rectum: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol R-02.
  • BACKGROUND: The conviction that postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy represent an acceptable standard of care for patients with Dukes' B (stage II) and Dukes' C (stage III) carcinoma of the rectum evolved in the absence of data from clinical trials designed to determine whether the addition of radiotherapy results in improved disease-free survival and overall survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients (n = 694) with Dukes' B or C carcinoma of the rectum were enrolled in National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) Protocol R-02 from September 1987 through December 1992 and were followed.
  • They were randomly assigned to receive either postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy alone (n = 348) or chemotherapy with postoperative radiotherapy (n = 346).
  • All female patients (n = 287) received 5-FU plus LV chemotherapy; male patients received either MOF (n = 207) or 5-FU plus LV (n = 200).
  • RESULTS: The average time on study for surviving patients is 93 months as of September 30, 1998.
  • Postoperative radiotherapy resulted in no beneficial effect on disease-free survival (P =.90) or overall survival (P =.89), regardless of which chemotherapy was utilized, although it reduced the cumulative incidence of locoregional relapse from 13% to 8% at 5-year follow-up (P =.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The addition of postoperative radiation therapy to chemotherapy in Dukes' B and C rectal cancer did not alter the subsequent incidence of distant disease, although there was a reduction in locoregional relapse when compared with chemotherapy alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Semustine / administration & dosage. Sex Factors. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Mar 1;92(5):361-2 [10699060.001]
  • (PMID = 10699069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12027; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37377
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 13909-09-6 / Semustine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; MOF protocol
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17. Neugut AI, Fleischauer AT, Sundararajan V, Mitra N, Heitjan DF, Jacobson JS, Grann VR: Use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for rectal cancer among the elderly: a population-based study. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jun 1;20(11):2643-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for rectal cancer among the elderly: a population-based study.
  • PURPOSE: Combined adjuvant fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy with radiation is now the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer in the United States.
  • We investigated the use of these treatments for stages II and III rectal cancer among the elderly and the effectiveness of these treatments on a population-based scale.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results-Medicare database was used to identify 1,807 Medicare beneficiaries > or = 65 years of age with stage II or III rectal cancer who underwent surgical resection between 1992 and 1996.
  • We used multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with combined 5-FU and radiation therapy, and propensity score methodology to determine survival benefit for those treated.
  • RESULTS: We found that 37% of patients received both adjuvant 5-FU and radiation therapy, 11% 5-FU alone, and 14% radiation alone.
  • Decreasing age, increasing lymph node positivity, comorbid conditions, and nonblack race were associated with increased probability of treatment with 5-FU and radiation.
  • Combined chemotherapy/radiation therapy was associated with improved survival for stage III (relative risk, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 0.90), but not for stage II rectal cancer (relative risk, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 1.14).
  • CONCLUSION: The association of combined treatment with improved survival in node-positive disease was similar to that observed in other studies.
  • In the absence of data from well-designed randomized controlled trials, our observational data support efforts on the part of clinicians to make appropriate referrals and provide combined treatment for elderly patients with stage III rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Comorbidity. Female. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jun;98(6):1438 [12846252.001]
  • (PMID = 12039925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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18. Kato S, Uetake H, Iida S, Higuchi T, Ishikawa T, Yasuno M, Enomoto M, Sugihara K: [Two cases of multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer which responded well to hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) using 5-fluorouracil and l-leucovorin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(12):1798-800
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  • [Title] [Two cases of multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer which responded well to hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) using 5-fluorouracil and l-leucovorin].
  • We present two cases of multiple liver metastases from colorectal cancer, which did not respond to hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU 1250 mg/body weekly) alone, but responded to HAI using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU 750 mg/body weekly) and l-leucovorin (l-LV 50 mg/body weekly) achieving a complete response (CR).
  • The first case: A 71-year-old man with Stage II rectal cancer who underwent lower anterior resection developed multiple liver metastases 5 months after the surgery.
  • The second case: A 65-year-old man with rectal cancer, sigmoid colon cancer and multiple liver metastases underwent lower anterior resection.
  • In these two cases, it was suspected that a reduced foliate may be responsible for the failure by the 5-FU treatment alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male

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  • (PMID = 17212111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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19. Hata T, Fujino S, Yanagawa T, Kitahara T, Munakata K, Watanabe N, Takamoto K, Miyake M, Kawanishi K, Shimizu J, Ikeda K, Fujita J, Iwazawa T, Akagi K, Douno K, Kitada M, Shimano T: [Long-term control of sacral metastasis from rectal cancer with S-1 + radiation treatment (RT) and mFOLFOX6 combination therapy--a case report]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2343-5
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  • [Title] [Long-term control of sacral metastasis from rectal cancer with S-1 + radiation treatment (RT) and mFOLFOX6 combination therapy--a case report].
  • Combined chemotherapy including 5-FU plus radiation treatment resulted in a synergistic effect has been reported.
  • S-1 enhances a radiation response of colon cancer cell line xenografts.
  • Also the effectiveness of S-1 + radiation therapy has been reported.
  • A 66-year-old man underwent a low anterior resection for lower rectal cancer.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was not performed due to Stage II rectal cancer.
  • Radiation (3 Gy) was administered a total of 45 Gy on days 1-5, 7-12 and 35-40.
  • It suggested that local control therapy (S-1 + radiation) plus systemic chemotherapy (mFOLFOX6) was one of the promising effective therapies for single sacral bone metastasis of rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sacrum. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Combinations. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 21224567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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20. Cronin DP, Harlan LC, Potosky AL, Clegg LX, Stevens JL, Mooney MM: Patterns of care for adjuvant therapy in a random population-based sample of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Am J Gastroenterol; 2006 Oct;101(10):2308-18
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of care for adjuvant therapy in a random population-based sample of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Over the past decade, clinical trials have proved the efficacy of treatments for colorectal cancer (CRC).
  • This study tracks dissemination of these treatments for patients diagnosed with stage II and III disease and compares risk of death for those who received guideline therapy to those who did not.
  • METHODS: We conducted a stratified randomly sampled, population-based study of CRC treatment trends in the United States.
  • Multivariate models were used to explore patient characteristics associated with receipt of treatments.
  • RESULTS: In 2000, guideline therapy receipt decreased among stage III rectal cancer patients, but increased for stage III colon and stage II rectal cancer patients.
  • As age increased, likelihood of receiving guideline treatment decreased (p < 0.0001).
  • Overall, race/ethnicity was significantly associated with guideline therapy (p = 0.04).
  • Rectal patients were less likely to have received guideline treatment.
  • Consistent with randomized clinical trial findings, all-cause mortality was lower in patients who received guideline therapy, regardless of Charlson comorbidity score.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was decreased in patients receiving guideline therapy.
  • Although, rates of guideline-concordant therapy are low in community clinical practice, they are apparently increasing.
  • Newer treatment (oxaliplatin, capecitabine) started to disseminate in 2000.
  • Age disparities remain despite no evidence of greater chemotherapy-induced toxicity in the elderly.
  • More equitable receipt of cancer treatment to all segments of the community will help to reduce mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Guideline Adherence / statistics & numerical data. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data. SEER Program

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  • (PMID = 17032196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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21. Wang WS, Lin JK, Chiou TJ, Liu JH, Fan FS, Yen CC, Lin TC, Jiang JK, Yang SH, Wang HS, Chen PM: Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: Taiwan experience. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jan;30(1):12-6
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  • [Title] Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen level as an independent prognostic factor in colorectal cancer: Taiwan experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level is considered as a factor predictive of survival in colorectal cancer patients.
  • This study was carried out in an effort to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative CEA levels of patients with colorectal cancer in Taiwan.
  • 5-Fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy was administered if the patients had Dukes' C disease.
  • Reference to the Dukes' classification was according to the classical criteria described in 1932 for carcinoma of the rectum and adapted for use in colonic tumors.
  • By multivariate Cox analysis, lymph node metastases (p = 0.003), penetration of the bowel wall (p = 0.0001) and preoperative CEA levels (p = 0.0001) were found to be independent prognostic factors in colorectal cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data from our study indicate that in addition to lymph node metastases and penetration of the bowel wall, the preoperative CEA levels are also an independent prognostic factor in non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients after curative surgery.
  • This could serve as an appropriate modification to the initial Dukes' scheme in colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Colonic Neoplasms / blood. Rectal Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Analysis of Variance. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colon / pathology. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Rectum / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Survival Rate. Taiwan

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  • [CommentIn] Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2000 Nov;30(11):522-3 [11155925.001]
  • (PMID = 10770562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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22. Grothey A, Kellermann L, Schmoll HJ: [Deficits in management of patients with colorectal carcinoma in Germany. Results of multicenter documentation of therapy algorithms]. Med Klin (Munich); 2002 May 15;97(5):270-7
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  • [Title] [Deficits in management of patients with colorectal carcinoma in Germany. Results of multicenter documentation of therapy algorithms].
  • [Transliterated title] Defizite in der Behandlung von Patienten mit kolorektalem Karzinom in Deutschland. Ergebnisse einer multizentrischen Dokumentation von Therapiealgorithmen.
  • BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with UICC III (Dukes C) colorectal cancer (consensus statements NIH 1990, German Cancer Society 1994) and palliative chemotherapy for metastatic disease have long been recognized to provide a survival benefit in colorectal cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we asked 74 institutions treating colorectal cancer patients in Germany to document the treatment algorithms of all patients with colorectal cancer seen in the third quarter of 1998.
  • Clinical careers of 1,001 patients (m/f 465/536; median age 62.9 years [28-93]; colon 596, rectum 405; UICC I 117, II 206, III 407, IV 218) were documented.
  • RESULTS: Only 63.4% of patients with UICC III colorectal cancer received adjuvant therapy with a significant difference between hospitals with (67.1%) and without (42.6%) oncological departments (p < 0.01).
  • Higher age appeared to be the most important factor for withholding treatment since 196 of 286 (68.5%) patients < 70 years, but only 57 of 121 (47.1%) > 70 years underwent adjuvant therapy.
  • 78.4% of patients with UICC IV colorectal cancer (91.8% university hospitals, 76.8% hospital with, 50% without oncological departments, 66.7% rehabilitation clinics, 82.4% private practices) received palliative chemotherapy (first line: 5-FU/FA bolus 57%, 5-FU/FA infusion 20%, 5-FU mono 15%).
  • CONCLUSION: Considering an annual incidence of colorectal cancer in Germany of 52,000 with 30% UICC III, discounting patients > 80 years or ECOG status > 2, and estimating a survival benefit of 10% after adjuvant chemotherapy, approximately 530 lifes are lost annually in Germany due to insufficient treatment of UICC III colorectal cancer based on our survey.
  • In addition, substantial financial demand is generated by the subsequent palliative treatment of potentially curable patients.
  • --In conclusion, survey-based analysis of treatment algorithms can provide valuable insights into clinical practice in oncology and can disclose deficits in patient care as demonstrated here in colorectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Critical Pathways. Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Germany. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care

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  • (PMID = 12078387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Schwartzberg LS: Clinical experience with edrecolomab: a monoclonal antibody therapy for colorectal carcinoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2001 Oct;40(1):17-24
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  • [Title] Clinical experience with edrecolomab: a monoclonal antibody therapy for colorectal carcinoma.
  • It is being developed for the adjuvant treatment of colorectal cancer.
  • In a study of 189 patients with resected stage III colorectal cancer, treatment with edrecolomab resulted in a 32% increase in overall survival compared with no treatment (P<0.01) and decreased the tumor recurrence rate by 23% (P<0.04).
  • Based on these study results, edrecolomab is currently under investigation in large multicenter phase III studies both as monotherapy and in combination with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for the treatment of stage III colon cancer.
  • Although these studies are still ongoing, an interim analysis of safety data indicated that the combination of edrecolomab with chemotherapy is well tolerated.
  • In addition, edrecolomab monotherapy demonstrated a favorable safety profile compared with chemotherapy.
  • Edrecolomab is also currently being tested in large multicenter adjuvant phase III studies in stage II/III rectal cancer and stage II colon cancer.
  • Edrecolomab represents a novel therapeutic approach and has the potential to become a treatment of choice as monotherapy in stage II colon cancer and in combination with chemotherapy in stage II/III rectal and stage III colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Adhesion Molecules / immunology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11578913.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Edrecolomab; 0 / tumor-associated antigen GA733
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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24. Kornmann M, Staib L, Wiegel T, Kreuser ED, Kron M, Baumann W, Henne-Bruns D, Link KH: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of advanced resectable rectal cancer: results of a randomised trial comparing modulation of 5-fluorouracil with folinic acid or with interferon-α. Br J Cancer; 2010 Oct 12;103(8):1163-72
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  • [Title] Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of advanced resectable rectal cancer: results of a randomised trial comparing modulation of 5-fluorouracil with folinic acid or with interferon-α.
  • BACKGROUND: Standard adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of rectal cancer still consists of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) only.
  • In this trial, the effects of FA and IFNα on adjuvant 5-FU chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer were investigated.
  • METHODS: Patients with R(0)-resected rectal cancer (UICC stage II and III) were stratified and randomised to a 12-month adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with 5-FU, 5-FU+FA, or 5-FU+IFNα.
  • All patients received levamisol and local irradiation with 50.4 Gy.
  • A subgroup analysis in stage II (pT3/4pN0) disease (n=271) revealed that the addition of FA tended to reduce the 5-year local recurrence (LR) rate by 55% and increase recurrence-free survival and OS rates by 12 and 13%, respectively, relative to 5-FU alone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Interferon-α cannot be recommended for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of rectal cancer.
  • In UICC stage II disease, the addition of FA tended to lower LR and increased survival.
  • The addition of FA to 5-FU may be an effective option for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of UICC stage II rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20877353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967051
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25. Vastyan AM, Walker J, Pintér AB, Gerrard M, Kajtar P: Colorectal carcinoma in children and adolescents--a report of seven cases. Eur J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Oct;11(5):338-41
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  • [Title] Colorectal carcinoma in children and adolescents--a report of seven cases.
  • Carcinoma of the colon and rectum is uncommon in this age group and has a poor prognosis.
  • Five patients had Dukes' stage C and two had Dukes' stage D tumour.
  • Post-operative chemotherapy was given to six patients and two had post-operative radiotherapy.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2003 Aug;13(4):287 [13680503.001]
  • (PMID = 11719875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-7248
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatric surgery : official journal of Austrian Association of Pediatric Surgery ... [et al] = Zeitschrift für Kinderchirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pediatr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Tokatli F, Koçak Z, Ozyilmaz F, Uygun K, Caloglu M, Uzal C: Small cell carcinoma of the rectum; report of a case. J BUON; 2002 Jan-Mar;7(1):75-7
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the rectum; report of a case.
  • Primary small cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the colon and rectum is a relatively rare tumour with an overall incidence of less than 1% among all colorectal cancers.
  • Despite the mean survival being around 6 months, long-term survival may be achieved in patients with localized disease treated with curative resection and adjuvant therapy.
  • We report on a patient with Dukes' C small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the rectum who underwent surgery followed by pelvic irradiation and chemotherapy and achieved long-term survival.

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  • (PMID = 17577266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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27. Osuagwu CC, Okafor OC, Ezeome ER, Uche CE, Ememonu C, Kesieme E: Familial adenomatous polyposis with synchronous invasive colonic carcinomas and metastatic jejunal adenocarcinoma in a Nigerian male. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(4):e66

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • An intriguing feature of this case is an ulcerated jejunal carcinoma which was metastatic rather than synchronous carcinoma.
  • This patient presented with partial large bowel obstruction and the pathological analysis revealed 4 invasive adenocarcinomas, 3 in the colon and 1 in the jejunum (Dukes stage D).
  • Palliative pancolectomy and jejunal tumour resection with chemotherapy was offered to him.
  • The challenges of managing a hereditary cancer syndrome in a resource poor country are highlighted.

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  • (PMID = 21234258.001).
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  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019601
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; adenocarcinoma. / colon / familial adenomatous polyposis / jejunum
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28. Dobie SA, Warren JL, Matthews B, Schwartz D, Baldwin LM, Billingsley K: Survival benefits and trends in use of adjuvant therapy among elderly stage II and III rectal cancer patients in the general population. Cancer; 2008 Feb 15;112(4):789-99
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  • [Title] Survival benefits and trends in use of adjuvant therapy among elderly stage II and III rectal cancer patients in the general population.
  • BACKGROUND: This study examined elderly stage II and III rectal cancer patients' adjuvant chemoradiation therapy adherence, trends in adherence over time, and the relation of levels of adherence to mortality.
  • METHODS: The authors studied 2886 stage II and III rectal cancer patients who had surgical resection and who appeared in 1992-1999 linked SEER-Medicare claims data.
  • The authors compared measures of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy receipt and completion between stage II and III patients.
  • Adjusted risk of cancer-related 5-year mortality was calculated by multivariate logistic regression for different levels of chemoradiation adherence among stage II and III patients.
  • RESULTS: Of the 2886 patients, 45.4% received both adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Stage III patients were more likely to receive chemoradiation than stage II patients.
  • The receipt of chemoradiation by stage II patients increased significantly from 1992 to 1999.
  • Stage III patients were more likely to complete radiation therapy (96.6%), chemotherapy (68.2%), and both modalities (67.5%) than stage II patients (91.5%, 49.8%, 47.6%, respectively).
  • Only a complete course of both radiation and chemotherapy for both stage II (relative risk [RR] 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54, 0.97) and III (RR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65, 0.96) decreased the adjusted 5-year cancer mortality risk compared with counterparts with no adjuvant therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though stage II rectal cancer patients were less likely than stage III patients to receive and complete adjuvant chemoradiation, both patient groups in the general population had lower cancer-related mortality if they completed chemoradiation.
  • These patients deserve support and encouragement to complete treatment.

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  • [Copyright] Cancer 2008. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 18189291.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089544-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089544; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089544-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA089544
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS270121; NLM/ PMC3103394
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29. Wang WS, Chen PM, Chiou TJ, Liu JH, Fan FS, Lin TC, Jiang JK, Yang SH, Yen CC, Wang HS, Lin JK: Factors predictive of survival in patients with node-positive colorectal cancer in Taiwan. Hepatogastroenterology; 2000 Nov-Dec;47(36):1590-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Colorectal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors predictive of survival in patients with node-positive colorectal cancer in Taiwan.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preoperative CEA levels, depth of tumor penetration, and the number of positive lymph nodes were reported as independent factors prognostic of survival in colorectal cancer patients.
  • This study was carried out in an effort to evaluate the prognostic significance of these three factors in patients with Dukes' C colorectal cancer in Taiwan.
  • METHODOLOGY: Between 1992 and 1994, a total of 112 patients with node-positive colorectal cancer were evaluated retrospectively at the Veteran General Hospital-Taipei.
  • All patients underwent potentially curative surgery and received 5-fluorouracil based adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Reference to the Dukes' classification was according to the classical criteria described in 1932 for carcinoma of the rectum and adapted for use in colonic tumors.
  • Using multivariate Cox analysis the number of positive lymph nodes, penetration of the bowel wall, and preoperative CEA levels were still found as independent prognostic factors in node-positive colorectal cancer patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained from our study indicates that preoperative CEA levels, depth of tumor penetration, and the number of positive lymph nodes were independent prognostic factors in Dukes' C colorectal cancer patients.
  • They could serve as appropriate modifications of the initial Dukes scheme in node-positive diseases.

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  • (PMID = 11149009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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30. Werbrouck BF, Pauwels WJ, De Bleecker JL: A case of 5-fluorouracil-induced peripheral neuropathy. Clin Toxicol (Phila); 2008 Mar;46(3):264-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The standard adjuvant therapy for rectal cancer is 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) often combined with radiotherapy.
  • We report a patient with a stage II rectal carcinoma who developed a mild axonal sensorimotor neuropathy at the end of a 5-FU therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Electromyography. Female. Humans. Lower Extremity. Middle Aged. Neurologic Examination. Peroneal Nerve / physiopathology. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tibial Nerve / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18344111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-3650
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Toxicol (Phila)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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31. Kwon HC, Moon CH, Kim SH, Choi HJ, Lee HS, Roh MS, Hwang TH, Kim JS, Kim HJ: Expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and its prognostic significance in lymph node negative rectal cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2005 Sep;35(9):545-50
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and its prognostic significance in lymph node negative rectal cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of PKR in lymph node negative rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: Forty-three patients with stage II rectal carcinoma who underwent potentially curative resection followed by post-operative adjuvant chemoradiation and 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy were investigated immunohistochemically using the monoclonal antibody TJ4C4.
  • CONCLUSION: PKR expression levels were associated with disease recurrence, DFS and OS in lymph node negative rectal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Rectal Neoplasms / enzymology. eIF-2 Kinase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. RNA, Double-Stranded. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16148023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Double-Stranded; EC 2.7.11.1 / eIF-2 Kinase
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32. Salas-Valverde S, Lizano A, Gamboa Y, Vega S, Barrantes M, Santamaría S, Zamora JB: Colon carcinoma in children and adolescents: prognostic factors and outcome-a review of 11 cases. Pediatr Surg Int; 2009 Dec;25(12):1073-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colon carcinoma in children and adolescents: prognostic factors and outcome-a review of 11 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the colon and rectum is rare in the pediatric age group, and usually presents with an advanced stage disease bearing a poor prognosis.
  • Colorectal carcinoma should be considered in children with signs of intestinal obstruction, alteration in bowel habits, gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic abdominal pain.
  • METHODS: Between 1974 and 2007, 11 patients were identified and treated for colorectal carcinoma at the Oncology Unit.
  • The medical records were studied to analyze the age, sex, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, extent of disease (Dukes staging), treatment, histological types, and outcome.
  • Abdominal pain, acute intestinal obstruction, rectal bleeding and weight loss were the commonest symptoms.
  • Surgical procedures were done in 11 patients (incomplete resection with segmental resection in 4 patients, complete resection in the other 4, and biopsy alone in 3 patients).The predominant histological type was mucinous carcinoma.
  • Seven patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, all of whom did not survive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal carcinoma in children is very uncommon and could be easily misdiagnosed, resulting in advanced stage disease at diagnosis.
  • Because radical surgery which is the mainstay of treatment is possible only in patients with early stage disease, a high level of awareness and early diagnosis are critical.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colectomy / methods. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Colonoscopy. Costa Rica / epidemiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate / trends

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  • (PMID = 19816697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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